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K.V.Reddy President All India Prison Officers Association 09849904733 / 09440060055 E - Mail: kvreddydsp@yahoo.


1. POPULATION The authorized accommodation in A.P. Prisons at the beginning of the year was 12710. Due to implementation of the scheme of Modernization of Prison Administration, construction of new jails, repairs and renovation of jails, the authorized capacity increased to 14983. There were 143 Jails functioning in the State during the year.

1. CENTRAL PRISONS Central Prisons are the maximum security prisons established on territorial basis with larger capacity. Prisoners sentenced to above 2 years, Civil prisoners, prisoners sentenced to death and detenues are confined in Central Prisons. Besides the above categories of prisoners, Under-trial prisoners and Women prisoners of the district are also confined. The Central Prison also functions as the District Prison of the District. The Central Prisons are headed by officers of the rank of Superintendent of Jails.

Work programmes and vocational training are the most important components of prison programmes. In fact, all other institutional activities have to be planned around them. Work

programmes and vocational training have specified objectives. The principal objective is that an inmate should be imparted such skills and attitudes as can facilitate his resettlement in society after his release.

3. VOCATIONAL TRAINING Towards the object of making the life of prisoners more meaningful and useful while in custody and afterwards, various skills are imparted to the prisoners to help them reintegrated into society after their release. While long term prisoners are provided with opportunities in acquiring skills in various activities, short term prisoners are imparted training in programmes like masonry, plumbing, electric wiring, house wiring etc. The National Academy of Construction (NAC) a Government of India undertaking is imparting skills to prisoners in these trades. Besides, Motor Driving is also imparting to Short term prisoners at Central Prison, Cherlapalli.

Short term prisoners in Central Prisons are imparted training in vocational programmes to enable them to rehabilitate themselves after release from prison. The details of vocational programmes are given under:
Sl.No . Central Prison, Cherlapa lli 2 Plumbing Electrical wiring Motor Central Prison, Hyderaba d 3 Book binding Central Prison, Warang al 4 Centra l Prison, Nellor e 5 Central Prison, Kadapa 6 Central Prison, Rajahmund ry 7 Book binding Central Prison, Visakhapatn am 8 Book binding -

1 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

driving Masonry -




Masonry Carpent ry -

Coir making unit DTP Smithy

Carpentry -

The location of District Jails, their authorized capacity etc., are given in the table below:
Sl.No . 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Name of the Jail and location 2 Sangareddy Nalgonda Mahaboobnag ar Nizamabad Karimnagar Adilabad Vijayawada Guntur Anantapur Ongole Year of establishm ent 3 1870 1916 1892 1964 1897 2007 1976 1920 1998 2008 Total Authorize d capacity 4 95 160 147 320 339 331 166 255 186 150 2149 No. of prisoners as on 31-03-2008 Convicts UTS Total 5 6 7 30 183 213 22 152 174 20 275 295 48 36 39 30 40 17 11 293 375 354 169 230 240 195 172 2345 423 390 208 260 280 212 183 2638

3. OPEN PRISONS Open Prison system is a remarkable innovation in the realm of Correctional treatment providing an offender with greater freedom with natural surroundings and lesser tension which culminate in creating an atmosphere conducive to reform himself and to achieve social, moral and economic development in the society. Andhra Pradesh State has the credit of starting the first permanent Open Prison at Moulali (now Cherlapally) on the outskirts of

Hyderabad in the year 1954. In 1965 another Open Prison was started at Anantapur. Both these Open Prisons are also called as Prisoners Agricultural Colonies. While the Open Prison at Moulali now Cherlapalli is located in 128.27 acres, the one at Anantapur is located in 1,427.57 acres. The authorized capacity of these prisons is 195 and 235 respectively. Prisoners who are not involved in heinous offences and are healthy and below 60 years and who have good family relations are selected to work in these prisons.

