This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
In the Bipolar Junction Transistor tutorials, we saw that the output Collector current of the transistor is proportional to input current flowing into the Base terminal of the device, thereby making the bipolar transistor a "CURRE !" operated device "Beta model#$ !he Field Effect Transistor, or simply FET however, uses the voltage that is applied to their input terminal, called the %ate to control the current flowing through them resulting in the output current being proportional to the input voltage$ &s their operation relies on an electric field "hence the name field effect# generated by the input %ate voltage, this then makes the Field Effect Transistor a "'()!&%E" operated device$
Typical Field Effect Transistor
!he Field Effect Transistor is a three terminal unipolar semiconductor device that has very similar characteristics to those of their Bipolar Transistor counterparts ie, high efficiency, instant operation, robust and cheap and can be used in most electronic circuit applications to replace their e*uivalent bipolar +unction transistors "B,!# cousins$ -ield effect transistors can be made much smaller than an e*uivalent B,! transistor and along with their low power consumption and power dissipation makes them ideal for use in integrated circuits such as the C.(/ range of digital logic chips$ 0e remember from the previous tutorials that there are two basic types of Bipolar !ransistor construction, 1 and 1 1, which basically describes the physical arrangement of the 12type and 2type semiconductor materials from which they are made$ !his is also true of -E!3s as there are also two basic classifications of -ield Effect !ransistor, called the 2channel -E! and the 12channel -E!$ !he field effect transistor is a three terminal device that is constructed with no 1 2+unctions within the main current carrying path between the 4rain and the /ource terminals, which correspond in function to the Collector and the Emitter respectively of the bipolar transistor$ !he current path between these two terminals is called the "channel" which may be made of either a 12type or an 2 type semiconductor material$ !he control of current flowing in this channel is achieved by varying the voltage applied to the %ate$ &s their name implies, Bipolar !ransistors are "Bipolar" devices because they operate with both types of charge carriers, 5oles and Electrons$ !he -ield Effect !ransistor on the other hand is a "Unipolar" device that depends only on the conduction of electrons " 2channel# or holes "12 channel#$ !he Field Effect Transistor has one ma+or advantage over its standard bipolar transistor cousins, in that their input impedance, " Rin # is very high, "thousands of (hms#, while the B,! is comparatively low$ !his very high input impedance makes them very sensitive to input voltage signals, but the price of this high sensitivity also means that they can be easily damaged by static electricity$ 6 -et7.(/-E! !utorial
!here are two main types of field effect transistor, the Junction Field Effect Transistor or JFET and the Insulated-gate Field Effect Transistor or IGFET), which is more commonly known as the standard Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor or MOSFET for short$
The Junction Field Effect Transistor
0e saw previously that a bipolar +unction transistor is constructed using two 1 2+unctions in the main current carrying path between the Emitter and the Collector terminals$ !he Junction Field Effect Transistor ",U%-E! or ,-E!# has no 1 2+unctions but instead has a narrow piece of high2 resistivity semiconductor material forming a "Channel" of either 2type or 12type silicon for the ma+ority carriers to flow through with two ohmic electrical connections at either end commonly called the 4rain and the /ource respectively$ !here are two basic configurations of +unction field effect transistor, the 2channel ,-E! and the 12 channel ,-E!$ !he 2channel ,-E!3s channel is doped with donor impurities meaning that the flow of current through the channel is negative "hence the term 2channel# in the form of electrons$ )ikewise, the 12channel ,-E!3s channel is doped with acceptor impurities meaning that the flow of current through the channel is positive "hence the term 12channel# in the form of holes$ 2channel ,-E!3s have a greater channel conductivity "lower resistance# than their e*uivalent 12channel types, since electrons have a higher mobility through a conductor compared to holes$ !his makes the 2 channel ,-E!3s a more efficient conductor compared to their 12channel counterparts$ 0e have said previously that there are two ohmic electrical connections at either end of the channel called the 4rain and the /ource$ But within this channel there is a third electrical connection which is called the %ate terminal and this can also be a 12type or 2type material forming a 1 2+unction with the main channel$ !he relationship between the connections of a +unction field effect transistor and a bipolar +unction transistor are compared below$
omparison of onnections !et"een a JFET and a #JT
Bipolar !ransistor Emitter 2 "E# Base 2 "B# Collector 2 "C# 88 88 88 -ield Effect !ransistor /ource 2 "/# %ate 2 "%# 4rain 2 "4#
!he symbols and basic construction for both configurations of ,-E!s are shown below$
9 -et7.(/-E! !utorial
-E! this %ate voltage is negative while for a 12channel .! is always some value greater than :ero$ #ias arrangement for an $-channel JFET and corresponding circuit sym!ols% .! device is that when the .-E! and a B.-E! +unction is reverse2 biased the %ate current is practically :ero.-E! the %ate voltage is positive$ !he main difference between the .(/-E! !utorial . whereas the Base current of the B. which is a reverse2biased$ In an 2 channel . -et7.!he semiconductor "channel" of the Junction Field Effect Transistor is a resistive path through which a voltage '4/ causes a current I4 to flow$ !he .-E! can conduct current e*ually well in either direction$ & voltage gradient is thus formed down the length of the channel with this voltage becoming less positive as we go from the 4rain terminal to the /ource terminal$ !he 1 2+unction therefore has a high reverse bias at the 4rain terminal and a lower reverse bias at the /ource terminal$ !his bias causes a "depletion layer" to be formed within the channel and whose width increases with the bias$ !he magnitude of the current flowing through the channel between the 4rain and the /ource terminals is controlled by a voltage applied to the %ate terminal.
