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Journal oI Mechanical Science and Technology 27 (12) (2013) 3787~3795
DOI 10.1007/s12206-013-0923-z

3D contact analysis oI conjugate spur gears by a complete mating process

James Shih-Shyn Wu
, Shu-Ling Xu
, Yi-Tsung Lin
, Wei-Hung Chen
and Yuan-Lung Lai

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung-Hsing Universitv, 250, Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung, Taiwan 402, ROC
Department of Industrial Education and Technologv, National Changhua Universitv of Education. 2, Shida Rd., Changhua, Taiwan 500, ROC

(Manuscript Received August 27, 2012; Revised April 4, 2013; Accepted July 1, 2013)

Instead oI applying Iixed boundary conditions to constrain and simpliIy material behavior in 2D models, the point and line contact oI
tooth surIaces are substituted by a Iace-contact model oI teeth in this study. The inaccurate prediction oI load, deIormation, and stress in
3D contacts are solved. Most research uses one pair to three pairs oI meshing teeth to simulate the mating process. However, describing
the entire process oI three contact zones during each mating pair is insuIIicient. By implementing a combined 3D Iace contact and Iinite
element method, the contact stress analyses between two spur gear teeth are conducted in 11 diIIerent contact positions during a Iull mat-
ing process. The proposed approach provides a complete and eIIective solution to the contact problem in a quasi-dynamic manner. This
model not only determines the load-sharing prediction but also veriIies the applied boundary conditions.

Kevwords: Spur gear; Contact stress; Contact element; Fillet stress; Conjugate action

1. Introduction
Technological development has increased the demands Ior
high-precision machines. To achieve high speed and high-
precision positioning, the meshing behavior oI transmission
systems must be suIIiciently understood in the design stage. A
rotating system with various gears is currently the most popu-
lar and eIIective transmission system because oI its low back-
lash and high speed compared with conventional belt and
chain drives.
Gear design has become increasingly important with the
advancement oI gear transmission utilities. Current demands
require gear transmissions with high load-carrying capacities
and long Iatigue lives. To satisIy these needs, researchers have
Iocused on the development oI stronger tooth proIiles |1, 2|,
new methods oI heat treatment, advanced materials, and new
processes oI gear manuIacturing. For various modiIications in
modern gear application and manuIacturing, the majority oI
gear practices are covered by the standard 20 involute teeth
generated by hobbing, racking, or CNC cutting |3|. This stan-
dard has several important advantages, including interchange-
ability, insensitivity to changes in outward center distance,
commercial availability, and easy manuIacturing by conven-
tional methods. In the analysis oI meshing quasi-dynamic, a
linear spring is usually used to simulate the contact character-
istics oI the interIace between the meshing teeth. Hertz`s con-
tact theory suggests that the elastic deIormation between the
teeth and contact Iorce exhibits a non-linear behavior because
oI load sharing. ThereIore, the non-linear simulation oI the
contact interIace oI a meshing system is signiIicant. Compari-
sons have been made in a previous research that studies com-
plex phenomena |4|. The source oI this non-linearity is the
contact loss oI the meshing teeth that occurs even Ior large
torques despite the use oI high-precision gears. This result
conIlicts with predominant Iindings.
Most gear studies that employ computational contact stress
have conducted 2D analyses. However, the movement oI con-
tact loads in a path along the tooth surIace Irom the root to the
top oI the tooth has not been considered. Several studies on
the improvement oI gear contact analysis can be Iound in
technical literature. Zhang and Fang |5| considered generation
errors and surIace deIormations in proIile modiIications. Ajmi
and Velex |6| proposed a general approach Ior the simulation
oI deIlection and load distributions on spur and helical gears
that cover both quasi-static and dynamic conditions. Pedrero
et al. |7| developed a model Ior load distribution along the
contact line Ior involute gears. Kanber |1| constructed cou-
pling models that combine the advantages oI Iinite element
(FE) and boundary element methods to analyze the stress and
deIlection oI spur gears. Brauer |8| derived a mathematical
description Ior the general FE models oI involute gears.
SIakiotakis and AniIantis |9| modeled spur gear Iracture by
using the FE method (FEM) Ior a three-tooth spur gear model.
Kutuk et al. |10| studied shrink-Iit precision gear Iorging dies
Corresponding author. Tel.: 886 4 7232105 Ext. 7257, Fax.: 886 4 7211287
E-mail address:
Recommended by Associate Editor Mohammad Abdul Aziz IrIan
KSME & Springer 2013
3788 C. et al. / Journal of Mechanical Science and Technologv 27 (12) (2013) 3787~3795

