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CONNECTING NEW YORK TO THE WORLD

FOR SUSTAINABLE ADOPTION

June 2009
New York State Universal Broadband
Strategic Roadmap

New York State


Council for Universal Broadband
SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

A special thank you to the Chairs, Vice-Chairs of the Action Teams and Contributors who are
helping to implement the Universal Broadband Strategy for New York State.
These leaders are serving to advance Governor David A. Paterson’s broadband vision that –

“Every New Yorker must have access


to affordable universal broadband.”

Broadband Infrastructure Action Team


Chair: Dr. Timothy Lance, Chairman and CEO, NY State Education and Research Network
Vice-Chair: Sharon Cates-Williams, Deputy CIO, CIO/OFT
Vice-Chair: John Kolb, VP & CIO, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Government Initiatives Action Team


Chair: Edward Reinfurt, Executive Director, NY State Foundation for Science, Technology and
Innovation
Vice-Chair: Stephen Acquario, Executive Director, NY State Association of Counties
Vice-Chair: Peter Baynes, NY Conference of Mayors

Digital Literacy and Community Outreach Action Team


Chair: Michael Borges, Executive Director, NY Library Association
Vice-Chair: Dr. Joseph Bowman, NY State Board of Regents
Vice-Chair: Gail Brewer, NY City Councilmember
Contributor: Thomas Herzog, CIO, NY State Department of Corrections

E-Government Initiatives Action Team


Chair: Dr. Daniel Chan, CIO, NY State Office of Temporary & Disability Assistance
Vice-Chair: Patrick Hooker, Commissioner, NY State Agriculture and Markets
Vice-Chair: Ed Hemminger, CIO of Ontario County, and
President of NY State Local Government Information Technology Directors Association

Economic and Workforce Development Action Team


Chair: Robert McNary, Regional Director, Empire State Development Corporation
Vice-Chair: Howard Lowe, Director of the Technical Assistance Center, SUNY Plattsburgh
Vice-Chair: Mario Musolino, Executive Deputy Commissioner, NY State Department of Labor
Contributor: Robert Vitello, CIO, NY State Department of Labor

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NYS COUNCIL FOR UNIVERSAL BROADBAND MEMBERS
• Dr. Melodie Mayberry-Stewart, Chief Information Officer, NY State (Chair)
• Stephen Acquario, Executive Director, NY State Association of Counties
• Peter Baynes, Executive Director, NY State Conference of Mayors
• Michael Borges, Executive Director, NY Library Association
• Garry A. Brown, Chairman, NY State Department of Public Service
• Gail Brewer, NY City Councilmember
• Dr. Joseph Bowman, Member, NY State Board of Regents
• Sharon Cates-Williams, Deputy Chief Information Officer, NY State Chief Information Officer/Office
for Technology
• Dr. Daniel Chan, Chief Information Officer NY State Office of Temporary and Disability Assistance
• Robert Checca, Commissioner, Nassau County Department of Information Technology
• Paul Cosgrave, Commissioner, NY City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications
• RoAnn Destito, Member, 116th Assembly District, NY State Assembly
• Brian Fischer, Commissioner, NY State Department of Correctional Services
• G. Jeffrey Haber, Executive Director, Association of Towns of the State of NY
• David Hansell, Commissioner, NY State Office of Temporary & Disability Assistance
• Edward Hemminger, President, NY State Local Government Information Technology Directors
Association
• Thomas Herzog, Chief Information Officer, NY State Department of Corrections
• Patrick Hooker, Commissioner, NY State Department of Agriculture and Markets
• Dr. Donald Jacobs, Co-Chair, State University of NY Technology Policy and Practices Council
• Dr. Alain Kaloyeros, Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer, State University of NY,
University at Albany – College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering
• Susan Knapp, Chief Budget Examiner, NY State Division of the Budget
• John Kolb, Vice President for Information Services and Technology & Chief Information Officer,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute – Computational Center for Nanotechnology Innovation
• Dr. Timothy Lance, President and Chairman, NY State Education and Research Network
• Howard Lowe, Director of the Technical Assistance Center, State University of NY at Plattsburgh
• Steve Manning, Manager of Computer Services, Greater Southern Tier BOCES Regional Information
Center
• Robert McNary, Regional Director, Empire State Development Corporation
• Richard Mills, Commissioner, NY State Education Department
• Shireen Mitchell, President & Executive Director, Community Technology Centers’ Network
• Mario Musolino, Executive Deputy Commissioner, NY State Department of Labor
• Edward Reinfurt, Acting Executive Director, NY State Foundation for Science, Technology and
Innovation

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PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT

The purpose of this document is to present the New York State Broadband
Strategy to ensure every New Yorker has access to affordable universal
broadband services. The broadband strategy document will:
“We must … recognize that
access to affordable, high
• Present New York State’s case, vision, strategic goals and guiding principles speed broadband is just as
for NYS Universal Broadband Strategy important in today’s economy
as access to a paved road, to
• Describe the major components of the New York State Universal Broadband a telephone line, or to
reliable electricity.
Policy Broadband
telecommunications is
• Outline the State’s strategic governance structure to provide oversight for critical to improve the
implementing the universal broadband policy economic competitiveness of
New York State. In these
challenging fiscal times, we
• Describe the State’s broadband grant program to foster public/private must continue to make
partnerships to provide innovative solutions for achieving and sustaining careful investments that
universal broadband access create jobs, drive down costs,
and increase economic
development. Extending
• Present recommended next steps and an implementation timeline for high speed Internet access to
development of the comprehensive universal broadband strategy the unserved and
underserved, urban and
rural communities will have
• Present the strategic alignment between the Federal Broadband Stimulus a positive impact on the
Programs and Policies and the New York State Universal Broadband Strategy economy, education and
to optimize federal funding opportunities across the State families, while creating the
foundation for economic
progress for decades to
come.”

--David A. Paterson
Governor
New York State

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 2 
NYS COUNCIL FOR UNIVERSAL BROADBAND MEMBERS ...................................................................................... 3 

PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT ............................................................................................................................ 4 

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................................................... 5 
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................................... 6 
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................................. 6 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 7 
BROADBAND IN NEW YORK STATE .................................................................................................................... 11 

BROADBAND – THE NEED IN NYS ................................................................................................................................... 11 
Accelerate Broadband Infrastructure Build Out ................................................................................................. 15 
Increase Adoption Rates and Digital Literacy .................................................................................................... 15 
Stimulate Demand for Broadband Services ........................................................................................................ 15 
BROADBAND TODAY – THE REALITY ................................................................................................................................ 16 
BROADBAND TOMORROW ‐‐ THE VALUE PROPOSITION ....................................................................................................... 17 

NYS BROADBAND STRATEGY ............................................................................................................................. 19 
MISSION, GOALS AND STRATEGIES .................................................................................................................................. 20 
GUIDING PRINCIPLES .................................................................................................................................................... 25 
GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE ............................................................................................................................................. 26 
NEW YORK STATE GRANT ADMINISTRATION ..................................................................................................................... 28 
PERFORMANCE IMPACT MEASUREMENT ........................................................................................................................ 29 
Speed Goals ........................................................................................................................................................ 30 
Performance Measurements .............................................................................................................................. 31 
BROADBAND STIMULUS PRIORITIES – NYS TARGET OPPORTUNITIES ................................................................. 32 

BROADBAND INFRASTRUCTURE BUILD OUT ....................................................................................................................... 32 
Homeland Security and public Safety Interoperability ....................................................................................... 32 
Mapping New York State Broadband Coverage ................................................................................................. 33 
DIGITAL LITERACY AND SUSTAINABLE ADOPTION ................................................................................................................ 35 
Digital Literacy and Re‐entry From Correctional Institutions ............................................................................. 35 
Community Technology Centers ......................................................................................................................... 35 
Health and Human Services Web Portals ........................................................................................................... 36 
Digital Library Centers ........................................................................................................................................ 36 
ECONOMIC AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................................................... 37 
Economic Development ...................................................................................................................................... 37 
Workforce Development .................................................................................................................................... 37 
Workforce Development Through Gaming ........................................................................................................ 38 
Telework and Distance Learning ........................................................................................................................ 39 
Social Networking .............................................................................................................................................. 39 

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Virtual Meeting Places ....................................................................................................................................... 40 
Digital Court Hearings ........................................................................................................................................ 40 
Telemedicine, Telepsychiatry at Family and Children’s Institutions ................................................................... 40 
Broadband in the Arts ........................................................................................................................................ 41 
FEDERAL STIMULUS PROGRAMS ....................................................................................................................... 42 

GOALS OF THE BROADBAND STIMULUS PROVISIONS ........................................................................................................... 42 
Federal Broadband Stimulus Programs .............................................................................................................. 43 
Recommended Role of the States ...................................................................................................................... 44 
Underserved and Unserved Communities .......................................................................................................... 44 
OPITIMIZING FEDERAL BROADBAND STIMULUS FUNDING .................................................................................................... 49 
Three‐Agency Partnership .................................................................................................................................. 49 
Annual Funding of Broadband Programs ........................................................................................................... 50 
Broadband Governance Timetable .................................................................................................................... 50 
APPENDICES ...................................................................................................................................................... 52 

NYS COUNCIL FOR UNIVERSAL BROADBAND ACTION TEAMS ................................................................................................ 52 
Broadband Infrastructure Access Action Team .................................................................................................. 52 
Digital Literacy and Community Outreach Action Team .................................................................................... 53 
E‐Government Applications for Low‐Income Households Action Team ............................................................. 55 
Economic Development and IT Workforce Development Action Team .............................................................. 56 
Governmental Initiatives Action Team ............................................................................................................... 57 
BROADBAND AROUND THE GLOBE .................................................................................................................................. 59 
BROADBAND IN NEW YORK STATE .................................................................................................................................. 60 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROGRAM FACT SHEET (NTIA) ....................................................................................... 61 
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM FACT SHEET (RUS) .................................................................................... 62 
GLOSSARY .................................................................................................................................................................. 63 
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: REASONS PEOPLE DO NOT HAVE BROADBAND AT HOME .......................................................................................... 12 
TABLE 2: SUMMARY OF REASONS DIAL‐UP AND NON‐INTERNET USERS CITE FOR NOT HAVING BROADBAND ................................. 13 
TABLE 3: BROADBAND PERFORMANCE IMPACT MEASUREMENTS ............................................................................................. 31 
TABLE 4: QUICK FACTS ABOUT THE BROADBAND STIMULUS PROGRAMS ................................................................................... 47 

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: NYS AND THE U.S. DIGITAL ECONOMY INDEX ........................................................................................................ 10 
FIGURE 2: STRATEGIC THRUSTS OF THE NYS BROADBAND STRATEGY ........................................................................................ 14 
FIGURE 3: US BROADBAND GLOBAL RANKING ...................................................................................................................... 16 
FIGURE 4: COMPONENTS OF THE NYS UNIVERSAL BROADBAND STRATEGY ................................................................................ 20 
FIGURE 5: NYS PREDICTED AVAILABILITY BROADBAND MAP .................................................................................................. 34 
FIGURE 6: BROADBAND GOVERNANCE TIMETABLE ................................................................................................................ 51 

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Broadband, sometimes referred to as high-speed Internet, is a critical engine for communities to
enhance social and economic well-being and a vital resource to educate our youth, create jobs,
promote public safety, and deliver essential services such as healthcare. Universal broadband
capabilities enable state and local governments to provide better and more cost efficient
services. In addition, broadband access provides opportunities for citizens, businesses and
visitors to enjoy the resources available through the Internet.

