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Marriage by Force: Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources 1. Abdurasulov, Abdujalil. "Bride-kidnapping Debate Divides Kyrgyzstan." BBC News. BBC, 11 Dec. 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia20675101>. This is an article depicting how campaign groups as well as Kyrgyzstans parliament are trying to stop the bride-napping and those who insist on keeping it because it is tradition. It also depicts the shame that comes with not accepting the marriage. We used this information from this article to show how even though bride-kidnapping could be stopped, the girls involved are too afraid to stop it because although theyll have a chance at a better life, theyll be shamed and wont be able to marry ever again. 2. Alraiby, Dr. Jamela Saleh. The Suffering of Girls Must Stop. The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com Inc., 22 June 2012. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-jamela-saleh-alraiby/child-marriageyemen_b_1618547.html>. This is an article about the child marriage situation in Yemen, one of the most common places where this occurs. It provides examples of brides affected by the marriage and quotes from a child bride. We used the quotes from the child bride as a reference to how the girls feel, as well as different bits of information about societys view on child marriage.

3. Baz, Mira. Yemen: Where Men Marry Children. GlobalPost. GlobalPost, 25. Mar. 2010. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. <www.globalpost.com/dispatch/middle-east/100316/child-bridesyemen>. This is an article about Zainab Hussein, who was 13 when she was married to her 30year-old cousin. It includes quotes, photos and information about child marriage from the bride herself and others involved such as the UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund).We used this source in our project to demonstrate how absurd the tradition can get such as marrying off to first-cousins, as well as showing some of the organizations thoughts and actions on the matter. 4. Butts, Antony. "Kidnapped Brides Part 1/2." YouTube. YouTube, 26 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-rPX8X1Kfg>. 4.5. Butts, Antony. "Kidnapped Brides Part 2/2." YouTube. YouTube, 26 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtYLfUzQgL0>. These videos are about how the "customs" in Kyrgyzstan force men to kidnap brides, especially because of their mothers becoming impatient with waiting for a new wife to come do the housework for her. It also shows how these kinds of events can lead to attempted suicide and future sadness. We used this source as a reference to how the people in Kyrgyzstan think and react to this type of culture and how the actual brides kidnapped react. 5. The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 et seq. (1929). Web. <http://wcd.nic.in/cmr1929.htm>. This is a government document describing the punishments for child marriage and some minor details of the requirements for legal marriage. This document contained laws that restrain

child marriage and also gave some information on why these laws are present, this act, however, applies only in India. We used this in our project to show that there are laws against child marriage, however, there is little being done to enforce it or it is simply being ignored. 6. "The Truth About Child Brides." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b015psyz>. This is a documentary about Nel Hedayat and her journey in India and Bangladesh, the two countries with the highest rate of child marriage, as she films and interviews people who have experienced child marriages and also those who witness it. We used this film to show how it felt to witness a child marriage, how it felt to be a child bride, as well as show some opinions from the grooms. 7. Hayashi/Panos, Noriko. Grab and Run: Kyrgyzstan's Bride Kidnappings. Newsweek. IBT MEDIA INC, 4 Nov. 2013. Web. 21 Jan. 2014. <http://www.newsweek.com/graband-run-1634>. This article describes many different bride kidnapping stories, providing insight on how family members of the kidnapper come into play with this situation. This article provides information, photos and quotes about the kidnapping tradition in Kyrgyzstan. We used this information to express the anguish the brides feel about being forced into a loveless marriage as well as how tradition come into play with these marriages. 8. Hedayat, Nel. "What Is It like to Be a Child Bride?" BBC News. BBC, 10 Apr. 2011. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-15082550>.

This is an article from the BBC about Nel Hedayats journey to India and Bangladesh. We used this article to show how the researchers felt, the brides opinions on their marriage, and random facts about child marriage. 9. Lloyd-Roberts, Sue. The Illegal Child Brides of India. Mail Online. Associated Newspapers Ltd, 07 June 2006. Web. 21 Jan. 2014. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article389469/The-illegal-child-brides-India.html>. This article was about Sue Lloyd-Robertss journey into India and the secret world of child brides. This source explained the governments lack of persistence on this problem and also talked about the consequences of early marriage and childbirth. This source was used in our project to emphasize the effects of child marriage as well as what the government is doing about it. 10. Lom, Petr. "Kyrgyzstan - The Kidnapped Bride." PBS. Ed. Michael H. Amundson and Anatoly Sivoha. PBS, Mar. 2004. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/kyrgyzstan/thestory.html>. This article shows the amount of dislike the women show towards being kidnapped and how even if they try to prevent others from being kidnapped, they themselves could be kidnapped. This shows the seriousness of the matter and how badly it needs to end. We used this in our project to show the opinions of both parties the kidnapped and the kidnappers. 11. MacAskill, Andrew, and Bibhudatta Pradhan. Girls Kidnapped for Forced Marriage Suffer Rising Crime in India. Bloomberg Sustainability. Bloomberg L.P., 18 Dec. 2013.