by using a semi-tooth FE model. Lundvall |11| presented a
node-to-target Iormulation in FE spur gear problems by using
a 2D Iive-tooth gear pair model. Hu and Chen |12| proposed a
multi-mesh material point method to simulate the meshing oI
spur gears. Li |13| analyzed the eIIect oI addendum on the
tooth contact strength, bending strength, and basic perIorm-
ance parameters oI spur gears. Gonzalez-Perez et al. |14| pro-
posed an analytical approach Ior the stress analysis oI gear
drives with localized bearing contact based on Hertz theory.
The results oI the perIormed computations show that the satis-
Iaction oI the hypotheses Ior Hertz theory application can be
The majority oI these calculations suppose that the load is
applied at the pitch radius. The contact position between gear
and pinion occurs at various locations during meshing. The
magnitude and angle oI the applied load may vary depending
on the relative location oI the gear and pinion, thus aIIecting
the bending stress at the root. Most studies have used one pair
or three pairs oI meshing teeth to simulate the mating process.
This approach insuIIiciently describes the entire process dur-
ing each mating oI gear pairs. By avoiding the rigid inIluence
oI Iixed boundaries, this paper demonstrates that Iive pairs oI
teeth can provide more detailed inIormation on load, deIorma-
tion, and stress than the commonly used situation oI one pair
or three pairs oI teeth.
This study uses modern numerical methods to conduct a
comprehensive analysis oI the mating process to analyze the
load sharing oI one pair to eleven pairs oI teeth in speciIied
models. Five pairs oI teeth can describe the complete meshing
Irom one-tooth contact to two-tooth contact despite the long
computation times and diIIiculties that appear because oI the
tooth proIile complexity in continuous geometric models.
Recent enhancements in computer and computing technolo-
gies have enabled the direct analyses oI gear load sharing by
3D models.
Tooth proIile modiIication, manuIacturing error, and back-
lash are considered in gear design. The tooth proIiles comprise
complex piecewise curves. The analysis oI gearing dynamic
response is also complex because oI the many design and
manuIacturing restrictions that must be considered, such as
design parameters, production errors, modiIications, backlash,
elastic deIormation, lubrication, and wear phenomena. Prior to
analyzing gear statics or dynamics by using continuous ge-
ometry models, high-quality elements that precisely describe
the tooth proIile must be prepared. Although various programs
are available Ior auto meshing, diIIiculties are common in
element preparation. Large aspect ratios may exist between
the dimensions oI the gear body and critical areas near the
local contact points and Iillets. ThereIore, the preparation oI
high-quality gear element models is time consuming and re-
quires great skill. Brauer |8| recently presented an approach
Ior the automatic construction oI gear elements by using gear
geometry theory. In the current study, the elements oI 11
modes oI spur involute gears that cover the complete meshing
process are created.
Ozguven and Houser |15| reviewed literature on gear con-
tact topics published beIore 1986. Prasil and Mackerle |16|
conducted another overview in the same Iield in 2008. One
pair oI teeth models with equivalent mass, damping, and
spring is the most popular measure. Few works have been
published on the 3D contact problem with Iive pairs oI teeth
and roller supports Ior mating gears. To meet the requirements
oI increasing geometric accuracy and multi-phase complexity
in gearing, load-sharing analysis is conducted by using a geo-
metric model with Iive pairs oI teeth; this approach is eIIective
because it considers the deliberate design.
This paper proposes an eIIective procedure to solve contact
analysis and load-sharing calculation problems by using a
Iace-contact model. A complete and comprehensive numerical
modeling oI Iive pairs oI meshing teeth is the main objective
oI this research. An accurate and realistic method oI applying
the contact load and torque to the driving gear, as well as the
insertion oI a contact condition between the meshing teeth, is
established in this work. The constraint node sets are consid-
ered Iar enough Irom the area oI interest in the load applica-
The remainder oI this paper is organized as Iollows. Section
2 shows the construction oI the implemented tooth model by
using involutes and Iillets. Section 3 describes the FEM. Sec-
tion 4 validates the representation experimental solution and
presents the results. Finally, section 5 concludes.

