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Review Guide to the Subjunctive -- EVERYTHING

Noun Clauses

A noun clause is a group of words that has a verb with a subject that serves as either the subject or the object of another verb. Typically the subject will be the predicate nominative of to be or ser. For example: Es importante que hagas toda la tarea. Its important that you do all the homework. That you do all the homework is the predicate nominative because it renames it (what is it? It is that you do all the homework) and its used with to be.

Nominative clauses are also commonly direct objects. Temo que l no est listo. I fear that he wont be (or isnt, depending on context) ready. That he wont be ready is the direct object because it answers the question what, as in what do I fear?...That he wont be ready.

The subjunctive is used whenever the main verb or expression (such as an adjective with ser or an expression with tener like tener miedo de que (to be afraid of)) expresses doubt, denial, emotion, will, or influence. Memorize the list in your book (it wont help you for me to type the list again). If you arent specifically sure if a verb takes the subjunctive but know its meaning, then you should be able to deduce if it takes the indicative or subjunctive in a subordinate clause. Does it express an emotion, doubt, denial, or does it try to influence someone into doing something? Is it an adjective with ser? Then most likely, use the subjunctive. Does it express fact, or are you reporting what someone did, said, thinks, believes, or seems? Then use the indicative. There are a few tricky things I should point out DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Negar, to deny, is a subjunctive prompter. No negar que takes the INDICATIVE. The same goes for no dudar and anything that says I dont doubt/disbelieve/etc. NEGATIVES in general. Creer que takes the indicative. No creer que takes the subjunctive. This is because this is what you DONT think, so it isnt true or real. Same goes for pensar (pensar + que + indicative; NO pensar + que + subjunctive) and parecer (parecer + que + indicative; NO parecer + que + indicative). The above rules only apply to those thought verbs or those doubt verbs. Just backs something else is negated that normally takes the subjunctive doesnt mean you change it to the indicative; for example, both querer que and no querer que take the subjunctive. The expression OJAL. This word, which comes from Arabic (Arabs conquered the Iberian Peninsula cerca 700 AD; the expression itself comes from Oh Allah! or Oh God! as to say, God permitting), means I hope/its hopeful and always takes the subjunctive. Sometimes its followed by que, othertimes not. The usage of the present subjunctive. Like the present indicative, it is used to talk about present events; however, it also talks about FUTURE events. There is a future subjunctive, but its usage has more or less faded out in Spanish, found mostly in extremely formal writing & literature.

Sometimes, the predicate nominative or direct object will be the infinitive form of the verb. You can tell this if there is no que and no change in subject. Also, infinitives will ALWAYS follow prepositions (en, de, contra, con, and so on) unless the preposition is followed by que (its possible to make a clause a prepositional object in Spanish by adding que to the preposition, thus you get expressions like alegrarse de que or tener miedo de que)

Adjective Clauses
In Spanish, the subjunctive is used in adjective clauses to describe an entity that is indefinite, negated, general, or otherwise vague or non-specified. The indicative is used for a very specific thing that is definite. But lets first take a look at adjective clauses themselves what are they?

