9 views

Uploaded by Alexis Martínez

save

- PG Diploma(CCC_CC)_ Entrance Examination Syllabus-2014
- Chapter 1 Heat Transfer
- 1-s2.0
- Biomass Pyrolysis: Comments on Some Sources of Confusions in the Definitions of Temperatures and Heating Rates
- testing
- 3- Extended Surface Fins
- tpf_4
- Study of Heat and Mass Transfer During Urea.pdf
- Tutorial 4
- Petex PROSPER Product-Info Sep2015
- Fathom_Examples_Fat_001.pdf
- J Du Preez-15063518-Review of Li Et Al
- Science Direct
- Refrigeration load calculation
- Heat Conduction - Syed Matahir
- PHC 6037 Week 1 note
- 34main.pdf
- Assignment 1 b
- Performance Investigation of Solar Still Integrated to Solar Pond
- Fins
- Linear or Equal Percentage Valves_ When Should I Use Which
- 1965-The mechanism of heat transfer in nucleate pool boiling part II.pdf
- thermodynamics-practice-problems-2012-05-07.odt
- Geo 2017 Paper 139
- 30120140507006
- Evolution and Comparison on CFD Simulation of Phase Change Materials PCMS in a Spherical Capsule
- Midas NFX Thermal Analysis
- Design Process.pdf
- Analysis of Thermal Characteristics of Flared and Rectangular Fin Profiles by Using Finite Element Method
- 01 Kern's Method.
- Programa 16 Foro de Empleo de La Universidad de Oviedo
- Elementos Aleantes
- Practica 2
- 7.3 Diseño y Desarrollo
- Practica 2 Martínez.
- Us 4152974
- Fall Abie La Piston
- Ext z7oglfjvzu4tr0y0qhlb
- Practica 1
- Soldadura Por Friccion
- Deberes 1B
- Wps
- Requisitos Para Pasaporte
- Alotropia
- Informe # 1
- poesía

You are on page 1of 4

18-20, 2006 (pp42-45)

**Thermostatic Mixing Valves – Thermostatic temperature distribution during various operating conditions
**

Joakim Wren, Peter Persson and Dan Loyd Department of Mechanical Engineering Linköpings universitet, SE − 581 83 Linköping, S WEDEN Abstract: A model of a thermostat used in thermostatic mixing valves (TMVs) has been developed. The model contains realistic boundary conditions and material properties including the latent heat corresponding to a mixture of waxes inside the thermostat. The temperature-time characteristics show a relatively slow heating of the thermostat regardless of the ﬂow rate. This implies an improvement potential for the thermostat and thus the entire valve. Key–Words: Thermostatic mixing valves, Thermostat, heat ﬂux, Modeling and simulation, Phase transition

1

Introduction

Thermostatic mixing valves (TMVs) are important components in many heating, refrigeration and sanitary systems. The demands on such systems have increased the last years, for example due to new safety standards [1]. In this study we look at the temperature distribution inside the thermostat, which is responsible for the thermostat’s function as a combined sensor/actuator. The thermostat contains a speciﬁc mixture of waxes and all waxes in the mixture undergo a phase transition within the working temperature interval of the valve. The thermostat is also inﬂuenced by among others the heat ﬂux from the surrounding, which in turn is affected by e.g. the ﬂow conditions in the proximity of the thermostat. In this study a ﬁnite element model of the thermostat including the temperature dependent thermal conductivity, the speciﬁc and latent heat of the mixture of waxes and the convective heat transfer. The results show a temperature distribution that varies greatly in both axial and radial directions throughout the response time for the valve for all investigated conditions.

Figure 1: The thermostatic mixing valve. Cold water inlet is at the bottom of the valve, hot water inlet to the left and mixed water outlet to the right. The height of the valve is approximately 100 mm.

**2 Materials and Methods
**

2.1 The valve and thermostat

A thermostatic mixing valve (TMV) mixes hot and cold water to a preset mean temperature. The TMV investigated is ESBE series30 HR valve (ESBE AB, Reftele, Sweden) which has a short response time and stable mixed water temperature under varying water pressure, ﬂow and temperature conditions. The valve is shown in Fig.1.

The valve regulation emerges from a thermostatic element (thermostat) located in the water-stream inside the valve. The thermostat contains a phase change material consisting of copper powder and a speciﬁc mixture of waxes, which change its density upon heating and thereby bring rise to the control. The wax mixture also contains a signiﬁcant amount of copper powder in order to increase the thermal diffusivity and thereby the speed of the thermal response. The thermostat forces a plastic shuttle to move towards/against a spring feed-back mechanism, which determine the cold and hot water intake (see Fig.2).

