Developing the Global System Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System

Laura Kong
UNESCO/IOC – NOAA International Tsunami Information Center

Charles McCreery
NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center

A Call to Action … 26 December 2004 250,000 dead, 500,000 injured 1 million displaced $8 billion in damages
“We cannot stop natural calamities, but we can and must better equip individuals and communities to withstand them.”
UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan

WDC-MGG/NGDC - ITIC, 2011

Tsunami Sources in the world (>2000 events from 1410 BC to 2011)

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2011 . local) •  All •  Pacific since 1965   Most effort should be for local tsunamis Source: Dunbar. NGDC.Fatal Tsunamis (distant. regional.

Fatal Local Tsunamis (Pacific) Before 1965 Since 1965 .

230. 25. no Tsunami Warning System except in Pacific (1965) Japan Tsunami.FACTS: •  Every Ocean Basin and Sea impacted •  Next tsunami can occur anywhere and any time •  Some countries have coasts on 2 or more basins •  Comprehensive Tsunami Mitigation Programme required •  Hazard Risk Assessment. Warning Guidance Until 2005.000 lives lost Indian Ocean Tsunami. Preparedness.000 lives lost .

United Nations role UN Role: Define the proper scale of the problem and its solution. The system must be: •  Fully owned by countries in region •  Based on international multilateral cooperation •  Based on open and free exchange of data •  Protect all countries in region •  Transparent and accountable to all members .

IOC in UN partnership DRR platforms Preparedness Awareness Tsunamis: Warning guidance Hazard assessment Mitigation IOC ISDR UNDP WMO Communication (GTS) Multi-hazard Disaster Mgmt Institutional / Legislative systems End-to-end response .

sustainable development. services and capacity-building. in order to learn more about the nature and resources of the ocean and coastal areas and to apply that knowledge for the improvement of management. the protection of the marine environment.Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission •  Established in 1960 in UNESCO •  Purpose to promote international cooperation and to coordinate programmes in research. and the decision-making process of its Member States .

Designing a GLOBAL Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System 3 Oceans 4 Seas SE Pac .

How does it function? .

Sub-regional and National Warning Centers NWC Pacific WC/ATWC NWC Colombia Nicaragua NWC Mexico JMA/NWPTAC Malaysia Indonesia NWC PTWC Thailand Indian Ocean NWC NWC Caribbean NWC NWC Global Operational System .Global Regional.

hosted by NOAA •  Successful international scientific program •  Direct humanitarian aim •  Mitigate tsunami effects .save lives/property •  Pacific Basin monitoring – seismicity.1965 Support PTWS.•  UNESCO/IOC convened ITSU .1968 •  PTWS name change . sea levels .2005 Recommend / Coordinate mitigation incl timely intl warnings 32 Member States ICG/ •  NOAA RHH PTWC – 1965 PTWS Operational Center HQ •  IOC-NOAA ITIC .

Menlo Park. and to promote community resilience AREAS OF FOCUS:   Hazard Assessment   Warning Guidance   Mitigation and Preparedness   Research   International Coordination Significant involvement and coordination with NOAA offices: NWS (PTWC. Albuquerque Seismic Lab. NOS (sea level). etc 16 16 .US Contribution NOAA Tsunami Program MISSION: Provide reliable tsunami forecasts and warnings. ITIC. NDBC DART). modelling) USGS: NEIC. NGDC). NESDIS (satellite. and OAR (research.

for CARIBE-EWS: CTIC with ITIC (Barbados) ITIC CTIC JTIC 17 . warning and response. supported IOTWS. for PTWS: ITIC. ICG/NEAMTWS Tsunami Information Centers support ICGs / countries to build comprehensive. for Indonesia: JTIC.Global Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System Areas of Responsibility Under auspices of UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission: Tsunami Warning Advice   1965 (after 1960 Chile): ICG/PTWS   2005 (after 2004 Indonesia): ICG/IOTWS. CARIBE-EWS immediately after 2004   2006. 2011. ICG/CARIBE-EWS. preparedness)   1965. endto-end systems (hazard / risk.

USGS and IRIS / FDSN cooperation) 39 deep-ocean DART Buoys (Pacific. wave height.NOAA’s Tsunami Warning System     24/7 Tsunami Warning Centers Detection and Evaluation of Earthquakes   400+ seismic stations (national and global networks. Atlantic. Advisories and Bulletins   Detection and Tsunami Threat Evaluation       Forecasting the Tsunami Impact       Product Generation and Dissemination   18 . NOS and GLOSS cooperation) Modeling – travel times. Watches. Caribbean) 400+ coastal sea-level stations (national and global networks. inundation Coastal Forecast System (assists evacuation decision-making) Warnings.

S. and education Strengthens local Emergency 79 local communities in U. tsunami threat are key for Outreach and Education of residents to safely respond to Operations Tsunami Events   National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program       Preparedness   Outreach activities for public partners       and Through the media Community Presentations Brochures and Websites 19 .NOAA’s Tsunami Mitigation Efforts   TsunamiReady Program       Improves community awareness. Partnership among Federal and State Agencies Enhance National Tsunami Outreach and Education Efforts Promotes a Culture of Tsunami and Responsep preparation.

GLOBAL TSUNAMI SYSTEM Organizational Chart Intergovernmental / International and US agencies working on tsunamis .