An adjective clause is a group of words with a subject (which is many times a relative pronoun, like who, whom, which, that. etc.) and a verb that describes another noun. o The relative pronoun will most often come directly after the noun it is describing. o Example (in English): I like the dress that you bought. like = main verb; the dress = modified noun; that = relative pronoun; you bought = adjective clause. ! In Spanish, this would be rendered as Me gusta el vestido que compraste. The subordinate clause (que compraste) is in the indicative because it refers to the specific dress that was bought, and the preterite tense is used because it refers to an action in the past. If an adjective clause, in Spanish, refers to a vague noun, the subjunctive is used. o Vagueness can be sort of hard to tell just by looking at a worksheet where you have to fill in the blanks; however, some important clues: ! The definite versus the indefinite article. If a noun is given using its definite article (el/la/los/las), then TYPICALLY the adjective clause will be in the indicative, because this definite article illustrates a specific nature it is THE book; THE dress; THE person. If the indefinite article is used (un/una/unos/unas), then TYPICALLY the adjective clause will be in the subjunctive, because this type of article would illustrate an indefinite, vague aspect to the verb a book (out of all that could exist); a person; a dress An important exception comes with verbs like conocer [to know (a person); to be familiar with] and tener [I hope you know what this means]. o The indefinite article can be used while still taking the indicative. For example, conozco a una chica quin es muy guapa uses the indicative (es) for its adjective clause because youre saying you know a girl who is very pretty. There is no doubt or speculation about this girls existence. You could also say tenemos un gato a que le gusta dormir mucho. The indicative would be used in this adjective clause (a que le gusta dormir mucho) because while this is an indefinite article, we have it, so obviously the speaker wouldnt doubt its existence. Also be weary of this rule because many times, general statements about nouns are made using the definite article. And if a noun is general or unspecified, which mood is used? The subjunctive. o Example: l slo sale con las chicas que tengan pelo rubio vs. l slo sale con las chicas que tienen pelo rubio. ! The first one implies that his dating preference in general is girls with blonde hair (that is, hell go out with any girl that has blonde hair); the second implies that there are a set number of girls whom he dates, and they all have blonde hair (also implying that hes a playa playa ;) ) o NOTE: I doubt a sentence like this would be on the test, this is just an explanation If you dont get it, dont worry too much. With verbs that express need or want (such as necesitar, querer, or desear), searching (buscar, encontrar), and similar ideas, the use of the definite article will prompt the indicative and the indefinite article the usage of the subjunctive. o Examples with buscar ! Busco una computadora que tenga una pantalla grande. Im looking for a computer that has a big monitor. The usage of the indefinite article implies youre looking for ANY (non-specified, general) computer with a big screen. Because this doesnt specify or point out one computer, this requires the subjunctive. ! Busco la computadora que tiene una pantalla grande. Im looking for the computer that has a big monitor. The usage of the definite article implies youre looking for a SPECIFIC computer, and that computer happens to have a big screen. If a noun is negated or the adjective clause refers to a non-existent entity, the subjunctive is used. o Words to look for in this instance are no, nada [nothing], ningn/ningunos/ninguna(s) [no (with a noun)], and nadie [nobody].

Example: no hay nadie que entienda la leccin theres nobody who understands the lesson (hopefully you dont think that about the subjunctive!) ! No hay ningn libro que explique eso. Theres no book that explains it. ! NOTE: This only applies to ADJECTIVE clauses, not negative sentences! For example, youd say ningn libro explica (NOT explique!) eso because its not in a dependent clause, but rather a complete sentence. Some words, such as algn/algunos/alguna(s) and alguien take the subjunctive or the indicative. o The indicative indicates a known entity (something or someone that is known and describable). Typically declarative sentences (those that end in a period) take the indicative and interrogative (ending with a question mark) take the subjunctive. ! Hay alguien aqu que sabe espaol. Theres someone here who knows Spanish. WATCH OUT: Many times if you see alguien in a question, youll need the subjunctive. For example, if the above were Hay alguien aqu que (saber) espaol? youd use sepa because you do not know if someone here speaks Spanish. ! Conoces a alguien que cocina bien. You know someone who cooks well. But, conoces a alguien que cocine bien? Do you know someone who cooks well? I dont know so use the subjunctive.

SO, to review, here are some formulas. (Those surrounded with question marks indicate formulas applying ONLY to interrogative sentences, not declarative ones). This list is obviously NOT exhaustive. No + hay + (nadie/ningn/ninguno/a(s)) + noun + que + verb in the subjunctive Hay + (algn/alguno/a(s)/alguien) + noun (with alguno/a(s)) + que + verb in the indicative Hay + (algn/alguno/a(s)/alguien) + noun (with alguno/a(s)) + que + verb in the subjunctive? Subject + verb of knowing, having, being, looking + indefinite or definite article + noun + que + verb in the indicative Subject + verb of knowing, having, being, looking + indefinite article + noun + que + verb in the subjunctive? Subject + verb of knowing, having, being, looking + definite article + noun + que + verb in the indicative?