2. Model of involute gears
To meet the increasing requirements oI transmission sys-
tems Ior high speed and compact size, the analysis oI load
sharing between mating gears is important. The stress concen-
tration at the tooth Iillet leads to tooth breakage (Fig. 1). The
contact stresses associated with the conjugate action are im-
portant because such stresses control the scoring eIIects and
surIace cracking Iailures. The accurate prediction oI stresses
experienced by the load-carrying teeth can be obtained by
computational engineering techniques.
Involute gears have several desirable Ieatures, such as high-
precision achievability and center distance adjustability. Thus,
involute gears are widely used in transmission systems. How-
ever, the operating behavior oI involute gears is sensitive to
errors in machining, assembly, or external loadings. In the
design stage, the error eIIects can be predicted by perIorming
an appropriate teeth model analysis. According to the evalua-
tion oI the operating conditions, two types oI modiIications
are oIten adopted, namely, proIile modiIication and longitudi-
nal crowning. The tip relieI to remove tooth interIerence can
be considered a type oI proIile modiIication. Undercutting
must be avoided because it causes serious weaknesses at the
gear root and leads to improper meshing behavior during op-
eration. Thus, a procedure to aid the element generation oI
gears is proposed. By using the theoretical tooth proIiles and
computer analysis, high-quality element models Ior spur gears
are constructed to cover a variety oI design considerations.
J. S.-S. Wu et al. / Journal of Mechanical Science and Technologv 27 (12) (2013) 3787~3795 3789

Fig. 1. Failure oI the gear-tooth sector.

Any two mating tooth proIiles that satisIy the Iundamental
law oI constant and uniIorm angular velocity during meshing
are called conjugate proIiles. The establishment oI geometric
relationships and kinematic constraints is required in the nu-
merical simulation oI gear conjugate action to describe the
operational and load-carrying characteristics oI the equipment.
The analytic mechanics oI gears Iollow standards and rules
depending on the manuIacturing and design methodologies.
Without loss oI generality and Ior simplicity, this study em-
ploys the standard gear proIiles, a 20 pressure angle, and
share loading Irom one pair oI gear teeth to two pairs oI gear
teeth during a complete meshing period at any moment. The
last assumption does not restrict the modeling issues because
the approximation oI the contact conditions may involve any
number oI surIace pairs that may come into contact or be dis-
continuous with the advancement oI the procedure. Thus, the
treatment oI complex load cases wherein more than one pair
oI teeth is in contact is needed. To analyze gear statics or dy-
namics by using continuous geometric models, a precise tooth
proIile must Iirst be prepared.
A typical involute tooth comprises involutes and Iillets. Ac-
cording to the gear generation procedure, the standard spur
gear can be constructed by using outside, root, and base circles
and Iillet and involute curves. The tooth geometry is created
by using mathematical Iormulations. The involute curve can
be created geometrically by using the Iollowing equations:

