# ABSTRACT Aims of this experiment is to observe the characteristic of the flow of fluid in pipe, which may be laminar, transition

or turbulent pipe flow by measuring the Reynolds number and the behavior of the flow. In order to determine that the flow is laminar, transitional, or turbulent, the value of ‘Reynolds number’ (Re has to be determined. !aminar and turbulent flow are most common in flow regimes or in li"uid flow measurement operations but there is also transitional flow. If Re is high (#\$%%% , inertial forces dominate viscous forces and the flow is turbulent& if Re number is low ' ()%% , viscous forces dominate and the flow is laminar. *ther than that, the dye in+ections that were supposed to be use in the experiment can clearly show the behavior of the flow, but it cannot be used as the apparatus are running out of dye. ,he experiment involves running the *sborne Reynolds e"uipment with different volume flow rates of water. In this experiment we fix the volume, which is \$-.%/) m). ,ime is ta0en when the volume reached the fix volume. At the same time the characteristics of the flow are observed whether it is laminar, transition and turbulent flow. 1rom the data collected, calculation is made to estimate the range for laminar, transition and turbulent flow. In proving that the Reynolds number is dimensionless, the calculation is made by using the units only and using the appropriate formula. It is proved that the Reynolds number is dimensionless.

/.he 1. . ./(% Reynolds’ Apparatus 8(9 ).% 5ydraulics bench allow to measure flow by timed volume collection.34 .. (1igure A Figure A: F1-10 Hydraulic Bench [1] (.he 1.he 1. A stopwatch to allow us to determine the flow rate of water.A22ARA. ./(% Reynolds’ Apparatus (1igure 6 1igure 67 .

1low of the water let to stabili=e then level of water level in head tan0 recorded. . . @.he ball valve is re/opened after ta0ing the measurements.4 . (.he experiment is repeated for another ) varies height of water level.2R*:. then the bench valve opened. .he flow increased by opening the apparatus flow control valve. ).his apparatus has been set up by the technician before experiment start. >.. . \$.he pump started. . .he Reynolds apparatus has been position on the fixed.<3R. .he bench control valve was ad+usted to produce a low overflow rate to avoid the water level reaches the overflow tube. .he collection of \$ liters of water in the volumetric tan0 is timed and recorded by closing the ball valve which acts as a stopper to prevent the tan0 outflow.he initial height of water level in head tan0 is set to be . vibration/free surface (not the hydraulic bench and the base had been ensure hori=ontal.> cm. . A. ?. . 4ystem is allowed to fill with water by slightly open the apparatus flow control valve. .his height is +ust for reference level for the next procedure.>.

m) C .%/> m( C %.@@. v C 1low Rate Area of 2ipe Area of 2ipe C @.@ mEs .%%% ! \$ ! C %.CALCULATIO S Flow Rate Qt.%%\$m) ??s C ?.%?%? .A>\$ ..%/> m)Es Velocity..%/> m)Es @.%?%? .%/> m( v C ?...ime for :ollection .A>\$ . Bt C D t C Dolume :ollected .%%\$ m) Bt C %.

Re C velocity .m %.@ mEs s x %.diameter Discosity At (> G: the 0inematic viscosity of water is C %.AH) x .%.urbulent 1low7 Re#\$%%% .AH) x .@@.%. !aminar 1low7 Re '(%%% .Reynolds number.%/? m(Es C A?\$. Reynolds Fumber.?>@) All data are repeatedly calculated for every time ta0en.ransition 1low7 (%%%'Re'\$%%% .. m Re C %.%/? m(Es <iameter C %.