Adverbial Clauses
An adverbial clause answers the question where, when, why, how? and is often introduced by a conjunction. In Spanish, adverbial clauses that refer to past or habitual events are used with the indicative. Adverbial clauses that refer to anticipated, future, or uncertain events or descriptions use the subjunctive. Some conjunctions ALWAYS require the usage of the subjunctive. These are the ESCAPA ones: Some conjunctions SOMETIMES require the usage of the subjunctive. These are the CHAD ATE MUD ones: For the ESCAPA ones, follow the following rules: o If the main clause is in the future, simple future (ir + a + infinitive), or present, use the present subjunctive. o If the main clause is in the preterite, imperfect, or conditional, use the past subjunctive. For the CHAD ATE MUD ones, follow the following rules: o If the main clause is in the future or simple future (ir + a + infinitive), use the present subjunctive. o If the main clause is in the present indicative, use the present indicative. o If the main clause is in the conditional, use the past subjunctive. o If the main clause is in the preterite or imperfect, use one of those two (depending on what fits; typically itll be the same preterite, preterite; imperfect, imperfect) Verbs following como si are ALWAYS PAST SUBJUNCTIVE!! This is actually the same in English Every time I go to Madrid, its as though I were (past subjunctive of to be) going for the first time is an example. (Or in Spanish: Todas veces que voy a Madrid, es como si fuera por primera vez) WATCH OUT! If a verb is after a preposition, then it remains in the infinitive! Some common prepositions, in the case t hat you dont remember/cant recognize them: o A (to), con (with), sin (without), de (from; of; others); desde (from); hacia (towards); por (for); para (for); hasta (until) o Even if you cant recognize a preposition, if there is no QUE or change in subject, then its probably a preposition youre dealing with.

Si & Como Si
Como si ALWAYS takes the past subjunctive. Its that simple. If the clause defining the si clause is in the conditional, use the past subjunctive. (Si me llevaras (past subjunctive) a Mxico contigo, estara (conditional) muy feliz) If the clause defining the si clause is in ANY OTHER indicative tense, use the present indicative. The most common combination is si + present indicative + , + present or future indicative + anything else.

In case you forgot how to make it

Present subjunctive 1. Take the yo form of the verb. 2. Take off the o of the yo form of the verb. 3. If its an AR verb, add the ER ending, so you get the endings: e, es, e, emos, is, en 4. If its an ER or IR verb, add the AR ending, so you get the endings: a, as, a, amos, is, an. The above steps apply to ALL Spanish verbs EXCEPT: Ser: sea, seas, sea, seamos, seis, sean Estar: est, ests, est, estemos, estis, estn Dar: d, des, d, demos, deis, den Ir: vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayis, vayan Saber: sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepis, sepan Haber: haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayis, hayan Its important to know the irregular yo forms because these can be particularly tricky for subjunctive formation. Another trick comes from ir stem changers & car/gar/zar verbs. In terms of ir stem changers, the yo, t, l, and ellos form will have the regular stem change. The nosotros and vosotros form of the verb will have a different stem change. If its an o:ue verb, the nosotros & vosotros form will have an o:U stem change. E;IE stem changers will have an e:I stem change in nosotros/vosotros. Examples: o Dormir; in present tense, its an o:ue, thus: yo duerma, t duermas, l duerma, nosotros durmamos, vosotros durmis, ellos duerman o Sentir; in present tense, its an e:ie; thus: yo sienta, t sientas, l sienta, nosotros sintamos, vosotros sintis, ellos sientan. o Note: If a verb is a stem changer but is an AR or IR verb, then the nosotros or vosotros will NOT have a stem-change of any sort. Example contar (o:ue); cuente, cuentes, cuente, contemos, contis, cuenten. Verbs that end in car will have the regular subjunctive endings, but the c will be replaced with a qu to preserve the original hard sound (subjunctive endings would turn the hard c to a soft c.) o Example tocar: yo toque, t toques, l toque, nosotros toquemos, vosotros toquis, ellos toquen Verbs ending in gar will have the regular subjunctive endings, but the g will be replaced with a gu. o Example jugar (also a stem changer! ay caramba!): yo juegue, t juegues, l juegue, nosotros juguemos, vosotros juguis, ellos jueguen. Verbs ending in zar will have the regular subjunctive endings, but the z will be replaced with a ce. o Example empezar: yo empiece, t empieces, l empiece, nosotros empecemos, vosotros empecis, ellos empiecen Past subjunctive 1. Take the ellos form of the preterite and cut off the on. 2. For yo, add a; t as; l/ella/Ud, a; nosotro(a)s amos (note, if it is an A verb, the a just before the r will be accented; for an IR/ER verb, the e right before the r will be accent; vosotros ais; ello(a)s/Uds, an. NO endings in the past subjunctive carry an accent; only that one letter in the nosotros form. Example: Decir dijeron on = dijer -> dijera, dijeras, dijera, dijramos, dijerais, dijeran. 3. NOT ONE SPANISH VERB strays from this pattern. All are conjugated like this, no matter how messed up their preterite form is.