Besides agricultural activities, training in Horticulture, Poultry form, Dairy farm and Sheep rearing is also imparted to the prisoners in these colonies. The income of Cherlapalli and Anantapur Colonies through various activities during the year 2007-2008 was Rs.22,85,869/- and Rs.6,44,876/- respectively. Prisoners of open prisons are extended liberal facilities in parole and extra remission. B. OPEN JAILS Unlike Central Prisons, work in Open Prison is diversified to suit socio- economic back ground of different types of prisoners. Since almost all prisoners hail from rural background, they are given training in agricultural activities. Since these Open Prisons are also Agricultural Colonies, more importance is given on growing vegetables, fruits, fodder, besides training in maintaining dairy farm, poultry farm and sheep rearing units. The details of income of two institutions are furnished below: (In Rs.) Sl.N o. 1 1. Name of the Jail 2 Product 3 Vegetables Income 4 4,28,562

Prisoners Agricultural Colony, Cherlapally

Fruits Vermicompost Dairy Poultry Sheep Green Fodder Total

14,885 18,438 6,33,469 6,88,355 2,70,000 2,32,160 22,85,869 4,90,377 1,54,499 Total 6,44,876 29,30,745


Prisoners Agricultural Colony, Anantapur

Vegetables Dairy

Grand Total

4. SEMI OPEN PRISONS While Open Prisons are fully independent in functioning, Semi Open Prisons are not independent Institutions but located in prisons where Open lands are available for agricultural and other activities.

Semi Open Prisons are located in the following places: Central Prison 1. Rajahmundry 2. Advivaram Vizianagaram 3. Nellore Srikakulam 4. Warangal 5. Kapada 12 Vijayawada Karimnagar 15. Ongole District Jails 6. Sangareddy 7. Nalgonda 8. Mahaboobnagar 9. Nizamabad 10. Adilabad 13. Anantapur 14. Sub Jail 16. Khammam 17. 18. 19. Kurnool 11 Guntur

The criteria of selection of prisoners and the condition of work in Semi Open Prisons remains same as those of Open Prisons. The difference however, is that the prisoners working in Semi Open Prisons are engaged in agricultural activities only in day time and report back to prison in the evening for confinement.

WOMEN PRISONS Sl. No. 1 1. 2. 2 State Jail for Women, Hyderabad State Jail for Women, Rajahmundry Name of the Jail Year of establishme nt 3 1994 1955 Area Authorized Accommodatio n 4 6 Acres 4.5 Acres 5 220 160

Sl.No. 1 1.

Name of the Jail 2 State Jail for Women, Rajahmundry

Work programmes 3 1. Coir making unit 2. Envelop making 3. Tailoring 4. amber charka


State Jail for Women, Hyderabad

1. Embroidery 2. Tailoring 3. Tooth Powder Making 4. Candle Unit


The Department provides training to prisoners in various trades in all Central Prisons. These centers are intended as training cum production centres. The production and sales of various products during 2007-08 is given below;

1. Total production 2. Total receipts towards sale of products

Rs. 2,77,76,515/Rs. 2,34,62,798/-


(in. Rs.) (A) (ii) (B) (i) (ii) (C) (i) BUDGET : 21,26,00,000 96,01,56,000 Total Budget RELEASES Under Plan Non-Plan Total Releases EXPENDITURE Plan (1) Development Expenditure (2) Non-Development Expenditure (Establishment Charges including Salaries) Total Expenditure (i& ii) Expenditure on Inmates (1) Food (2) Medical (3) Clothing (4) Vocational/Educational (5) Welfare Activities Total Expenditure on Inmates The Daily Expenditure on maintenance of each Prisoner including establishment charges Prisoners
Lockup = = 73,29,92,000 366 X 15179 Rs.131.94

(i) Under Plan Non-Plan

117,27,56,000 --87,52,54,000 87,52,54,000 -23,11,60,000 51,96,90,000 75,08,50,000 13,78,96,000 65,48,000 90,60,000 4,06,89,000 4,09,000 11,93,57,000 31,39,59,000

