Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Water Management 158 December 2005 Issue WM4 Pages 157–162 Paper

13844 Received 06/05/2004 Accepted 12/09/2005 Keywords: hydraulics & hydrodynamics/river engineering/waterways & canals Rajkumar Raikar Doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India Subhasish Dey Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India

Scour of gravel beds at bridge piers and abutments
R. V. Raikar
MTech, MIAHR

and S. Dey

MTech, PhD, MIAHR Nb Nd s U Uc u Ãc sg f scale ratio for pier width or abutment length scale ratio for sediment size d50 relative density of gravels average upstream flow velocity (m/s) critical velocity for gravels (m/s) critical shear velocity for gravels (m/s) geometric standard deviation angle of repose of gravels

Results of an experimental investigation into local scour at piers and abutments in uniform gravels under a clear water scour condition are presented. Two types of pier, namely circular and square, and two types of short abutment (abutment length/upstream flow depth < 1, for short abutments), namely wing-wall and vertical-wall, were tested. Although scour at piers and abutments has been studied widely in sand beds, it remains almost unexplored in gravel beds. Therefore, different gravel sizes, ranging from 4.1 mm to 14.25 mm, were used in this experimental study. The influence of gravel size on equilibrium scour depth at piers and abutments is prominent. From the experimental results, it is observed that the equilibrium scour depth increases with decrease in gravel size and with increase in pier width and abutment length. The variations of equilibrium scour depth with gravel size for both pier and abutment scour depart considerably from the variations of equilibrium scour depth with sand size. Consequently, for scour at piers and abutments, the resulting sediment size factors for gravels, evaluated by fitting envelope curves, are significantly different from the existing sediment size factor for sands. Combining pier and abutment scour data, an integrated approach to estimating the equilibrium scour depth at a bridge foundation is proposed. Scaling of distorted experimental model results to prototype is also discussed.

Subscripts M P model prototype

1. INTRODUCTION Local scour at bridge piers and abutments in sand-, gravel- and boulder-bed rivers is a topic of continued interest to civil engineers. A large number of studies have been carried out to date by many investigators. A comprehensive review of the investigations on pier and abutment scour was put forward by Dey,1 Melville and Coleman2 and Barbhuiya and Dey.3 Melville4 indicated that the maximum equilibrium scour depth ds at a bridge foundation (pier and abutment) can be described by

1

ds ¼ Kh KI Kd Ks Ku KG

NOTATION A, B b ~ b C d16 d50 d84 ds ^s d h Kd KG Kh KI Ks Ku l coefficients pier width or abutment length transverse to flow (m) b/d50 factor 16% finer gravel diameter (m) median diameter of gravels (m) 84% finer gravel diameter (m) equilibrium scour depth (m) ds/b upstream flow depth (m) sediment size factor channel geometry factor flow depth–pier width or abutment length factor flow intensity factor pier or abutment shape factor pier or abutment alignment factor stream-wise length of abutment (m)

where Kh is the flow depth–pier width or abutment length factor, KI is the flow intensity factor, Kd is the sediment size factor, Ks is the pier or abutment shape factor, Ku is the pier or abutment alignment factor and KG is the channel geometry factor. Except Kd, all other K factors are well defined by Melville.4 Because Kd was determined by the envelope curve-fitting method using the scour data in sands reported by different investigators, and although some data of Ettema5 on pier scour in gravels for the median sizes of 5.35 mm and 7.8 mm were considered, the amount of data was not sufficient to propose the existing equation of Kd for the estimation of scour depth in gravels. The present study aims to investigate the influence of uniform gravel size on equilibrium scour depth at piers and abutments. The study reports an experimental investigation, the findings of which are used to determine sediment size factors for the estimation of maximum equilibrium scour depth at piers and abutments. Combining pier and abutment scour data, an integrated approach for the evaluation of scour depth at a bridge foundation is proposed. Raikar † Dey 157