Examen para prctica: el subjuntivo y el indicativo

I. Espacios en blanco (95 questions): En el espacio en blanco para las preguntas 1-100, escribe la forma correcta del verbo indicado. Est seguro/a de usar la conjugacin correcta Y el tenso correcto. (Preguntas 1 -25 son clusulas nominales; 26-55 son clusulas adjetivales; 56-90 son clusulas adverbiales; 91-95 son clusulas de si y como si) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. Yo crea que la maestra _______________ (dar) demasiado tarea el da pasado. Me gust que t _______________ (visitarme) cuando estuve en el hospital. Veo que t y l _______________ (ser) novios por fin! Nos alegramos de que _______________ (hacer) buen tiempo para la boda. Esperara que ______________ (poder) irse ellos a Espaa, pero no creo que ______________ (6. ser) posible. l me dijo que ella te _______________ (revelar) mi secreto, es la verdad? Es posible que no ______________ (tener-yo) razn, pero creo que _______________ (9. necesitar-t) un lpiz. 10. Os sugiero que _______________ (terminar) la tarea lo antes posible. 11. Era necesario que todos _______________ (completar-Uds.) la tarea antes de que vinieran a clase. 12. Reljate! Queremos que _______________ (saber-t) que todo _______________ (13. estar) bien. 14. No tengo ningunas ganas de ______________ (tomar) el examen de qumica. Es imposible que _____________ (15. estar) listo. 16. Cuando lo llam, me dijo que _______________ (arreglarse) en cinco minutos. 17. Todos los meteorolgicos temen que la tormenta _______________ (ser) destructiva; por eso, os aconsejo que _____________ (18. ir) al supermercado para ____________ (19. comprar) cualquier necesitis. 20. El chico que neg que las matemticas ___________ (ser) importantes quiere ____________ (21. ponerse) pintor. 22. Dudasteis que yo os _______________ (decir) la verdad, pero nunca miento a nadie. 23. Ojal _______________ (tener) mucho xito cuando vengas a universidad. 24. Por qu l quera aprender el francs, le suger que _______________ (viajar) a Pars. 25. Nadie quiere que _______________ (nevar) ms. 26. La maestra, quin _______________ (ser) muy simptica, siempre ensea muy claramente. 27. Mi familia y yo haremos un viaje; buscamos una playa que _______________ (tener) una costa larga. 28. Con quin quieres hablar? (tener) mucho dinero para m. 30. Soy una mujer fuerte, independiente y negra que no _______________ (necesitar) ningn hombre. 31. No hay ningn restaurante de comida rpida que _______________ (servir) comida sana. 32. Ella espera que yo no tenga clases que _____________ (ser) difciles, pero eso no podr ser posible para m. 33. Quiero vivir en una ciudad que _______________ (estar) cerca de la costa; conozco a alguien que ______________ (34. vivir) en Barcelona que ______________ (35. estar) situada al lado del Mar Mediterrneo. 36. Busco al empleado que _______________ (tener) las gafas grandes. Con un amigo mo que _______________ (vivir) en Miami. 29. Lo que quiera en mi vida no es mucho: un hombre simptico, inteligente, y guapo que _______________