(ii) Non-Plan

(6) Others

= Total Expenditure on
No of days x Average

ANNEXURE - VI Central Prison-wise and Product-wise Production Particulars

Sl.No 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Name of the Product 2 Steel Dyeing Durry Phenyle Soap Smith Tailoring Weaving Printing Press Book-Binding Tooth Powder DTP Candles Covers Misc. Total

CP, Cherlapalli1107 3 1565775 369055 310109 1339317 1583322 0 757692 1426117 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7351387

CP, Waranga l-646 4 2290239 355754 616091 0 1470520 0 348463 949908 356941 0 0 0 0 0 0 6387916

CP, Visakhapatna m-417 5 3679695 133123 229990 0 0 0 16927 73979 0 27118 0 0 0 0 46416 4207248

CP, Rajahmundr y -1394 6 3358735 813696 0 0 0 29090 210633 1644475 0 0 0 17500 0 0 788547 6862676

CP, Nello -215 7 1268




Central Prison-wise and Product-wise Sales Particulars dur

Sl.No 1

Name of the Product 2

CP, Cherlapalli -1107 3

CP, Warangal646 4

CP, Visakhapatnam -417 5

CP, Rajahmundr -1397 6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Steel Dyeing Durry Phenyle Soap Smith Tailoring Weaving Printing Press BookBinding Tooth Powder Chalkpiece Dhobi DTP Misc. Total

1595200 232778 242006 1473918 1612679 0 761400 765357 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6683338

2143007 0 589684 0 1372365 0 408705 878632 276501 0 0 0 0 0 0 5668894

2502041 39140 143322 0 0 0 8943 157207 0 28817 0 0 0 0 65554 2945024








50568 552027

Weaving Section
This section which was initially established for manufacture of cloth for Staff Uniform, Convict Uniform, cotton durries etc. It has now started manufacturing Terry-cot cloth (White), Woollen Carpets, Convict Chaddar, Woollen Chaddar, Fine Chaddar, Double-Bed Chaddar, Dasuti Cloth/cloth for cotton dresses, Handloom durries, Dusters. Introduction of up-to date technology with the installation of new power loom machines has not only augmented the production capacity of the section, but has also created a training ground for convicts working on these machines. Apart from meeting internal requirements of approx. 12,000 inmates, we have been privileged to secure orders from various departments of the Government of NCT of Delhi and from the private sector. There are 8 power looms and 52 handlooms in this section and 4 additional power looms are being installed. TOTAL PRODUCTION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF CLOTHS IN YEAR 2007-08 IS AROUND 63,000 METERS TURN OVER FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR 2007-08: Rs.27,78,618

Carpentry Section
This is the largest section of the Jail Factory with a work force of approximately 350 workers. During the last financial year more than 30,000 excellent quality Marandi Wood Desks were supplied to various schools in Delhi. This section also trains convicts in the finer works of carving and carpentry, making furniture for sale to the general public. This is one flag ship unit with the highest turnover. At present this unit is producing various types of office furniture, including office Chair-Table, Visitor Chairs, Computer Table, Center Table, Sofa Set, Rocking Chair etc. for various private and Govt. run Polytechnics, Indian Technical Institutes, Bhai Parmanand Institute of Business Studies, Sh. Adhya Kalyani Shakti Vidyapeeth, Delhi Institute of Tool Engineering, District Courts etc. Furniture here is 100% Teak Wood made. TURN OVER FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR 2007-08: Rs.3,60,77,545

Chemical Section
Soap, Phenyl manufacture and Oil Expelling are the basic functions of this unit. Mustard Oil of the finest quality is produced in the section. Unit was initially started for production of in-house consumption of these items, but at present the same is available for open sale to the public at much lower rates then the market. By-product of Oil like Oil Cake or Khul of this unit is sold in the open market through open auction. PRODUCTION OF OIL DURING YEAR 2007-08 IS 1,44,000 LITERS. PRODUCTION OF OIL CAKE DURING YEAR 2007-08 IS 360 TONNES. TURN OVER FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR 2007-08: Rs.1,00,42,612