Water Management 158 Issue WM4

Scour of gravel beds at bridge piers and abutments

which is a function of h and d50.5 Therefore.6 m wide and 0. the equilibrium scour depth in non-ripple-forming sediments (d50 .45 m deep) located 7 m downstream of the flume inlet. as was done by Dey and Barbhuiya7 The critical shear velocities u Ãc for gravels furnished in Table 2 were determined experimentally. the flow parameters were set in such a way that the scour depth remained independent of those parameters. They correspond closely with the values of u Ãc obtained from the Shields diagram. Also. a pier or an abutment was embedded in a bed of gravels. During the tests. The geometric standard deviation sg of the particle size distribution given by (d84/d16)0Á5 is less than 1. The flow discharge. are given in Tables 3 and 4. Also. the strength of wake vortices becomes insufficient to lift the larger particles. The beaker was then placed on an inclined platform. In the first set (Table 3). Model 2 Uc h ¼ 5 Á 75 log þ6 u Ãc 2d50 0◊7 m Perforated plate Hinge False floor 0◊4 m Sediment recess Sediment trap Tailgate 1◊9 m Inflow 7m 12 m 1◊8 m 1◊2 m Fig. was measured using a calibrated rectangular weir fitted at the outflow channel. 0. as shown in Fig. On the other hand. and U c is the critical velocity for gravels. experiments were run for abutment scour in uniform gravels under constant upstream flow depth h of 0. in order to avoid undesirable scour. EXPERIMENTATION Experiments were conducted in a tilting (up to 1.95. small amounts of gravel were taken from the sample and kept in a large beaker. the experiment was run adjusting the discharge to a desired value. which otherwise would take place by the action of sheet flow owing to shallow flow depth. The flume was initially filled with the water from the downstream side using a pipe.7 m deep. Ettema5 indicated that at near-critical condition (U ! U c). namely 458 wing-wall and vertical-wall (rectangular cross-section with upstream face normal to the flume wall)—each having different lengths (b ¼ pier width or abutment length) transverse to the flow direction (see Table 1)—were used for the scouring tests. Melville and Chiew8 reported that the time required to achieve the equilibrium scour at piers in gravels (d50 ¼ 5. being upstream flow depth dependent. Hence. experiments were run for pier scour in uniform gravels under constant upstream flow depth h of 0.2.7 The scour depth becomes independent of flow depth when the flow depth is greater than three times the pier diameter. in the second set (Table 4). regulated by an inlet valve. 1). some of the gravel samples were coarser than that used by Ettema.8 m long. 1. it is important to mention that the upstream bed becomes disturbed by the upstream flow if it is set as U  U c.25 m. In the present study. Experimental runs were taken under nearly limiting clear water scour condition (upstream flow velocity being close to the critical velocity for gravels) for a period of 18–36 h when the equilibrium of scour was reached. The characteristics of the uniform gravels used in the experiments are provided in Table 2. To determine angle of repose. Two sets of experimental data were collected (Tables 3 and 4). and two types of short abutments (abutment length/upstream flow depth . The constant upstream flow depths were chosen from the point of view of flow depth independent scour. This is owing to the reduction of the erosive potential of the horseshoe vortex at an early stage to dissipate its energy through the interstices of the gravels. when performing a large number of experiments in the present study. the values of U c. The inclination of the platform was gradually increased until a few particles at the surface started to move. 1. In fact.7 mm) reaches a maximum value.95. having explored the scour data of Ettema5 and others. When the required flow depth was reached. were calculated using the following equation of semi-logarithmic average velocity for a gravel bed. Here. where U is the average upstream flow velocity.8 mm) was 25–64 h. was registered. The relevant parameters of gravel and flow including equilibrium scour depth ds for different runs are furnished in Tables 3 and 4 for piers and abutments. The flow depth for a given inclination of flume bed was adjusted by a downstream tailgate.6.2–6 As the influence of gravel sizes on scour depth was studied.35 mm and 7. Water was then added so that the gravel in the beaker was completely submerged. 0. The critical velocities U c. depending on the flow conditions and gravel sizes.4 for uniform gravels. respectively. being retained in a sediment recess (1. adjusting the upstream flow condition to U /U c  0. Schematic view of the experimental set-up Raikar † Dey 158 Water Management 158 Issue WM4 Scour of gravel beds at bridge piers and abutments . It is pertinent to point out that only limited information concerning the time required to reach the equilibrium clear water scour at piers and abutments is available.7%) flume 12 m long. However.20. where the water from the flume was discharged. being the angle of repose f of the gravel sample. 0. Models made from Perspex were used in the experiments. in which the upstream beds remained undisturbed. being achieved by adjusting the discharge and tailgate. namely circular and square. the duration time of 18–36 h to achieve equilibrium scour at piers and abutments was adequate. the experimental runs were taken for U /U c  0. the time to reach equilibrium scour reduces considerably with increase in gravel size. The maximum equilibrium scour depths at piers and abutments were measured by a Vernier point gauge. The inclination of the platform. a clear water scour condition was maintained. Two types of piers. from the practical standpoint. For all experimental runs.6 m wide and 0.