While the promise of broadband is great, the reality has yet to meet the promise in New York
State. Broadband has not fully arrived for all New Yorkers. In New York State, 48 percent of
households are not high-speed broadband subscribers, even though 78 percent do have some
type of Internet service using digital subscriber lines (DSL). This is one percent below the national
average of 79 percent. (Source: Speed Matters, Communications Workers of America, August
2008)

Overcoming the digital divide to become a national and global leader for broadband
availability, capacity, and adoption will be challenging. New York State is diverse in its
topography, population, and range of needs among its citizens. To help New York remain
competitive on a national and global scale, proactive executive leadership, strong policy
mandates, and clear broadband guidelines will ensure broadband networks are widely
deployed, affordable and accessible to all New Yorkers.

The New York State Council for Universal Broadband (Council) will advance Governor David A.
Paterson’s vision to provide universal broadband access for all New Yorkers. The Council is
responsible for developing strategies to ensure every New Yorker has access to affordable,
high-speed internet service and to improve computer literacy throughout the state.

The New York State Universal Broadband Strategy, developed by the Council, provides a
strategic framework to realize the Governor’s vision. The strategy is a comprehensive and
balanced mix of broadband infrastructure expansion and effective community outreach
programs to stimulate demand, promote digital literacy, and educate disadvantaged,
disenfranchised, and uninformed populations for sustainable adoption.

This holistic approach emphasizes innovative solutions to increase broadband availability in


unserved and underserved, urban and rural areas of the state, and focuses on increasing digital
literacy and broadband adoption rates. The strategy envisions creating more "e-citizens"
who are digitally literate and connected to affordable Internet service, so they are full
participants in the Information Age and Digital Economy. Additionally, the strategy aligns with
broadband grant provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009,
(Broadband Stimulus Provisions) which provides national funding to expand broadband access to
underserved and unserved, urban and rural areas.

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President Barack Obama recognizes technology, in particular broadband, can
be a means to stimulate the economy, put Americans back to work, and help the
"As we renew our
United States reclaim a position of world leadership through the development of schools and highways,
broadband networks that enable high-speed communications throughout our we’ll also renew our
nation. information
superhighway. It is
unacceptable that the
By aligning the New York State Universal Broadband Strategy with the United States ranks
broadband provisions of the ARRA of 2009, New York State plans to leverage 15th in the world in
broadband adoption.
some portion of the $7.2 billion appropriation for broadband deployment in the Here, in the country
federal stimulus package. The federal funding is aimed at states, local that invented the
governments, schools, and businesses to improve broadband infrastructure, Internet, every child
should have the chance
increase digital literacy, and augment state government programs. These to get online, and
goals are consistent with the stated goals in the New York State Universal they’ll get that chance
when I’m President
Broadband Strategy.
because that’s how we’ll
strengthen America’s
The goals set forth in the strategy will be attained by executing sound fiscal competitiveness in the
management practices, leveraging existing state-owned and privately held world."
assets, exploiting state procurement models for cost-efficiency, engaging in state
-- Barack Obama
agency program collaboration, championing public/private partnerships President
whenever feasible, and insisting on supplier diversity and inclusion. The goals United States of
America Presidential
are to: Radio Address
(12/6/08)
• Provide all New Yorkers access to high speed, affordable
broadband services from anywhere, at anytime, by anyone;
• Close the digital divide and increase digital literacy levels by
providing training and educational opportunities, in unserved and
underserved, urban and rural communities;
• Foster economic development and build stronger public/private
partnerships;
• Accelerate the use of state e-government services offered over the
Internet to citizens, businesses, and visitors;
• Create jobs through innovative community-based digital literacy
and technology training programs to increase household
technology adoption rates;
• Achieve and maintain speed and coverage goals aligned with
state and federal policies to achieve and sustain competitive
advantages; and
• Align state strategies with the principles and program goals of the
American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009 to
optimize funding that stimulates the New York State economy.

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Recognizing a comprehensive, multi-faceted approach is necessary to successfully implement the
goals, the Council created five Action Teams to develop and implement the strategies of each
goal. Each team has their own objectives, deliverables and performance impact measures. The
Action Teams include: Broadband Network Infrastructure Access; Digital Literacy and Community
Outreach; E-government Applications for Low-income Households; Economic Development and IT
workforce Development; and Government Policy Initiatives.

In 2008, the Council achieved the following accomplishments:

• Granted $5 million in awards for projects across the state by leveraging


community based public/private partnerships;
• Launched the statewide broadband mapping initiative with county-wide validation
efforts currently underway using public and private partners;
• Developed and approved statewide digital literacy standards;
• Launched a health and human services web portal (mybenefits.gov), starting with
eFood and eHEAP applications to increase digital literacy and household adoption
rates for low income households; and
• Conducted an Economic Development Survey to ascertain broadband impact.

Also, the Council released its first annual Universal Broadband Report in May 2009 highlighting
2008 accomplishments and priorities for 2009. To download a copy of the first annual report,
visit the CIO/OFT website at www.cio.ny.gov.

In this era of technology innovation, broadband is the highway of the 21st century, and a vital
connection to the entire nation and the global economy. To provide essential benefits to New
Yorkers, it is imperative New York deploy robust and affordable broadband to every corner of
our state. By adopting the right policy framework, the growth of broadband technologies will
significantly strengthen New York’s economic empowerment.

Figure 1 shows New York State, on a national level, is ranked in the third quartile according to
the 2008 State New Economy Index “Benchmarking Economic Transformation in the States.” As
shown in Figure 1, 25% of the states are ranked higher than New York State for Digital
Economic competitiveness.

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Figure 1: NYS and the U.S. Digital Economy Index

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“Technology and the
Internet drive economic
development efforts across
the globe. For our
counties and communities
to be competitive in
BROADBAND IN NEW YORK STATE
retaining and attracting
jobs, we need to provide
access to the latest While New York State gained momentum for increasing broadband accessibility
technological
innovations. NYSAC is
and creating standards for digital literacy in 2008, New York still faces some
happy to partner with significant challenges. It is clear other states and countries are improving
New York State on this broadband infrastructure at a rapid pace. New York must accelerate its efforts
critical economic
development and social to remain competitive and retain its national and global leadership standing.
issue. It is imperative to
provide high speed
Internet access to every
corner of the state.” BROADBAND – THE NEED IN NYS
-- Stephen J. Acquario Paramount to successful implementation of Governor David A. Paterson’s vision
Executive Director
NYS Association of
of ensuring affordable universal broadband access for all New Yorkers is a
Counties and Council solid strategy to guide decision making. New York State’s broadband strategy
Member is not just about infrastructure, but rather, what infrastructure can do for the
state, its citizens, its businesses, and its visitors. In the 21st century, access to
broadband service is a necessity for economic competitiveness, homeland
security, healthcare, education, social opportunity and equity.

While building infrastructure to increase broadband availability is important,


ensuring citizens using technology can improve their quality of life is equally
important. If broadband is available, but not affordable, its full value to New
Yorkers cannot be achieved. Similarly, if broadband is available and
“Universal broadband is affordable, but citizens have not been exposed or educated to its capabilities
a very important factor in
the quality of life of our and benefits, the state’s vision cannot be realized. Technology adoption and
citizens as well as a cultural barriers must be overcome.
significant economic
development issue. Computer ownership and network connection adoption rates of 100 percent are
Public/private
partnerships will ensure relatively easy in affluent communities. The challenge is to bring the benefits of
infrastructure is this technology infrastructure, and the increasingly rich educational, health,
available to assist
businesses overcome the
government, training/retraining and entertainment capabilities to all New
current difficulties in Yorkers.
competing in both the
national and global
marketplace. This is an
exciting time for our
state.”

-- Ed Hemminger
President of NYSLGITDA
and Chief Information
Officer of Ontario County,
Council Member

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In December 2007, the Pew Research Center conducted a survey and asked non-internet users
about the reasons they do not use the Internet. In May 2008, they conducted another survey to
determine why dial-up users do not have a broadband connection at home. Table 1 below
summarizes the results.1

Table 1: Reasons People Do Not Have Broadband At Home

Reasons People Do Not Have Broadband At Home

Dial-Up Users = 9% of All Adults

% Of Dial-Up Users % Of All Adults

Price must fall 35% 3.2%

Nothing would get me to switch 19% 1.7%

Don't know 16% 1.4%

It would have to become available where I live 14% 1.3%

Other 11% 1.0%

What is the MAIN Reason You Don’t Use the Internet or Email? (Asked of Non-Users)

Non-Internet Users = 25% of All Adults

% Of Non-Users % Of All Adults

Not interested in getting online 33% 8.3%

Can't get access 13% 3.3%

Difficult 9% 2.3%

Other reason 9% 2.3%


Too expensive
7% 1.8%
Too busy/no time
7% 1.8%
Waste of time
7% 1.8%
Don't have computer
4% 1.0%
Too old to learn
3% 0.8%
Physically unable
3% 0.8%

1Source: Horrigan, John B., Associate Director for Research, “Stimulating Broadband: If Obama Builds It, Will They Log on?, Pew Internet &
American Life Project, (January 21, 2009)

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“Providing incentives to build broadband infrastructure directly addresses the availability
problem and could be of particular help to Americans living in rural areas, where 24% of dial-up
users say they cannot get broadband because high-speed infrastructure doesn't reach their
home.” 2 Table 2 consolidates the data into four categories: usability, price, availability and
relevance. As shown, the largest barrier to home broadband use is relevance at 51%, which
includes a range of adoption hurdles, i.e., interest, access, price, computer availability, and
others.

Table 2: Summary of Reasons Dial-Up and Non-Internet Users Cite For Not Having Broadband

Summary Of Reasons Dial-Up And Non-Internet Users Cite

For Not Having Broadband At Home


% Of Dial-Up Users % Of All
+ Non-Online Users Adults

Usability
17% 5.5%
(Difficult + Waste Of Time + Too Old + Physically Unable)

Price 18% 5.9%

Availability 14% 4.5%

Relevance
51% 16.4%
(Not Interested In Getting Online +Nothing Could Get Me To Switch
+Too Busy + Other Unspecified Reasons)

To be a full participant in both the Information Age and the Innovation Economy, access to
affordable high speed broadband Internet service is critical for individuals and businesses.
Although broadband infrastructure has been deployed throughout New York State, there are
still communities where access to broadband is neither affordable nor available to citizens
and businesses. The case for investing in broadband as an economic development strategy for
encouraging commerce and revitalizing areas across the state is increasingly clear.

2
Horrigan, J. B., Pew Research Center.

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The New York State Universal Broadband Strategy takes a comprehensive and holistic approach
to making broadband access available for all New Yorkers. The strategy has three major areas
of emphasis which are to:

• Accelerate Broadband Infrastructure Build Out for Residential, Commercial and


Governmental Institutions;
• Increase Adoption Rates and Digital Literacy Programs to Increase Computer
Proficiency Levels at Home and at Work; and
• Stimulate Demand for Broadband Services to Attract and Retain a Strong Digital
Economy for the Future.

This approach involves building a high tech workforce with academic partners, and recruiting and
retaining high tech companies in New York State. The three areas are interconnected. A successful
broadband strategy cannot exist unless all three areas are addressed equally as shown in
Figure 2 below. Each component has a synergistic effect on the other. Increased education
stimulates demand, which spurs infrastructure build out and sustainable adoption.

Figure 2: Strategic Thrusts of the NYS Broadband Strategy

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A CCELERATE B ROADBAND I NFRASTRUCTURE B UILD O UT

Providing incentives to build broadband infrastructure addresses the availability problem and can
help Americans living in unserved or underserved rural areas, where 24% of dial-up users say
they cannot get broadband because high speed infrastructure does not reach their home.3
Public/private partnerships must work with communities to identify areas with the most critical
needs to increase the pace of development. State and federal grant programs will provide
capital, financial incentives, and seed money to advance infrastructure development. Also the
strategy insists on underserved and unserved urban areas as equally important.