little current will flow into the gate connection$ &s the %ate voltage " 2'%/ # is made more negative. a sort of "s*uee:ing" effect takes place$ /o by applying a reverse bias voltage increases the width of the depletion region which in turn reduces the conduction of the channel$ /ince the 1 2+unction is reverse biased. '%/ controls the channel current and '4/ has little or no effect$ ? -et7. while the least2depleted area is between the %ate and the /ource$ !hen the . " ' 1 #$ JFET hannel &inched-off In this pinch2off region the %ate voltage.-E!s are therefore known as depletion mode devices$ !his depletion region produces a potential gradient which is of varying thickness around the 1 2+unction and restrict the current flow through the channel by reducing its effective width and thus increasing the overall resistance of the channel itself$ !hen we can see that the most2depleted portion of the depletion region is in between the %ate and the 4rain.-E!3s channel conducts with :ero bias voltage applied "i$e$ the depletion region has near :ero width#$ 0ith no e<ternal %ate voltage " '% = > #.!he cross sectional diagram above shows an 2type semiconductor channel with a 12type region called the %ate diffused into the 2type channel forming a reverse biased 1 2+unction and it is this +unction which forms the depletion region around the %ate area when no e<ternal voltages are applied$ . and a small voltage " '4/ # applied between the 4rain and the /ource. the width of the channel decreases until no more current flows between the 4rain and the /ource and the -E! is said to be "pinched2off" "similar to the cut2 off region for a B.!#$ !he voltage at which the channel closes is called the "pinch2off voltage".(/-E! !utorial . ma<imum saturation current " I4// # will flow through the channel from the 4rain to the /ource restricted only by the small depletion region around the +unctions$ If a small negative voltage " 2'%/ # is now applied to the %ate the si:e of the depletion region begins to increase reducing the overall effective area of the channel and thus reducing the current flowing through it.
(/-E! !utorial . the .-E! gate is always negatively biased relative to the source$ It is essential that the %ate voltage is never positive since if it is all the channel current will flow to the %ate and not to the /ource.-E! with the gate short2circuited to the source is given A -et7.JFET Model !he result is that the -E! acts more like a voltage controlled resistor which has :ero resistance when '%/ = > and ma<imum "( " resistance " R4/ # when the %ate voltage is very negative$ Under normal operating conditions. with the following e<ceptions@ 6#$ Channel current is positive due to holes. the result is damage to the .-E!$ !hen to close the channel@ • • o %ate voltage " '%/ # and '4/ is increased from :ero$ o '4/ and %ate control is decreased negatively from :ero$ • '4/ and '%/ varying$ !he 12channel Junction Field Effect Transistor operates the same as the 2channel above. 9#$ !he polarity of the biasing voltage needs to be reversed$ !he output characteristics of an as 2channel .
" '%/ # while the 4rain2/ource voltage.-E! and these are given as@ • C (hmic Region 2 0hen '%/ = > the depletion layer of the channel is very small and the .-E! to act as an open circuit as the channel resistance is at ma<imum$ • • C /aturation or &ctive Region 2 !he . shows the four different regions of operation for a . " '4/ # has little or no effect$ D -et7. '%/ is sufficient to cause the . " ( current flows into the gateB" then the /ource current " I/ # flowing out of the device e*uals the 4rain current flowing into it and therefore " I4 = I/ #$ !he characteristics curves e<ample shown above.(/-E! !utorial .Output characteristic '-I cur(es of a typical )unction FET% !he voltage '%/ applied to the %ate controls the current flowing between the 4rain and the /ource terminals$ '%/ refers to the voltage applied between the %ate and the /ource while ' 4/ refers to the voltage applied between the 4rain and the /ource$ Because a Junction Field Effect Transistor is a voltage controlled device.-E! acts like a voltage controlled resistor$ • • C Cut2off Region 2 !his is also known as the pinch2off region were the %ate voltage.-E! becomes a good conductor and is controlled by the %ate2/ource voltage.
