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Biography of Kabir

Kabir (also Kabira) (Hindi:

, Punjabi:

) was a mystic poet and saint of India, whose writings have greatly influenced the Bhakti movement. The

name Kabir comes from Arabic al-Kab which means 'The Great' - the 37th name of God in Islam. Apart from having an important influence on Sikhism, Kabir's legacy is today carried forward by the Kabir Panth ("Path of Kabir"), a religious community that recognizes him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects. Its members, known as Kabir panthis, are estimated to be around 9,600,000. They are spread over north and central India, as well as dispersed with the Indian diaspora across the world, up from 843,171 in the 1901 census. His writings include Bijak, Sakhi Granth, Kabir Granthawali and Anurag Sagar. Early Life and Background Many legends abound about the birth, life and death of Kabir, one of India's most quoted poets and mystics. His birth itself is shrouded in mystery, some say he was the son of a Brahman widow, others that he was of virgin birth, what is known though is that he was brought up in a family of muslim weavers. He was never formally educated and was almost completely illiterate. According to legend, the only word that he ever learned how to write was "Rama". Legend says that he reliquished his body when he was about 120 years old. There is a famous legend about his death; When he died, his Hindu and Muslim followers started fighting about the last rites. When they lifted the cloth covering his body, they found flowers instead. The Muslim followers buried their half and the Hindu cremated thier half. In Maghar, his tomb and samadhi still stand side by side. Philosophy The social and practical manifestation of Kabir's philosophy has rung through the ages. It represented a synthesis of Hindu, and Muslim concepts. From Hinduism he accepts the concept of reincarnation and the law of Karma. From Islam he takes the affirmation of the single god and the rejection of caste system and idolatry. The basic religious principles he espouses are simple. According to Kabir, all life is an interplay of two spiritual principles. One is the personal soul (Jivatma) and the other is God (Paramatma). It is Kabir's view that salvation is the process of bringing into union these two divine principles. Kabir is a very important figure in Indian history. He is unusual in that he is spiritually significant to Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims alike. Kabir openly criticized all sects and gave a new direction to the Indian philosophy. Kabir touches the soul, the conscience, the sense of awareness and the vitality of existence in a manner that is unequalled in both simplicity and style. Poetry It is for this reason that Kabir is held in high esteem all over the world. Another beauty of Kabir's poetry is that he picks up situations that surround our daily lives. Thus, even today, Kabir's poetry is relevant and helpful in both social and spiritual context. Following Kabir means understanding one's inner self, realizing oneself, accepting oneself as is, and becoming harmonious with one's surroundings. Kabir has written much poetry and song. All of Kabir's recorded verses are in Hindi. His lyrics are characterised by a free use of the vernacular, and is unfettered by the grammatical bonds of his day. It is this quality which has made his philosophy accessible to generations of Indians.

Short Biography William Shakespeare

Information about the life of William Shakespeare is often open to doubt. Some even doubt whether he wrote all plays ascribed to him. From the best available sources it seems William Shakespeare was born in Stratford on about April 23rd 1564. His father William was a successful local businessman and his mother Mary was the daughter of a landowner. Relatively prosperous, it is likely the family paid for Williams education, although there is no evidence he attended university. In 1582 William, aged only 18, married an older woman named Anne Hathaway. Soon after they had their first daughter, Susanna. They had another two children but Williams only son Hamnet died aged only 11. After his marriage, information about the life of Shakespeare is sketchy but it seems he spent most of his time in London writing and performing in his plays. It seemed he didnt mind being absent from his family - only returning home during Lent when all theatres were closed. It is generally thought that during the 1590s he wrote the majority of his sonnets. This was a time of prolific writing and his plays developed a good deal of interest and controversy. Due to some well timed investments he was able to secure a firm financial background, leaving time for writing and acting. The best of these investments was buying some real estate near Stratford in 1605, which soon doubled in value. Some academics known as the Oxfords claim that Shakespeare never actually wrote any plays they suggest names such as Edward de Vere. They contend Shakespeare was actually just a successful businessman. Nevertheless there is some evidence of Shakespeare in theatres as he received a variety of criticism from people such as Ben Johnson and Robert Greene.

Shakespeare the Poet

William Shakespeare wrote 154 Sonnets mostly in the 1590s. Fairly short poems, they deal with issues such as lost love. His sonnets have an enduring appeal due to his characteristic skill with language and words. Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove: - Sonnet CXVI

The Plays of Shakespeare

The plays of Shakespeare have been studied more than any other writing in the English language and have been translated into numerous languages. He was rare as a play-write for excelling in tragedies, comedies and histories. He deftly combined popular entertainment with a rare poetic capacity for expression which is almost mantric in quality. "This above all: to thine ownself be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man. Farewell: my blessing season this in thee!" -Lord Polonius, Hamlet Act I, Scene 3 During his lifetime, Shakespeare was not without controversy, but he also received lavish praise for his plays which were very popular and commercially successful. Shakespeare died in 1664; it is not clear how he died although his vicar suggested it was from heavy drinking. His tombstone is marked with the following epitaph; Good friend for Jesus sake forbeare To digg the dust encloased heare Blessed by y man y spares hes stones And curst be he y moves my bones It is true to say that each line of Shakespeare has been poured over by scholars and students - no idea or concept has been left unturned. Shakespeare has left a profound and lasting impact on literature, cinema and theatre.