I NCREASE A DOPTION R ATES AND D IGITAL L ITERACY

New York State’s technology adoption rates remain below the national average. According to
a recent study, New York’s adoption rate is averaging 53%, or 2% below the national average
of 55 percent.4 One reason for this sub-average result is due to the affordability issue; another
reason is availability. These are the main issues for a third of the adult population currently
without broadband service. Another issue is lack of digital literacy and capacity. Non-adopters
may involve the elderly who are uncomfortable learning a technical skill, immigrants with
language barriers, low-income less-educated people who cannot understand the benefit of
technical skill, or others who are simply resistant. Digital literacy programs will help people
overcome those fears by developing basic technical skills useful at work and home.

S TIMULATE D EMAND FOR B ROADBAND S ERVICES

Another consideration to advance broadband strategies is to address the increasing demand for
more speed among existing high speed users. In a May 2008 survey conducted by the Pew
Research Center for the People and the Press, 29% of broadband users pay more for home
broadband speeds that are higher than the standard ones advertised by carriers. The
remaining 71% either have the standard package or do not know whether a premium is paid.
Assuming newer and faster broadband costs more than existing offerings, at least one-third of
3
Horrigan, J. B.; Pew Research Center for the People and the Press (http://people-press.org)
4
Source: New York City Broadband Landscape and Recommendations Study (July 2008), available at
www.nyc.gov/html/doitt/downloads/pdf/bac_presentation_7_30_2008.pdf

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home high speed users are good candidates to take that step. More e-government programs are
coming on to the Internet for cost efficient and convenient service delivery; expansion of e-
government lowers operating costs. This push from government alone will create greater demand
by the public seeking services, even from the technically disenfranchised.

BROADBAND TODAY – THE REALITY


New York State is the third most populous state in the country with an estimated population of
19.4 million. It is the 27th largest state in terms of geographic size, with 54,555 square miles of
territory. The topography of the state is diverse, traversing the Adirondack and Catskill
Mountains to large metropolitan areas like New York City. Through the Internet, distance is no
longer an obstacle to connectivity, and citizens living in the Adirondacks are no longer isolated
from the larger economy of New York or the global economy of the world.

United States global competitiveness has been losing ground since 2001. This continuous
downward slide in global broadband rankings is largely due to the lack of a national policy to
accelerate the build out of broadband services to underserved and unserved, rural and urban
communities. The United States has gone from being ranked #4 in 2001 to being ranked #15
in 2007.

Figure 3: US Broadband Global Ranking

Source: Assessing Broadband in America OECD and ITIF Broadband Rankings, April 2007

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“New York's cities and
villages will not be
able to reach their full
economic development
potential without a
concerted In New York State, the broadband provider community report 95% of the state
public/private effort to is served by some form of broadband. If true, approximately 5%, or nearly
close the digital
divide. We look one million people in New York remain unserved by broadband services.
forward to working This is still a significant number of the population without broadband service.
collaboratively with
the other members of
(Source: New York State Telecommunications Association)
the Council to achieve
universal access to Much work still needs to be done to achieve our goal of universal access at
affordable broadband speeds which improve overall global competitiveness. Even though New York
technology.”
may have 95% area coverage, the state still needs to discover if and where
-- Peter Baynes those speeds are too slow, particularly in the rural areas, to support needed
Executive Director New applications and service levels.
York Conference of
Mayors and Council
Member

BROADBAND TOMORROW -- THE VALUE PROPOSITION


Describing the value of broadband is similar to describing the value of
constructing a bridge, or paving roads. Often dubbed the “information
superhighway,” it is a pathway comprised of intersecting roads and bridges,
connecting neighbors, businesses, schools, and hospitals. But the road is only
valuable to those who access it; and what can be accomplished via the
information superhighway is limited by one’s own imagination. Broadband has
revolutionized how the world does business, interacts with government, learns,
and is entertained.

With affordable broadband technology as the equalizer, students across New


York have access to the same high quality education regardless of geography;
entrepreneurs in St. Lawrence County can develop global businesses that
compete with companies in Europe; and farming families living 200 miles from
“Lack of broadband
access has been an
downtown Albany can access medical services from a major medical facility in
impediment to economic New York City, Buffalo or any high quality health facility in the world through
and community telemedicine.
development in small,
remote communities like
Newton Falls. We are
Whether at the office, in an airport, or even on vacation, consumers expect to
pleased that the be connected. Businesses rely on employees who can work from virtually
Broadband Council has anywhere. With broadband service, workers attend meetings via video
supported the long term
needs of the Newton Falls conference, exchange files, and work collaboratively online to accelerate the
Fine Paper Company, as completion of projects. As essential as electricity, water and sewer, access to
well as to create access to
broadband for the
broadband services for businesses is essential to their survival and growth.
community residents.”

-- Thomas Sauter
Deputy Executive Director
Development Authority of
the NorthCountry
NYS Broadband
Grant Recipient Page 17 of 64
“In an era of global
competition, we need
to be able to help
remote villages and
communities access
information, easily
The value of broadband as a constant connection to the Internet (always on, from and swiftly. The
anywhere, at anytime), is immeasurable by common economic measurement Universal Broadband
Council will help
methods, and has a greater return on investment than many other infrastructure increase digital
investments. While other infrastructure investments have a limited number of literacy within those
uses, broadband has unforeseen uses. The history of technology is rural populations and
will help farmers,
characterized by the evolution and emergence of a constant stream of new agri-businesses and
applications and uses. other local small
businesses get on the
same page as their
urban counterparts,
allowing them to take
advantage of the
opportunities
technology offers to
better serve New
Yorkers.”
-- Patrick Hooker
Commissioner
NYS Department of
Agriculture and Markets
and Council Member

“The availability of
intellectual skills and
educational capabilities
from New York’s top
flight research
universities is critical to
accelerating broadband
penetration, bridging
the digital divide, and
increasing digital
literacy, particularly
among remote upstate
communities -- a
necessary ingredient for
an innovation economy
blueprint.”
-- Dr. Alain Kaloyeros
Vice President and
Chief Administrative
Officer
University at Albany
College of Nanoscale
Science and
Engineering, Council
Member

Page 18 of 64
“Our New York State NYS BROADBAND STRATEGY
broadband strategy
requires creating more e-
citizens who are digitally Prior to 2007, New York State lacked a universal broadband policy that
literate and connected to ensured New Yorkers have affordable access to the Internet and can
affordable Internet participate fully in the
access so they can become
full participants in the Information Age. 5 In addition,
information age.” universal broadband coverage for
-- Sharon Cates-Williams economic, educational, and health
Deputy CIO related benefits was not generally
NYS CIO/OFT and understood. Broadband provides
Council Member
public safety communications
capabilities in times of
emergencies. Universal
broadband service improves
capacity of organizations to
deliver public services more cost efficiently and effectively. Accelerating
availability, affordability, and usability efforts are high public priorities and
form the basis of the New York State Universal Broadband Strategy.

The highest levels of state government have made it a priority to develop and
implement a comprehensive statewide policy for broadband development and
sustainability. Governor Paterson has made universal broadband a top priority
to ensure New York is at the forefront of technological transformation in our
communities. Also, partners in the Senate and Assembly have also embraced the
importance of broadband service and champion this initiative.

The New York State Universal Broadband Strategy consists of five main
“New York has a proud
history of seminal components:
contributions to
research-focused and • Mission, Goals and Strategies;
commercial networking
dating back to the birth
• Guiding Principles;
of the public Internet in • Governance Structure;
the eighties. • Grant Administration; and
With the broadband
initiative the State has • Performance Impact Measurements.
committed to bringing
the benefits of this ever-
enriching resource to
every citizen.”

-- Dr. Timothy Lance


President and Chairman
New York State Education
and Research Network,
5
Council Member The FCC defines a broadband connection as one that exceeds data transmission speeds of
200 kbps in one or both directions. However, speeds three times faster are becoming common in most
cities.

Page 19 of 64
Figure 4: Components of the NYS Universal Broadband Strategy

MISSION, GOALS AND STRATEGIES


The mission of the New York State Council for Universal Broadband is to ensure every New
Yorker has access to affordable, high-speed broadband services. This mission is fulfilled by a
strategy that includes a comprehensive and holistic broadband approach focused on
infrastructure build out, digital literacy expansion, economic and workforce development growth,
and expanded use of online government services (e-government) over the Internet.

The New York State Universal Broadband Strategy provides the strategic framework so the
state’s vision can be realized. The strategy creates more "e-citizens" who are digitally literate
and connected to affordable Internet access, so they can be full participants in the Information
Age.

The New York State Universal Broadband Strategy consists of six goals. Each goal has a set of
strategies designed to meet speed, coverage, and adoption rates which are:

Page 20 of 64
Goal #1: Provide all New Yorkers Access to High Speed, Affordable Broadband Services
from Anywhere, at Anytime, by Anyone.

Strategies

• Advocate for national and state policies that require minimum speed thresholds for
households, businesses and institutions;
• Develop policies that incentivize providers to offer lower rates for households at 150%
or lower of the poverty level to increase household adoption rates;
• Achieve universal broadband access for all communities throughout the state with at
least 1 Mbps up/down;
• Use national benchmarks and studies to empirically confirm accessibility, availability and
adoption rates; and
• Establish and maintain a statewide broadband map to ensure there are no gaps in
coverage or services.

Goal #2: Close the Digital Divide and Increase Digital Literacy Levels in Unserved and
Underserved, Urban and Rural Communities.

Strategies

• Develop programs that focus on increasing digital literacy levels for homes at or below
the poverty level;
• Adopt statewide digital literacy standards to ensure educational programs incorporate
minimum computer proficiency standards;
• Develop and deploy a consumer education and marketing program to increase
household adoption rates; and
• Partner with public and private community-based computer training organizations to
provide access to training for people without computers in the home or business.

Page 21 of 64
“As we continue to
make government more
customer-focused by
Goal #3: Foster Economic Development and Build Stronger Public/Private increasing the number
of services available
Partnerships.
online, the role of
broadband cannot be
Strategies
understated. The
Universal Broadband
• Require alignment with the state’s economic development strategic Access Strategic
priorities for state funding by: Council will explore
o Supporting a region’s industry concentration or growth ways to enhance public
industry; access to this vital
service—ideas that will
o Building on a region’s competitive advantages, such as
be instructive to New
educational institutions, high-tech commercial corridor, arts York City as we
community or creative/theatrical districts or academic research complete our own
entities; broadband feasibility
o Accelerating progress of other state or local initiatives, study.”
-- Paul Cosgrave;
especially technology-focused or innovation-based centers; NYC Commissioner
o Building capacity of business incubators, university-based New York City DoITT
commercialization projects, and existing industrial parks in high- And Council Member
density areas.
• Support economic development efforts aligned with state priorities
by:
o Offering multiple benefits – such as economic, public safety,
“The work taking place
educational – to multiple beneficiaries (such as the development at the state level
of mixed-use buildings offering community space, commercial parallels efforts to close
the digital divide in
space, and affordable housing); New York City. In
o Developing programs which focus on increasing digital March 2009, the joint
literacy levels for homes at or below the poverty level; Mayoral – City Council
Broadband Advisory
o Supporting expansion of service options in Committee completed a
manufacturing/industrial areas; public hearing process
that revealed how the
o Tracking and measuring environmental dividends such as Internet is used by New
higher telecommuting or reduced emissions. Yorkers. Often, digital
• Promote projects for stimulus prioritization that: resources are
economically out of
o Require cost-benefit analyses and will rank projects generating reach for some. New
the greatest economic value in the shortest timeframe; York State’s initiative
to develop a broadband
o Require projects be sustainable, as evidenced by a business strategy is precisely
plan that extends beyond the terms of the stimulus grant; what is needed to
o Forecast realistic and direct job growth; ensure that New
Yorkers have full access
o Give preference to projects that combine education and to internet resources
outreach for sustainable adoption. and that the State
remains digitally
competitive.”

-- Gail A. Brewer
NYC Councilwoman
New York City and
Council Member
Page 22 of 64
Goal #4: Accelerate Use of State e-Government Services Offered Online to Citizens,
Businesses and Visitors.