REGIONAL ELEMENTS (Pacific): Regional Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System National National National TWC National TWC National National TWC TWC TWC TWS WC/ATWC NWPTAC PTWC Regional TWC International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC) .

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Technical Working Groups Sub-regional Working Groups .

TSU RISK ASSESSMENT – NGUYEN HONG PHUONG (VIETNAM) WG 2 – DETECTION. LAURA KONG (ITIC) TASK TEAM . FUJIANG YU (CHINA). WARNING.SEISMIC DATA SHARING IN SW PACIFIC – KEN GLEDHILL (NZ) WG 3 – AWARENESS AND RESPONSE – DAVID COETZEE (NZ) REGIONAL WORKING GROUPS SOUTH EAST PACIFIC – EDWIN PINTO (ECUADOR) CENTRAL AMERICA – PACIFIC – ALEJANDRO RODRIGUEZ (NICARAGUA) SOUTH CHINA SEA – MOHD ROSAIDI BI CHE ABAS (MALAYSIA) SOUTH WEST PACIFIC – FILOMENA NELSON (SAMOA) .PACWAVE11 – JO GUARD (NZ).PTWS CHAIR: KEN GLEDHILL (NEW ZEALAND). PTWS VICE-CHAIRS: PATRICIO CARRASCO (CHILE).ENHANCING PRODUCTS – CHIP MCCREERY TASK TEAM .SEA LEVEL MONITORING – CHRIS RYAN (AUSTRALIA) TASK TEAM . ED YOUNG (USA) TASK TEAM .TSU MODELLING HAZ ASSESSMENT – VASILY TITOV (USA) TASK TEAM .WARNING DISSEMINATION – FILOMENA NELSON (SAMOA). DISSEMINATION – CHIP MCCREERY (USA) TASK TEAM . TAKESHI KOZIUMI (JAPAN) TECHNICAL WORKING GROUPS WG 1 – RISK ASSESSMENT & REDUCTION – FRANCOIS SCHINDELE (FRANCE) TASK TEAM .

End-to-End Risk Reduction: Hazard Risk Assessment •  Historical database •  Inundation / evacuation •  Local hazard planning based on numerical models & tsunami scenarios .

End-to-End Risk Reduction: Warning Guidance  Real time instruments detect . evaluat earthquakes and tsunamis  Near real-time instruments confirm tsunami  Coastal sea level gauges  Deep-ocean tsunami detection (DART)  Numerical models predict impact area of distant tsunamis .

being TsunamiReady Emergency preparedness  Multiple ways of receiving  Local response plans  Evacuation – Drills => Success Response .End-to-End Risk Reduction: Mitigation/Awareness Design guidance •  Structural engineering for seismic shaking / tsu flooding •  Tsunami-resistant building / construction codes •  Alerting .

ITIC Mandate – Functions (1977) .

IT/Web/Graphics. Office Manager. Director •  Miguel Vasquez. 1 Chile): •  Laura Kong. Associate Director (SHOA) •  Brian Yanagi. Technical Information Specialist •  Art Sonen. Disaster Mgmt •  Tammy Fukuji.ITIC (5 US. etc •  Vacant. Administrative Assistant .

ITIC 2009-11 Activities – Summary •  Participate as technical expert on tsunami warning and mitigation to ICG meetings. Japan since 30 2009 . Chile. esp Tsunami Standard Operating Proc for TW and Emergency Response: ITP-Hawaii (2 – 17 countries.tsunamiwave. in-country training (13 globally + 7 USA) New: 1-day Tsunami Awareness Online IODE OceanTeacher http://classroom.oceanteacher. ITST-Samoa. incl Palau and previously FSM ) ITP-International.info •  Post-Tsunami Survey Coordination – 2011 IOC Field Survey Manual update.ioc-unesco. updated continuously •  Develop / Revise / Distribute tsunami awareness materials •  New web site: itic.org •  Develop / distribute tsunami warning decision support tools. technical assessment country visits: 24 total globally •  Conduct International Trainings. train on request: 6 basic tools. Mentawai. workshops.org or www. trainings.

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English.ITIC 2009-11 Activities . SHOA]. JICA.000 copies] •  Where First Wave Arrives in Minutes (2004. –  2011 Tsunami version [3000 to be printed] •  Tsunami icosohedron globe maps [50.000 copies] PLANNED Tonga Tsunami Survivor Stories – Tongan.Revised 2009 [40.000 copies] •  Tsunami Warning! children booklet [20.Lessons from Chile.Revised 2009 [5000 copies. UNESCO Apia [still in finalization stage) To date. and Japan –  USGS Circular 1187 (English) . Tongan Broadcasting Cooperation. ITIC. 2008: [1000 tsunami. SHOA] •  Global Earthquakes / Tsunami / Volcanic Eruptions posters –  2010 version: [2000 copies of each]. more than 10. Hawaii.000 copies] •  Surviving a Tsunami .Share information PRINTED •  Tsunami. Great Waves [75.000 copies] –  USGS Circular 1218 (Spanish) .000 copies] •  Tsunami Glossary 2008 [25. 2006 Indo)[50.000 awareness and decision support tool softwares distributed globally [50% to PTWS] FREE 33 .

Thank You Laura Kong UNESCO/IOC – NOAA International Tsunami Information Center Charles McCreery NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center .

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