-E! amplifiers have over B.-E! is a voltage controlled device and which represents the rate of change of the 4rain current with respect to the change in %ate2/ource voltage$ JFET *mplifier . I4 for any given bias point in the saturation or active region as follows@ 4rain current in the active region$ ote that the value of the 4rain current will be between :ero "pinch2off# and I 4// "ma<imum current#$ By knowing the 4rain current I4 and the 4rain2/ource voltage '4/ the resistance of the channel " I4 # is given as@ 4rain2/ource channel resistance$ 0here@ gm is the "transconductance gain" since the . '%/ is biased to be somewhere between '1 and >$ !hen we can calculate the 4rain current. .-E!3s resistive channel to break down and pass uncontrolled ma<imum current$ !he characteristics curves for a 12channel +unction field effect transistor are the same as those above.ust like the bipolar +unction transistor.! common emitter circuit$ !he main advantage .(/-E! !utorial .! amplifiers is their high input impedance which is controlled by the %ate biasing resistive network formed by R6 and R9 as shown$ E -et7. " '4/ # is high enough to causes the .• • C Breakdown Region 2 !he voltage between the 4rain and the /ource. e<cept that the 4rain current I4 decreases with an increasing positive %ate2/ource voltage.-E! common source amplifier and characteristics being very similar to the B.-E!3s can be used to make single stage class & amplifier circuits with the . '%/$ !he 4rain current is :ero when '%/ = '1$ -or normal operation.
-E! as the channel current will flow to the %ate and not the 4rain resulting in damage to the .MOSFET &s well as the .-E!$ !he principals of operation for a 12channel . " '44 7? #$ !he re*uired %ate voltage can then be calculated using this R/ value$ /ince the %ate current is :ero.-E! are the same as for the 2channel .ega2ohms " . we will look at another type of -ield Effect !ransistor called a MOSFET whose %ate connection is completely isolated from the main current carrying channel$ The Metal Oxide FET .#iasing of JFET *mplifier !his common source "C/# amplifier circuit is biased in class "&" mode by the voltage divider network formed by resistors R6 and R9$ !he voltage across the /ource resistor R/ is generally set to be about one *uarter of '44.unction -ield Effect !ransistor ".F # region thereby making it almost infinite$ &s the %ate terminal is isolated from the main current carrying channel " ( current flows into the G -et7.etal (<ide" %ate electrode which is electrically insulated from the main semiconductor 2channel or 12channel by a thin layer of insulating material usually silicon dio<ide "commonly known as glass#$ !his insulated metal gate electrode can be thought of as one plate of a capacitor$ !he isolation of the controlling %ate makes the input resistance of the MOSFET e<tremely high in the .(/-E! !utorial . e<cept that the polarity of the voltages need to be reversed$ In the ne<t tutorial about Transistors.-E! in that it has a ". " I % = > # we can set the re*uired 4C *uiescent voltage by the proper selection of resistors R6 and R9$ !he control of the 4rain current by a negative %ate potential makes the Junction Field Effect Transistor useful as a switch and it is essential that the %ate voltage is never positive for an 2 channel . there is another type of -ield Effect !ransistor available whose %ate input is electrically insulated from the main current carrying channel and is therefore called an Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor or IGFET$ !he most common type of insulated gate -E! which is used in many different types of electronic circuits is called the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor or MOSFET for short$ !he IGFET or MOSFET is a voltage controlled field effect transistor that differs from a .-E!#.-E!.
" '%/ # to switch the device "(--"$ !he depletion mode . " '%/ # to switch the device "( "$ !he enhancement mode .(/-E! !utorial .(/-E!s are shown below$ !he four .(/-E!s are three terminal devices with a %ate.(/-E!s are available$ !he main difference this time is that . the MOSFET also acts like a voltage controlled resistor were the current flowing through the main channel between the 4rain and /ource is proportional to the input voltage$ &lso like the .(/# and 2channel " .(/-E! symbols above show an additional terminal called the /ubstrate and is not normally used as either an input or an output connection but instead it is used for grounding the substrate$ It connects to the main semiconductive channel through a diode +unction to the body or H -et7.-E! tutorial.-E!. .(/-E! is e*uivalent to a " ormally (pen" switch$ !he symbols and basic construction for both configurations of .(/-E!s are available in two basic forms@ • 6$ 4epletion !ype 2 the transistor re*uires the %ate2/ource voltage.(/# .(/-E! is e*uivalent to a " ormally Closed" switch$ • • 9$ Enhancement !ype 2 the transistor re*uires a %ate2/ource voltage.gate" and +ust like the . this very high input resistance can easily accumulate large amounts of static charge resulting in the MOSFET becoming easily damaged unless carefully handled or protected$ )ike the previous .-E!. 4rain and /ource and both 12channel "1.