Citation : Pettinger, Tejvan. "Biography of William Shakespeare", Oxford, 01 Feb. 2009

Quotes on Shakespeare
"Shakespeare, no mere child of nature; no automaton of genius; no passive vehicle of inspiration possessed by the spirit, not possessing it; first studied patiently, meditated deeply, understood minutely, till knowledge became habitual and intuitive, wedded itself to his habitual feelings, and at length gave birth to that stupendous power by which he stands alone, with no equal or second in his own class; to that power which seated him on one of the two glorysmitten summits of the poetic mountain, with Milton ?s his compeer, not rival."

Paul Auster is an American born Novelist who has received acclaim for his distinct theme choices which include; coincidence, descriptions of an austere existence as well as identity, to name a few. He was born in Newark, New Jersey to a Jewish Family. His parents were of Polish lineage, his father, Samuel who was a landlord and his mother, Queenie Auster. Unfortunately, their marriage was an unhappy one and eventually resulted in divorce. Auster became a brother at age 3 to a psychologically unstable sister. His upbringing was in South Orange, New Jersey. He is a Columbia High School graduate as of 1970. Upon graduating, he shifted to Paris, France. There, his main source of income involved translating French literature. Since returning to the U.S. in 1974, he has published a vast array of work. Paul Auster was first wed to notable writer Lydia Davis with whom he shares a son Daniel Auster. He later married writer Siri Hustvedt, in 1981. The couple who reside in Brooklyn at present. Together they have one daughter, Sophie Auster. Sophie Auster is a famous American actress and singer. Auster gained publicity after his highly praised debut novel; The Invention of Solitude, a memoir published in 1982. The bo ok has two divisions Portrait of an Invisible Man, which is regarding the unexpected loss of Austers father, whereas in The Book of Memory, Auster portrays his individual opinions relating to themes such as coincidence, destiny, and seclusion. Subsequently, Auster received prominence for a collection of three detective stories published as The New York Trilogy. The Trilogy is thought to be both unconventional and eccentric detective stories. He manages to emerge with his own idiosyncratically postmodern being in the process. The exploration of identity and sentimental meaning has infused Austers future works, the majority of which contemplate chie fly on the function of coincidence and random happenings. Auster also explores relationships between men and their peers and environment in The Book of Illusions 2002 and Moon Palace 1989. Austers protagonist frequently discover themselves compelled to work as part of someone elses unfathomable and beyond what can be perceived schemes.

In 1995, Auster was responsible for writing, as well as being one of the producers of films such as Smoke and Blue in the Face. Auster more recent works; Oracle Night (2003), The Brooklyn Follies (2005) and the short story Travels in the Scriptorium have also been well received by the literary community.

Robin Cook

Robin Cook is an American physician and writer of novels about medical issues united with thriller genre. He was born in Queens, New York. Cook was graduated from the Wesleyan University and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. His post graduate studies were from Harvard University. His books are a fusion of medicine and fantasy. In his childhood Cook wanted to become an archaeologist and then later on his aspiration turned to medicine. He was a class

valedictorian and graduated with Chemistry as his major and gaining a distinction in Government. He was in charge of the Blood/Gas chemistry lab at the Columbian Presbyterian Hospital. After he was fully trained, Dr. Robin Cook went to the Navy where went to the submarine school and navy diving school. After his service ended in the Navy, he worked in the Ophthalmology department in Harvard. His career as an author started with his nov el The Year of the Intern. This novel was written underwater while he was in the Kamehameha in 1972. In 1977, a second novel followed called Coma. This went on to become an instant hit and eventually a bestseller. Cook wrote this novel while at job as a sen ior ophthalmologist at the Kennedy School of Government. Cook has written more than twenty five best sellers till date and has sold over one million books all of which are about medicine and biotechnology related ethical issues. His goal was to enlighten the public of issues such as organ transplantation which he did in his book Coma. The issue of stem cells and egg donation was dealt in his book Shock. Bio terrorism and xeno transplantation was looked into in the books Vector and Chromosome 6. His recent books are Critical and Foreign Body. The later is concerned with the recently growing problem of medical terrorism. Cook likes being called a doctor who writes as he quotes:

I joke that if my books stop selling, I can always fall back on brain surgery, he says. But I am still very i nterested in it. If I had to do it over again, I would still study medicine. I think of myself more as a doctor who writes, rather than a writer who happens to be a doctor. He explained the popularity of his works thus: The main reason is, we all realize we are at risk. Were all going to be patients sometime, he says. You can write about great white sharks or haunted houses, and you can say Im not going into the ocean or Im not going in haunted houses, but you cant say youre not going to go into a hospital. His books help in teaching people about issues they would normally find uninteresting but the way Cook puts them they grab the attention of his readers. Many of Cooks works have been made into films. The topics of his books can be made into very interesting movies with a thriller genre. He currently lives with his wife Miss Jean Reeds sometimes in their home in Florida and sometimes in New York. He has been awarded with Author of Vision award in 2002.