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# Torque and Tension in Bolts

Bolt, one of the most widely used fasteners in the industry, is usually tightened by applying torque to the head and/or nut. As the bolt is tightened, it is stretched (preloaded). Preload tension is necessary to keep the bolt tight, increase oin strength, create friction between parts, and impro!e fatigue resistance. "he recommended preload force Fi is #or reusable connections\$ #or permanent connections\$ where At is the tensile area of the bolt and Sp is the proof strength of the bolt. Although the abo!e formulae look rather straightforward, the preload tension Fi is not easy to measure or control. A common practice is to relate the preload tension Fi to a quantity that is easier to measure, the applied torque T. "his torque, usually achie!ed by a torque wrench, the turn%of%nut, or an indicating washer, is

where d is the nominal outside diameter of the bolt and K is the correction factor that depends on the material, si&e, surface friction, and threading of the bolt. #or most small to mid si&e bolts, K is between '.() and '.*. As a rough appro+imation\$ dry (un%lubricated) mid%si&e steel bolts\$ non%plated black finish\$ &inc%plated\$ cadmium%plated\$ lubricated\$ A more complicated torque formula is gi!en as K K K K K , , , , , '.'.* '.'.(. '.() / '.(0

where P is the lead of the thread, Db is the a!erage mean diameter of the bolt, Dn is the a!erage mean diameter of the nut, k is the coefficient of friction, and is one half of the thread angle (usually *'1). "his formula, although more complete, is seldom used, for the large errors (sometimes as much as -)2) in!ol!ed in torque wrench readout usually renders using a more accurate formula pointless.

## Standard Steel Bolt Torque Specifications

Standard Dry Torque in Foot-Pounds
Bolt Size (in.) Coarse Threads/ inch SAE SAE SAE SAE Grade Grade 3 Grade \$ Grade ! 0-1-2 100,000 psi 133,000 psi 120,000 psi 74,000 psi ed. ed. ed. Carbon Low Carbon Carbon Carbon "eat #. Steel Steel Steel #e%p. Steel \$ 12 20 32 47 \$) )\$ 1!! 20\$ 310 4'0 37! )00 1100 1470 1)00 23\$0 27!0 ) 17 30 47 \$) 103 14! 234 372 !!1 '72 1211 1\$24 1)43 2\$\$0 34\$3 4\$)! !427 10 1) 33 !4 7' 114 1!4 2!7 3'2 !'7 7)4 110! 1!00 177! 242! 31!0 4200 4!!0 12.! 24 43 \$) 10\$ 1!0 20) 3!0 !!0 '2! 1304 1'1! 2434 2)13 3)'! !1') \$)'0 74)1 SAE Grade 7 133,000 psi ed. Carbon Allo& Steel 13 2! 44 71 110 1!4 21! 3\$0 !70 '40 132! 1'2! 2!00 3000 4000 !300 7000 7!00 SAE Grade ' 1!0,000 psi ed. Carbon Allo& Steel 14 2) 47 7' 11) 1\$) 230 3'0 \$00 700 1430 1)7! 2\$!0 3200 4400 !\$!0 7\$00 '200

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