Strategies

• Expand the use of e-government services provided through the Internet by state and
local agencies;
• Develop a set of best practices to identify and assist other e-government applications for
successful outreach through web portals by clustering state agencies with common needs
and service constituents (e.g., health and human services, public safety and criminal justice,
etc.); and
• Integrate early adopter e-government applications into community-based digital literacy
training programs in local communities through local agencies, community technology
centers or other local hubs of operation to increase access and usage of government
services.

Goal #5: Create Jobs through Innovative Community-Based Digital Literacy and Technology
Training Programs to Increase Household Technology Adoption Rates.

Page 23 of 64
"This report takes into
consideration the
complex and varying
needs of the different
regions of the state and
Strategies helps New York chart
its path forward in
order to make strategic
• Recommend and adopt statewide digital literacy proficiency standards decisions regarding
for state schools and other digital literacy entities, and work with local broadband deployment
and adoption."
entities to foster the implementation of digital literacy programs to
increase home penetration rates; -- Maureen Harris Esq.
• Develop strategies for state and local programs to increase consumer Commissioner
NYS Public Service
education regarding use of the Internet to improve quality of life issues Commission
and increase household adoption “take rates;” and
• Address technology affordability issues to increase technology
adoption at the household level in underserved and unserved communities
by implementing strategies that address to socioeconomic cultural barriers
in urban and rural communities.

Goal #6: Achieve and Maintain Speed and Coverage Goals Aligned with
State and Federal Policies to Achieve and Sustain Competitive Advantage

Strategies

• Develop and maintain current map of coverage and household


penetration rates using independent benchmarks and validation by local
and private partners;
• Recommend and advocate for policies that address affordability and “Working with the NYS
socioeconomic barriers to increase adoption rates; CSCIC and members of
the Broadband Council,
• Develop incentives for providers to accelerate build out and encourage a team began to map
continuous upgrades to remain competitive; broadband coverage
density down to a city
• Support strategies for increasing representation on state, federal, or block. This provides an
international policy-making and advocacy organizations; and incredible tool to ensure
resources are directed
• Encourage use and build out of existing broadband assets wherever
to regions and
possible; communities that are
• Encourage use of systems that are based on industry standards most in need … We must
know where the
established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the underserved and
National Telecommunications Information Administration (NTIA) for unserved areas are
located. Mapping will
interoperability; and help us better position
• Encourage development of systems that are scalable, reliable and New York to receive
federal stimulus dollars
allow easy deployment of next generation technologies. aimed at improving
broadband coverage.”

-- Edward Reinfurt
Executive Director
NYSTAR
Chair, NYS Council on
Universal Broadband
Page 24 of 64 Government Initiatives
Action Team Chair,
Council Member
“I have a particular
interest in improving
wired and wireless
broadband access in
the State’s rural
areas, and in
exploring how ‘open GUIDING PRINCIPLES
access’ models can
spur competition and
serve as a platform
The following Guiding Principles were adopted by the NYS Council for Universal
for innovation and Broadband to guide decision making and planning, which are to:
job growth.
Expanded • Engage Collaborative Broadband Program Development to sustain an
broadband
infrastructure and integrated approach to advance broadband access and use in rural and
enhanced digital metropolitan New York through initiatives proposed by the New York Council
literacy will enable
our communities to
for Universal Broadband.
be competitive in the
global economy and
help us retain and
• Establish a Broadband Program Management Office to serve as an
attract the young operational base for the centralized management of broadband projects
professionals so across the state.
crucial to community
vitality.”
• Accelerate Infrastructure Build Out Using Existing Public and Private
-- Howard Lowe
Director of the
Assets and Streamlined Policies to facilitate the deployment of
Technical Assistance infrastructure necessary to achieve broadband accessibility across New York
Center SUNY State by advocating for streamlined processes, government policies and
Plattsburgh and
Council Member sharing existing broadband assets when feasible to increase speed to
market.
“Universal high
bandwidth
Internet access is • Leverage Government Enterprise Purchasing Power for Procurements to
essential for New
maximize procurement opportunities throughout the state to stimulate
York to maintain
its leadership investment in broadband infrastructure and adoption rates. This includes
position in the taking an inventory of specific state assets to obtain optimal positioning when
innovation
economy. We live negotiating new telecommunication provider agreements with the goal of
in a networked driving down costs of acquisition and ongoing support.
world, where
Internet access to
information is • Stimulate and Aggregate Demand for Sustainability to assist community
critical for leaders and broadband customer groups, such as local councils and business
enhancing
education, development organizations, to aggregate broadband project plans to seek
expanding appropriate funding at the state and federal level, and to successfully
research and
developing
complete funded projects.
technologies of
tomorrow.”
• Foster Public/Private Partnerships to develop and maintain parity in price
-- John Kolb and availability of broadband between urban and metropolitan New York.
Vice President for
Information Services
and CIO, Rensselaer • Advocate for a Broadband National Policy to ensure New York’s
Polytechnic Institute, broadband needs and priorities are represented accurately in the National
Council Member
Broadband Plan, by providing a leading effort to define National

Page 25 of 64
Broadband Policy, and ensure that the State receives its fair share from national funding
programs.

• Implement Innovative and Cost-Efficient Technology Solutions to develop and encourage


innovative ways to leverage broadband infrastructure to stimulate demand and encourage
higher levels of usage. Examples include:

o Public Internet Kiosks;


o Multimedia and Film Production;
o E-Government Applications;
o E-Commerce;
o High-Performance Computing; and
o Online Learning.

• Measure Broadband Performance and Impact to continue to measure and monitor all key
performance indicators, and make refinements to the broadband strategy and
implementation plan to measure both the availability and the use of broadband technology
across the state.

• Practice Inclusiveness and Require Supplier Diversity to Engage Key Stakeholders to build
on a principle of inclusiveness by engaging public, private, and institutional stakeholders who
share a common vision and strategic goals with Governor Paterson. Include minority and
women owned business enterprises (MWBE), and small businesses across the state to achieve
the goals of the Universal Broadband Strategy.

GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE

Strategic oversight for the New York State Universal Broadband Program is the responsibility
of the New York State Council for Universal Broadband, consisting of state agency executives,
public and private community partners, higher education leaders, municipal associations, and
broadband subject matter experts. The Council is chaired by the New York State Chief
Information Officer.

Page 26 of 64
Work of the Council is performed through five Action Teams. The Council meets quarterly and the
Action Teams meet at least once per month. Although not formal members of the Council, the
private sector provider community participates on Action Teams to ensure a comprehensive view
and approach to broadband development and programming is recognized. The five Action
Teams and their strategic focus are:

Broadband Network Infrastructure Access Action Team

This Action Team focuses on mapping the state to baseline areas with and without
broadband access infrastructures. This mapping effort focuses on unserved and
underserved rural and urban communities. The mapping includes existing and planned
state-owned networks. Also, this Action Team mobilizes private, public and academic
expertise to implement innovative technologies for delivering cost-effective and reliable
broadband Internet services. Finally, this team develops recommendations and a plan to
leverage current networks and infrastructures to accelerate statewide coverage.

Digital Literacy and Community Outreach Action Team

This Action Team focuses on programs to address affordability, computer ownership, and
adoption, digital literacy, and consumer education. It focuses on proficiency training and
exploring computer procurement incentives for those trapped in the digital divide. Also,
the Action Team focuses on raising awareness and educating citizens about the benefits of
universal broadband to improve their quality of life.

e-Government Applications for Low-Income Households Action Team

This Action Team focuses on improving and increasing access to government services
offered online. The Action Team promotes the development of open, simple and secure
online applications with measurable outcomes. An initial group of “early adopters” of
government services have been identified to integrate into digital learning programs.

Economic Development and IT Workforce Development Action Team

This Action Team focuses on building stronger economies, promote the economic growth of
New York State by increasing business activity, identifying and implementing
public/private partnerships, and determining strategies to create and maintain a skilled
and professional workforce by leveraging broadband to accelerate job creation in
unserved and underserved communities.

Governmental Initiatives Action Team

This Action Team focuses on optimizing existing public assets and locally-based initiatives
to increase broadband penetration and use through current or planned assets and
infrastructures. Additionally, this Action Team monitors federal, state and local
government initiatives and makes policy recommendations relevant to advancing the

Page 27 of 64
broadband strategy and goals. This Action Team develops recommendations for future
policy, legislation, or other regulatory advocacy objectives which enable the New York
State Universal Broadband Strategy priorities to be achieved.

NEW YORK STATE GRANT ADMINISTRATION


The New York State Universal Broadband Grant Program is designed to encourage local
communities to deploy “last mile” broadband infrastructures and develop digital literacy
programs to ensure households on the wrong side of the digital divide have skills needed to
participate fully on the Internet and increase adoption.

NYS CIO/OFT administers the NYS Universal Broadband Grant


Program, with guidance and recommendations from the Council.
Grants are awarded through a competitive grant application process from
eligible entities, as defined in the state’s legislative appropriation (e.g.
communities and organizations that bring together parties committed to
collaborative public/private partnerships).

New York State’s first Broadband Grant Program was initiated in late
2007. The State Legislature appropriated $5 million in the FY 2007-
2008, and $7.5 million in FY 2008-2009 for broadband grants in
underserved and unserved, urban and rural communities.

The grants required a matched funding ratio of at least 1:1, where eligible
applicants guarantee $1will be provided for each $1 awarded by the
state. Applicant commitments were in the form of cash, in-kind goods and
services, or a combination. The state encouraged public/private
partnerships and community based collaborations to ensure sustainability
beyond the state’s funding. The result was a 3:1 matching level.

The broadband grant criteria favored proposals that were


comprehensive, reaching the highest percentage of neighborhoods, and
engaging partners to increase the number of households that own
computers and connect to this ever more powerful broadband
infrastructure.

In March 2008, Governor Paterson announced the first round of grant


awards for the following types of broadband initiatives.

• Services and expenses related to local, regional, and state


activities to facilitate increased physical access to broadband Internet services
statewide. Such services may include research, design, implementation, operations,

Page 28 of 64
management and administration of programs related to infrastructure initiatives to
facilitate physical access to communities and entities that lack access.

• Services and expenses related to local, regional and state activities to provide
equal and universal access to broadband Internet services for underserved rural
and urban areas, including schools and libraries. Such activities may include
research, design, implementation, cooperative service delivery initiatives among
public, private, and/or not-for-profit organizations, and shared use of infrastructure or
other resources.

PERFORMANCE IMPACT MEASUREMENT


The New York State Universal Broadband Strategy will be measured for community impact using
a pre-defined set of evaluation criteria based on objective national standards for consistency of
reporting, accountability, and transparency. These national standards enable the state to
compare its progress against other states and other countries using accepted broadband
benchmark measurements.

The criteria will be developed and approved by the NYS


Council for Universal Broadband and will measure
progress in the following four areas which will be tracked
and posted on the Council and the New York State
Broadband Stimulus Websites:

• Change in Average Statewide Broadband


Speeds;
• Change in Average Statewide Broadband
Coverage Rates;
• Change in Average Computer Ownership
and Adoption Rates of Communities;
• Change in Average Broadband
Penetration Rates; and
• Change in New Digital Economy Index Measures.

The commitment to a connected broadband infrastructure in New York is a continuum with


aggressive strategic goals for speed, coverage, adoption, and penetration by 2010, with the
expectation this is just the beginning of placing New York State on a path to be at the forefront
of this initiative.

Page 29 of 64
"High speed internet
connectivity has
For acceleration of broadband penetration and increased network speeds, become a prerequisite
New York State divides roughly into two regions: the “Digital Corridor” and for doing business in
today’s global
the “rest of the state”. The “Digital Corridor” includes the greater New York economy. Increasing
City region and areas near the Thruway. The “rest of the state” is defined as its availability and
the area more sparsely populated and, distant from the main fiber right of affordability will help
small businesses
way. compete on a broader
scale, assisting their
growth and attracting
dollars to New York,
This major initiative
S PEED G OALS will make it easier for
individuals and
businesses to achieve
their potential."