/ cos
( ) tan( )
k b k
k k k
r r
o o o

r is the radius oI the base circle,
o is the pressure
angle at the pitch circle,
r is the radius oI
o , and
( )
inv o is the vectorial angle at the pitch circle.
Fig. 2 shows the deIinition oI an involute gear-tooth sector.
The root oI the gear tooth is prone to Iracture or breakage
because it is an area oI increased stress. Many studies have
attempted to decrease the root stress and reduce the possibility
oI Iracture in this area when high loads are applied. A gear
design is traditionally based on predeIined cutting tool pa-
rameters, and the Iillet is determined as a trace oI the tool cut-
ting edge. A pre-speciIied cutting tool is used to avoid root
interIerence Ior a wide range oI gears with diIIerent numbers
oI teeth and addendum modiIications. The cutting tool typi-
cally provides the Iillet proIile with an increased radial clear-
ance, thus resulting in relatively resistant teeth with a small
Iillet radius in the area oI maximum bending stress.
A gear includes teeth and a body. The models created in this
paper Iocus on the teeth and the portion oI the gear body under
the teeth, that is, the rim. Given that the geometry oI the teeth
and rim may be considered cyclically symmetric, the model
uses one characteristic tooth sector that contains one tooth and
the part oI the rim under the tooth. FE model may then be
created automatically by generating the nodes and elements
directly, thus creating a solid model oI the physical system.
Suitable elements must be constructed to ensure that the calcu-
lation leads to convergent solutions. This process is quite diI-
Iicult Ior constructing a complicated 3D geometry, such as a
gear-tooth sector. Thus, an FE model is usually created by
meshing a solid model. To assist the modeling and analysis oI
these gears, geometrical meshing characteristics are reIined. A
key issue Ior the results derived Irom automatic mesh genera-
tion methods is that the accuracy oI the generated FE mesh at
the proIiles depends on the partitioning boundaries. The posi-
tion oI a node can be corrected iI the node is a leading twisted

3. Validation of the model by FEM
A geometric model oI gears may be constructed by simulat-
ing gear generation in a CAD program. Thus, FE gear models
that are robust and eIIective parameterized may be based on
the analytically derived mathematical representations oI gear
shapes. The structural analysis oI the spur gear-tooth model is
conducted by using FEM with a quadratic isoparametric ele-
ment. Tooth proIile calculation and mesh generation are con-
ducted automatically by using a specially developed soItware.
Fig. 3 presents a Ilowchart oI the procedure oI the proposed
method. The elements are veriIied by patch test to ensure that
the solutions Irom FEM converge to the exact solution. The
maximum stress is expected to increase at the tooth Iillet with
signiIicant density to ensure the high accuracy oI the results
Ior both the position oI the critical section and the magnitude
oI the maximum developed stress. In this study, the mesh at
the tooth Iillet is thin, similar to other studies, because auto-
matic mesh reIinement processes are applied to achieve the
speciIied accuracy. Elements that pass such a patch test will
converge and sometimes display superior perIormance.
Creating 3D FE meshes is usually a labor-intensive and er-

Fig. 2. DeIinition oI an involute gear-tooth sector.
3790 C. et al. / Journal of Mechanical Science and Technologv 27 (12) (2013) 3787~3795

ror-prone process. Preprocessors and automatic mesh genera-
tion algorithms are beneIicial in discretizing 3D objects. A
hexahedral eight-node element is used in this study Ior the
elements. The shape oI the elements is not signiIicantly long
and narrow, thus improving the calculation accuracy and re-
sults in stable solutions. For 3D problems, an eight-node cell
is employed with the shape Iunctions,
N to
N , oI the
nodes at the corners:

1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8
(1 )(1 )(1 ) / 8, (1 )(1 )(1 ) / 8
(1 )(1 )(1 ) / 8, (1 )(1 )(1 ) / 8
(1 )(1 )(1 ) / 8, (1 )(1 )(1 ) / 8
(1 )(1 )(1 ) / 8, (1 )(1 )(1 ) / 8
q , q ,
q , q ,
q , q ,
q , q ,
= + = + +
= + + + = + +
= = +
= + + = +


where , q , and , are the natural coordinates oI a mate-
rial particle in the cell along the x, y, and z-directions, respec-
tively. The coordinates oI geometric relations exhibit the in-
terpolation in terms oI the shape Iunctions, which can be rep-
resented by the Iollowing:

8 8 8
1 1 1
, ,
i i i i i i
i i i
x x N v v N : : N
= = =
= = =

. (3)

The displacement interpolation exhibits in terms oI shape
Iunctions can be represented by the Iollowing:

8 8 8
1 1 1
, ,
x xi i v vi i : :i i
i i i
u u N u u N u u N
= = =
= = =

. (4)

AIter model checking, patch test, and Iine mesh and ele-
ment stiIIness assembly, the matrix equations Ior the nodal
displacements are solved. The general Iorm oI the FE equation
can be expressed as Iollows:

Ku F = (5)

where F is the Iorce vector, K is the stiIIness matrix, and u
is the nodal displacement vector. Suppose that two bodies are
in contact under static or steady loading conditions. The con-
tact status can be described as Iollows:

a a a
b b b
K u F
K u F

where F is the induced contact Iorce over the contact sur-
Iace. Subscripts a and b denote the structural characteris-
tics Ior bodies A and B, respectively. Forces that are transmit-
ted between independent bodies by the Iixed connectivity
region between bodies A and B need to be simulated with
virtual linkages called contact elements |17|. The stiIIness Ior
each contact element can be expressed in the general FE Iorm
as Iollows:

c c
K B DBdS =

0 0
0 0
0 0
D k

is the contact elasticity matrix,
1 s
k and
2 s
k are the coeIIicients oI shear stiIIness, and
k is
the coeIIicient oI the normal stiIIness oI elasticity along two
orthogonal directions on the point oI contact surIace. B is
the stressstrain matrix oI the contact element, and
S is the
contact area. K is the combination oI
K ,
K , and
K in
Eq. (5).
FE models are developed by using a meshing spur gear pair
in 3D. Three elastic deIormation areas, namely, local contact
deIormation oI the contacting tooth Ilanks, bending and shear-
ing oI the loaded teeth, and deIormations oI the rims, exist in
the model. The line-contact model assumes only the tooth
contact on the geometric contact line. The line oI action is
then deIined as the set oI contact points between the contact-
ing meshing teeth proIiles. In this study, the Iace contact oI the
contact teeth on the reIerence Iace is considered the contacts
oI many pairs oI points on the reIerence Iaces (Fig. 4).
The methods applied in this model can perIorm precise
analyses oI the tooth surIace contact stresses and root bending
stresses oI spur gears with standard teeth. Tooth contact
stresses are oIten calculated by using the Hertz Iormula when
tooth loads are known. However, given that the Hertz Iormula
is derived by using two symmetric elastic cylinders, the Hertz
Iormula is not precise enough Ior the contact stress calculation
oI gear teeth, which are cantilever structures with asymmetric
involute proIiles. The Hertz Iormula also cannot calculate the
correct stress values Ior the speciIied contact teeth at special
engagement positions, such as the tooth tip and root contacts.
This study measures the contact stress oI contact teeth by cal-
culating the tooth load distribution on one or two contact areas
oI the tooth surIace. The tooth contact stresses are calculated
by dividing the tooth load obtained in the loaded teeth contact
analyses oI the reIerence Iace.

Fig. 3. Flowchart oI the presented procedure.
J. S.-S. Wu et al. / Journal of Mechanical Science and Technologv 27 (12) (2013) 3787~3795 3791