2 and 2.060 0.0 Critical shear velocity uÃc : m/s 0.077 0. in Fig.164 0.079 0.060 0.0635 0. INFLUENCE OF GRAVEL SIZE ON SCOUR DEPTH 3.320 0.25 mm under the upstream flow condition of U /U c  0.120 0.12 0. the mean ~.09 Angle of repose f: degree 32.15 10. where the ^s are 3. and the difference between the curves reduces with decrease in gravel size.2 m.038 0.13 1.794 0.257 0.101 0.060 0.050 0.032 0.0 39.10 5.875 0.102 0.058 1. It shows that d ^s increases with scour depth d ~.25 14. The salient feature of Fig.240 0. The experimental b curve for circular piers in sands (shown in Fig. 2. reaching a maximum ds at b ¼ 25.060 0.102 0.122 0.264 0.25 4.198 0.064 0.10 5. Importantly.120 0. where the ^s are 2.091 0.050 0. Nevertheless.25 14.25 mm) under the upstream flow condition of U /U c  0. are used to plot non-dimensional equilibrium ^s versus b ~ in Fig. 3.049 – – – – – 0.53 7.164 0.058 1.164 0.120 Square b: m 0.24 458 wing-wall b: m 0.833 0.65 Geometric standard deviation sg: 1.794 0.15 10.122 0.060 0.054 0.875 0.107 0.53 7.135 0.833 0.042 0.10 5.761 0.12 l: m 0.940 1.102 0.120 0.077 0.875 0.1–14.038 0.794 0.0546 0.08 1.102 0.875 0.050 0.163 0.761 0. The laboratory experimental data (Table 3) of circular and square piers.060 0.95 and h ¼ 0.25 4.271 0.010 1. respectively.164 0.010 1.237 0.25 Relative density s: 2.221 0.08 0.04 0.206 0.905 1.95Uc and 0. b ~ is greater than 25 However.95 and h ¼ 0.940 1.833 0.25 4.0715 0.053 0.10 0. It demonstrates that d ~ ^ ~ increase in b.761 0.2.205 Square pier ds: m 0.141 0.65 2.833 0.53 7.10 5.10 1.905 1.069 0.940 1.940 1.794 0.090 0. being considered the integral part of the horseshoe vortex.12 l: m 0. magnitude of d ^s for square piers curves show that for a given b is greater than that for circular piers.875 0.20 0.10 5.25 m.15 10. 2 is the ^s relative to pier width being greater for equilibrium scour depth d larger pier width and smaller gravel size. the horseshoe vortex is stronger to excavate a large volume of gravel when the gravel size is relatively fine.10 0.164 0.180 0.010 1. resulting in a vortex flow with an enhanced scour potential. The trend is almost opposite to abutment scour in sands.100 0. b data (Table 4) of different sizes of 458 wing-wall and vertical-wall abutments. tested in median gravel diameters d50 ¼ 4.53 7.077 0.5 34.058 1.65 2.312 0.032 0.052 0.833 0.038 0.08 0.058 1.940 1. the upstream flow velocities U and upstream flow depths h were approximately equal to 0.276 0. the finer gravels become sands if b ^ and corresponding ds becomes maximum according to Melville and Coleman2 and Ettema.038 0.25 14.36 b: m 0.53 7.25 4.154 0.220 0.214 0.170 0.218 0.032 0. Abutment scour The equilibrium scour depth ds at abutments under the clear water scour condition is influenced by the ratio of abutment ~.0864 0.1019 Table 2.18 0. both the curves have a similar trend. attaining a maximum d ^s at b ~ ¼ 25 (according to increase in b Melville and Coleman2.833 0.794 0.047 0. However.100 0.120 0.Piers Circular b: m 0.050 0.206 0.100 0.058 1.1). 