-- Robert McNary
Regional Director
Empire State
Development
Corporation and Council
Member

By the year 2010, the goal is to achieve an average network connectivity speed
of at least 1 megabit per second in each direction. In the Digital Corridor, the
goal by 2010 is to be at least 20 megabits per second in each direction.

Looking farther out, by 2015 the goal is to achieve an average network


connectivity speed of at least 20 megabits per second in each direction, and 100
megabits per second in each direction within the Digital Corridor.

For some parts of New York, (e.g. the Adirondack Park), environmental
considerations will likely make wireless a necessary component of achieving 20
megabits per second speeds. The FCC’s auction of spectrum in the 700 MHz
range, with portions set aside for such use, gives the state a rich new resource.

Progress will be closely tracked throughout the broadband grant process. The
expectation is that with increased penetration and adoption, will come increased

Page 30 of 64
benefit to the household and community; increased penetration drives further adoption and
strengthens business for the providers. Everyone wins!

The NYS Council for Universal Broadband will look at these goals and prepare an annual report
on the progress of achieving the strategic goals using the four measures described in this section.
The actual measures will be benchmarked against other states and counties using the FCC data
and other agreed to authoritative sources.

P ERFORMANCE M EASUREMENTS

The success of the NYS Universal Broadband Strategy will be measured against specific key
performance indicators and benchmarks in compliance with federal guidelines. The
broadband performance impact measures adopted by the Council are designed to ascertain
effectiveness of deployed initiatives to achieve the strategic goals outlined in this document.
Table 3 outlines the performance measures used by the Council to ensure investments and projects
are making progress toward closing the digital divide and achieving strategy goals.

Table 3: Broadband Performance Impact Measurements

Measurement Description Metric Used

Coverage to unserved and


Broadband
underserved, urban and rural Geographic Data from GIS Mapping Initiative
Availability
communities

Broadband Household and commercial take rates


Household Adoption Rates
Adoption where broadband is available

Broadband Competition for better service offerings Providers Servicing Target Unserved and
Competition and more competition Unserved Areas

Broadband Universal access to all demographics National Comparisons and Industry


Affordability levels Benchmark Rankings

Encouraging Internet users across Digital Economy Index Survey, Digital


Broadband
various sectors (Public, Private, and Government Survey, and E-Government
Usage
Institutional) Surveys on State and national Rankings

Broadband
Supporting the highest speed possible Industry Surveys with Public Validation
Speed

Page 31 of 64
BROADBAND STIMULUS PRIORITIES – NYS TARGET OPPORTUNITIES
Improved broadband capacity and capability across the state will positively impact many areas
of our economy and society. Business applications for reaching new customers and broadening
markets come to mind quickly. But public safety applications are widespread and help protect
citizens. Broadband is extremely important in education and job skills training. Many forms of
entertainment that people and families enjoy and relax with come to us as a result of high speed
Internet.

If the need for affordable broadband is ubiquitous today, what will it be tomorrow? The
following section illustrates examples of how broadband is used in a variety of forms today
and the targeted applications planned for New York State in the future. These applied
applications are the focus of stimulus funding requests for New York State and are grouped in
three broad categories: Broadband Infrastructure Build Out; Digital Literacy and Sustainable
Adoption; and Economic and Workforce Development.

BROADBAND INFRASTRUCTURE BUILD OUT

H OMELAND S ECURITY AND PUBLIC S AFETY I NTEROPERABILITY

Wired and wireless broadband technologies have the


potential to provide first responders across New York
State with anywhere, anytime access to a wide array
of information and data not previously available.
Access to this information will enhance crime fighting,
increase community protection, and improve scene of
incident response by first responders.

As counties upgrade and expand deteriorating


emergency radio networks, systems can be designed
using accepted industry standards for interoperability.
Through gateways counties can connect disparate
technologies across a region to achieve mission critical,
high priority public safety services. A robust broadband
network operating in the background will interconnect
systems and help first responders achieve effective
interoperability – a life saving tool.

Keeping the public informed of emergency situations can

Page 32 of 64
save lives and property. New alert systems can transmit valuable, real-time information to
citizen’s mobile devices. A robust wireless broadband service will support innovative information
sharing applications.

More and more public safety applications are delivered wirelessly and straight to a first
responder’s mobile device -- laptop, PDA, cell phone. Information such as maps, building
diagrams, mug shots, finger prints, and criminal records, medical records, and real-time video can
be transmitted wirelessly. This on-demand service is vital for first responders to respond quickly
to incidents and is possible with a high speed broadband network.

M APPING N EW Y ORK S TATE B ROADBAND C OVERAGE

In 2008, the New York State Broadband Council began an initiative to map broadband
coverage across the entire state. The statewide mapping initiative is designed to determine
where broadband coverage exists and where gaps in urban and rural communities remain so
state and federal broadband funds are focused on unserved and underserved, urban and
rural communities. New York State must enable every citizen and business in every community
to have Internet services for economic development and social well being purposes.

Even though New York may have satisfactory coverage in most urban areas, we have gaps in
some urban and many rural areas. The state still needs to find out if the speeds are too slow in
certain parts of the state, particularly the rural areas to support needed applications and service
levels.

Developing and maintaining an accurate broadband map is a critical component of the New York
State Broadband Strategy to ensure broadband is also delivered to the most underserved and
unserved areas across the state. To develop the map, members from the public and private
sectors who serve on the Infrastructure and Government Initiatives Action Teams of the Council,
joined forces to engage in a process to develop and validate the mapping methodology.

The map will be updated annually, in collaboration with broadband providers, local government
entities and the public, to the street level, so the State can accurately measure broadband access,
availability and adoption rates. Increasing availability, closing all remaining gaps and
ensuring competitive speeds, coupled with high adoption rates, will enable New York State to
recapture and sustain a competitive advantage domestically and globally.

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The predictive model is shown in Figure 5 below. The map shows the availability rates in shaded
colors to show progressive areas of concentration. White areas have no broadband service at all.
Until the map is one dark color, many communities will remain underserved and unserved.

Figure 5: NYS Predicted Availability Broadband Map

NYS Predicted Availability Broadband Map

95-100%
75-95%
50-75%
1-50%
0%
Excluded Areas

Source: NYS Office of Cyber Security & Critical Infrastructure Coordination

Page 34 of 64
“Many of our correctional
facilities are located in -
and many of our staff lives
in - remote areas not
currently served by high
speed universal broadband
Internet. This initiative DIGITAL LITERACY AND SUSTAINABLE ADOPTION
should help not only our
employees, but also the
communities that are home D IGITAL L ITERACY AND R E - ENTRY F ROM C ORRECTIONAL I NSTITUTIONS
to state prisons and
ultimately all of New York The State Department of Corrections proposes to implement an
through technological innovative program designed to promote digital literacy standards for
improvements for prison
programs essential to the all inmates participating in re-entry initiatives. The purpose is to ensure
rehabilitation of inmates.” inmates released from the New York State prison system are trained to use
-- Brian Fischer computer and broadband services to improve their lives and increase their
Commissioner NYS chances for success after being released back to the community. The
Department of Correctional agency estimates up to 1,800 inmates will be trained and certified as
Services and Council
Member digitally literate once the program is fully operational.

The program includes higher-level thinking and analytical skills critical to an


inmate’s understanding of digital literacy, critical thinking, creativity and
innovation, communication and collaboration, technology usage for personal
development, digital citizenship, and ethics. Specific computer skills such as
basic computer knowledge; basic software skills; basic internet
communication and security skills; and wow to effectively use information
will be taught.

Once support structures within the correctional facility are no longer


available, inmates often leave without continuing access to training tools
needed to build successful work skills. An inmate working toward a
graduate equivalency degree may never obtain the credential if prison
release comes before the courses are completed. Through technology,
training experiences can be provided over digital media, where there is no
physical barrier to continuing educational development. This approach
“Digital literacy impacts strengthens re-entry programs. "
our everyday lives from
obtaining the latest news
to banking to searching C OMMUNITY T ECHNOLOGY C ENTERS
and applying for jobs.
Digital literacy training Increasing digital literacy and training programs is critical to achieving
is critical in preparing
users to fully engage the
success. Private or public digital literacy training centers are viewed as
capabilities of the 21st important components to increase broadband demand and technology
century Internet." adoption in the households. The proliferation of centers, which can be a
-- Dr. Joseph Bowman Jr. library, a school, a church, a senior citizen home, a prison, or recreation
Regent, 3rd Judicial District centers should be encouraged, funded, supported and sustained.
Associate Professor
University at Albany
Director
Center for Urban Youth and
Technology,
Council Member

Page 35 of 64
“The vision of
MyBenefits.gov is to
H EALTH AND H UMAN S ERVICES W EB P ORTALS provide a single site for
New York State’s
Expansion of the state’s web portals to deliver families and
community partners to
cost-efficient services is an integral part of the connect with benefits,
broadband strategy to increase digital literacy. services and work
supports – an e-
On the heels of the successful launch of government hub for
MyBenefits.gov, by the Office of Temporary human services …
and Disability Assistance (OTDA), the state will Ultimately,
MyBenefits.gov will
migrate other health and human service agencies to engage constituents who allow individuals and
are least likely to have Internet services. families to learn about
and apply for an array
This portal will be available in Community Technology Centers. Broadband of work supports,
customized to fit their
services that increase demand and digital literacy levels, coupled with job unique circumstances,
creation goals should receive priority in grant funding. Interagency and by answering one set of
simple questions
intergovernmental broadband solutions leverage these assets to expand use online.”
of the Internet for delivering government services should be considered for
future funding. -- David Hansell
Commissioner
NYS Office of
Temporary and
Disability Assistance,
D IGITAL L IBRARY C ENTERS Council Member

Public libraries are among the most


ubiquitous community centers in the
state, reaching far into rural areas and
deep into urban neighborhoods. “Libraries are an
Libraries are an ideal end point for essential resource in
their communities for
distribution of workforce development people seeking jobs,
and other governmental services. accessing public
With trained librarians to guide assistance programs or
looking to improve their
customers, and sufficient bandwidth, libraries can be important delivery computer and literacy
vehicles. skills. The economic
downturn has
Library usage across the nation and the state is up by double digits. A recent highlighted the need to
improve broadband
poll by the New York Library Association showed 80 percent of public capacity – both speed and
libraries have helped a customer look for a job, and 75 percent of public availability at libraries.”
libraries have helped a customer access public assistance over the past three -- Michael Borges
months. Executive Director
New York Library
Historically, library usage tends to increase during tough economic times as Association,
Chair of NYS
families seek to save money by using the free resources. People without Broadband Council
Internet or computers at home use free Internet access and assistance of Digital Literacy Action
library staff to search for jobs and new careers, access public assistance Team, Council Member

Page 36 of 64
“We need to use stimulus
dollars in a strategic way to programs, or enroll in computer and digital literacy classes to improve their
maximize their impact on employability.
job creation and economic
growth. I believe fostering
broadband development Since public libraries have a presence in almost all communities across the
and making it accessible to
more New Yorkers will
state, and in recognition of their expertise in providing information and
allow businesses to expand capacity to serve diverse populations, state agencies can officially engage
into new markets and or “deputize” public libraries to supplement the state’s efforts to serve the
communities to grow.”
unemployed and disadvantaged population.
-- Anthony Giardina
Assistant Secretary for
Economic Development and
Upstate Recovery ECONOMIC AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT
NYS Executive Chamber

E CONOMIC D EVELOPMENT

Nations, states, and communities are rapidly coming to the understanding


that broadband deployment is critical for success in the “new economy,” and
those who do not have access to adequate broadband service will lag
behind.