35. see e. and the thermal conductivity was 230. respectively. ki is the thermal conductivity (i=r ˙ is a heat sink or source.0. hB is 4500 kW/m2 for the lowest horizontal face of the thermostat. giving the result shown in Fig. conductivity measurements were carried out at 20. and Q can vary in both time and space.2 and 2. All parameters and z ).1. The equation is used together with a convective (Neumann) boundary condition. January 18-20. brass and rubber of the thermostat. c is the speciﬁc heat capacity. The surrounding temperature is given by T∞ . Also measurements of the combined effect of speciﬁc/latent heat of the copper/wax mixture were carried out at discrete temperatures. 8430 and 1100 kg/m3 respectively.Proceedings of the 2006 WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Heat and Mass Transfer. is given by 1 ∂ ∂T = r ∂r ∂t ∂T ∂r ∂ ∂z ∂T ∂z ˙ (1) +Q Figure 3: The geometry of the thermostat showing its principle parts included in the model. 2006 (pp42-45) Outlet Thermostat (Probe) Inlets: hot and cold Shuttle Spring Figure 2: Schematic picture of the valve in Fig. ∂T ∂T lz + hB (T − T∞ ) = 0 l r + kz ∂z ∂r kr (2) Equation (1) was solved along with appropriate boundary conditions for the present geometry using the simulation software Femlab 3i (Comsol AB. USA. linearly decreasing from 9600 to 6000 for the long vertical face. the speciﬁc heat 385.3) comprises the thermostat including the phase-change copper/wax mixture in its surrounding of ﬂowing water at three ﬂow rates (4. T = Ti (t. . ρc kr r + kz for an isotropic material where ρ is the density. r and z .2 Governing equations and boundary conditions The heat transport in the thermostat is given by the heat conduction equation (1). In this case the convective heat ﬂux is descried by equation (2). Miami.0 W/mK respectively. hB is the convective heat transfer coefﬁcient and lr and lz are the direction cosines. All parameters can vary in both time and space. z ) is the temperature. 2. 43 and 51 ◦ C. t is time. Interpolation was carried out along with the simulations. For the other ﬂow rates. 2. Sweden). which as the name indicates exhibits simulation capabilities based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). r.g. See e. see e. 3. For the copper/wax mixture. [3]. For the lowest ﬂow rate (4 l/min). [2]. Further details of the values and measurement of hB for the ﬂow cases are found in [4]. 2. which in axialsymmetric cylindrical co-ordinates. 400 and 2000 J/kgK respectively. Simulations were carried out for three ﬂow cases.g. 3000 for the upper horizontal face and 2000 for the vertical curved part. the density was 8850. 10 and 20 liters per minute.g.3 Simulation model The axi-symmetric simulation model (Fig. 10 and 20 liters per minute).4. Florida. all these are handbook values.8.24 W/mK respectively. For the copper. hB was increased by approximately 50 and 90%. 110 and 0. [2]. giving a conductivity of 3. each corresponding to a set of measured [4] space-dependent convective heat transfer coefﬁcients (hB ).

this implies an improvement potential for the thermostat and thus the entire valve. USA. both at a radius of 1 mm and at axial locations 3 and 15 mm from the bottom of the thermostat. These affect the valve/thermostat characteristics. Acknowledgement 4 Discussion The temperature distribution inside a thermostat of a TMV has under various operating conditions been analyzed using modeling and computer simulation. See e. both at ESBE AB. The temperaturetime derivative is slightly larger for the higher boundary heat ﬂuxes. B Flow 10. This is an interesting problem from a thermal point of view. 3 Results The temperature as a function of time for each ﬂow condition is given in Fig. Florida. Another reason is the various transition temperatures for the wax mixture. before their derivative increases again. B Flow 20. A Flow 4. The study was supported by The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. The temperature-time plots in Fig. B 50 Temperature [°C] 40 due to the steep pressure and temperature gradients present inside the valve [5] as well as the large spatially and temporally dependent convective heat transfer at the boundary of the thermostat [4].4 where the curves tend to ﬂatten out at slightly below 30 ◦ C. as the valve is classiﬁed as a high performance valve meeting among others the Asse (American Society of Sanitary Engineering) no. The temperature-time characteristics of the thermostat show a relatively slow heating regardless of the ﬂow rate.1016 standard which demands a response time less than four seconds. It is also interesting to note that the curves tend to ﬂatten out at between 30 and 40 ◦ C. . The temperature decreases from the bottom to the top of the thermostat.5 for two locations. This is quite unexpected. The relatively low thermal conductivity of the mixture together with the latent heat of the phase transition in the copper wax mixture decreases the thermal diffusivity and thus slow down the heating of the mixture.Eng. This effect is actually seen in Fig. Miami. Nils Hjelte and Eng. 10 and 20 l/min at a radius of 1 mm and axial locations 3 and 15 mm (A and B respectively) from the bottom of the thermostat. January 18-20. Ulf Bengtsson at Linköping university for accurate design of the thermostat dummy. [7] for a discussion of response times. There is an axial temperature difference inside the thermostat throughout the simulated time.Lic. An interesting ﬁnding is that after four seconds after a temperature step. This is among others actualized by the risk for invasion of Legionellae bacteria [6]. One reason is that this temperature coincides with the temperature for which the largest change in speciﬁc heat and thermal conductivity (increase and decrease. Altogether. the temperature distribution inside the thermostat is far from equilibrated. Dan Bengtsson. 60 Flow 4.g. respectively) occurs. The author is very grateful to Tech. 2006 (pp42-45) 2500 Specific heat [J/kgK] 2000 1500 1000 500 20 30 40 50 Temperature [°C] 60 Figure 4: The combined speciﬁc/latent heat of the copper wax mixture measured at discrete temperatures and ﬁtted by a cubic spline function.Proceedings of the 2006 WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Heat and Mass Transfer. This means that other aspects than the heat ﬂux over the boundary dominates the situation. and the combined effect of the speciﬁc and latent heats can be seen in the presented graphs. A Flow 20. 30 5 20 0 1 2 Time [s] 3 4 5 Conclusion Figure 5: Temperature in the copper/wax mixture as a function of time for the ﬂows 4. which in turn are responsible for the performance and safety classiﬁcation of the valve. A Flow 10. and to Res. for fruitful discussions during this work.4 show that the the large difference in heat transfer coefﬁcients associated with the various ﬂow rates do not have a substantial impact of the temperature inside the copper/wax mixture.