which is less common than the enhancement types is normally switched "( " without the application of a gate bias voltage making it a "normally2closed" device$ 5owever. as in enhancement types it is omitted from the symbol for clarification$ !he line between the drain and source connections represents the semiconductive channel$ If this is a solid unbroken line then this represents a "4epletion" "normally closed# type . a "positive" gate voltage widens the channel.(/-E! device no such limitations apply so it is possible to bias the gate of a .(/-E! and if the channel line is shown dotted or broken it is an "Enhancement" "normally open# type . this substrate lead is connected internally to the source terminal$ 0hen this is the case.(/-E!s are available in two basic forms. that the gate of a .etal (<ide /emiconductor -E! is very different to that of the .(/-E!$ Usually in discrete type .(/-E!.(/-E!s especially valuable as electronic switches or to make logic gates because with no bias they are normally non2conducting and this high gate input resistance means that very little or no control current is needed as . electrons for 2channel or holes for 12channel.metal tab of the .(/-E! in either polarity. through the semiconductive drain2source channel$ !he gate electrode is placed on top of a very thin insulating layer and there are a pair of small 2type regions +ust under the drain and source electrodes$ 0e saw in the previous tutorial. increasing the flow of the 6> -et7.(/-E! !utorial .-E! must be biased in such a way as to reverse2 bias the 1 2+unction but with a insulated gate .unction -E!$ Both the 4epletion and Enhancement type .(/-E!$ !he direction of the arrow indicates either a 12channel or an 2channel device$ #asic MOSFET Structure and Sym!ol !he construction of the . a gate to source voltage " '%/ # will switch the device "(--"$ /imilar to the .(/-E!s are voltage controlled devices$ Both the 12channel and the 2 channel .(/-E!s use an electrical field produced by a gate voltage to alter the flow of charge carriers.(/-E!s. Ive or 2ve$ !his makes .-E! types$ -or an 2channel . the Enhancement type and the +epletion type$ +epletion-mode MOSFET !he +epletion-mode MOSFET.
(/-E! is constructed in a similar way to their .(/-E! is e*uivalent to a "normally2closed" switch$ +epletion-mode $.drain current and decreasing the drain current as the gate voltage goes more negative$ In other words.(/-E! !utorial .hannel MOSFET and circuit Sym!ols !he depletion2mode .(/-E!@ I' %/ means more electrons and more current$ 0hile a 2'%/ means less electrons and less current$ !he opposite is also true for the 12channel types$ !hen the depletion mode .-E! transistor counterparts were the drain2source channel is inherently conductive with the electrons and holes already present within the 2type or 12type channel$ !his doping of the channel produces a conducting path of low resistance between the 4rain and /ource with :ero %ate bias$ Enhancement-mode MOSFET !he more common Enhancement-mode MOSFET is the reverse of the depletion2mode type$ 5ere the conducting channel is lightly doped or even undoped making it non2conductive$ !his results in the device being normally "(--" when the gate bias voltage is e*ual to :ero$ & drain current will only flow when a gate voltage " ' %/ # is applied to the gate terminal greater 66 -et7. for an 2channel depletion mode .
hannel MOSFET and circuit Sym!ols Enhancement2mode .(/-E!s are used in integrated circuits to produce C.(/-E!s make e<cellent electronics switches due to their low "( " resistance and e<tremely high "(--" resistance as well as their infinitely high gate resistance$ Enhancement2mode .(/ type Logic Gates and power switching circuits in the form of as 1.(/ within its design$ 69 -et7.(/ and . while a :ero or 2' %/ turns the transistor "(--"$ !hen.(/-E!@ I'%/ turns the transistor "( ".(/-E! is e*uivalent to a "normally2open" switch$ Enhancement-mode $.(/ actually stands for Complementary MOS meaning that the logic device has both 1.(/ " 2channel# gates$ C.(/-E! !utorial . I4 through the channel$ In other words.(/ "12channel# and .than the threshold voltage " '!5 # level in which conductance takes place making it a transconductance device$ !his positive Ive gate voltage pushes away the holes within the channel attracting electrons towards the o<ide layer and thereby increasing the thickness of the channel allowing current to flow$ !his is why this kind of transistor is called an enhancement mode device as the gate voltage enhances the channel$ Increasing this positive gate voltage will cause the channel resistance to decrease further causing an increase in the drain current. for an 2channel enhancement mode . the enhancement2mode .
etal (<ide /emiconductor -ield Effect !ransistors are three terminal active devices made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small signal voltage$ !he . e<cept that the .(/-E! amplifier is inverted because when '% is low the transistor is switched "(--" and ' 4 "'out# is high$ 0hen '% is high the transistor is switched "( " and '4 "'out# is low as shown$ Enhancement-mode $.The MOSFET *mplifier .unction -ield Effect transistor. the output signal for the enhancement mode common source .-E! amplifier$ !he . the transistor acts as an open circuit • • 9$ )inear "(hmic# Region 2 with '%/ 8 'threshold and '4/ 8 '%/ the transistor is in its constant resistance region and acts like a variable resistor whose value is determined by the gate voltage.(/-E! has a much higher input impedance$ !his high input impedance is controlled by the gate biasing resistive network formed by R6 and R9$ &lso. '%/ • 6.(/-E! amplifier circuit is virtually identical to the .hannel MOSFET *mplifier !he 4C biasing of this common source "C/# .(/-E! !utorial .(/-E! amplifiers are very similar to the .F$ .ust like the previous .(/-E!s can be used to make single stage class "&" amplifier circuits with the Enhancement mode 2channel . .(/-E!s ability to change between these two states enables it to have two basic functions@ "switching" "digital electronics# or "amplification" "analogue electronics#$ !hen .(/-E! circuit is biased in class & mode by the voltage divider network formed by resistors R6 and R9$ !he &C input resistance is given as RI = R% = 6.(/-E! common source amplifier being the most popular circuit$ !he depletion mode .(/-E!s have the ability to operate within three different regions@ • 6$ Cut2off Region 2 with '%/ J 'threshold the gate2source voltage is lower than the threshold voltage so the transistor is switched "fully2(--" and I4/ = >.-E! amplifiers. -et7.