Because many communities, businesses and residents are burdened from


being unserved or underserved, and because broadband deployment ends
up being a regional and local infrastructure issue, a survey was conducted
to provide an understanding of how economic developers think
broadband is serving (or not serving) communities, and how broadband
impacts economic development opportunities. The survey was
implemented with the support of Empire State Development Corp. (ESD) and
the New York State Economic Development Council.
“The Department of Labor
is proud to be a partner in States and the federal government realize broadband is critical to achieve
this initiative. By bridging
the digital divide and
and sustain a competitive position in the new economy. The new economy is
providing more technology not in technology industries, and research and development sectors alone,
training, we will develop a but consists of a much broader array of businesses.
highly skilled workforce
that is better able to meet
the needs of employers The academic and research prowess in New York must embrace deployment
competing in today's global of the most advanced broadband systems if New York State hopes to retain
economy.” existing companies and recruit new ones. Many companies indicate
--Mario Musolino broadband service is as important as conventional infrastructure such as
Executive Deputy water and sewer when deciding to locate or relocate a business.
Commissioner
NYS Department of Labor
and Council Member W ORKFORCE D EVELOPMENT

One-Stop Centers, operated by the New York State Department of Labor,


are the community focal points for access to career services for the

Page 37 of 64
underemployed and unemployed. There are currently 600,000 customers registered with the
One-Stop system in the state.

The recent downturn in the economy has resulted in a doubling of the number of Unemployment
Insurance (UI) customers coming into One-Stop Centers. In December 2008, more than 45,000
customers attended scheduled appointments at One-Stop Centers.

In many local areas, the One-Stop Center Resource Room is the only
Internet access available for customers to apply for unemployment
insurance benefits, perform job searches, write resumes, apply for jobs
using the Internet; access customized online training, and access supportive
services from a wide range of public and private resources.

The implementation of broadband service delivery approaches in the


centers across the state is crucial in preparing the workforce for jobs in
advanced manufacturing, nanotechnology and other technology-based
industries. These industries represent the foundation for New York to
regain a competitive advantage in global markets. High speed broadband will increase
efficiency in searching for and applying for jobs online at the centers. Search engines and job
applications will load and run faster resulting in more customers able to use the resource rooms.
Through videoconferencing, career development services can be delivered to multiple centers
simultaneously and interactively at a lower cost of operation. Fewer state staff can reach a
greater number of customers, delivering career counseling services and skills workshops.

The implementation of videoconferencing combined with improved broadband capability will


greatly increase the availability of services to much larger numbers of customers without
increasing staff. This approach will turn One-Stop Centers into technological hubs where
community members can access the latest technology to receive high quality workforce
development services. Exposure to advanced technologies would further reinforce the need for
customers to begin training now for the jobs of the future.

W ORKFORCE D EVELOPMENT T HROUGH G AMING

Though many people feel playing computer games is an activity of young


people, the generation of gamers has now reached middle age adults
who first used computer games fifteen and twenty years ago. Gaming is
widely known to be an effective online learning tool if the
entertainment content is as high as the knowledge content. It is
estimated 90% of students at all ability levels can rapidly acquire
knowledge through gaming. Computer games oriented to workforce
development job readiness and job skills have immense potential for both
effectiveness and reach.

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The New York State Department of Labor plans to develop a career exploration game. Gamers
can bring knowledge already acquired in their real lives to participate in online micro-
courses. Gamers will acquire real knowledge needed to solve puzzles embedded in the game.
For instance, to learn to simulate construction of an online bridge to cross a digital river, a gamer
can take a micro-course in structural geometry. The gaming experience would be directly
connected to real world acquisition of credentials leading to good jobs with career ladders.
Broadband access makes it possible to develop these skills anywhere at any time.

T ELEWORK AND D ISTANCE L EARNING

Geography can be as much a barrier to finding quality jobs or learning as anything else.
Technology that is easily available can enable telework, or the completion of computer-supported
jobs from a location apart from a business’s primary physical location. Once enabled, telework
does not discriminate on the location of business and employee. Many small to mid-sized
businesses have begun experimenting with telework to expand their labor pools and attract a
different breed of worker.

From remote parts of the state, telework can provide an ideal


way for students to participate in internships at another part of
the state. For instance, a college student in Potsdam, New York
could participate in an internship in New York City without ever
traveling to Manhattan. There is a wide assortment of online
collaboration tools to build a virtual workplace where interns
and employers can interact. Through low-risk intern situations,
employers can become comfortable with telework as a means to
grow their businesses and improve general labor market fluidity.

S OCIAL N ETWORKING

Social networking has become very popular for its personal


and professional interaction. The technology is focused on
building, verifying and sustaining online social networks for
communities of people who share interests and activities, or who
are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others.
Web 2.0 tools to enable social networking, require broadband
services to connect individuals and entire communities.

Page 39 of 64
V IRTUAL M EETING P LACES

A keystone of geographically collocated workers is their ability to interact on demand to


discuss work issues, collaboratively solve problems, exchange general information, and
simultaneously receive instruction. Certainly virtual environments are not to the point where
they are equal to the live presence of individuals. However, tools available in cyber locales can
go far to simulate the traditional workplace. Among these tools are:

• Textual Discussion Forums;


• Video Conferencing (Including One-To-One Video Chat);
• Audio Conferencing (Including One-To-One Audio Chat);
• Collaborative Editing;
• Document Exchange Platforms and Shared File Space; and
• Archival Document Repositories.

D IGITAL C OURT H EARINGS

One of the fundamental characteristics of American


jurisprudence is to have courts located in communities so
citizens are not disadvantaged in their effort to obtain due
process simply because they must travel to a court center in
a capital city. The cost of distributing courts to communities is
costly. Through videoconferencing technologies, and the
high speed broadband that supports it, any citizen can
find access to legal procedures and resources established to conduct fair hearings and
administer justice.

T ELEMEDICINE , T ELEPSYCHIATRY AT F AMILY AND C HILDREN ’ S I NSTITUTIONS

Advanced broadband networks offer extraordinary opportunities to extend


medical and social services expertise in primary health care facilities to
secondary and tertiary facilities linked to other primary centers by
advanced networks. Broadband provides the opportunity to extend
healthcare delivery (e.g. monitoring and digital “house calls”) to homes with
sufficient broadband.

The ability to bring world class medical expertise to all areas of the State
begins to balance the medical care and social services disparity in rural
and urban regions. Broadband breaks down these significant barriers by
allowing patients and families located in rural communities throughout the state to receive the
same quality of care as those in larger more affluent communities. In addition to health care
services, the business side of heath care can allow specialists to practice from anywhere at any
time and reside where they see fit while still being able to participate with world-class institutions

Page 40 of 64
“The use of broadband
can dramatically change
the way New York State
agencies communicate
information to the people. located in urban areas of the state. Concurrently, giving the ability to
Technologies like Web 2.0
have provided an
telecommute can give specialists and social workers a better quality of life
opportunity to increase in New York’s efforts to retain top talent.
visibility in health
education allowing us to Higher Education Research, Development, and Commercialization
deliver a compelling and
engaging message to a
broad audience using New York State enjoys extraordinary higher education institutions engaged
video.” in research and development initiatives. Consortia of academic institutions
working with public and private partners are engaged in the latest
-- Dr. Richard F. Daines
Commissioner technological research and development initiatives. This idea engine of
NYS Department of enormous power is a crucial tool for revitalizing New York and the U.S.
Health Council Member economy, an impact that we can enhance by accelerating the
commercialization of research and development projects.

New York’s major academic institutions benefit from high capacity, high
speed broadband network resources with capacities up to a million
times that of domestic broadband. Extending that kind of robust
networking capacity to all the state’s institutions of innovation will increase
the “speed-to-market of the ideas and innovations they generate, and will
foster collaborative research across the country and across the globe.

For New York to remain a leader attracting federal research dollars it must
be closely aligned with the federal government’s goal and objectives for its
programs. By making necessary improvements to our current research
network infrastructure and staying ahead of the curve on strategic
mandates of federal research agencies, New York research universities will
“The use of broadband have a considerable advantage in leveraging federal research dollars.
has a profound impact on
colleges and universities In keeping with this premise, New York State is home to major
across New York State supercomputing centers, e.g., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s
and plays an integral
role in enriching today's Computational Center for Nanotechnology Innovations, Stony Brook/
college environment. Brookhaven National Lab, and the University at Buffalo. Leveraging
Broadband keeps
education and project
existing infrastructure and connecting “last mile” systems with high
funding information speed broadband will enable New York to create jobs as a result of
within easy reach of accelerated research and commercialization initiatives.
students and faculty,
provides for speedier
access to educational B ROADBAND IN THE A RTS
research, and allows for
the faster exchange of New York State has a long history of supporting arts and
ideas and information cultural endeavors. The tradition would be further
campus wide.”
enhanced, and New York’s cultural economy stimulated,
-- James Ross
with a greater understanding that the arts economy is
President NYS Higher also a place where global competition is serious
Education Services business. Whether it is animation in movies, high
Corporation
Page 41 of 64
definition television or new audio resonance systems, consumers constantly seek greater
entertainment experiences. Technology applications in the visual and audio arts are numerous.
Broadband technologies will create a limitless canvass for the creative minds.

FEDERAL STIMULUS PROGRAMS


The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009, referred to the as the Stimulus Act,
provides unprecedented opportunities to accelerate the build out of
broadband infrastructure; to stimulate demand for online services; and to
encourage development of digital literacy programs to increase
adoption.

Unlike some countries, there is no formal national broadband policy for


the United States. The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) is
addressing this void and plans to develop a national plan by 2010. Currently, the country lags
behind many other nations who do have a policy for broadband availability, affordability, and
speed. The Stimulus Act has been described by President Barack Obama and Congress, as a
‘down payment’ in several key areas of infrastructure build out. As such, the established
criteria and goals stated as eligibility and considerations for grant funding can be described as
the initial framework for a National Broadband Policy to be defined as stipulated in the
legislation.

GOALS OF THE BROADBAND STIMULUS PROVISIONS


The five stated goals for the stimulus broadband grant provisions in the American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act include:

• Closing the broadband gap across the United States, extending access to users in
rural and urban, underserved, and remote areas;
• Stimulating investment in broadband infrastructure and training programs;
• Creating jobs to deploy and support broadband services;
• Ensuring schools, universities, libraries, community centers, job training centers,
hospitals and other institutions have high-speed Internet access; and
• Encouraging the rapid deployment of applications which increase demand for
broadband capabilities.

The five strategic goals are aligned with the New York State Universal Broadband Strategy as
outlined in Table 3 below. As shown, there is close alignment between federal and state goals.

Page 42 of 64
Table 3: NYS Goal Alignment With FCC/NTIA/USDA Goals

NYS Goal Alignment with FCC/NTIA/USDA Goals

FCC/NTIA/USDA Broadband Goal NYS Broadband Goal

Broaden the deployment of high-speed Ensure all New Yorkers have universal
broadband access to schools, universities, broadband access anytime, from anywhere,
libraries, community centers, job-training by anyone
centers, hospitals, and public safety personnel
to close broadband gaps
Encourage demand for broadband Adopt platform-neutral position and ensure
maximum technologies to accelerate
broadband build out and adoption

Ensure harmonized regulatory treatment of Adopt net neutrality position to provide for
competing broadband services maximum competition for providers to create a
level-playing field and encourage investments
in underserved and unserved areas

Encourage and facilitate an environment that Implement policies and strategies that incent
stimulates investment and innovation in public and private providers to accelerate
broadband technologies and services. broadband build out and seek to increase
digital literacy to increase household and
business “take rates.”

Create jobs Build the workforce of tomorrow

F EDERAL B ROADBAND S TIMULUS P ROGRAMS

The National Telecommunications Information Association (NTIA), within the U.S. Department of
Commerce, manages the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP), of which $4.2
billion is available to state and political subdivisions, municipalities, and private entities, if they
meet the requirements of being in the public interest. The United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) is the administrator of a Rural Broadband Grant Program (RUS) of which $2.8 billion is
available for projects providing service to underserved and unserved, rural areas. (Please see
the NTIA and RUS Fact Sheets in the Appendix.)