Paper Unit
The unit, the only eco-friendly unit, prides in unique training section of Tihar Factory where inmates are trained in the art of hand made paper, right from paper manufacturing from pulp to that of converting them into beautiful hand made paper and converting it to various items like carry bags, fancy paper bags, file covers, file boards, envelopes, grass paper, tiger paper, leather paper, moon-rock paper, marble paper, tea paper, and card board paper in addition to meet internal stationary requirements of the Jail administration. This unit supplies stationary items to various Govt. Departments i.e. Delhi High Court, various District Courts of Delhi, Department of Education and Ministry of Environment etc. Old Government files and paper from various departments are recycled in this unit.


Tailoring Section
This unit was primarily started for imparting vocational training to convicts for post release rehabilitation. About thirty (30) convicts are being trained in modern stitching and tailoring techniques at any given time. This section caters to tailoring requirements of prisoners and Jail staff uniform. Effective quality control measure with rigid scrutiny of efficiency has led to remarkable increase in the turnover of this unit. During the last year, the section has also been catering to the Hospitality Industry, Navy and Parliament house through various NGO's. A new endeavor to train convicts in modern techniques of Fashion Design has also been started with the help of Design House ”Style Guru" TURN OVER FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR 2007-08: Rs.18,68,888

Bakery Section
Tihar Baking School basically caters to bread requirements for morning tea/Breakfast of approximately 12,000 inmates on any given day. It is the most sought after section of the Tihar Factory as it produces very delicious Biscuits and Namkeens of 10 variants each, Potato Wafers for which supply usually struggles to cope with demand. With the introduction of modern technology, this unit has now started manufacturing varieties of biscuits, rusks, cakes, namkeen etc. under strict quality control and hygienic conditions. These products are not only available for sale through Dry Canteens of various Jails but are also supplied to various Government departments, including Delhi Secretariat, Gandhi Smriti, Rajghat, Canteens of schools run by Municipal Corporation of Delhi. ANNUAL PRODUCTION IN YEAR 2007-08 IS 14400 KG OF NAMKEENS, 31200 KG OF BISCUITS, 6000 KG RUSK'S AND 4,38,000 LOAVES TURN OVER FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR 2007-08: Rs.1,13,77,362 TARGET FOR THE CURRENT FINANCIAL YEAR 2008-09: Rs.1.50 CRORE

This unit is fulfilling the requirement of pitchers and flowerpots in all jails. It also imparts training to the jail inmates for manufacturing earthen/terracotta goods so that they can earn their livelihood after their release from the jail. TURN OVER FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR 2007-08: Rs.1,25,000

Tihar Haat
Tihar Haat serves as a shopping window for Jail products. It is located just outside the main gate of Central Jail No. 1 for the sole purpose of making products manufactured at the Jail Factory available for sale to the general public. It functions as an eye opener of the constructive and creative abilities of prisoners and also adds to the Government Exchequer. Jail products have also received international exposure through participation in India International Trade Fair and other exhibitions from time to time. A number of NGOs presently involved in various activities of the Jail Factory have been a source of encouragement and support to our on-going efforts to reform and rehabilitate prisoners through various vocational training units of the Jail Factory.


"Prisons can not only pay for their charges but can also deploy surpluses for infrastructure expansion"