According to traditional methods, designers have solved the
gear strength problem by using two models, namely, the
Lewis and Hertzian stress models. The Hertzian contact stress
model is related to the wear at the contact surIace, whereas the
Lewis bending stress model is related to the stress at the gear
root. Hertz Iirst proposed this model oI the spur gear problem
in 1895. He developed an expression Ior the surIace contact
stress based on the maximum contact pressure between two
cylinders; this expression treats the tooth proIiles oI the gear
and pinion similar to the convex shape oI two cylinders in
contact. By applying the appropriate geometrical conditions oI
a spur gear to the model based on two cylinders in contact, a
method Ior computing the maximum contact stress oI a spur
gear is constructed. The tooth proIile is an imperIect cylinder,
and the deIlection oI the tooth makes the contact condition
non-Hertzian. Lewis presented the Lewis bending equation in
1892. This equation has become an important design Iactor in
gear design and has encountered modiIications through the
years. Given the simplicity and speed, the current practice also
involves the use oI AGMA to calculate the bending stress.
This calculation supposes that the load is applied at the pitch
radius. The contact position between the gear and pinion oc-
curs at various locations during meshing. The magnitude and
angle oI the applied load may vary depending on the relative
location oI the gear and the pinion, thus aIIecting the bending
stress at the root.
Two pairs oI teeth that are in contact exist simultaneously
(Fig. 5). In this case, one or two reIerence Iaces are created
simultaneously Ior the pairs oI the contact teeth. The structural
analysis oI the spur gear-tooth model is conducted by using
FEM with a 3D contact. To implement the proposed process,
the unit must be constructed normally to the interIace and
corresponding mesh nodes. When the contact interIace condi-
tions are applied, appropriate mesh nodes are determined with
their deIormation history. To model the contact characteristic
at the contact interIace, the 3D membrane contact elements
(zero thickness) are implemented to the driven and driving
sides oI each tooth. The contact interIace element comprises
two linear rectangular surIaces that connect the Iaces oI the
two adjacent linear hexahedrals (Fig. 6).
In solid mechanics applications, a suIIicient number oI
Iixed nodal displacements prevent the structure Irom moving
in space as a rigid body when external loads are applied. The
application oI zero boundary conditions is relatively simple
and merely requires the elimination oI the row and column
Irom the global system oI equations that correspond to zero
degrees oI Ireedom. Fig. 7 shows the external torque applica-
tion and displacement constraints. The links between FE con-
tact problems and mathematical programming techniques are
important because contact problems usually involve inequality
constraints when contact areas vary. Thus, mathematics is
related to the method oI variational inequalities. The engage-
ment oI boundary conditions on any FEM model is deIined by
the displacement constraints at the direction that is normal to
the surIace, that is, both sides oI the FE region, which separate
the modeled gear sector Irom the rest oI the gear body.
On the basis oI the contact interIace element proposed Ior
contact problems, FEM is developed by using a thickness-
dependent interIace element. All components are assumed
elastic and that the contact status originates Irom the elastic
deIormation oI the Ilanks and rims, which is considered a 3D
Iace-contact module. The Iace contact considers the normal
eIIects. Thus, the normal stiIIness is considered in the pro-
posed FE modal analysis. Fig. 5 shows the 3D FE model oI a
pair oI mating gears. The speciIications oI the mating gears
are listed in Table 1. Each tooth is meshed with an adequate
number oI hexahedron elements. To model the contact charac-
teristics at the touch interIace, the 3D membrane contact ele-
ments (zero thickness) are implemented in the upper and
lower sides oI each tooth (Fig. 6). Fig. 5 shows the FE mesh
oI the contact pair oI the teeth with the target and contact re-
gions. Fig. 7 expresses the boundary conditions oI the model.
The model includes Iive pairs oI teeth. Roller supports are
applied to the hub on the driving gear sector, and additional

Fig. 4. Face-contact model oI gears.

Fig. 5. Applied FE models.

Fig. 6. Contact interIace elements.
3792 C. et al. / Journal of Mechanical Science and Technologv 27 (12) (2013) 3787~3795

roller supports are applied to both sides oI the FE region. No
Iixed support exists on the implemented model (Fig. 7).
The proposed model includes Iive teeth Ior each mating
gear (Fig. 8). The spotlight is placed on the third pair oI teeth
oI the model during the mating process. When considering
load sharing, the potential eIIects oI one or two contact zones
must be addressed. In addition to the single contact area B,
contact area A or C may occur. By using the third tooth oI the
driving gear Ior reIerence, the second and third pairs oI teeth
come into contact at the same time in the approach process,
whereas the third and Iourth pairs oI teeth are in contact at the
same time during recess process (Fig. 8).
A single tooth usually carries the load Ior one period, and
two teeth share the load Ior another period. II the contact ratio
C = , the arc oI action is exactly equal to the circular pitch.
In a situation wherein a tooth is just entering contact at its root,
the previous tooth is simultaneously ending its contact at its
tip. Hence, one tooth and its space will occupy the entire arc
oI action. The contact ratio is the most important parameter in
the load-sharing process. A contact ratio 1.53
C = signiIies
that two pairs oI teeth are in contact Ior 53 oI the time and
one pair oI teeth carries the load Ior 47 oI the time.
For the veriIication and analysis oI the proposed model in
this paper, the involute and Iillet proIile oI the gear tooth are
created by using the equations described by Filiz and Eyer-
cioglu |18| The main characteristics oI this equation are as
Iollows: tooth number 18 N = , Iace width 20 b = , module
25 m = , pitch diameter 450
r mm = , addendum circle di-
ameter 500
r mm = , pressure angle
20 o = , and helix angle
0 | = . The material properties include Young`s modulus
200 E GPa = and Poisson`s ratio 0.3 v = .