New York State CIO/OFT, in partnership with the NYS Public Service Commission (PSC), and
the NYS Foundation for Research Technology and Innovation (NYSTAR), are leading New
York State’s efforts to ensure stimulus funds align with federal guidelines and the state’s
broadband strategy to meet the goals of the stimulus bill.

Page 43 of 64
The New York State broadband stimulus website is available at:
http://www.nysbroadband.ny.gov/ to educate citizens on broadband provisions contained in
the federal legislation. Information about both broadband programs is available and updated
as provided by the federal government and the state.

Since the passage of the Stimulus Act, Governor David A. Paterson’s Recovery Cabinet has
captured and recorded hundreds of broadband requests from across the state. A majority of
requests are to extend broadband for “last and middle mile” deployments. These are areas
needing broadband connections from a street, a household, a business or an organization. Based
on the NTIA and USDA broadband eligibility criteria, public and private entities can apply
directly for funds to build out broadband infrastructure. Eligible entities can also apply for
training programs to increase adoption rates and demand.

R ECOMMENDED R OLE OF THE S TATES

The New York State Universal Broadband Strategy is based on the principle of optimizing
community-based public/private partnerships for sustained broadband capabilities and
programs.

The NYS Broadband Strategy also requires matching funds at the local level, by public and
private partners, to ensure local ownership of deploying and maintaining infrastructures for
projects granted state or federal funds. This approach is consistent with the federal guidelines.

The Council believes the state is best positioned to coordinate and provide technical program
oversight for the projects, as directed and awarded by NTIA and USDA. Because the state,
working through the Broadband Council, is aware of initiatives across the state, the risk of
redundant and inefficient funding is minimized. The state can ensure accountability and providing
transparency, key tenets of the Stimulus Act. This approach affords uniformity and
standardization of project implementation and reporting requirements, as required by state and
federal priorities. This position is consistent with the National Governors Association (NGA)
and the National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO).

U NDERSERVED AND U NSERVED C OMMUNITIES

While the mere availability of broadband Internet services remains the obvious impediment to the
sustainable adoption of broadband to citizens across the state, availability to the unserved is not
the only obstacle. There remains an element of the population who has access to broadband
services, but does not choose to use the services. Thus, the low adoption rates in New York
State.

Page 44 of 64
This underserved population is more difficult to measure, and more complex to analyze. Many
independent organizations have conducted surveys on broadband Internet “take rates” to
measure the adoption of broadband services, where it is available. Through these surveys we
can identify some of the impediments to the adoption of broadband Internet services. While not
ignoring the issue of access to the network infrastructure, issues such as affordability,
perceived lack of compelling value, lack of access to devices, and security are high on the list
of impediments to adoption. (Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2008) These underserved
populations are a priority for funding.

Page 45 of 64
Page 46 of 64
Table 4: Quick Facts About the Broadband Stimulus Programs

American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) Broadband Provisions Comparison


Quick Facts About the Broadband Stimulus Programs
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
Rural Utilities Services (RUS) Broadband Program
Broadband Program
$4.7 Billion – NTIA Broadband Technology Opportunities Program. (The Federal share of
$2.5 Billion –Broadband Loans and Grants for Rural all projects shall not exceed 80%, a local match of 20% is required unless financial need
Funding Areas is demonstrated and the Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Commerce grants
a waiver.)

$3.89B For Competitive Broadband Grants


$350M For the Data Improvement Act, and Development of a National
No specific breakdowns. Funding will be provided with a Broadband Map
mix of loans and grants. $250M For Adoption of Broadband Service Grants
$200M For Expanding Public Computer Capacity Grants
$ 10M For Audits and Oversight Administration

Unserved: Not Defined


75% of area to be served must be rural without sufficient Underserved: Not Defined. Indicates considerations such as more than one provider,
Geography
access to broadband. stimulating demand, increasing adoption rates, and increased
affordability.
Technology Neutral. More consideration will be given to grant applications that provide
Speed Provisions Technology Neutral. No minimum speed requirements.
the greatest broadband speeds possible to the greatest population of users.
None specified. A joint application process and alignment
All NTIA awards must be made by the end of fiscal year 2010. Projects must be
Funding Dates with the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program
completed within 2 years of receiving the grant award.
(BTOP) grant program is planned.
Agriculture Secretary will submit report detailing planned Grant recipients must submit quarterly reports which will be made public regarding the
Oversight and
spending obligations no later than 90 days after use of the grant funds, and progress. Projects not meeting objectives can have funding
Reporting
enactment. revoked and committed to new grant applicants. Searchable public database of grant
awardees and projects will be established.

Grant Goals and The purpose of the program is to provide broadband education, awareness, training,
Priority will be given to applications for broadband access, equipment, and support to:
Provisions
systems delivering end users a choice of more than one
• Schools, Libraries, Healthcare Providers, and Universities
service provider.
• Organizations and Agencies that provide support to Low-income, Unemployed,
Aged, or Otherwise Vulnerable Populations

Page 47 of 64
• Job-Creating Facilities located within a State-designated Economic Zone
Priority will be given to projects that provide service to the
The purpose of the program is to improve use of broadband services by public safety
highest proportion of rural residents who do not have
agencies.
broadband services.
The purpose of the program is to stimulate the demand for broadband, economic growth,
and job creation.
Eligible applicants include the following:
Priority will be given to borrowers or former borrowers • State or Political Subdivisions
under Title II of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 and
Eligible Entities
for applications that include such borrowers or former • Non-profit Foundations, Corporations, Institutions, or Associations
borrowers. • Any Other Entities, including Broadband Service or Infrastructure Providers in
which the Assistant Secretary of Commerce rules to be in the public interest.
If the applicant is a state entity, the application must provide the source of the
appropriate 20% match of the total project cost.
Grants may be made for equipment acquisition, instrumentation, networking capability,
hardware and software, digital network technology, and infrastructure for broadband
services.
Grants may be made to construct and deploy broadband service related infrastructure.

Grants may be made to ensure access to broadband services by community anchor


institutions.

Other Factors Not less than one grant shall be awarded to each state.
Consideration for grant approval should be made with regard to whether completion of
the project would increase affordability of and subscribership to the greatest number of
people.
Applications supporting projects which provide the greatest broadband speed possible
will be given more consideration.
Applications supporting projects which enhance service for health care delivery,
education, or children will be given more consideration.
Applications from entities that are a socially and economically disadvantaged small
business concerns will be given more consideration.

Page 48 of 64
OPITIMIZING FEDERAL BROADBAND STIMULUS FUNDING

T HREE -A GENCY P ARTNERSHIP

CIO/OFT is the lead agency for implementing the New York State Broadband Stimulus
Program. Partnering with CIO/OFT is the New York State Public Service Commissioner (PSC)
and the New York State Foundation for Research, Technology and Innovation (NYSTAR) to
ensure all aspects are well evaluated and integrated into the State’s approach. This
interagency approach is necessary to ensure the most appropriate agencies are working
collaboratively to oversee the many aspects of the State’s broadband strategy.

This three-agency partnership is jointly performing the following responsibilities:

• Preparing joint responses to the FCC/NTIA and USDA Request for Information (RFI)
Comments;
• Conducting joint information sessions with the key stakeholders;
• Authoring and distributing online newsletters and websites;
• Holding individual broadband provider meetings to solicit comments and suggestions
for enhancing the NYS Broadband Strategy and for advocating state and national
policy;
• Capturing broadband project requests to ensure strategic alignment and compliance
with federal guidelines;
• Preparing joint progress reports to the Governor’s Recovery Cabinet to ensure
progress, accountability and transparency, as required by state and federal
requirements;
• Mapping broadband coverage across the state; and
• Administering and monitoring grant programs as required by federal guidelines.

CIO/OFT, PSC, and NYSTAR are working with NYS Council for Universal Broadband and
other state institutions and businesses to ensure maximization of federal stimulus funding to
achieve the goals of the federal broadband provisions. The Council ensures alignment with
the NYS Broadband Strategy.

The State is best equipped to ensure funds are leveraged across the State to foster sustainable
public/private partnerships which are community based with local support and matched funding.

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A NNUAL F UNDING OF B ROADBAND P ROGRAMS

While federal funding and other grant opportunities can provide


money for the foundations of a state broadband program,
maintaining a stable broadband infrastructure requires sustainable
annual funding. Securing funding can only be accomplished through
universal fund legislation, or other recurrent and sustained funding
sources. This funding is used for continuing digital literacy programs,
sustaining high adoption rates, and stimulating the demand for
Internet applications.

Also, consumer education programs to increase demand and increase


household adoption rates must be continuously funded until New York
State recaptures a global competitiveness position. This will continue
to be an ongoing challenge as governmental entities face budget
deficits. Supplemental funding strategies will be pursued.

B ROADBAND G OVERNANCE T IMETABLE

The NYS Broadband Stimulus Program Office, a subgroup of the


Governor’s Recovery Cabinet, is the support and planning group for
the Broadband Stimulus program of New York State. The Broadband
Stimulus Group is accountable to the Governor’s Recovery Cabinet for
results and progress monitoring. The major activities which must be
implemented to effectively govern broadband stimulus projects are
shown in the Figure 6 below. As shown, the major activities at the
onset of the Stimulus Act focused on organizing resources; establishing
the Broadband Program Office; capturing broadband project
requests across the state; and conducting information sessions around
the state to increase awareness. Current focus centers on preparation
for the RFP to be issued by NTIA and RUS Programs.

New York State's Broadband Stimulus Strategy is a comprehensive


plan involving a set of infrastructure projects, complemented by digital literacy educational
program development, and comprehensive oversight by the NYS Council for Universal Broadband
supported by the Broadband Stimulus Program Office.

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Figure 6: Broadband Governance Timetable

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APPENDICES

NYS COUNCIL FOR UNIVERSAL BROADBAND ACTION TEAMS

B ROADBAND I NFRASTRUCTURE A CCESS A CTION T EAM

Purpose: The Broadband Infrastructure Action focuses on identifying and mapping the state’s
baseline areas with and without broadband access infrastructures. This mapping effort focused on
unserved and underserved rural and urban communities and includes existing and planned state-
owned networks. The team mobilizes private, public and academic expertise to implement
innovative technologies for delivering cost-effective and reliable broadband Internet services.

Action Team Leadership

Chair: Dr. Timothy Lance, President and Chairman, NYSERNET


Vice Chairs: Sharon Cates-Williams, NYS Deputy CIO
John Kolb, VP and CIO, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Computational Center for
Nanotechnology and Innovation
Goals:
• Collaborate with providers to map New York State to identify gaps in broadband
coverage;
• Foster public and private partnerships to build out broadband infrastructure by
leveraging and sharing existing and new assets in underserved urban and rural
communities; and
• Develop strategies and recommendations to effectively incent the provider community to
invest and accelerate broadband infrastructure build out.

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2008 Achievements
• Launched broadband mapping initiative for New York State to indentify unserved and
underserved rural and urban broadband coverage.

Broadband Impact Objectives


• The Network Infrastructure Action team set a graduated list of broadband speed goals in
2008. These goals focus on achieving average network connectivity speed of at least 1
Mbps in each direction, and in the Digital Corridor, achieve average speed of at least 20
Mbps in each direction by 2010. By 2015, achieve network connectivity speed of at least
20 Mbps in each direction.
• By 2015 in the Digital Corridor, the State will achieve an average speed of at least 100
Mbps in each direction. Finally, by 2010, New York State will achieve #1 ranking in
median broadband Internet access speed, up from the current #4 ranking.

Change in Statewide Broadband Coverage Rates


• By 2010, New York State will achieve an average statewide coverage rate of 80% in
populated areas.
• By 2015, New York State will achieve an average statewide coverage rate of 90% in
populated areas.

2009 Priorities
• Formalize NYS broadband availability map to leverage federal stimulus funding; and
• Implement a strategy to build out NYS broadband network.