2(a) by the broken line) after Ettema5 is underestimated by the curve for circular piers in gravels.12 0.7 for 458 corresponding maximum values of d wing-wall and vertical-wall abutments.258 Table 1.046 0.10.100 0.7 for corresponding maximum values of d circular and square piers.25 14.08 0.04 0.100 0.25 14.106 0.050 0.055 0.062 0.010 1. are used to plot the non-dimensional equilibrium scour depth ^s (¼ ds/b) as a function of ratio of pier width to gravel size d ~ ^s increases with b (¼ b/d50) in Fig.10 5.11 Moreover.074 0.150 0.295 0.077 0.25 14.163 0.121 0.127 0.102 0.5 Therefore.102 Uc: m/s 0.164 Circular pier d s: m 0.071 0.182 0.100 0.060 0.940 1.15 10.905 1.53 7.16 0.30 0.077 0.010 1. where nondimensional equilibrium scour depth decreases with increase in relative abutment length–sand size.875 0. the data for ~ ¼ 20–25 refer to the finer gravel size. Dimensions of piers and abutments used in the experiments 3.24 0.164 0.15 10. if b remains unchanged.15 10.100 0.25 4.761 0.25 U: m/s 0.25 14.082 0.120 Abutments Vertical-wall b: m 0.794 0.65 2.122 0.794 0.761 0.112 0. 3. respectively.10 5.3 and 3.10 5. Table 3.074 0.06 0.060 0.038 0.110 0. as discussed in section 3.038 0.905 1.100 0.761 0.1.058 1.0 37. respectively.905 1.65 2. Characteristics of gravels used in the experiments Water Management 158 Issue WM4 Scour of gravel beds at bridge piers and abutments .833 0.089 0. Pier scour The equilibrium scour depth ds at piers under clear water scour condition is considerably influenced by the gravel size.086 0.059 0.9 is proportional to the pier width b for blunt-nosed piers. it is speculative that ~ 5 25 corresponds to the maximum of d ^s .050 0. the steepness (gradient) of the curve for square piers is slightly greater than that for circular piers. On the other hand.53 7.940 1.054 0.032 0.058 1.7 The probable reason is Raikar † Dey 159 Median diameter d50: mm 4.040 0.905 1.032 0. developing greater scour depth ds.154 0.010 1.1– 14.25 14.53 7.06 0. tested in different gravel sizes (d50 ¼ 4.25 m. The laboratory experimental length to median gravel diameter.0 35.038 0.132 0. The probable reason is that the strength of the horseshoe vortex and the magnitude of downflow.761 0.25 4.120 d50: mm 4.077 0. the coarser gravels make the bed more porous to allow the downflow to penetrate and Note: For all the experimental runs. Experimental data of scour at piers dissipate its energy in the bed.875 0. Also.15 10.038 0.077 0.102 0.032 0.16 1.032 0.010 1.905 1. 2.15 10.

