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A Project on: HINDI FILM INDUSTRY (BOLLYWOOD) A Secondary Research Analysis done by: Nitesh R Shahani Roll No. : 37 SYBMS

A Project submitted to: Mallika Maam

Pg. No

Introduction to Hindi Film Industry Hindi Films-Over the Decades { A rear view over Bollywood in the past decades } Why Bollywood? { A study of the changing viewpoints and perspectives of people belonging to the industry and also the relevant importance of the industry} Finances and Foreign Investment Performance of Bollywood in past 5 years Technological Transitions in Bollywood Major Threats to Hindi Film Industry Conclusion Bibliography

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The Bollywood industry is one of the largest industries in India, though it is still not considered to be a mainstream industry because of its highly unorganised structure. Nevertheless it cannot be denied that it is one of the most lucrative and highly volatile sectors, where a film can make or break careers. The name "Bollywood" is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. However, unlike Hollywood, Bollywood does not exist as a physical place. The movie industry largely depends on the audience, the consuming public for its revenue. The way and means to reach this diverse audience is through promotions.

Where once, the only source of promotions was word of mouth, today there are diverse mediums available. Promotions have become an integral part of the movie budget. Promotions have taken the pride of place in a movies marketing campaign. As with any product or offering for which promotions are necessary, it is so with movies too. These days, promotions start from the day the movie is announced and go on till the day the red carpet premiere takes place. Promotions in themselves have become very essential because film makers have realised that awareness and interest in their films have to be generated much prior to the actual release of the movie so that a movie at least takes a minimum guarantee (MG) opening. Modern hi-fi tech-savvy age showcases new-age cultural phenomena. Movies the cultural index of the society reflect the neo-emerging trends. A movie no longer conveys the message to the audience unless it is presented in an innovative fashion. Movies to move the audience have to be marketed competently with effective promotion, proper distribution channels, state-ofthe-art facilities and so on. The channels of communication are explored to launch the film in the most effective manner.

Day by day new age technologies are exploited to give a movie an added edge over others. Promotion is the buzzword. Movies are promoted with a target audience, which eventually determines the box office success rates. For the last few decades Bollywood producers have been releasing the film's soundtrack, as tapes or CDs, before the main movie release, hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos, usually featuring a song from the film. However, some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie. The Indian film industry can trace its roots back to the early 20th century when the country launched its first silent feature film known as Raja Harishchandra. From this point onwards the Indian film industry rapidly grew as films became more popular as a source of entertainment in India. By 1931 Bollywood had its first feature film to include sound and by the 1970s had surpassed its western counterpart in movie production, churning out films by the hundreds each year. Film City was setup in Mumbai in around 1911 by the late great V. Shantaram a prominent actor and director. It was meant as a place where directors, actors and other associated people in the film industry could work under one roof. The sprawling complex boasts state of the art film equipment, detailed sets and the latest production equipment.


Hindi Film Industry has seen enormous evolution over the years. Many great artists have contributed to the success of the Hindi Film Industry decades by decades. Every decade saw great and unforgettable films. The major evolution in the Hindi Film Industry started in 1940s and 1950s when sound and colours became essential parts of films in India. 1940s Hindi Film Industry saw many great artists like Prithviraj Kapoor and Dilip Kumar during this period of pre-independent and independent India. The battles against the Britishers during this era made lots of filmmakers to make patriotic films. The expression against the British Empire was very much visible in Dilip Kumars Shaheed(1944), Andaaz, Jwar Bhata, Sunhere Din and Jugnu are some of the other significant films released during this period. 1950s This era was dominated by great and unforgettable artists like Raj Kapoor, Guru Dutt, Dev Anand, Nargis, Meena Kumari and Ashok Kumar. In the later part of 1950s Sunil Dutt and Kishore Kumar dominated the Hindi Film Industry. Rural India was portrayed in this era. The farmers struggle and their uprising against the landlords for social equality was a dominant factor of this era. During this times humour also started making its way in the Hindi Film Industry as Kishore Kumars Chalti Ka Naam Gadi did wonders as the Indian population wanted to laugh after painful 200 years of freedom struggle. In 1957, Mother India became the foremost Indian film to reach the Oscars in the Best Foreign Film category Hulchul, Aan, Jagte Raho, Naya Daur, Kaagaz Ke Phool and Baijuare some masterpiece of this era. 1960s During this decade, Rural India was left in the wake of India being looked upon as a rising nation. Improvement of law and order in the country was the need of the hour thus films like Kala Bazaar and Kanoon dealt with this subject. Later in this decade, flashing vintage cars and multi-coloured attires became