37. Trata de encontrar una casa en la que _______________ (sentirte) cmoda. 38. Tengo un mapa en el que se _______________ (mostrar) todos los pases del mundo y cada bandera. 39. Necesito leer un libro que _______________ (poder) contestar todas las repuestas de la tarea. 40. El reloj que _______________ (estar) sobre la pared no tiene la hora correcta. 41. Ella prefiere los coches negros, pero el que _______________ (querer) ella es feo y carsimo. 42. Queremos viajar a un pas a que nunca _______________ (haber / hecho) un viaje. 43. Los nios buscaban un videojuego al que _______________ (disfrutar) jugar. 44. Ella tuvo una gripe que _______________ (ser) muy mala, pero se ha mejorado ella. 45. l y ella podan encontrar precios al mercado que no _______________ (costar) un ojo de la cara. 46. La polica no encontr nada en mi hogar que _______________ (ser) ilegal. 47. Tenamos ganas de comer en un restaurante que _______________ (servir) churros. 48. Conocas a alguien que _______________ (tener) insomnio? 49. Us mi telfono para llamar a una amiguita que me _______________ (esperar) por una semana. 50. No haba nadie que _______________ (poder) explicar la causa del incendio. 51. Ellos estaban haciendo preguntas a un hombre que _______________ (ver) el secuestro de la nia. 52. Era una nia que _______________ (tener) solamente ocho aos. 53. Julia tena alergias y por eso buscaba una jabn que no _______________ (hacerse) con perfumes. 54. Luis tena una amiga muy extraa que _______________ (jugar) con sus muecas en un carricoche. 55. El doctor a quin _______________ (buscar-Ud.) no est en el consultorio hoy. 56. Jos, pasa por m cuando (t) _______________ (estar) listo para salir. 57. En caso de que tus nios _______________ (aburrirse), pueden ir al zoolgico o al cine. 58. Di adis a mam antes de que ella _______________ (irse) para el hospital. 59. Cuando nosotros _______________ (andar) por el parque, siempre llevamos el perro. 60. Si haces algo sin que _______________ (saber) mam, se enojar mucho. 61. Como no _______________ (estar) listo t, salgo sin ti. 62. Necesitaris permanecer en casa hasta que la tormenta _______________ (terminarse). 63. Mientras ellos _______________ (jugar) a los videojuegos, miraremos el partido de ftbol. 64. No lo hagas! Cllate! Aunque ___________ (ser) tu hermano menor, no puedes decirme qu hacer! 65. Aunque no les _______________ (gustar) mi opinin, lo dir sin miedo. 66. l podr ayudarte cuando _______________ (venir-l). 67. Hazlo antes de que mam _______________ (regresar) a casa! 68. Te lo dio en caso de que lo _______________ (querer). No te enojas con l - slo trataba de ayudarte. 69. As que visit ah, _______________ (saber) que Espaa es el pas perfecto para m. 70. Elena condujo el coche nueve sin que _______________ (permitirle) su papa! 71. Antes de que la mujer _______________ (darse) prisa al centro, con muchos paquetes pesados y cuatro hijos sin compartamiento bien, su marido trat de encontrar a una niera. 72. Muchos soldados habran muertos a menos que la guerra _______________ (haber) acabado. 73. Para que los estudiantes _______________ (salir) bien, el profesor ha explicado la leccin en detalle.