. the transistor will be "(--"$ -or a 12channel enhancement type . notice that a dotted or broken line within the symbol indicates a normally "(--" enhancement type showing that " (" current can flow through the channel when :ero gate2source voltage ' %/ is applied$ & continuous unbroken line within the symbol indicates a normally "( " 4epletion type showing that current "C& " flow through the channel with :ero gate voltage$ -or 12channel types the symbols are e<actly the same for both types e<cept that the arrow points outwards$ !his can be summarised in the following switching table$ .(/-E!s. Calculators and )ogic C.emories.(/-E!. a negative gate voltage will turn "( " the transistor and with :ero gate voltage.(/-E!s may 6? -et7.(/-E!s until we achieve the current handling limit re*uired$ 0hile connecting together various .etal (<ide /emiconductor -ield Effect !ransistor.(/-E! !utorial . Enhancement2mode .• . due to this very high input "%ate# resistance we can parallel together many different . we will look at the operation of the transistor in its saturation and cut2off regions when used as a solid2state switch$ -ield effect transistor switches are used in many applications to switch a 4C current "( " or "(--" such as )E4Ks which re*uire only a few milliamps at low 4C voltages. .icroprocessors.$ /aturation Region 2 with '%/ 8 'threshold the transistor is in its constant current region and is switched "fully2( "$ !he current I4/ = ma<imum as the transistor acts as a closed circuit MOSFET Summary !he . that the 2channel.(/-E! operates using a positive input voltage and has an e<tremely high input resistance "almost infinite# making it possible to interface with nearly any logic gate or driver capable of producing a positive output$ &lso. or MOSFET for short.s are ideal for use as electronic switches or as common2source amplifiers as their power consumption is very small$ !ypical applications for metal o<ide semiconductor field effect transistors are in .(/-E! type 2Channel 4epletion 2Channel Enhancement 12Channel 4epletion 12Channel Enhancement '%/ = Ive ( ( (-(-'%/ = > ( (-( (-'%/ = 2ve (-(-( ( /o for 2channel enhancement type .(/-E!s can be easily damaged by static electricity if not carefully protected or handled$ MOSFET.(/-E! starts to pass current through the channel is determined by the threshold voltage '!5 of the device and is typical around >$A' to >$E' for an 2channel device and 2>$A' to 2>$G' for a 12channel device$ In the ne<t tutorial about Field Effect Transistors instead of using the transistor as an amplifying device.(/ %ates etc$ &lso. or motors which re*uire higher currents at higher voltages$ The MOSFET as a S"itch 0e saw previously. the transistor will be "(--"$ !he voltage point at which the . has an e<tremely high input gate resistance with the current flowing through the channel between the source and drain being controlled by the gate voltage$ Because of this high input impedance and gain. a positive gate voltage turns "( " the transistor and with :ero gate voltage.
the transistor behaves like a closed switch but the channel ( 2resistance does not reduce fully to :ero due to its R4/"on# value. " ' (U! # is e*ual to the supply voltage '44$ /o the .(/-E! L2point moves from point & to point B along the load line$ !he channel resistance is very high so the transistor acts like an open circuit and no current flows through the channel$ /o if the gate voltage of the . " ' I # to the gate of the transistor is :ero.(/-E! conducts virtually no current and the output voltage.(/-E!s$ In this tutorial we will look at using the Enhancement-mode MOSFET as a Switch as these transistors re*uire a positive gate voltage to turn "( " and a :ero voltage to turn "(--" making them easily understood as switches and also easy to interface with logic gates$ !he operation of the enhancement2mode .(/-E! will behave as a "single2pole single2throw" "/1/!# solid state switch and this action is defined as@ 6A -et7. depletion2mode only for . the . but gets very small$ )ikewise. and is dependent only on '%/$ !herefore. 5I%5 and )(0 the . the . when 'I is )(0 or reduced to :ero.(/-E! remains fully2( when carrying the selected drain current can be determined from the '2I transfer curves above$ 0hen ' I is 5I%5 or e*ual to '44.(/-E! !utorial .enable us to switch high currents or high voltage loads.-E!3s and both enhancement2mode and depletion2mode for .(/-E! is "fully2(--" and in its "cut2off" region$ MOSFET haracteristics ur(es !he minimum ( 2state gate voltage re*uired to ensure that the .(/-E! L2point moves to point & along the load line$ !he drain current I4 increases to its ma<imum value due to a reduction in the channel resistance$ I 4 becomes a constant value independent of '44.(/-E! toggles between two values.s were developed$ 0e now know that there are two main differences between field effect transistors.(/-E! can best be described using its I2' characteristics curves shown below$ 0hen the input voltage. doing so becomes e<pensive and impractical in both components and circuit board space$ !o overcome this problem &o"er Field Effect Transistors or &o"er FET. the .