integral parts of Hindi films as India was slowly but steadily entering the world of fashion. Mughal-e-Azam, Sahib Biwi Aur Ghulam, Guide, Jewel Thief, Ram Aur Shyam, Aradhna and Barsaat Ki Raat are some of the most momentous films of this period. 1970s This decade was largely dominated by artists like Rajesh Khanna, Amitabh Bachchan, Hema Malini, Jaya Bhaduri, Dharmendra and Manoj Kumar. Films like Reshma aur Shera, Seeta Aur Geeta, Abhiman, Bawarchi, Aandhi, Golmaal, Anand, Mera Naam Joker, Hare Krishna Hare Raam and Purab Aur Paschim are some of the most significant films of this era. It was in this era that Amitabh Bachchan got the title of Angry Young Man of Indian Cinema with some of his great films like Zanjeer, Sholay, Amar Akbar Anthony, Don and Kaala Pathar. This era also saw the western influence on the Indian society with films like Hare Rama Hare Krishna and Purab Aur Paschim. 1980s During this decade the concept of Angry Young Man continued as lots of films were made showing one man fighting against the injustices of the society. This era also saw some other great artists like Anil Kapoor, Rishi Kapoor, Sanjay Dutt, Aamir Khan, Kamala Hassan, Sridevi, Madhuri Dixit, Vinod Khanna, Meenakshi Shishadri and in the later parts of this decade Salman Khan made an entry with a huge hit Maine Pyar Kiya. This decade had mixes of comedy, musical and family oriented films. Namak Halal, Chasme Baddoor, Angoor, Namkeen, Jaane Bhi Do Yaaro, Naukar Biwi Ka, Chaalbaaz, The Burning Train, Disco Dancer, Mr India and Jaane Bhi Do Yaaro are some memorable films of this time. 1990s Romance and family oriented films were the flavour of this decade with bits and pieces of comedy films, war films and films based on life in underworld contributing to the success of many artists of this decade. Shahrukh Khan, Salman Khan, Kajol, Rani Mukherjee, Priety Zinta, Akshay Kumar dominated the Hindi Film Industry in this decade. Shahrukh Khan became the next super star with his some of the unforgettable romantic films like Dilawalwe Dulhaniya Le Jayenge, Dil To Pagal Hai, Kuch Kuch Hota Hai, Mohabattein and Pardes in this decade. Darr, Hum Aapke Hai Kaun, Dil, Beta, Deewana, Khuda Gawah, Karan Arjun, Rangeela, Hum Saath Saath Hain, Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam Taal, Border, Dil Se and Satya are some of the prominent films of this period.

2000s Dominance of Hrithik Roshan, Abhishek Bachchan, Aishwariya Rai, Ranbir Kapoor and Sonam Kapoor continues as this decade is coming to an end. This decade saw lots of films being made on issues of terrorism. Films like Monsoon Wedding and Bollywood Hollywood appealed the NRI audience who are increasing in numbers day by day. Thus a new concept of Hinglish cinema became popular among the young generation. Films like Lagaan, Munaabhai MBBS,Lage Raho Munnabhai, Gadar Ek Prem Katha, Lagaan, Dil Chahta Hai, Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham, Koi Mil Gaya, Kal Ho Naa Ho, Devdas, Saathiya, Veer Zaara, Main Hoon Na, Krrish, Om Shanti Om, Taare Zameen Par Chak De India, Ghajini are some of the memorable movies of this decade. This is the decade when attitude of the filmmakers and audience opened and films were made on issues which no one would have considered ten years ago. This decade would be remembered for A.R. Rehman who received an Oscar in the early 2009

