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2007-01-23

Aim

The aim of this laboratory assignment is to model a water tank and simulate it in closed-loop.

Learning objectives

Building models in SIMULINK. Linearization of non-linear plants. PID-controllers. Anti-wind-up schemes

Introduction

Consider an open water tank with cross-sectional area A, see figure 1. Water is pumped into the tank at the top at rate of flow of qin cubic metres per second. Water is flowing out of the tank through a hole in the bottom of the tank of area a. The rate of flow of water through the hole is according to the Bernoulli equation given by qout = a 2 gh , (1.) where h is level of tank and g is the acceleration of gravity. Conservation of mass yields the equation dh A = qin qout = qin a 2 gh . (2.) dt

qin

h qout

Figure 1.

a = 7.1106 m 2 g = 9.82 m/s 2 (3.)

Exercise 1

The objective of this exercise is to simulate the tank in Simulink (or Scicos). Equation (2) is first rewritten as an integral equation t t 1 1 (4.) h(t ) = h(0) + (qin (t ' ) qout (t ' ) )dt ' = h(0) + qin (t ' ) a 2 gh(t ' ) dt ' A A 0 0 The Simulink model corresponding to equation (4) can be seen if figure 2.

Follow these steps in order to build the model in figure 2: 1. Start Matlab by clicking on the Matlab icon on the desktop. 2. Change the current directory to your preferred working directory by typing that directory name into the current-directory-box in Matlab. 3. Start the Simulink Library Browser by clicking on the Simulink icon in the toolbar of the Matlab window. 4. Open a new model by selecting New from the File menu in the Simulink Library Browser. 5. Blocks from the Simulink Library Browser can be dragged into the model window. In this example a Step block from the Sources folder gives the step input signal. The output is presented om a Scope block from the Sinks folder. The gain block is found in the Commonly Used Blocks folder while the integrator block is found in the Continuous folder. The Fcn block resides in the User-Defined Blocks. Variables like A or a defined in Matlab may be used in the Simulink blocks, as can be seen in figure 2.. 6. The blocks may be connected by wires by first highlighting one block and then clicking on another while pressing the control key. A model of the water tank is shown in figure 1. 7. Simulate how the water level responds to a step in the flow from 0 to 10 5 m 3 /s . 8. The simulation is started by pressing the play button in the tool panel. Set the simulation time to 400 s in the box right of the stop button. 9. What is the steady-state value? Verify the steady-state value obtained from the simulation by comparing it to the theoretical value.

Linearization

The model of the water tank is non-linear. The non-linear model can be approximated by a linear model for small deviations around an operating point.

Exercise 2

Linearize the water tank model. Compare the original model and the linearized model by doing simulations. Consider a step increase in the flow into the tank of 10 6 m 3 /s from an equilibrium operating point corresponding to a water level of 0.10 m. Vary the size of the step of the flow into the tank.

Closed-loop

The actuator is a pump which pumps water into the water tank. The relationship between the rate of flow qin and the controller output u is qin = ku , (5.) where k = 3.9 10 6 m 3 /(s V) . The pump saturates at an input voltage of 10 V. The pump cannot draw water from the tank, so there is also saturation at zero input voltage. The water level is measured by a sensor whose sensitivity is 40 V/m. A model of the water tank in closed-loop together with the actuator and the controller can be seen in figure 2.

Step1 Kp*Ti.s+Kp Ti.s Step Transfer Fcn Saturation Gain1 Gain k 1/A 1 s Integrator Scope

a*sqrt(2*g*u) Fcn

kc Gain2

Exercise 3

Synthesize a PI-controller using the pole-placement technique. Locate the poles at s = 0.020 0.015 j rad/s . Simulate the water tank in closed-loop with the controller. Investigate the responses to step references and disturbances. Calculate the proportional gain and reset time. These values will be used in the experimental laboratory (part 2).

Wind-up

The input saturation of the actuator, i.e., in this case the pump, may cause the integrator to increase the controller output even though the actuator input has reached the saturation threshold. This phenomenon is called wind-up and impairs the transient response of the closed loop. There are different anti-wind-up schemes to remedy this negative effect. One method is to turn off the integration in the controller when the actuator input hits the saturation threshold. Another method is described in figure 3, where the controller transfer function C ( s ) is written as a sum of a constant direct feedthrough term c and a strictly proper transfer function C ( s ) C ( s ) = c + C ( s ) . (6.)

e(t ) + -

Lim

u (t )

[C ( s)]1 c 1

Figure 3. Anti-wind-up scheme. The Lim block denotes the limiting circuit.

Exercise 4

Implement the latter of the two anti-wind-up schemes suggested above and test it by doing simulations in Simulink. Assume that the pump saturates at an input voltage of 10 V. Synthesize a PI controller and locate the dominating pole of the closed loop at s = 0.1 rad/s . You will test these PI parameters in the experimental laboratory (part 2). Simulate the response to a step reference from 0 to 0.25 m.

Two tanks

A subsystem of the tank can be created by highlighting its block diagram using the mouse and then choose create subsystem in the Edit menu. A block with one input and one output terminal will now replace the tank. The parts of the subsystem are displayed by doubleclicking on the subsystem icon. An extra output terminal for the flow out of the tank may be added by connecting an out-terminal from sinks under Simulink in the library browser, see figure 4.

1 qin

-KGain

1 s Integrator

1 h

2 qout

a*sqrt(2*g*u) Fcn

Exercise 5

Consider a system consisting of two tanks in series where the outflow of the first tank is the inflow to the second tank, see figure 5. The plant input in this example is the inflow to the first tank, qin and the output is the water level h2 in the second tank. Design a PID controller for this plant. Use pole assignment. Present the controller transfer function on standard form.

Td s 1 C PID ( s ) = K p 1 + T s + s + 1 r D

(7.)

A reference prefilter may be needed to improve the response to step references. Simulate the plant in closed loop with the controller.

qin

h1

h2

qout

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