gate voltage.a< 4rain current flows " I4 = '44 7 R) # 6D -et7.(/-E! switch as being.(/-E!.(/-E! operates as an "open switch" !hen we can define the "cut2off region" or "(-. :ero drain current I4 and output voltage '4/ = '44 !herefore the . the %ate potential must be more positive with respect to the /ource$ o 4rain current flows " I4 = > /% Saturation .-% ut-off .(/-E! is switched "-ully2( "$ Saturation haracteristics • !he input and %ate are connected to '44 • %ate2source voltage is much greater than threshold voltage '%/ 8 '!5 • .(/-E! is "fully2(--" " Cut2 off region # • # • '(U! = '4/ = '44 = "6" • .(/-E! is switched "-ully2(--"$ ut-off haracteristics • !he input and %ate are grounded " >v # • %ate2source voltage less than threshold voltage '%/ J '!5 • .(/-E! !utorial .mode" of a .(/-E! is "fully2( " " saturation region # • .egion 5ere the operating conditions of the transistor are :ero input gate voltage " ' I #. the transistor will be biased so that the ma<imum amount of gate voltage is applied to the device which results in the channel resistance R 4/"on# being as small as possible with ma<imum drain current flowing through the .egion In the saturation or linear region. '%/ J '!5 and I4 = >$ -or a 12channel Enhancement .(/-E! switch$ !herefore the .
(/-E! switch as gate2source voltage. effectively a short circuit$ 0e can also drive the . the resistance of the drain2source channel.in channel resistance R4/"on# J >$6F • '(U! = '4/ = >$9' " R4/$I4 # • . '%/ 8 '!5 and I4 = . " '%/ = > #$ If the resistive load of the lamp was to be replaced by an inductive load such as a coil. resulting in a high "inrush" of current and when we remove the voltage from an inductive load we have a large reverse voltage build up as the magnetic field collapses. R4/"on# can be varied from an "(--2resistance" of many hundreds of kF3s.a<imum$ -or a 12channel Enhancement .(/-E! to operate as an analogue switching device.(/-E! !utorial .(/-E! operates as a "closed switch" !hen we can define the "saturation region" or "( mode" of a .• '4/ = >' "ideal saturation# • .(/-E! is being used to switch a simple lamp "( " and "(--" "could also be an )E4#$ !he gate input voltage '%/ is taken to an appropriate positive voltage level to turn the device and therefore the lamp either fully "( ". effectively an open circuit. a capacitor without an electrical charge is a short circuit. resulting in an induced back2emf in the windings of the inductor$ -or the power .(/-E! to turn "( " faster or slower. solenoid or relay a "flywheel diode" would be re*uired in parallel with the load to protect the .(/-E!s to switch either inductive or capacitive loads some form of protection is re*uired to prevent the .(/-E! "( " and "(--" allows the device to be used as a very efficient switch with switching speeds much faster than standard bipolar +unction transistors$ *n example of using the MOSFET as a s"itch In this circuit arrangement an Enhancement2mode 2 channel . to an "( 2resistance" of less than 6F.(/-E!.(/-E! device from becoming damaged$ 4riving an inductive load has the opposite effect from driving a capacitive load$ -or e<ample. the %ate potential must be more negative with respect to the /ource$ By applying a suitable drive voltage to the gate of an -E!. " '%/ = Ive # or at a :ero voltage level that turns the device fully "(--". or pass high or low currents$ !his ability to turn the power .(/-E! " 14 # depends upon the current flowing through the channel I 4 at saturation and also the "( 2resistance" of the channel given as R4/"on#$ -or e<ample$ 6E -et7. it needs to be switched between its "Cut2off Region" where '%/ = > and its "/aturation Region" were ' %/"on# = Ive$ !he power dissipated in the .(/-E! from any self generated back2emf$ &bove shows a very simple circuit for switching a resistive load such as a lamp or )E4$ But when using power .
(/-E! itself resulting in an e<cessive temperature rise. the standard .(/-E! will be given as@ Mou may think.(/-E! has a channel "( 2resistance" " R4/"on# # value of >$6ohms$ Calculate the power dissipated in the . but when using the .(/-E! is the ma<imum current it can handle$ /o the R 4/"on# parameter is an important guide to the switching efficiency of the .Example $o)ets assume that the lamp is rated at Dv.(/-E! becoming very hot and damaged due to a thermal overload$ & lower value R4/"on# on the other hand.(/-E! as a switch to control 4C motors or high inrush current devices the "( " channel resistance " R4/"on# # is very important$ -or e<ample. are sub+ected to a high in2rush current when the motor first begins to rotate. 9?0 and is fully "( ".(/-E!s that control 4C motors.(/-E!$ 1ower . .(/-E! and is simply the ratio of '4/ 7 I4 when the transistor is turned "( "$ 0hen using a .(/-E! switch$ !he current flowing through the lamp is calculated as@ !hen the power dissipated in the . is also a desirable parameter as it helps to reduce the channels effective saturation voltage " '4/"sat# = I4 < R4/"on# # across the . well so whatB.(/-E!s generally have a R4/"on# value of less than >$>6F$ (ne of the main limitation of a .(/-E! or any type of field effect transistor for that matter as a solid2state switching device it is always advisable to select ones that have a very low R4/"on# value or at least mount them onto a suitable heatsink to help reduce any thermal runaway and damage$ 1ower . which if not controlled could result in the .(/-E! !utorial . because the motors starting current is only limited by the very low resistance value of the motors windings$ !hen a high R4/"on# channel resistance value would simply result in large amounts of power being dissipated and wasted within the .(/-E!s used as a switch generally have surge2current protection built into their design. but for high2current applications the bipolar +unction transistor is a better choice$ 6G -et7.