Bollywood has been bringing about significant changes in the socio-economic situations, from decade to decade. The changes or the transitions have only led to the betterment of the industrys perspective to serve the society. Some of these changes can be highlighted as follows: Change in attitude of film makers and public Hindi Film Industry is changing with the change in the attitude of the film makers and the audience. Thus the film makers now have started making films with shorter duration rather than three hour long films. Nagesh Kukunoor, a renowned filmmaker who is known for his offbeat films feels that dance sequence and songs will remain audiences favorite but their preference was changing. According to people, time nowadays is very precious and so they have started giving preference to the films with shorter duration like Bheja Fry and Khosla Ka Ghosla which were only two hours long and were huge success at the Box-Office. Also with the success of Hindi Film Industry in the overseas market, many new film makers have started making films on themes which no one would have thought ten years ago. Films based on homosexuality like Girlfriend, Dostana, Straight and also films based on relationship of older man and a teenage girl like Nishabd were made by film makers and some of them were successful at the Box-Office which clearly shows that there was a great change in not only the attitude of the film makers but also the audience. Transition in Genre The Hindi Film Industry has seen various genres till date. It started with the movies based on Indian mythology and social themes. During these era movies like Raja Harishchandra, Nal Damyanti, Hari Bhakti, Garib ki Duniya etc. became very popular. Also a number of films like Duniya Na Mane, Achyut Kanya, Aurat etc. created a strong impact in opposition to the social injustices. During 1950-1970, Hindi Film Industry saw the movies based on tragedy, patriotism and romance. These genres were majorly dominated by superstars like Dilip Kumar (Tragedy King), Manoj Kumar (Bharat Kumar) and Rajesh Khanna (Kaka) respectively.

Although good romantic and offbeat movies continued 1970s saw the era of action movies during which Amitabh Bachchan The Angry Young Man of Indian Cinema became a one man industry. During this genre special scripts were written keeping Amitabh Bachchan in mind. In the early 1980s action movies continued to dominate but its genre soon diminished with the introduction of musical films and family oriented films like Karz and Maine Pyar Kiya. The genre of family oriented movies continued in 1990s under the banner of Rajshri Productions which gave a huge hit of that time- Hum Aapke Hai Kaun. 1990s also saw the genre of romantic and comedy movies during which Shahrukh Khan and Govinda stole all the attention.Start of 21st century was flooded by horror movies. After 2003 movies based on real life issues and current affairs were made by number of film makers. Since then it has been noticed that whatever the genre may be, the viewers have become so intelligent that they give greater importance to the script rather than the genre which has been prevailing. Bollywood provides Employment Bollywood employs people from all parts of India. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses, all hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai with the hope and dream of becoming a star. Just as in Hollywood, very few succeed. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed too.[ Stardom in the entertainment industry is very fickle, and Bollywood is no exception. The popularity of the stars can rise and fall rapidly. Directors compete to hire the most popular stars of the day, who are believed to guarantee the success of a movie (though this belief is not always supported by box-office results). Hence many stars make the most of their fame, once they become popular, by making several movies simultaneously. Career in Hindi Film Industry- No longer a mans world Women in the past were restricted only to acting as a career when they wanted to join Hindi Film Industry. This has changed totally as women have started making mark in many aspects of Hindi Film Industry. Women have become directors, Farah Khan Main Hoon Na and Om Shanti Om, Zoya Akhtar Luck By Chance are few women directors who made their names as