122 0.802 0.08 0.840 0.049 0.25 mm) given in Table 4 are used to derive the equations ^s with b ~ in of sediment size factor Kd for gravels.763 0.10 0.317 0. is an important aspect for the determination of maximum equilibrium scour depth.112 0.290 0.107 0. 3 is used to prepare Fig. 2 is used as an auxiliary plot to prepare Fig.12 4. 3.215 0.425 0.04 0.879 0. Integrated approach: pier and abutment scour The equations of sediment size factor Kd for combined pier and abutment scour proposed by Melville4 are identical to those Raikar † Dey Scour of gravel beds at bridge piers and abutments .073 0.8 mm) reported by Ettema5 were included.25 14.165 0. the upstream flow velocities U and upstream flow depths h were approximately equal to 0.840 0.10 0.120 0.310 0. in Fig.900 1.033 0.196 0.900 1.062 0.049 0.010 1. Hence.08 0.1–14.107 0.25 14.084 0.12 0.25 14.12 0.879 0.041 0.163 0.078 0.10 5.130 0.840 0.763 0. the sediment size factors Kd for fine and medium uniform gravels are given by 4a 4b 4c ~ À 0 Á 273 Kd ¼ 0 Á 514 ln b ~ þ 0 Á 682 Kd ¼ 0 Á 098 ln b Kd ¼ 1 ~ 4 10 for b ~ 4 25 for 10 .25 4.08 0. Hence. The variation of d Fig.879 0. it is questionable to use the proposed equation of Kd for the estimation of scour depth in gravel beds. where the functional representation of Kd is determined from an envelope curvefitting.840 0.15 10. Pier scour The sediment size factor Kd.382 0.900 1.038 0.04 0.066 0.198 0.049 0.763 0.063 0.225 0.95U c and 0.2 for b ~ .53 7.15 10.729 0.900 1.098 0.879 0.15 10. and (b) Fig.152 0.010 1.107 0.260 0.170 0.729 0. resulting in a vortex flow with an enhanced scour potential.25 4. defined by the ratio of scour ~ to that for b ~ ¼ 25 where scour depth depth for a particular b becomes maximum. as was performed by Melville and Sutherland.2 It is important to recognise that the envelope curve 160 Water Management 158 Issue WM4 3a 3b 3c ~ þ 0 Á 363 Kd ¼ 0 Á 25 ln b ~ þ 0 Á 75 Kd ¼ 0 Á 076 ln b Kd ¼ 1 ~ 4 10 for b ~ 4 25 for 10 .282 0.958 1. the present experimental data on pier scour in uniform gravels (4.729 0.35 mm and 7. 4(a).08 0.10 0.12 0.10 0.12 It has ~ þ 0.763 0.247 0.192 0. 25 been proposed by Melville4 that Kd ¼ 0.08 0. limited scour data of gravels (5. Variations of d square pier proposed by Melville and Sutherland12 for sands is significantly different from the present envelope curve.729 0.15 10. it is speculative that ~ 5 25 corresponds to Kd ¼ 1 according to Melville and b Coleman.325 0.010 1.12 As discussed in section 3.048 0.958 1. b ~ .729 0.049 0.102 0.04 0. the sediment size factors Kd for fine and medium uniform gravels are given by 4.95U c for a gravel increases the strength of the primary vortex and the downflow to a great extent.144 0.25 4.010 1.140 0.2.Vertical-wall 458 wing-wall abutment abutment b: m d50: mm U: m/s Uc: m/s ds: m ds: m 0.1–14.763 0.215 2◊5 b 2 Circular pier b: cm 3◊2 3◊8 6 ˆs d 1◊5 7◊7 10 12 Present study 1 Ettema5 1 10 ~ b (a) 100 0◊5 3 b 2◊5 Square pier b: cm 3◊2 3◊8 5 ˆs d 2 6 7◊7 10 12 1◊5 Note: For all the experimental runs. Therefore.25 0.253 0.360 0.107 0. where the functional representation of Kd is determined from an envelope curve-fitting.25 14.10 5. The variation of d in Fig.06 0.10 0. b ~ .879 0.392 0.090 0. 2. the ~.010 1.06 0.958 1.25 mm) given in Table 3 are used to ^s with b ~ derive a new equation of Kd for gravels. Experimental data of scour at abutments partly attributed to the fact that the substantial increase of upstream flow velocity U to maintain the condition of U ¼ 0. Table 4.802 0. To be more explicit.06 0.348 0.53 7. respectively. However.15 10. the existing Kd is inadequate for the safe estimation of scour depth at piers in gravels.25 4.052 0.53 7.25 14.900 1. Therefore. 25 for b 4.3.10 5.53 7. Abutment scour The experimental data on abutment scour in uniform gravels (4. mean curves of different abutments show that for a given b ^ magnitude of ds for vertical-wall abutment is greater than that for 458 wing-wall abutments.802 0.06 0.06 0. 1 1 10 ~ b (b) 100 ^ s with b ~ for: (a) circular pier.084 0.365 0.802 0.840 0. 4(b). SEDIMENT SIZE FACTOR 4. and Kd ¼ 1 for b To derive the aforementioned equation of Kd.04 0. 25 for b 4.284 0.184 0.1.10 5.288 0.53 7.958 1.215 0.1.958 1.04 0.122 0.10 5.2 m.802 0.12 0.049 0.107 0.248 ln b ~ 5 25 determined mainly from the sand data.