(/-E!s may not switch "( " until a least . a simple flywheel diode is connected across the inductive load to dissipate any back emf generated by the motor when the .(/-E! switch if re*uired$ Resistor R9 is used as a pull2down resistor to help pull the !!) output voltage down to >' when the .(/-E! as a switch were the . such as motors.' or ?' has been applied to its gate and if the output from the logic gate is only IA' logic it may be insufficient to fully drive the .(/-E! turns it "(--"$ & clamping network formed by a :ener diode in series with the diode can also be used to allow for faster switching and better control of the peak reverse voltage and drop2out time$ -or added security an additional silicon or :ener diode 4 6 can also be placed across the channel of a .(/-E!s designed for interfacing with !!) and C.(/ logic gates that have thresholds as low as 6$A' to 9$>' are available$ 1ower . for suppressing overvoltage switching transients and noise giving e<tra protection to the .(/-E! !utorial 2channel .&o"er MOSFET Motor ontrol Because of the e<tremely high input or gate resistance that the .(/-E! is switched "(--"$ &-channel MOSFET S"itch !hus far we have looked at the between 6H -et7. can be used as a very good speed controller that would provide smooth and *uiet motor operation$ Simple &o"er MOSFET Motor ontroller &s the motor load is inductive. relys.# type controllers$ &s a 4C motor offers high starting tor*ue and which is also proportional to the armature current.(/-E! into saturation$ Using lower threshold . solenoids.(/-E! is placed .(/-E!s can be used to control the movement of 4C motors or brushless stepper motors directly from computer logic or by using pulse2width modulation "10.(/-E! has. .(/-E! switches along with a 10.(/-E! switch when using inductive loads. its very fast switching speeds and the ease at which they can be driven makes them ideal to interface with op2amps or standard logic gates$ 5owever. etc. care must be taken to ensure that the gate2source input voltage is correctly chosen because when using the MOSFET as a s"itch the device must obtain a low R4/"on# channel resistance in proportion to this input gate voltage$ )ow threshold type power .
(/-E!s are configured to produce a bi2directional switch from a dual supply with the motor connected between the common drain connection and ground reference$ 0hen the input is )(0 the 12channel .(/-E! switch allows us to connect it in series with a 2channel enhancement mode .&-channel MOSFET S"itch the load and the ground$ !his also allows the gate drive or switching signal to be referenced to ground "low2side switching#$ But in some applications we re*uire the use of 12channel enhancement2mode .(/-E! switch is connected between the load and the positive supply rail "high2side switching# as we do with 1 1 transistors$ In a 12channel device the conventional flow of drain current is in the negative direction so a negative gate2source voltage is applied to switch the transistor "( "$ !his is achieved because the 12channel .(/-E! turns "(--"$ !his upside down connection of a 12channel enhancement mode . the .(/-E! !utorial . the 12channel device switches2(-.(/-E! is switched2( as its gate2source +unction is negatively biased so the motor rotates in one direction$ (nly the positive I'44 supply rail is used to drive the motor$ 0hen the input is 5I%5.(/-E! were the load is connected directly to ground$ In this instance the .and the 2channel device switches2 ( as its gate2source +unction is positively biased$ !he motor now rotates in the opposite direction 9> -et7.(/-E! turns "( " and when the switch goes 5I%5 the .(/-E! to produce a complementary or C.(/-E! is "upside down" with its source terminal tied to the positive supply I' 44$ !hen when the switch goes )(0.(/ switching device as shown across a dual supply$ omplementary MOSFET Motor ontroller !he two .
(/-E! is used to switch the negative supply to the motor for reverse direction "low2side switching#$ !here are a variety of configurations for driving the two .otor -unction .otor Rotates Reverse ( ( (! &))(0E4 1lease note that it is important that no other combination of inputs are allowed at the same time as this may cause the power supply to be shorted out. one forward biased and one reverse biased$ • !here are two main types of bipolar +unction transistors. the 1 and the 1 1 transistor$ 96 -et7. as both .otor Rotates -orward . " fuse = bangB #$ #ipolar Junction Transistor Tutorial • !he #ipolar Junction Transistor "B. to avoid cross conduction with both .(/-E! 6 (-( (-.(/-E!s with many different applications$ Both the 12channel and the 2channel devices can be driven by a single gate drive IC as shown$ 5owever. -E! 6 and -E!9 could be switched "( " at the same time.(/-E! 9 (-(-( .(/-E! is used to switch the positive supply to the motor for forward direction "high2side switching# while the 2channel .otor /topped "(--# .(/-E!s conducting at the same time across the two polarities of the dual supply.(/-E!s.because the motors terminal voltage has been reversed as it is now supplied by the negative 2' 44 supply rail$ !hen the 12channel .(/-E!s gates separately$ !his then produces a third option of "/!(1" to the motor when both . fast switching devices are re*uired to provide some time difference between them turning "(--" and the other turning "( "$ (ne way to overcome this problem is to drive both .(/-E! !utorial .!# is a three layer device constructed form two semiconductor diode +unctions +oined together.(/-E!s are "(--"$ omplementary MOSFET Motor ontrol Ta!le .