directors. Women have also started producing movies like Juhi Chawla produced Main Hoon Na under the banner of Red Chilies Entertainment, Hiru Johar has produced many movies under the banner of Dharma Productions and there are many other women producers who are minting huge amount of money. Not only have women made their names in such popular aspects of the films but have also taken active participation in assisting for the films and editing the films. Change in portrayal of women As the role of women in the Indian society has been changing over the years, similarly the portrayal of women in the Hindi Film Industry is changing. As put by Lara Dutta, former beauty queen turned female actor A perceptible change has happened in the approach about picking up the female actors. Roles are being built around them,The role of Aishwariya Rai in Ashutosh Gowarikars Jodha Akbar is the perfect case of how the portrayal of women in Hindi films have changed in todays times. Aishwarya Rai played the character of Jodha Bai who without leaving the values of her religion showed strength in becoming a Muslim queen. Also Chak De! India girls showed how girls in India are no less than boys in playing sports. No filmmaker would have thought to make a film on such theme even ten years ago. Recent films like Laaga Chunri Mein Daag and Aaja Nachle showcased the female lead as a protagonist and were different from the monotonous Hero dominated films, which were made on large scale in the past. Change with respect to location During 1930s to 1940s the major portion of any film was shot in small studio set. Location plays an important role in Film Making. Thus later on outdoor shooting started taking place but they were restricted to certain location because of lack of financial aid. The preferred locations were Kashmir, Mahabaleshwar, Lonavala, Ooty, Mussoorie etc. The first Film to be shot out of India was Naaz at locations like Cairo and London. Slowly and gradually with the entry big producers and production houses with flaunting budget outdoor shooting (foreign) became more frequent. Sangam produced by Raj Kapoor was shot in three different locations Venice, Paris and Switzerland. This was followed by Monaj Kumars (Bharat Kumar) Purab Aur Paschim, Shakti Samantas An Evening In Paris. Due to the success of these films lots of producers and directors started getting attracted to foreign locations. As a result of transition big producers and directors like


Yash Chopra, Karan Johar, Sanjay Gupta and many more have started shooting more than 90% of the film in the foreign location depending on the script. Since the very first silent films the world has been captivated by the big screen. In fact, acting has been a major part of our civilizations from the very beginning. But it is these motion pictures that have changed the face of this part of our lives for every. But while for many years it has been Hollywood that was the birth place of actor's dreams, there are other settings now that have come up in the world as being well known for their films and stars born from them. For example, bollywood is one of these settings, and while perhaps not as large as Hollywood, it is still setting a name for itself all over the world. This magical sounding place is in fact the Mumbai based film industry in India. And the reason why it is quickly becoming a household name is because it one of the largest film industries around the globe. In fact, with over 1000 films being released each year and one of the major employers in India having over a million people working for them; you can see that it is quickly gaining speed as a force to be reckoned with. Furthermore, for those that are unsure of the name bollywood then you may have heard it referred as Hindi cinema. In addition, while they do produce movies in Hindu, they also produce them in English and Urdu. But even if this is news to you, it is important to note that this film industry has been around since the very beginning. With silent films staring in 1913 as well as a huge hit with their first sound movie, this film industry in India is not some fledgling whim. What's more, while the very first films were made on almost nonexistent budgets the bollywood videos of today are multi-million dollar affairs. Furthermore, if you ever have the pleasure to watch one of these films you will see that they even employ the best special effects experts to ensure a film that could rival any Hollywood production. But what makes the majority of these films so different from others of today is what made certain films of yesteryear so popular then. You will find when you watch these films that a big part of them is about song and dance. Furthermore these bollywood masala have everything that is needed today to make people feel inspired like love triangles, comedy, and even fight scenes. So when you want to take a break from the same old tired movies that come out every day, and are looking for something new and heartfelt that will give you the fun and excitement of a music video, and the drama of the big screen then check out these amazing films.



Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions, with the most expensive productions costing up to 100 crores rupees (roughly USD 20 million). Sets, costumes, special effects, and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s, although with some notable exceptions. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself, there is an increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels, particularly in areas such as action and special effects. Recent Bollywood films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas, such as Krrish (2006) which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based Tony Ching. The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres. Nowadays, Indian producers are winning more and more funding for bigbudget films shot within India as well, such as Lagaan, Devdas and other recent films. Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios. However, this ban has now been lifted.] As finances are not regulated, some funding also comes from illegitimate sources, such as the Mumbai underworld. Over the years it has been noticed that the film makers made movies because of their passion for cinema and patriotism for the country. Now revenue generation seems to be the prime motive of the film makers for making films. Earlier there used to be only one producer for one film but now concept of production houses has taken the role of single producer. Recently it has been seen that foreign productions houses like Columbia pictures, Warner brothers and many more have started investing in Hindi Film Industry. With the use of latest technology and stars being paid more the overall investment in the Hindi films has increased by leaps and bounds over the years. Contrary to the past, it is also believed that investments in Hindi films are also made by parallel economy (Mafia money) and Banks.