the proposed equations of the present study can be applied to the prototype cases following the concept of a distorted model as 7 5a 5b 5c ~ þ 0 Á 329 Kd ¼ 0 Á 26 ln b ~ þ 0 Á 75 Kd ¼ 0 Á 076 ln b Kd ¼ 1 ~ 4 10 for b ~ 4 25 for 10 . For the integrated estimation. when a scale of 1/10 or 1/20 (which is the usual scale for pier or abutment studies) is used for a prototype gravel size of 20 mm. 3. the suggested method is an indirect one. In laboratory experiments. It is apparent that the existing curve of Kd after Melville4 underestimates the scour depth at piers and abutments in gravels. as was pointed out by Ettema et al. Water Management 158 Issue WM4 where Nb is [b]P/[b]M and Nd is [d50]P/[d50]M. 4. 5. maintaining the similitude of pier or abutment size and sediment size of the prototype with those of the model is a difficult proposition. Here. Kd corresponding to prototype can be found for the estimation of maximum equilibrium scour depth ds. Fig. shows a functional representation of Kd. which is easily available for laboratory use. the appropriate C in prototype can be determined as 5. the applicability of the proposed equations (3)–(5) to the field or prototype cases is discussed. Thus. To be precise. Variations of d and (b) vertical-wall abutment given by Melville and Sutherland. Using different scale ratios for b and d50 in prototype and model. most of the experimental models dealing with sediments are analysed as distorted models. Sediment size factor Kd as a function of b and (b) abutments when the question of applicability of the predicted equations to the prototype cases arises. as the conditions are not often similar in prototype and model.12 Fig. the best way is to use a sufficiently complete set of field data for the determination of K-factors by envelope curve method. SCALING OF DISTORTED MODEL RESULTS TO PROTOTYPES The developed equations (equations (3)–(5)) of sediment size factor Kd show that they follow a certain generalised expression as given below 8   Nb ½C ŠP ¼ ½C ŠM ln Nd 6 Kd ¼ A ln (b=d50 ) þ B where A and B are the coefficients as defined in equations (3)–(5). in the experimental model it reduces to 2 or 1 mm.4 b 3 I 45° wing-wall abutment Wall b: cm 4 6 100 Present study Melville and Sutherland12 Circular pier Square pier b: cm 3◊2 3◊8 b: cm 3◊2 3◊8 6 10 dˆs 2 8 10 12 7◊7 10 12 5 6 7◊7 10 12 1 ~ b 1 0 1 10 ~ b (a) 100 1000 100 4 b 3 I Vertical-wall abutment b: cm Wall 4 6 10 0 0◊2 0◊4 0◊6 Kd (a) 0◊8 1◊0 1◊2 45° wing-wall Vertical-wall abutment abutment b: cm 4 6 b: cm 4 6 8 10 12 ~ b 8 10 12 dˆs 2 8 10 12 1 1 0 0 1 10 ~ b (b) 100 1000 0◊2 0◊4 0◊6 Kd (b) 0◊8 1◊0 1◊2 ^ s with b ~ for: (a) 458 wing-wall abutment. Thus. 25 for b   b C ¼ ln d50 where C ¼ (Kd 2 B)/A. Fig. Even for other Raikar † Dey 161 Scour of gravel beds at bridge piers and abutments . the distorted model study is not required. 14 To be explicit. respectively. which includes the pier and abutment scour data (Tables 3 and 4) for gravels. the sediment size factors Kd for fine and medium uniform gravels are ~ for: (a) piers. Nevertheless. b ~ . Novak and Cabelka13 described the method of analysing the model results with river sediments by taking into account the appropriate distortions in the scale ratios of various parameters. For instance. Rearranging equation (6). for gravel beds. Subscripts P and M refer to the prototype and model. Having known [C]P.