or -E!3s are "'oltage Operated +e(ices" and can be divided into two main types@ .-E! due to the insulating o<ide layer and therefore static electricity can easily damage . low "( " resistance$ 99 -et7.(/-E!s$ • Insulated2gate devices can also be sub2divided into Enhancement types and 4epletion types$ &ll forms are available in both 2channel and 12channel versions$ • -E!3s have very high input resistances so very little or no current ". motors and solenoids etc$ • Inductive loads such as 4C motors. Ic or N to which a load line can be constructed to determine a suitable operating point.-E!3s and Insulated2gate devices called I%-E!Os or more commonly known as .(/-E! types# flows into the input terminal making them ideal for use as electronic switches$ • !he input impedance of the .(/-E! devices so care needs to be taken when handling them$ • 0hen no voltage is applied to the gate of an enhancement -E! the transistor is in the "(--" state similar to an "open switch"$ • !he depletion -E! is inherently conductive and in the "( " state when no voltage is applied to the gate similar to a "closed switch"$ • -E!3s have very large current gain compared to +unction transistors$ • !hey can be used as ideal switches due to their very high channel "(--" resistance. to flow$ • !he arrow in a transistor symbol represents conventional current flow$ • !he most common transistor connection is the Common2emitter configuration$ • Re*uires a Biasing voltage for &C amplifier operation$ • !he Base2Emitter +unction is always forward biased whereas the Collector2Base +unction is always reverse biased$ • !he standard e*uation for currents flowing in a transistor is given as@ IE = IB I IC • !he Collector or output characteristics curves can be used to find either Ib. which themselves are nearly e*ual. L with variations in base current determining the operating range$ • & transistor can also be used as an electronic switch to control devices such as lamps. relays and solenoids re*uire a reverse biased "-lywheel" diode placed across the load$ !his helps prevent any induced back emf3s generated when the load is switched "(--" from damaging the transistor$ • !he 1 transistor re*uires the Base to be more positive than the Emitter while the 1 1 type re*uires that the Emitter is more positive than the Base$ Field Effect Transistor Tutorial • Field Effect Transistors.(/-E! !utorial .(/-E! is even higher than that of the .• !ransistors are " urrent Operated +e(ices" where a much smaller Base current causes a larger Emitter to Collector current.unction2gate devices called .
(/-E!s are in the "( " state when a "Ive" "positive# voltage is applied to the gate$ • 12channel enhancement .(/-E!s are in the "( " state when "2ve" "negative# voltage is applied to the gate$ The Field Effect Transistor Family-tree Biasing of the %ate for both the +unction field effect transistor.unction -E! .ode Bias ( (-2channel >v 2ve 12channel >v Ive 9.(/-E!# configurations are given as@ !ype .(/-E! !utorial .ode ( (->v 2ve >v Ive Enhancement . ".(/-E!s.-E! transistor "(--".-E!# and the metal o<ide semiconductor field effect transistor.-E! transistor "(--". a negative voltage must be applied to the gate$ • !o turn the 12channel . are in the "(--" state when a positive voltage is applied to the gate to create the depletion region$ • 2channel enhancement .(/-E!s are in the "(--" state when a negative voltage is applied to the gate to create the depletion region$ • 12channel depletion .etal (<ide /emiconductor -E! 4epletion . -et7. a positive voltage must be applied to the gate$ • 2channel depletion .• !o turn the 2channel . ".ode ( (-Ive >v 2ve >v 4epletion .
!# 5igh voltage gain )ow current gain )ow input impedance )ow output impedance .edium noise generation .(/-E! !utorial .unction !ransistors in electronic circuits and a simple comparison between -E!3s and transistors stating both their advantages and their disadvantages is given below$ -ield Effect !ransistor "-E!# 6 9 .+ifferences !et"een a FET and a #ipolar Transistor -ield Effect !ransistors can be used to replace normal Bipolar . ? A D E G H 6> 66 69 )ow voltage gain 5igh current gain 'ery input impedance 5igh output impedance )ow noise generation -ast switching time Easily damaged by static /ome re*uire an input to turn it "(--" 'oltage controlled device E<hibits the properties of a Resistor .ore e<pensive than bipolar 4ifficult to bias Bipolar .edium switching time Robust Re*uires :ero input to turn it "(--" Current controlled device Cheap Easy to bias 9? -et7.unction !ransistor "B.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.