ReC v<EJ \$ \$ \$ \$ %.%/\$ (.?>@) . time taken to collect the water.%%\$ %.%/\$ %.? ..?)(@ ((A.?(H>.@@.EA (mEs ReynoldIs number.(.R!SULTS Table 1: Table of volume of water.%%\$ %...A(H\$ A?\$.(.ime (s (! (m) 5igh (cm Dolume flow rate.@ . volume flow rate.(((( x . velocity and Reynold’s Number Dolume Dolume .? x .A.?.%%\$ %.\$ . B..\$>>( (.A .\$(H x .?A\$.%/> .%%\$ ?? )> (> .CDEt (m)Es Delocity. vCB.%/\$ ..@ .?.%> !ra"h 1: !ra"h of velocity a#ainst Reynold’s Number Reynol ds Numbe Velocity (m3/s) .) ?.%)@( (.HAHH ).%?%? x .

%/> m)Es was divided by the cross sectional area of the pipe.@@. ?. .. A. Fote that the cross sectional area value .@ mEs.he Reynold’s Fumber calculated .AH) x . this experiment was done to study about the characteristics of the three basic types of the flow especially the relation between velocity and Reynold’s Fumber. the flow considers as transitional flow which is a combination of transitional and turbulent.@ mEs.\$cm. the time recorded was )>s and the high measured was . was constant during this experiment.Fext.%%. the flow is considers as laminar while for Reynold’s Fumber # \$%%%.9 Roughly.A>\$ x .%?%? x . %. gave the value of velocity which e"ual to .\$>>( mEs. 1or the second one. @.he Reynold’s Fumber obtained at the end which is A?\$.%?%? x . In between ()%% and \$%%%. Re. the same volume of water was used& \$!.%/\$ m)Es then was divided by cross sectional area of the pipe. the time ta0en was ??s and the high measured was . given us the value of %.%/? m(Es of water at temperature (>: ̊ which was e"ual to %. 5owever. 1or the first one.8. J was applied in all calculation since the assumption of temperature of water was constant during the experiment was valid.%%\$m). the velocity obtained before was multiply by diameter of the test pipe..he flow rate calculated which is .xperiment. .?. transitional flow and turbulent flow.. 1or Reynold’s Fumber value ' ()%%.hen. along the experiment. 6asically.?>@) showed that the flow was turbulent.he value calculated was ?.@@."ISCUSSIO .?cm.here are three types of flow in fluid mechanics& laminar flow.. the flow is categori=e as turbulent flow. . Fote that the same value of 0inematic viscosity. . . to determine the velocity of the fluid flows. the volume of water was divided with time to obtain the flow rate of the water. J (%.m (also constant and divided by 0inematic viscosity.o calculate Reynold’s Fumber.%/> m( which is e"ual to %.%/> m)Es. the readings were ta0en for four times in order to ensure the accuracy of the result obtained. the flow rate. 1or this *sbourne/Reynold’s <emonstration .\$(H x . Re. . the procedure of this experiment is about controlling the outlet control valve in order to manipulate the flow rate to observe the fluctuation of Reynold’s Fumber value. which was then converted into m).