4. Results and discussion
A gear consists oI teeth and a body. This study concentrates
on the teeth and the part oI the gear body rim under the teeth.
Given that the geometry oI the teeth and rim is considered
cyclically symmetric, the model can be generated by using
one characteristic tooth sector that consists oI one tooth and
the part oI the rim under the tooth. All other tooth models are
created by the polar arraying oI existing tooth models with
appropriate angles. Table 1 presents the geometrical parame-
ters, material properties, and loading oI the gear. The model
analyzed in this paper diIIers greatly Irom other previous stud-
ies oI constraint engagement and load application. By investi-
gating the load sharing reIlected on the root, the operating
conditions oI a gear pair can be resettled to enhance transmis-
sion quality while the transmission is being simulated by real
A total oI 11 modes present the mating process, including
approaching and recessing behaviors (Figs. 9-14). Two con-
tact areas co-occur Ior the meshing process Irom modes 1 to 4.
Tooth load sharing can be achieved by dividing the total load
on each pair oI contact teeth by the total load transmitted by
the gears. The initial contact occurs at the root oI the third
tooth oI the driving gear (Fig. 9). A contact ratio that is larger
than one means that when one pair oI teeth is just entering the
contact area, another pair is already in contact. For this short

Fig. 7. DeIinition oI an involute gear-tooth sector.

Fig. 8. DeIinition oI the contact areas.
Table 1. Values Ior the example.

Description Symbol Value
Torque T 211.5 Nm
Tooth number N 18
Contact ratio
C 1.53
Face width b 20 mm
Module m 25 mm
Pitch diameter
r 450 mm
Addendum circle diameter
r 500 mm
Pressure angle o 20

Helix angle | 0

Young`s modulus E 200GPa
Poisson`s ratio v 0.3

Fig. 9. Meshing oI modes 1 and 2.
J. S.-S. Wu et al. / Journal of Mechanical Science and Technologv 27 (12) (2013) 3787~3795 3793

period, two teeth will be in contact. The previous pair must
cease contact during the meshing, thus leaving only a single
pair oI contacting teeth similar to modes 5 to 7 in Figs. 11 and
12. Mode 8 shows that the Iourth pair oI teeth is just entering
contact Ior the next period oI meshing periodically (Fig. 12).
The proposed FEM calculation shows the deIormation and
equivalent stress on each mode Irom Figs. 9-14, whereas the
corresponding color spectrum is shown on the right oI Fig. 14.
Fig. 15 presents the equivalent von Mises stress distributions
along the tensile-side root proIile compared with the results oI
Kanber |4|. The proposed FEM is approximately 2.68,
which is smaller than Kanber`s results at node 7. A compari-
son oI von Mises stress distribution along the compression-
side root proIile is shown in Fig. 16. The proposed FEM is
approximately 2.07, which is higher than Kanber`s results at
node 7. According to ISO recommendations, the tooth root
critical cross section is determined by the 30 tangent to the
tooth Iillet positioned at node 7. The engagement oI the
boundary condition is considered Ior the case oI a Iive-tooth
model. The nodes on the two end sides and bottom are part oI
the driven rim and are constrained by roller supports. The
bottom part oI the driving rim is also constrained by roller
supports, whereas the two end sides are considered Iree sur-
Iaces. Despite the load sharing oI the two teeth, the teeth un-
dergo experience analogous bending stresses during contact.
Fig. 17 presents the equivalent von Mises stress distribu-
tions along the tensile-side root proIile compared with modes
3 to 7, whereas modes 5 to 7 are the contact modes oI single
pairs oI teeth. The diIIerences between the single pair contact
and two pair contact are within 10 oI each other. A similar
phenomenon occurs along the compression-side root proIile
(Fig. 18).