74. Antes de _______________ (navegar) el capitn escuch el reportaje de tiempo. 75. A menos que el tiempo _______________ (cambiar), no podemos salir ahorita. 76. Con tal de que el sol _______________ (brillar), iremos al parque. 77. Para que los hijos _______________ (aprender) bien cepillarse los dientes, la madre pasaba mucho tiempo con ellos ensendoselo. 78. Antes y despus de _______________ (comer), los chicos tienen que lavarse las manos y cepillarse los dientes. 79. Aunque nadie ______________ (entender) bien la leccin, el profesor dio el examen y todos fracasaron. 80. El avin saldr a tiempo a menos que el piloto ______________ (llegar) tarde. 81. Yo las comprar con tal de que te ______________ (gustar) las camisas. 82. Porque el entrenador ______________ (querer) que su equipo gane muchos partidos, se tienen seis sesiones de practica a la semana. 83. Llama al polica antes de que el ladrn ______________ (huir)! 84. El ladrn habl con su abogado antes de que el abogado mismo les ____________ (decir) la verdad a los policas. 85. l anduvo por la calle en la que vive su ex-novia sin ______________ (tener) en cuenta la posibilidad de encontrarse con ella. 86. Pienso en ti siempre que ______________ (despertarse-yo). 87. Bsame antes de que ______________ (llegar) tu papa. 88. La madre trabaja mucho para que su familia ______________ (vivir) bien. 89. Te preparas para ______________ (celebrar) mi cumpleaos. 90. Vamos a viajar sin que ______________ (darse) cuenta de eso ellos. 91. Si yo ______________ (ser) t, no me preocupara mucho. 92. Ella habla como si lo ______________ (saber) todo! 93. Puedes hacerlo como si ______________ (ser) experto! 94. Si ______________ (vivir) nosotros en China, hablaramos chino. 95. Si quieres irte, ______________ (deber) salir ahora mismo. II. Oraciones por analizar (13 preguntas) Responde a las siguientes preguntas que se refieren a sta: Sabes quin es el autor de Don Quixote de la Mancha? 96. What is the independent clause? A) Sabes B) quin es el autor de Don Quixote de la Mancha C) Sabes quin 97. What mood is it in? 99. What mood is it in? A) indicative A) indicative B) subjunctive B) subjunctive C) present D) imperative E) conditional C) Sabes quin E) conditional 98. What is the dependent clause? A) Sabes B) quin es el autor de Don Quixote de la Mancha C) present D) imperative C) adverbial

100. What type of dependent clause is it? A) nominal B) adjectival

D) conditional E) subjunctive

Responde a las siguientes preguntas que se refieren a sta: No estuve listo antes de que vinieras, pero ahora lo estoy. 101. What are the independent clauses? (Select both): A) No estuve listo B) Viniera C) Ahora lo estoy 102. What mood is the 1st independent clause? A) indicative B) subjunctive C) imperative D) present E) preterite 103. What mood is the 2nd independent clause? A) indicative B) subjunctive 104. What is the dependent clause? A) No estuve listo C) imperative D) present E) preterite C) Ahora lo estoy D) present E) preterite B) Vinieras

105. What mood is the dependent clause? A) indicative B) subjunctive C) imperative

106. The first clauses tense is the: A) present 107. The 2nd independent clause mood is:

B) future

C) imperfect B) future

D) preterite

E) indicative E) indicative

A) present

C) imperfect

D) preterite

108. The dependent clauses tense is the: A) present

B) imperfect C) conditional

D) subjunctive E) indicative

III. Tabla de verbos (25 puntos): Para los verbos siguientes, da (a) la forma pasada del subjuntivo, (b) el mandato positivo, (c) el mandato negativo, (d) la forma del condicional y (e) la forma del futuro. Si el verbo no tiene ningn mandato (slo aplica a los verbos de la forma yo, como hablo), indcalo. Si en la pregunta se usa un complemento de objeto directo y/o indirecto, salos en la repuesta con la colocacin (placement) correcta. (0.5 punto por blanco)

(a) la forma pasada de subjuntivo 109. he 110. quieren 111. probis 112. leen 113. nos dormimos 114. se las cuenta 115. somos 116. pones 117. te vas 118. te lo hago

(b) el mandato positivo

(c) el mandato negativo

(d) la forma del condicional

(e) la forma del futuro.

Espero que HICIERAS bien y que HAGAS bien cuando TOMES el examen. Chequea tus repuestas y si tienes algunas preguntas, envame correo a