P. Lacroix. A study of the prevention of hot tapwater burns. 2 edn. Zienkiewicz. S. 1977). Burns. UK. Murray. [2] H. Wren. [5] P. Carslaw and J. Tmv3 – why was it needed. [3] O. 40(2). Transactions on Fluid Mechanics. USA. Thermostatic mixing valves – a method for non-disturbing intra-valve heat transfer estimation. [6] M. C. Loyd and J. A measurement equipment for analyzing control characteristics of thermostatic mixing valves. Persson. Conduction of heat in solids (Oxford University Press. McGrellis. Florida. Jaeger. [7] J. [4] J. 185–93. 1988. Wren and P. Persson. 1999. Hospital Development.Proceedings of the 2006 WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Heat and Mass Transfer. C. 1959). . 2004). D. January 18-20. Electric water heater designs for load shifting and control of bacterial contamination. 2006 (pp42-45) References: [1] N. ISSN: 1790-5087. 14(3). The Finite Element Method (McGraw–Hill. Miami. 1313–40. Energy Conversion and Management. in Proceedings of the 4th European Thermal Sciences Conference (Birmingham.

- PG Diploma(CCC_CC)_ Entrance Examination Syllabus-2014Uploaded byAnonymous fFsGiy
- Chapter 1 Heat TransferUploaded byEjat IS
- 1-s2.0Uploaded byghadasaudi
- Biomass Pyrolysis: Comments on Some Sources of Confusions in the Definitions of Temperatures and Heating RatesUploaded byatsomech132206
- testingUploaded bydragomir0marian
- 3- Extended Surface FinsUploaded bysayedelboss
- tpf_4Uploaded bygknut
- Study of Heat and Mass Transfer During Urea.pdfUploaded byClint Charles P. Brutas
- Tutorial 4Uploaded byJayZx Way
- Petex PROSPER Product-Info Sep2015Uploaded byMilton Jesus Alberto Cuentas
- Fathom_Examples_Fat_001.pdfUploaded bynorgrent
- J Du Preez-15063518-Review of Li Et AlUploaded byJacques Du Preez
- Science DirectUploaded byalialavi2
- Refrigeration load calculationUploaded byapi-25999517
- Heat Conduction - Syed MatahirUploaded byHamood
- PHC 6037 Week 1 noteUploaded byChoi Jay
- 34main.pdfUploaded byVikas Gowda
- Assignment 1 bUploaded bysyafiqah umran
- Performance Investigation of Solar Still Integrated to Solar PondUploaded byBONFRING
- FinsUploaded bym_alodat6144
- Linear or Equal Percentage Valves_ When Should I Use WhichUploaded byrieza_f
- 1965-The mechanism of heat transfer in nucleate pool boiling part II.pdfUploaded byTahok24
- thermodynamics-practice-problems-2012-05-07.odtUploaded byWillina Marie Chong Mable
- Geo 2017 Paper 139Uploaded byPablo Cesar Trejo
- 30120140507006Uploaded byIAEME Publication
- Evolution and Comparison on CFD Simulation of Phase Change Materials PCMS in a Spherical CapsuleUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- Midas NFX Thermal AnalysisUploaded byGanesh Mandpe
- Design Process.pdfUploaded bymithuwan
- Analysis of Thermal Characteristics of Flared and Rectangular Fin Profiles by Using Finite Element MethodUploaded byIOSRjournal
- 01 Kern's Method.Uploaded bytekkim12

- Programa 16 Foro de Empleo de La Universidad de OviedoUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Elementos AleantesUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Practica 2Uploaded byAlexis Martínez
- 7.3 Diseño y DesarrolloUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Practica 2 Martínez.Uploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Us 4152974Uploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Fall Abie La PistonUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Ext z7oglfjvzu4tr0y0qhlbUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Practica 1Uploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Soldadura Por FriccionUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Deberes 1BUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- WpsUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Requisitos Para PasaporteUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- AlotropiaUploaded byAlexis Martínez
- Informe # 1Uploaded byAlexis Martínez
- poesíaUploaded byAlexis Martínez