Bollywood holds a major part in the Entertainment and Media Industry. It majorly dominates the Indian film industry The Indian economy continues to perform strongly and one of the key sectors that benefits from this fast economic growth is the E&M industry. This is because the E&M industry is a cyclical industry that grows faster when the economy is expanding. It also grows faster than the nominal GDP during all phases of economic activity due to its income elasticity wherein when incomes rise, more resources get spent on leisure and entertainment and less on necessities. Further, consumption spending itself is increasing due to rising disposable incomes on account of sustained growth in income levels, and this also builds the case for a strong bullish growth in the sector. The size of E&M in India is currently estimated at INR 353 billion and is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 19 percent over the next five years.

The share of the film industry, which currently stands at 19 percent, is not expected to change materially over the next five years.


Filmed Entertainment: Indians love to watch movies. And advancements in technology are helping the Indian film industry in all the spheres film production, film exhibition and marketing. The industry is increasingly getting more corporatised. Several film production, distribution and exhibition companies are coming out with public issues. More theatres across the country are getting upgraded to multiplexes and initiatives to set up more digital cinema halls in the country are already underway. This will not only improve the quality of prints and thereby make film viewing a more pleasurable experience, but also reduce piracy of prints

In terms of employment, an estimated 6 million people earn their livelihood from the entertainment industry and this number is all set to grow. Entertainment industry in India is projected to be one of the major economic driving forces of the country. In India, television is the major segment of entertainment industry. India has the world's biggest movie industry in terms of the number of movies produced. Presently, the technology of film-making in India is perhaps the best among all developing countries. Indian film industry is now increasingly getting professional and a lot of production houses such as Yash Raj Productions, Dharma Productions, Mukta Arts etc. are now working on corporate lines. The popularity of Indian entertainment industry goes well beyond the geographical frontiers of the country. Indian television channels and films are viewed and enjoyed across the entire South Asia. Across the Middle East, parts of South East Asia and Africa, large expatriate populations ensure that Indian TV channels and films are a regular part of their entertainment bouquet. In UK and North America (USA and Canada), Indian TV channels and films are increasingly finding a foothold beyond the expatriate pockets as the audience there has started to enjoy and identify with the contemporary Indian culture. Quite a few of Indian filmstars are also getting good offers from Hollywood.



Here is a brief analysis on the performance of Hindi film industry in the past 5 years: 2005 Filmmakers started uncorking the champagne as early as January this year. It started with Page 3, a Rs 3-crore movie which made Rs 15 crore, and which won Madhur Bhandarkar the best director tag at the National Awards. The film's performance set the tone for a year, which would, in the end, see both profits and accolades. Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Black, made at Rs 22-23 crore, raised producer Applause Entertainment's bottom line; it also made both the trade and the informed viewer aware of the company, which was intent on making corporate Bollywood a real entity. The three biggest successes this year were split up, expectedly, between Yashraj Films, and entirely unexpectedly, Boney Kapoor. The latter's sex comedy production, No Entry, grossed Rs 45 crore (made at Rs 20 crore) and was his first success after too many box-office turkeys. Yash Chopra's banner gave us rom-com Salaam Namaste with Saif Ali Khan and Preity Zinta living in and living it up in sunny Australia. Debutant director Siddharth Raj Anand's smart lines and the lead pair's `cool quotient' made the film a huge success. Made at Rs 12 crore, it returned Rs 40 crore. But the biggest this year is undoubtedly, Shaad Ali's Bunty Aur Babli. The fun-filled caper movie, starring Abhishek, Rani, and Amitabh, from the Yashraj stable, ran away with the summer of 2005,and made a staggering Rs 50 crore from a modest Rs 12-crore investment. A dozen good films will remain the high point of this year, and will manage to drown out the disappointment of the big movies that nose-dived. Look at November and December's line-up, which was hyped to the skies, and did disastrously. Looking at all the films that have done well this year one common element, apart from production values, binds them: a cracking good story, told with a difference. 2006 Big directors. Big actors. Big bucks. Before earning them, you've got to spend them. And budgets have never been bigger. Producers have together invested Rs 300 crore on 10 of the largest movies, an increase of 50 per cent over last year. In 2006, at least four films (compared to only Mangal Pandey [ Images ] last year) boast budgets of Rs 30 crore and over. The Rs 50 crore barrier has