Web. 21 Jan. 2014.<http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-12-17/girls-kidnappedfor-forced-marriage-suffer-rising-crime-in-india.html>. This article from Bloomberg tells the story of 14-year-old Indian girl Rupsona. It includes quotes, photos, and information about her kidnapping. We used this in our project to show a first person account of what its like to be kidnapped. 12. Russia Today. "Brides by Force (RT Documentary)." YouTube. YouTube, 04 Nov. 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TDnO_yV_8mo>. This documentary is about the ways the weddings work, and how the kidnapper chooses his bride along with other details about the tradition such as how even livestock is worth more than a woman. We used this as a source to show how they treat women in Kyrgyzstan along with how they celebrate weddings and how some traditions are very beautiful. 13. Sinclair, Stephanie. Child Brides. Digital image. Npr. Npr, 07 July 2006. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://media.npr.org/programs/day/features/2006/jul/child_bride/blurb200c8e57f4c16569b5008092162c5694b1c528d354d-s3-c85.jpg>. This is a photograph taken by Stephanie Sinclair of Ghulan Haider, 11, and her husband Faiz Mohammed, 40. We used this as an example of a child bride who had to give up her dreams of becoming a teacher to get married. 14. Sinclair, Stephanie. Child Brides. Digital image. Npr. Npr, 07 July 2006. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://media.npr.org/programs/day/features/2006/jul/child_bride/main23ca34c8c18b4b9261e1925785e4e241f184ea74e-s3-c85.jpg>.

This is a photo taken by Stephanie Sinclair of Roshan Qasem, 11, who is marrying Mohammed, 55, who has children the same age as Roshan. We used this as an example of a child bride whose husband and herself have a huge age gap. 15. Sinclair, Stephanie. Child Brides. Digital image. Npr. Npr, 07 July 2006. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://media.npr.org/programs/day/features/2006/jul/child_bride/main1d4834de63e51bae066a1bdba62ccebf71b4a4400-s3-c85.jpg>. This is a photo taken by Stephanie Sinclair of Majabin Mohammed, 13, and her husband, Mohammed Fazal, 45. We used this to show a child bride whose parents were eager to give her away in order to resolve their debt. 16. Too Young To Wed. Too Young To Wed. Ed. Joshua Banville. ImpartCreative, 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://tooyoungtowed.org/>. This website provides information about, photos of and quotes from child marriages. It focuses mainly on the wives, not the husbands and contains videos that describe many different child brides journeys. We used many of the videos on this site to show how tradition and the government come into play with this situation. 17. UNFPA. Marrying Too Young. New York: United Nations Population Fund, 2012.UNFPA. United Nations Population Fund, 2012. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2012/Marry ingTooYoung.pdf>. This is a book depicting about what is being done to stop the illegal traditions and other details such as inequalities of the situations which ties in to our theme of rights and

responsibilities. We incorporated it into our project by referencing to it and its details on responsibilities and rights as it closely ties into our theme this year. 18. Yemen - The Youngest Bride. Dir. Mark Stucke. Perf. Nujood Ali. Yemen- The Youngest Bride. Journeyman Pictures, 14 Oct. 2013. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. <http://www.journeyman.tv/65997/short-films/the-youngest-bride.html>. This documentary by Journeyman Pictures tells the story of Nujood, who was married at 8 and sexually assaulted on her wedding night. We used this source to show the effects child marriage has on the girls and how even a small voice can proclaim their natural human rights. Secondary Sources 1. Bearak, Barry. "The Bride Price." The New York Times. The New York Times, 09 July 2006. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/09/magazine/09BRI.html?_r=1>. This magazine article offers the readers a little information on child brides and This was a useful source because it gave us information on peoples thoughts which we have included in our project and also two pictures that is displayed on our project. 2. cheid. "Role of Traditions: Marriage or Child Marriage in Kyrgyzstan." Impowr.org. American Bar Association, 25 May 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.impowr.org/content/role-traditions-marriage-or-child-marriagekyrgyzstan>. This article explained briefly about how the cause of acceptance is only because there is nothing that can be done about it and that the girls happiness is not as important as family

reputation. We used this source in our project to further explain how culture and traditions come into play with this issue. 3. Child Marriage. Humanium for Childrens Rights. humanium.org, 3 Oct. 2011. Web. 17 Jan. 2014. <http://www.humanium.org/en/childmarriage/?gclid=CNSonfiehLwCFUWSfgodRUIA1w>. The article evaluated the meaning of child marriage, the cause and consequences of child marriage, and how child marriage is displayed as a custom. This article was used in our project to inform the consequences of this illegal action and the rights that it has taken away from these children. 4. Child Marriage in India. New Delhi: Unicef, Dec. 2012. PDF. <http://www.unicef.in/documents/childmarriage.pdf>. This document by unicef contained many charts and graphs that have been created to take note of the frequency of child marriage. This has been used in our project to emphasize the impact that this issue has made as well as show how many children has been affected by this. 5. "Early and Forced Marriage - Facts, Figures and What You Can Do." Early and Forced Marriage. Plan UK, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.plan-uk.org/early-andforced-marriage/>. This source explains how early and forced marriages can affect a childs life and health. It gave us facts and numbers of just how frequent it is in certain places. We used this source to provide information on what people are doing about this issue and how we can fix this problem.