The Prisons Dept. is worried about the lack of focus on the jail made products, and would like to reshuffle the product portfolio. It is high time to concentrate on core strengths, phase out ageing products, and enter the exciting services sector, growing at a scorching pace in recent years. Every Jail Supdt. should cast himself in the mould of a corporate Chief Executive Officer. "The government should give them the status of a corporation. And, why not? The turnover of products churned out by the prison network in A.P. during 2007-08 was Rs.2,77,76,515=00 Though small in size, the nascent prison industry in India is finally waking up to its potential. India has 1,328 jails—central, state and district—and also innovative open jails where those undergoing life terms tend to fields. Jails hold about 3.58 lakh prisoners. Revenue from the sale of goods produced by prison inmates last year was Rs 66.45 crore. Pune’s Yerawada Jail, which perhaps houses the country’s biggest industrial complex within its high walls, posted a profit of Rs 55 lakh, on a turnover of Rs 5.45 crore. The range of activities in Indian prisons range from carpentry, textiles, smithy, tailoring, paper and leather works to baking and candle making. The Agra jail runs a glass making unit and the Thane Prison’s bakery flaunts one of the best automated ovens in the country, imported from Germany. What’s more, women in Delhi’s Tihar Jail have started making covers for wine and champagne bottles. Growth Industry Services are the new allurement. The A.P. Prison Officers would like to move on to new-age services—such as facility management! Why can’t Indian prisons provide convicts to public institutions or private companies for cleaning and maintenance jobs? "Employing a labour today costs around Rs. 100=00 a day. We will provide prison labour for Rs 25=00 a day," The Prisons Dept.presides over a virtual army of prisoners who can be deployed for various duties. The numbers are growing, leading to overcrowding of prisons. Prisoners’ profiles are changing with the educated finding themselves behind bars. Over 16% prisoners in A.P. jails have passed matriculate exams; another 4.41% are graduates. Over 48% male inmates are in the youthful, productive age group of 21 to 30 years. .Self-sustaining System With the growing number of prisoners, the potential for revenue generation is huge. While the raison d’etre of prison industry is to keep inmates constructively occupied and provide rehabilitative skills, a mere tweak of the system can result in big benefits. Better efficiency and strong linkages with markets can address cash constraints and generate surpluses. "Prisons can not only pay for their charges but also address the problem of overcrowding by deploying surpluses for expansion of infrastructure. The potential is huge and the figures bare it all. Currently, the average monthly output per prisoner in India is around Rs 150, a striking example of a woefully under utilised resource. The combined annual turnover of the Indian prison industry at Rs 66 crore is hardly noteworthy. "A.P. Prisons alone can generate Rs 100 crore per year.

It is certain that this abysmal output figure can easily be ratcheted up to a conservative Rs 5,000 a month. Pegged at this rate, the annual output of the Indian prison industry could be a stupendous Rs 2,150 crore. The entire budget allocated for prisons last year was Rs 1,288 crore. .Restructuring Prisons According to the Maharashtra IG, corporate structure is a pre-requisite for operational independence. For instance, as a corporation it would be easier to enter into joint ventures. Says Bedi, "My proposal to corporate houses was simple. We provide manpower and space. You set up the infrastructure and we go 50:50." "Also, we have to focus on producing high-end products like electronics by providing vocational training. I was in talks with Shriram Institute. Why not have an MoU with companies such as Infosys for software skills?" asks Bedi. Today, the Indian prison industry is mired in a bureaucratic maze. "We have no business plan or marketing strategy in place. He is certain he has the capacity to undertake high quality job work, provided an enabling environment is created. Just as the FPI in the US, Mathur sees the clothing industry as a growth sector. It’s not just about churning out dreary uniforms, as they already do, it’s about catering to fashion street clothing brands. "Employing labour today costs about Rs 100 per day. I will provide prison labour for Rs 25 a day"The innate potential for setting Indian prison industry onto a high growth trajectory has been demonstrated many times. Years ago, Bedi was keen on setting up a baking unit in Tihar. As expected, the files went into a tailspin forcing her to dip into her Magsaysay Award prize money for the bakery’s seed capital. It proved a hit and the business paid back her seed money within months. In 2006, Tihar’s bakery reached Rs 1 crore, constituting a fourth of the jails annual sales. "TJ," the Tihar brand of products, is now popular. Tihar, in association with Excel Industries, also set up a waste recycling programme to convert kitchen and horticultural waste into manure. During Bedi’s time, Tihar earned Rs 25 lakh annually from the sale of manure while earlier it was spending lakhs to dispose of it. Skill Strategy While the potential for big business exists, Indian jails would have to take a re-look at its strategy to build up skills. Its training programmes have to be aligned with market trends. "Only then can prisons become really restorative—where the person is restored to the community after he completes his sentence But there are inmates who feel skills, such as weaving, learnt during their stay in prison will be of little use upon completion of their period of incarceration. Thus, one 24-year old inmate, who did not wish to be named, secured a graduate degree through the open university facility and also acquired basic computer skills. "Weaving is useless to me as a skill when I am released," he says. Prisons, therefore, will have to look at the skill-sets of inmates and build on them. Sanjay Dutt need not wield the hammer and saw when he could have been asked to be an educator or run an