been breached once again with Karan Johar's Kabhi Alvida Na Kehna. Last year, the biggest film cost under Rs 40 crore. But then, movies are also making more money than before. Industry estimates show that, in the first six months of this year, net box office collections in the domestic market went up by 35 per cent as compared to last year. This year, three movies (compared to none last year) have already made over Rs 50 crore in net collections from the domestic box office alone, with half the year still to go. Overseas collections of at least three movies (Krrish, Rang De Basanti and Fanaa) have crossed the Rs 30-crore mark and, if Roshan is to be believed, Krrish is close to matching Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gham's record of the highest grosser abroad (Rs 35 crore). Industry estimates that at least 30 per cent of the cost of the top 10 films (in terms of budget) has been raised institutionally. Producer Ritesh Sidhwani (Don) says, "As you have to return the loan, there is a need to plan out budgets, keep them under tight control and formulate marketing strategies, which helps us look at the film business more professionally." 2007 The ratio of hits and flops may seem skewed, but the fact is that this year for Hindi cinema has been pretty much like the previous one, and the one before that. The fact is that globally the movie business has always been crash-andburn. The box office determines the fates of moguls and superstars like a capricious lover: always slow to bestow favours, you never know what it will like, and what it will spurn. The world over, there are always more flops than hits. So, 15 hits make it an average year for Bollywood, business wise. But in terms of creative leaps by brave new directors, it has been a very good year. More than the big ones which made it huge, it was the constant stream of the smallon-budget-but-high-on-ideas movies that 2007 will be remembered for. 2008 The year 2008 would be remembered for so many things, good and bad, positive and negative, but, thankfully, it closes today with a bang. The frown on our faces is replaced by smiles. The laugh lines on our faces are pretty evident, what with RAB NE BANA DI JODI and GHAJINI elevating the mood [and the balance sheet] of the film industry. Moviegoers are back and how! Every year teaches you something and the year 2008 has taught the industry several lessons


* The economics have to be kept in check if everyone has to survive. The correction in prices [actors' fees, production costs, selling prices] is already taking place. Besides, most film-makers are thinking out of the box, daring to push the envelope further. So expect some great stuff in 2009 and 2010. * The success of medium-budget and low-cost films indicates that moviegoers are ready to patronise films without stars. * The corporates are taking stock of the situation currently and it goes as a request that they shouldn't get into an overzealous mood and acquire films at artificial/inflated prices. * The actors have decided to cut down on their fees [most of them have been cut to size by the flops they delivered; they aren't doing any favour]. Star remuneration amounts to 50% - 60% of a film's budget and if this aspect is controlled, the economics would be in check. 2009 The no-show by several big budget movies coupled with a two month-long stand-off between producers and multiplexes owners amid recession made 2009 a year which Bollywood producers and cinegoers would like to forget. Some 138 films were released this year, Kumar Mohan, Editor of Complete Cinema, a trade magazine told PTI. The year started badly with 'Chandni Chowk to China' tanking at the box office despite the hype. The other major flops of the year were Akshay Kumar starrer 'Tasveer', 'Blue', 'Delhi-6', 'London Dreams', 'Main Aur Mrs Khanna', 'Luck', Amitabh Bachchan starrer 'Aladin", 'Kurban' and 'What's Your Rashee?'. Films like 'Wanted', 'Ajab Prem Ki Gazab Kahani', 'New York' and 'Love Aajkal' were the only hits of 2009. However, the industry had some respite with Aamir Khan's '3 Idiots', which released on Christmas and is on its way to become a blockbuster. Amitabh Bachchan's 'Paa', where the actor played the role of a 13-year-old child, has recovered its costs even though it has done well only in the metro cities. Films like 'All the Best', 'Wake Up Sid!', and 'Dev D' and 'Kambakkht Ishq' were average grossers. "Apart from the producer-multiplexes issue where no films were released for two months, recession, elections, there were