1995. for scour at piers and abutments.. and BARBHUIYA A. 10. Scour at Bridge Piers. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. No. 2. 59–65. 1. Kd ¼ 0. N. it is not a practical proposition to study the distorted model in the laboratory for gravels. MELVILLE B. 2004.7 for U /U c ¼ 0. Chausse 11.25 mm) were used in this 1. No. K. and CABELKA J. 4. 124. were tested. LARRAS J. and DEY S. Two types of piers. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences. DEY S. ASCE. h ¼ 1. ASCE. Ku ¼ 1 for abutment aligned with the upstream flow and KG ¼ 1 for rectangular channel. Fine and medium gravels (4. No. 1999. 5. KI ¼ 0. Time scale for local scour at bridge piers. scaling is not at all difficult for model studies. and SUTHERLAND A. 1965. ETTEMA R. an integrated approach for the evaluation of equilibrium scour depth at a bridge foundation has been recommended. Clear-water scour at cylindrical piers. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. RAUDKIVI A. 1997. Design method for local scour at bridge piers. K. 3.1 mm to 14. 125.8. C. 639–642. MELVILLE B. ASCE. University of Auckland. Ks ¼ 1 for vertical-wall abutment. 622–634. 12. J. BARBHUIYA A.uk Proceedings journals rely entirely on contributions sent in by civil engineers and related professionals. U ¼ 2. the following example is given (a) (b) (c) (d ) (e) abutment of length. 29.thomastelford. Scaling of distorted experimental model results to prototype has also been discussed. 2.. part 1: a review of development of research. 12. 6. the maximum equilibrium scour depth ds estimated is 2. please email up to 500 words to the editor at journals@ice. 2000. Scour around drilling platforms. 162 Water Management 158 Issue WM4 Scour of gravel beds at bridge piers and abutments Raikar † Dey . ASCE. 109. USA. namely 458 wing-wall and vertical-wall. 1983. MELVILLE B. BREUSERS H. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 2004. 6. 12. Colorado.4 The estimated K-factors are as follows: Kh ¼ 4 m for h/b ¼ 1. No.com/journals for author guidelines and further details. Sadhana. 2. with adequate illustrations and references. 276.org. October. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. academics and students. 7. 5. 7. N. 4. and SASTRY G. K. 3. 1997. 14. and ETTEMA R. Please visit www. Clear water scour at circular piers: a model. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 125–136. New Zealand.74 m. 338–350. 9. Local scour at piers. Clear water scour at abutments. As a result of which.25 m uniform gravel size. Local scour at abutments: a review. 136. Report No. NOVAK P. 1988. 23–44. No. W. W. Fort Collins. No. ASCE. 8. 1980. namely circular and square. 1981. 216. and COLEMAN S. Water Resources Publications. The equilibrium scour depth increases with decrease in gravel size and with increase in pier width and abutment length.57 m upstream flow velocity at flood peak. 1963. 114. Scale effect in pier-scour experiments. ASCE. The maximum equilibrium scour depth ds at a bridge foundation is given by equation (1). Papers should be 2000–5000 words long. Combining pier and abutment scour data. Pitman Advanced Publishing Program. Auckland.100 Circular pier Square pier 45° wing-wall abutment Vertical-wall abutment 10 study. 19. What do you think? To comment on this paper. No. 123. 449–476. Water Management. W. 13. Using equation (1). evaluated by fitting envelope curves. 1998. MELVILLE B. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. and CHIEW Y. W. 133. 869–876. MELVILLE B. Sediment size factor Kd as a function of b scour at piers and abutments sizes of prototype gravels. International Journal of Sediment Research. J. 6. the sediment size factors for gravels. 121. DEY S. 1210–1226. Pier and abutment scour: integrated approach.1 m/s critical velocity for gravels. The influence of gravel size on equilibrium scour depth at piers and abutments is prominent. Profondeurs maximales d’erosion des fonds ` re. Models in Hydraulic Engineering. Present study Melville4 ~ b REFERENCES 1◊2 1 0 0◊2 0◊4 0◊6 Kd 0◊8 1◊0 ~ for integrated Fig. No. L. EXAMPLE To illustrate the present method for the estimation of maximum equilibrium scour depth at a vertical-wall abutment (aligned with the upstream flow in a rectangular channel) in a uniform gravel bed. 411–424.98 for b/d50 ¼ 20. No. School of Engineering. BOSE S.7. U c ¼ 3 m/s. Bridge Scour. IAHR Bulletin of Hydraulic Research. and two types of short abutments. 7. London. Therefore. and BARKDOLL B. 10. Annales des Ponts et mobiles autour des piles en rivie ´es. M. The variations of equilibrium scour depth with gravel size for both pier and abutment scour are considerably different from the variations of that with sand size. DEY S. d50 ¼ 60 mm upstream flow depth. E.26. b ¼ 1. W. where the factors other than Kd can be estimated using the expressions given by Melville and Coleman2 and Melville. are significantly different from the existing sediment size factors for sands. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. CONCLUSIONS Experiments were performed on scour at piers and abutments in uniform gravels under a clear water scour condition. ETTEMA R.

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