acting school, says Bedi. The need is to move with the times. Why not run call centres from prisons? Indeed, if prison inmates represent a microcosm of society, it shouldn’t be difficult to look at such an opportunity In India, too. Privatisation Transforming state prisons into business hubs is one thing. The new threshold is the advent of private prisons. In the US and in some European countries, more and more prisoners are being moved to privately-operated correction management companies. Over 100,000 inmates are serving sentences in private prisons in the US. In 2006, the Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) generated $1.3 billion in revenue, the highest in its history. A host of companies, including Motorola, IBM, Compaq and Chevron, have often used prison labour.. India is ages away from privatisation of this sort, if at all. However, we have a task on our hands,
UNICOR, also known as the “Federal Prison Industries” was started some 60 years ago just to make office furniture for federal buildings. FPI is a wholly owned government corporation created by Congress in 1934. FPI is authorized to operate industries in federal correctional institutions and disciplinary barracks (18 U.S.C. § 4121 to § 4129). Today, they have managed to undercut every competitor in their way. Depending on which federal prison a person is confined in, they could be assembling: Eyeglasses, miscellaneous vehicle components, air purification equipment, radio mounts, communication equipment, headsets & microphone speakers, cable wire assembles, electric components, electrical power distribution components, household & office furniture, household supplies, business forms, men’s outerwear, special purpose clothing, armor personnel, signsadvertising displays, forklift repair, radio modifications, toiletry kiting services and printing & binding services.…. And the list goes on and on. UNICOR is the “Uncle Sams Club” of manufacturing and employs 23,000 inmates and reported profits last year of over $800 million.

Pearl Academy of Fashion empowers prison women
September 02, 2009 (India) Pearl Academy of Fashion (PAF), India’s premiere fashion and design institute has joined hands with India Vision Foundation which runs the vocational training centre at Tihar Jail to empower women prisoners by being a part of their weaving behind bars project. India Vision Foundation, has been supporting the Vocational Training projects inside Tihar Jail in New Delhi with a view to provide the inmates a skill that will help in their rehabilitation on their release from imprisonment. The weaving project aims to teach the women inmates weaving and entrepreneurial skills. These skills learnt in Jail, would help them gain financial independence after their release and would also be a way of restoring their self confidence and utilizing their time constructively. The women not only learn to weave, but they are also taught new designs and techniques on how to improve the marketing of their products in Europe. This project also gives the inmates, the power and a mode of self-expression. They put their thoughts, hopes and dreams down into weaving and the end product is incredible. Through this project the women inmates are given an opportunity to earn a little money. Each inmate is paid a

daily wage. The money is deposited in their internal Bank Account in Tihar Jail. These women can withdraw their money whenever they desire. The team of Pearl Academy of Fashion has made a preliminary visit to Tihar Jail on 17th July, 2009 and is now working on the product styling of an inventory of 2000 woven samples of different sizes which have been developed by the inmates. The products they are working on include Cushion Covers, Mobile Covers, Hand Bags, Gift Boxes, Jewellery Cases, Jwellery Roll, Visiting Cards Holder, Photo Frames, and Belts. The team has realized that there is lot of potential if they combine right colours, materials and product styling through the skill of these inmates. They have also realized that the Tapestry weaving technique is the main skill which can be practically employed at this stage after which a few more basic techniques can also be imparted. The Pearl Academy team will also be developing new designs for weaving using hand frames. The team will give complete design directions which will help the inmates develop complete collections.

Pearl Academy of Fashion

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