were too many bad films which the audiences did not take kindly," Adarsh said adding that many films were pulled out of theatres due to lack of audiences after the swine flu spread. Manmohan Shetty, president of the Film and Television Producers Guild of India (FTPGI) said the Hindi film industry needs to look into reducing production costs, steep star prices and stopping the trend of multiple star deals to bring order in the system. "We should also take steps to improve the single screen business," Shetty said. Shetty, who pioneered the multiplex revolution in the country with IMAX, said single screen cinemas, instead of improving their infrastructure to meet the challenge of multiplex theatres, simply closed down. "By doing this, we are stopping people who wish to see films in theatres from going there. Not many audiences would like to shell out rs 1500 to watch a film every week. Piracy gets a boost in this manner," Shetty said. Sidharth Roy Kapur, CEO of UTV Motion Pictures admitted that 2009 was a tough year for the industry. "Major dent was due to the strike. But, it was evident and will help the producer in the long run," he said. "The trend is mixed. If Wanted was an action thriller, Ajab Prem was a romantic comedy, Love Aaj kal was a love story while New York had a background of 9/11 and terrorism," he said, adding that even though SaifKareena starrer Kurbaan had a backdrop of terrorism, it did not do well. The performance in the past 5 years can be highlighted through a graph as follows:



FUTURE PROSPECTS: The overall entertainment industry in India is taking on professional colours and this will change the culture of the film industry too. Some film production companies, such as Mukta Arts, have made public share issues, thus keeping out of the world of murky financing. The Film Federation of India is actively seeking to make film financing a viable proposition for banks. It is likely that films would also be insured to offset possible losses for banks.The granting of industry status to the film industry will eventually allow overboard financing of films, though this will result in production of fewer films than at present. Stricter enforcement of copyright law will help the film industry in its fight with cable operators. Foreign entertainment companies, with steady revenue streams, can do good business if they invest in Hindi and other Indian language films. Despite high risks on a per-movie basis, the risk spreads out across a number of movies. The future prospects of Indian entertainment industry look to be extremely good. As India's profile rises on the global stage outside interest in India's culture and entertainment industry is also bound to grow



Sound-- Sound has been an essential part of the Hindi film industry starting from the movie Alam Ara (1931) which was the first talking movie. Major transition has been witnessed over the years with respect to sound. Until 1960s the films used sync sound technology i.e. the dialogues were recorded on the location itself. Post 1960 new technology was introduced of dubbing the sound i.e. the actors recite their lines as their images appear on-screen in the studio in the process known as "looping in the sound. This system was accepted by the industry but it had some loop holes like sometimes the sound in such films usually occurred a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures. The actors had to act twice, onlocation as well in the studio. It becomes very difficult to deliver emotional scenes again in studio. The system of sync sound came back to Hindi Film Industry through film Lagaan (2001). Now a days sync sound system is being used in many films. Color -- Colors were introduced in the beautiful world of cinema in late 30s with the release of the movie Kisan Kanya by adopting the technology of switching from black and white to color. This transition made the film more beautiful and colorful in respect of clothing and location. As a result the number of viewers watching the films in 1950s and 1960s rose drastically. Earlier Eastman color was used to make color films which were replaced by Techni color and now digitally enhanced color techniques are used. 3D and Animated films -- Hindi film industry tried their luck at making 3D movies with the movie Chhota Chetan which was released in 1984 and was huge hit at box office and earned around 60 crores. Later in 1998 it was rereleased with and the version also included Urmila Matondkar and this time also it was huge hit earning 50 crores. With the success of this film another film Chhota Jadugar (2003) was released and was also hit at box office. Recently Hindi Film Industry has taken a major step by entering into the world of animation. The first animated movie Hanuman was released in 2005 by Sahara India Parivar it was a very successful movie and a huge hit. With the success of mythological film Hanuman another animated film based on mythology named Ramayan was released which was also a huge success. These films mainly targeted kids and teenagers but this perception changed with films like Hanuman Returns (2007) and Ghatothkach: Master of Magic (2008) which was enjoyed by elders too.