6. Gorney, Cynthia. "Child Brides." National Geographic. National Geographic, June 2011. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/06/child-brides/gorneytext>. This is an article about child brides; it gave us some general information on how the marriage ceremonies worked, how they get married and how the parents of the child and the child react to everything. This was used in our project to explain the marriage ceremonies and gave us a peek into the secret world of child brides. 7. In-laws of Afghan Child Bride given 10 Years for Torture USA TODAY. n.p. 5 May 2012. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/story/2012-0505/afghan-child-bride-in-laws/54766638/1>. This article explained the story of a child bride whose in-laws tortured her for 10 years, and in the end, was sent to jail. This article was used in our project to show that not only are a girls rights taken away, theyre also being mentally and physically tortured. 8. "International Women's Health Coalition." International Women's Health Coalition. International Women's Health Coalition, 01 June 2008. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.iwhc.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3487&Itemid =629> This website contains charts and facts of child brides and how much theyve been happening, why theyre happening, and how we could stop it. The graphs on this website have been used to document the frequency of this issue and also provided us with laws in certain countries that permit child marriage.

9. Kaylbelova, Asel. Kyrgyzstan: Bride Kidnapping Not Just a Rural Phenomenon. EurasiaNet.org. n.p. 9 May 2013. Web. 21 Jan. 2014. <http://www.eurasianet.org/node/66952>. This article explained how bride kidnapping is not just an activity present in rural areas, it is now happening in bigger cities. We used this information in our project to prove that this activity is illegal as well as go against the natural rights of humans. 10. Kinchen, Rosie. Bride--kidnapping. Digital image. Grazia Daily. Bauer Consumer Media, 08 Mar. 2013. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.graziadaily.co.uk/LatestIssue/meet-thevictims-of-bride-kidnapping-in-krygyzstan>. This picture depicts the pain that the kidnapped bride feels in comparison to the kidnapper who seems to have no feeling at all about the situation, as if its a totally normal situation. We used this picture to show the reactions of the bride compared to the reaction of the groom. 11. Nienhuysen, Frank. In Kyrgyzstan, Where Kidnapping Brides Is An Accepted Tradition. World Crunch. worldcrunch.com, 26 Feb. 2013. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://www.worldcrunch.com/culture-society/in-kyrgyzstan-where-kidnappingbrides-is-an-accepted-tradition/bishkek-forced-marriage-wife-violencewomen/c3s11022/#.UtikQ56SzY8>. This source explained how kidnapping brides are a part of the customs of Kyrgyzstan,which meant they found this violation of girls rights a normal thing. We used this

source in our project to explain that in Kyrgyzstan culture, it was the girls responsibility to marry. 12. Nogoibaeva, Saikal. "Bride Kidnappers in Kyrgyzstan to Face Harsher Penalties English The World Is Talking, Are You Listening?" Global Voices Overall RSS 20. GlobalVoices, 07 Nov. 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://globalvoicesonline.org/2012/11/07/bridekidnappers-in-kyrgyzstan-to-face-harsher-penalties/>. This explains about the campaigns going on to end or at least help discourage bride kidnapping. We have used this in our project to explain and describe how there are people who are against bride kidnapping and what they are doing to stop this issue. 13. Sabloff, Nicholas. 13-Year-Old Yemeni Bride Dies Of Bleeding. The Huffington Post. Thehuffingtonpost.com, 8 April 2010. Web. 17 Jan. 2014. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/04/08/13-year-old-yemeni-bride_n_530349.html>. This article talked about a 13 year old child bride who was raped then left to die. This was useful in our project as this not only showed the story of a girl whose rights were stolen, but of a girl whose life is being controlled by another person. 14. TT2025. bridekidnapping. Digital image. Tribal Truth. WordPress, 13 Oct. 2010. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://tribaltruth.org/2010/10/kyrgyzstans-kidnapped-brides/>. This picture depicts that even some women think that kidnapping brides is okay. Although it probably happened to them, they insist on helping because it is tradition and that this is the way of regular life. We used this picture to show that although it has happened to certain people, they are happy with it and accepting even when they dont have to be.

15. Usher, Sebastian. Yemen Police stop childs wedding. BBC News. BBC. 11 Aug. 2013. Web. 19. Jan. 2014. <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-24870526>. This article talked about how child marriage is slowly becoming a growing concern as it goes against the law and can lead to abuse, or even death. We used this article in our project to show how government officials involvement in this situation and their attempts to stop it.