Fig. 13. Meshing oI modes 9 and 10.

Fig. 14. Meshing oI mode 11 and color spectrum.

Fig. 15. Von Mises stress distributions along the tensile-side Iillet.

Fig. 16. Von Mises stress distributions along the compressive-side Iillet.

Fig. 10. Meshing oI modes 3 and 4.

Fig. 11. Meshing oI modes 5 and 6.

Fig. 12. Meshing oI modes 7 and 8.
3794 C. et al. / Journal of Mechanical Science and Technologv 27 (12) (2013) 3787~3795

Fig. 17. Von Mises stress along the tensile side Irom mode 3 to 7.

Fig. 18. Von Mises stress along the compressive side Irom mode 3 to 7.

5. Conclusions
In this work, the systematic descriptions oI involute gears in
contact problems are derived. The contact eIIects oI structures
by the 3D FEs associated with proper theory and modeling
techniques are studied. In the FE approach, spatial membrane
elements are implemented to simulate the contact interIace oI
the gear systems. The descriptions include the structure oI
geometrical models, the generation oI FE meshes, and the
constraints imposed as boundary conditions. The Iace contact
is implemented by load sharing, and the generation oI inter-
Iace elements is conducted on the contact layer. The Iive-tooth
model ensures that the boundary conditions are Iar enough
Irom the loaded regions oI the teeth. The meshing oI two pairs
oI teeth can occur simultaneously because oI the elasticity oI
surIaces. Eleven modes are used to construct a complete con-
tact mating. The load transition at both the beginning and end
oI the period oI contact may be studied.
Instead oI applying Iixed boundary conditions to constrain
the material behavior in 2D models, this study aims to develop
a 3D FE model oI the mating gears to investigate the stress
proIiles on the contact regions oI loaded teeth. The 3D geome-
try oI teeth is reconstructed, and the solid model is trans-
Iormed into an FE program where a 3D mesh is created. Stress
distribution analysis is then perIormed. A numerical process is
presented in the Iorm oI a general computational problem,
including the design and simulation oI spur gear operation. In
the proposed example, one or two pairs oI teeth are in contact
at the same time. This case is used to stand Ior a pair oI identi-
cal gears with 18 teeth and 20 pressure angle. The Hertz Ior-
mula is inaccurate |14| Ior the contact stress calculation oI a
pair oI gears in the acting position away Irom the pitch point.
The Hertz Iormula is also diIIicult to use Ior the contact stress
calculation at the tip or root contact. This article provides a
detailed description oI the developed iterative numerical
method to support the modeling and analysis oI load distribu-
tion in meshed gears by using FEM. Under the demand oI
operating gears, a complicated stress Iield is developed. The
numerical results may be used to create eIIective gear designs
and transmission systems in Iuture works.

u : Nodal displacement vector
B : Stress-strain matrix
: Contact ratio
E : Young`s modulus
F : Force vector
K : StiIIness matrix
: Contact area

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1ames Shih-Shyn Wu received his
Ph.D. in aerospace and mechanical
engineering Irom the University oI
Arizona in 1984. He is currently a
proIessor in the Department oI Me-
chanical Engineering oI National
Chung-Hsing Uni-versity, Taiwan. His
research Iocus includes the integration
oI CAD and FEM in biomechanics and engineering.

Yuan-Lung Lai received his Ph.D. in
mechanical engineering Irom National
Chung-Hsing University in 2004. He is
currently an associate proIessor in the
Department oI Industrial Education and
Technology oI National Changhua Uni-
versity oI Education, Taiwan. His re-
search interest includes the integration
oI design and manuIacturing in machine tools.