Alternate sources of watching movies-- Transition with respect to watching movies also changed with the latest technology coming into place. Alternate source of watching movies started with Video Cassette Recorders (VCR) which was believed to be a status symbol in the Indian society. It was then replaced by Video Compact Disc (VCD) which was replaced by Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) and the latest Blu-ray disc which replaced DVDs. This gave audience a complete new experience to watch movies at home. Quite a few households preferred to watch movies at home rather than going to theaters as it saved money and movies can be watched at their own convenience.
Insuring the films

The concept of insuring the film started with Taal directed by Subhash Ghai and United India Insurance was the first company that insured the film. This was followed by many other films being insured in the Hindi Film Industry as lots of foreign insurance companies also started showing interest in insuring Indian films. This was not prevalent in the past.



PIRACY Piracy is giving Bollywood film-makers sleepless nights. The Rs 3,000-crore Hindi film industry loses nearly Rs 1,000 crore annually to piracy, according to studies by the Television and Film Producers Guild of India and Yes Bank. The domestic home video market was the worst affected, losing Rs 490 crore to piracy in 2004, according to the Yes Bank report. This is a significant market for producers as it provides revenue long after a film's release. Piracy involves copying the film in violation of intellectual property rights and reproducing it illegally for sale at cheap rates. Legislation to counter piracy in India includes the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995, and the Copyright Act, 1994. India is also a signatory to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and the Universal Copyright Convention. A delegation representing the film industry called upon home minister R R Patil recently, asking him to include audio and video piracy under the Maharashtra Prevention of Dangerous Activities of Slumlords, Bootleggers and Drug Offenders Act 1981, and seek recourse to the Goonda Act for such offences. PLAGIARIASM Constrained by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to resort to plagiarism. Ideas, plot lines, tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films (including Hollywood and other Asian films). This has led to criticism towards the film industry Screenwriters themselves have been criticised for lack of creativity which happened due to tight schedules and restricted funds in the industry to employ better screenwriters.Certain filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood as an integral part of globalisation where American and western cultures are firmly embedding themselves into Indian culture, which is manifested, amongst other mediums, in Bollywood films.


As very few films were produced in a year the audience were eager to see films of different genres but as time passed the number of films that were being produced in a year increased and it became monotonous for people as the most of the films revolved around similar storyline. As result todays audience give utmost importance to script or storyline rather than cast or director. The olden tradition of the songs being sung by actors and actresses themselves is returning in Hindi Film Industry. Lot of actors like Aamir Khan, Amitabh Bachchan, Shah Rukh Khan, Abhishek Bachchan and many more have sung songs in their movies. One of the important learning is that every artist if capable, than he/she can act as any character in the film. Thus artists are not being restricted to particular category of roles as it was in olden times. The audience now a todays have become quite open minded and so they appreciate films which are based on social issues and also issues which were considered to be taboo in the society. In 21st century women are not portrayed as they used to be in 19th and 20th century. Lots of films are being made based on women. Male domination is deteriorating from Hindi Film Industry. Women are portrayed to be strong and capable of facing all sorts of difficulties. Western music is becoming past. The musicians have started adopting Arabic, Urdu, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian music. Acting is not restricted to only a particular star family. Now even the small screen actors get chance to work in Hindi Film Industry and not as a role of character actors or in friendly appearance but as main lead and same is the case with Hindi Film Industry actors. From the report we have learnt that finance is not required for just making the film but handsome amount of money is required for pre release promotions. As a result lot of actors travel to various cities or even countries just to promote their films. As a result of Globalization Indian actors have started getting acclamation in Hollywood and thus many Hindi Film Industry actors are offered roles in Hollywood films.



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