.?(H>. . the flow rate increased too.(.%)@( mEs and ((A.%/\$m)Es. only small turning of the control valve are re"uired.his explained why the graph obtained was a linear graph. still the water enters the column too fast. 5owever the velocity was higher and this contributed to the decreased of time ta0en.he one and only observation got from this experiment is about Reynold’s Fumber since the dye in+ection was not provided during the experiment. the time ta0en to collect the water decreased as increasing the velocity of the flow.for second reading was .he first high was small compared to the second one. (. when the velocity is increase.%/\$m)Es. 6asically. . <ue to the result. . 4upposedly the in+ection of the dye will show the velocity profile clearly throughout the flow. 5owever some problem occurred during this step.st and (nd reading. velocity and Reynold’s Fumber for this time was .) cm high of the water with flow rate (. Discosity is defined as a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensional stress.his explained why the range of reference high chosen was corresponding to each other.ranslated the data from Kraph . ..? x .A.hough the experimenter gave small turning only on the control valve. 1rom Reynold’s Fumber determined. still the pattern of the result can be observed. the velocity calculated by referred to time was (. .%>. 5owever in this case. the velocity profile still exist but it cannot be observed by na0ed eyes since the water is colorless and the higher velocity of the water itself does not permit detail observation on velocity profile.he other reason caused by the viscosity of the water itself. the time recorded was (>s and high measured was . Although all the flow obtained was turbulent. the flow again was classified as turbulent flow.(((( x .st and (nd reading .able .?)(@& showed that the flow is turbulent.(. .. *n the other hand. when the high is increased.he flow rate.?.@cm. It can be seen clearly by comparing the data for .he next one. It can be clearly seen from the data recorded that the third and forth readings pattern were as same as the previous readings ( .hen. . .A s and . . In other words. In everyday terms . 5ence the volume flow rate for the first reading was trifled than the second one.. Fote that high of the water was only a reference in order to manipulate the flow rate.?A\$.A(H\$ mEs and the Reynold’s Fumber obtained was ). .HAHH respectively. Interpreted from . It was not applied in the calculation at all. 4till the result considered as turbulent. to get laminar and transitional flow. . the value of Reynold’s Fumber will increase too. all the flow were turbulent because it was hard to control the valve in order to lower the level of the water inlet. it can be concluded that the velocity was directly proportional to the Reynold’s Fumber.he last reading gave .

5owever. having a lower viscosity.he operation satisfied fully in terms of the results obtained.he study and the experiment done on the *sborne Reynolds Apparatus prove the theory and show clearly the purpose of the Reynolds Fumber in laboratory procedures and conditions. . .his shows that in most of the industries.he types or behavior of the flow can be determined directly by inspecting the pattern due to the dye in+ection on the water flow. hence lead it into turbulent group. !aminar flow occurs when the Reynolds number calculated is below than ()%%. 1rom the experiment. turbulent flow is mostly used compared to laminar flow.urbulent flow is essential in most of chemical processes. . in water the flow was smooth compared to the one with high viscosity. so as the Reynolds number. the results shows that when the water flow rate are increased. Kenerally water can be classified as fluid that is having low viscosity& means that the resistance in water is lower. . Fo units left after the calculation. .hus.viscosity can be classified as Lthic0nessL ( valid for fluid only . CO CLUSIO .his explained why the velocity in the water flow is higher. having a higher viscosity. the Reynolds number is also proven that it is dimensionless. while oil is Lthic0L. . It clearly verified the concepts of Reynolds number and the flow of water in the pipe. !astly. 1or example& water is LthinL. . . the results from the calculation shows that all flows obtained are turbulent flow.ransitional flow occurs when Reynolds number calculated is between ()%% and \$%%% while turbulent flow occurs when Reynolds number calculated is above \$%%%.

*ther than that. In this case. . the experimenter may consider on running the experiment at non/vibrating place and are free from any disturbance to ensure the accuracy of the experiment. one of the improvements that can be done is by ensuring that the dye in+ection is functioning. It will helps on determining the types and behavior of the flow.here are many things on how to improve a system so it wor0s best under certain conditions. .his will help on determining the exact flow of the water. .hus. the results can be seen directly at the moment.R!CO##! "ATIO S . *ther disturbance such as vibrating condition may cause laminar flow to turn out to be turbulent flow.

he schematic diagram for . .4 1igure . the volume flow rate valve should be handled carefully. In addition.he valve should be twist slowly to avoid large difference in water volume flow rate. 4o as to obtained better results with more accuracy. .Fext.he 1.F<I:.his may somehow affect the results obtained. . it is noticed that there are some lea0age problems on the apparatus. ma0e sure there is no lea0age of the pipe connection./(% Reynolds’ Apparatus . the experimenter may prepare the apparatus five minutes earlier before the experiment started A22. Mhile the experiment is on the run.7 . 6y handling the valve carefully. it may be possible to obtain laminar flow.his is crucial on providing varieties of results.

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