D IGITAL L ITERACY AND C OMMUNITY O UTREACH A CTION T EAM

Purpose: The Digital Literacy and Community Outreach Action Team focuses on programs to
address affordability, computer ownership and adoption,
digital literacy, and consumer education. The team focuses on
proficiency training, explores computer procurement
incentives and programs to raise awareness and educate
citizens about the benefits and use of broadband to improve
quality of life.

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Action Team Leadership

Chair: Michael Borges, Executive Director, NY Library Association


Vice Chairs: Dr. Joseph Bowman, Member, New York State Board of Regents
Gail Brewer, Councilwoman, New York City
Goals:
• Recommend a statewide digital literacy proficiency standard for state adoption by
schools and other digital literacy entities; and
• Develop strategies for state and local programs to increase consumer education to
increase technology adoption in underserved communities.

2008 Achievements
• Developed digital literacy standards to encourage Internet use by underserved
populations and communities. The plan encouraged the use of the Internet and training on
proper use; and
• Developed consumer education proposal.

Broadband Impact Objectives


• The availability of online applications and services on the Internet is necessary to sustain
demand for broadband access. A citizenry that is trained to leverage technology and
Internet applications not only increases individual health and well-being, but spurs
economic development, job creation, and a healthy environment.
• To meet the goals of sustainable adoption of broadband and increased demand for
online services, the Digital Literacy Action Team aspires to achieve the following goals.

Change in Community Internet Use


• By 2010, New York State will be ranked in the top 25, compared to the current 35th.
• By 2012, New York State will be ranked in the top 20, compared to the current 35th.

Change in Technology Usage in School


• By 2010, New York State will be ranked in the top 25, compared to the current 36th.
• By 2012, New York State will be ranked in the top 20, compared to the current 36th.

2009 Priorities
• Ensure digital literacy and educational programs remain a priority to leverage available
federal stimulus funding; and
• Forge partnerships between state educational institutions, provider communities and local
school districts for workforce training and educating our students.

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E-G OVERNMENT A PPLICATIONS FOR L OW -I NCOME H OUSEHOLDS A CTION T EAM

Purpose: The E-Government Initiatives Action Team focuses on low-income and rural households.
This action team focuses on improving and increasing access to e-
government services. The team promotes the development of open,
simple, and secure online applications with measurable outcomes.
“Early adopter” government services focusing on low-income and
rural households have been identified as priorities and are being
integrated into digital learning programs.

Action Team Leadership


Chair: Dr. Daniel Chan, CIO, NYS Office of Temporary and Disability Assistance
Vice Chairs: Ed Hemminger, CIO Ontario County and President, NYSLGITDA
Patrick Hooker, Commissioner, NYS Department of Agriculture and Markets
Goals
• Launch myBenefits.gov health and human services web portal;
• Develop a set of best practices to identify and assist e-government applications for
successful community outreach; and
• Integrate early adopter e-government applications into digital literacy training programs
in local communities.

2008 Achievements
• Developed early adopter e-government applications into training curriculum for local
technology centers;
• Developed self-paced training for select e-government applications; and
• Identified state government services to include in digital literacy training.

Broadband Impact Objectives


• By 2010, increase overall eFood Stamps and eHEAP enrollment by 15% over the 2007
baseline level, with at least 20% of the applications submitted via Internet.
• By 2012, increase overall eFood Stamps and eHEAP enrollment by 30% over the 2007
baseline level, with at least 30% of the applications submitted via Internet.
• By 2015, 60% of eFood Stamps and eHEAP applications should be submitted online.

2009 Priorities
• Expand myBenefits.gov health and human services web portal; and
• Leverage existing e-government applications to enlist the next wave of state government
agencies and services and integrate into digital literacy training programs.

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E CONOMIC D EVELOPMENT AND IT W ORKFORCE D EVELOPMENT A CTION T EAM

Purpose: The Economic Development and IT Workforce Development Action Team focuses on
building stronger economies and promoting the economic
growth of New York State. This will be accomplished by
increasing business activity, identifying and implementing
public/private partnerships, and developing strategies to
create and maintain a skilled and professional workforce
by leveraging broadband to accelerate job creation in
unserved and underserved communities.

Action Team Leadership


Chair: Robert McNary, Regional Director of the Finger Lakes Office, Empire State
Development Corporation
Vice Chairs: Mario Musolino, Executive Deputy Commissioner, NYS Department of Labor
Howard Lowe, Director of Technical Assistance Center, SUNY Plattsburgh
Goals
• Work with communities to develop and implement a consumer education plan;
• Define and implement workforce development system to produce a skilled IT workforce
with broadband technology as its chief delivery mechanism; and
• Facilitate coordination between trained broadband workers and economic development
opportunities.

2008 Achievements
• Conducted a statewide survey of economic development organizations, regarding
broadband deployment in communities across the state to assess the perceived impact on
economic development opportunities; and
• Evaluated preliminary funding sources for broadband system deployment and identified
specific economic development opportunities.

Broadband Impact Objectives


• The action team aims to deliver a blueprint or model for how broadband system
deployment can benefit economic development sectors in targeted areas such as
advanced manufacturing, home-based businesses, downtown revitalization, and retention
of young professionals.
• The action team will recommend programs and policies to accelerate broadband
infrastructure build out and digital literacy programs to attract and retain technology
companies and a skilled workforce.

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2009 Priorities
• Implement a statewide consumer education program;
• Champion private-public partnership to stimulate the economy; and
• Optimize stimulus funding for workforce training programs under the ARRA Act of 2009.

G OVERNMENTAL I NITIATIVES A CTION T EAM

Purpose: In partnership with the Broadband Infrastructure Action Team, the Government Initiatives
Action Team focuses on optimizing existing public assets and
locally-based initiatives to increase broadband penetration
and use. Additionally, this team is charged with monitoring
federal, state and local government initiatives, and making
recommendations for future state or federal policy, legislation,
or other regulatory advocacy objectives which are aligned
with the NYS broadband strategy.

Action Team Leadership


Chair: Edward Reinfurt, Executive Director, NYS Foundation for Science, Technology and
Innovation
Vice Chairs: Stephen Acquario, Executive Director, NYS Association of Counties
Peter Baynes, Executive Director, NY Conference of Mayors
Goals
• Foster interagency, intergovernmental partnerships to share public and locally-based
assets to increase broadband penetration;
• Engage local and regional communities to create strategies to impact policy development
at the local, state and federal levels;
• Provide advocacy functions with legislative leadership to adopt policies and legislation to
accelerate achieving broadband goals of speed, coverage, affordability, and
accessibility;
• Explore national and global strategies to benchmark policies for obtaining and achieving
global competitiveness through policy development and adoption; and
• Develop future funding recommendations to ensure broadband strategic goals and
targets can be achieved and sustained.

2008 Achievements
• Identified and reported on major state and federal policies which impact broadband; and

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• Fostered communication between regional communities, municipalities and state and
federal government to collaborate for mapping strategy.

Broadband Impact Objectives


• The Government Initiatives Team presented major policy issues to the Council in 2008. By
2010, the team plans to have recommendations enacted with a 2015 goal to achieve a
global broadband leadership position.

2009 Priorities
• Collaborate with local, state and federal leaders to adopt state and federal legislation to
achieve NYS broadband strategy goals;
• Establish state broadband strategies to benchmark policies to achieve global
competiveness; and
• Advocate maximizing stimulus funding.

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BROADBAND AROUND THE GLOBE

• Internet speeds are slower and prices are higher when compared to other
industrialized nations in the
world – the U.S. broadband
service is twice as expensive as
China, eight times more
expensive than South Korea, and
30 times more expensive than
Japan.

• The median U.S. download


speed now is 1.97 megabits
per second (Mbps) – a fraction
of Japan (61 Mbps), South
Korea (45 Mbps), France (17
Mbps) or Canada (7 Mbps).

• For $30 per month, Japanese


consumers can get 50 Mbps per
month, a speed which is not
available to residential
consumers in the U.S. For the
same amount of money, U.S.
consumers can only get up to 4
Mbps per month.

• Widespread adoption of
broadband in the U.S. could add $500 billion to the nation’s economy and create 1
million jobs.

• The cost of not establishing universal broadband could be $1 trillion over the next
decade.

• The U.S. remains the only major industrialized nation without an explicit national
policy for promoting broadband access.

• Canada, which has mostly rural communities, has a broadband penetration above
50%, which is twice the rate in upstate New York.

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BROADBAND IN NEW YORK STATE

• Two-thirds of those living in New York City do not have affordable high-speed
Internet access.6

• Only 4.1million of the 7 million residential households (58.3%) in New


York State currently subscribe to high speed Internet
service. Broadband is currently available to another
40% of households or 98.3% total. However, 40%
have not yet chosen to subscribe.7

• High speed Internet use in New York State grew 55% between December
2005 and December 2006.

• Within New York State, digital subscriber line (DSL) service is available to 78% of the
state’s residential households, just below the national average of 79%.

• DSL technology serves 1.1 million of the 5.6 million total residential and commercial
broadband customers in New York State.

• High speed cable modem broadband Internet is available to about 96% of residential
households in New York State. Cable modem broadband service accounts for 2.9
million of 5.6 million or 52% of the total residential and commercial broadband
customers in the state.8

• New York is ranked 4th in median broadband Internet access speed, preceded by Rhode
Island (1st), Kansas (2nd), and New Jersey (3rd).9

6
Areas like Hunts Point, Sunset Park and Red Hook do not even have affordable access beyond a dial-up connection and the State has not had a
comprehensive plan to address this gap. “Universal Broadband Access” Speech by Eliot Spitzer May 15, 2006 at the Personal Democracy Forum
Conference, New York, NY.
7
Source: NYS PSC and High-Speed Services for Internet Access: Status as of December 30, 2006, FCC Industry Analysis and Technology Division –
Wireline Competition Bureau, October 31, 2007. Also note that FCC figures show a total of 1.5 million commercial broadband users within NYS in
addition to the 4.1 million residential customers for a total of 5.6 million. Number of occupied residential New York State households (7.088
million) from U.S. Census Bureau – 2006 American Survey Data.
8
Source: NYS PSC and High-Speed Services for Internet Access: Status as of June 30, 2006, FCC Industry Analysis and Technology Division –
Wireline Competition Bureau, January 2007. Also note that FCC totals for every state include other technologies such as traditional wire line, fiber,
fixed wireless as well as satellite and wireless services that they do not enumerate separately on a state by state basis. However in the case of New York
State satellite and mobile are significant and do account for approximately 900,000 of the state’s broadband users according to the FCC.
9
Source: Communications of America (CWA) Communications Broadband Group, “Speed Matters” (June, 2007). A report of 80,000 broadband
users which ranks United State on median download speeds, U.S.A Today. NYS download median speed is 3.436 Mbps.

Page 60 of 64
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROGRAM FACT SHEET (NTIA)
Federal Agency U.S. Department of Commerce;
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)

Description Broadband grant program to expand high-speed Internet access in unserved and
underserved communities.

Funding Available $4.7 Billion

Funding Ratio 80% - Federal; 20% - State/Local/Private (non-Federal Funds)*

• First round grant availability will be out in the April to June of 2009
Key Dates/Time • Second round will be October to December of 2009; Third round will be April to
Limit June of 2010
• All grant awards must be made by the end of fiscal year 2010
• Projects must be substantially completed within 2 years of receiving award

Information For further information, visit NTIA’s website www.ntia.doc.gov/broadbandgrants


or the USDA website www.rurdev.usda.gov/index.html

• State or Political Subdivision


Who Is Eligible to • Non-profit Foundations, Corporations, Institutions, or Associations
Apply? • Any other entity, including a broadband service or infrastructure provider the
Assistant Secretary finds by rule to be in the public interest

• To provide broadband service to unserved and underserved areas of the United


Program Goals States
• To provide broadband education, awareness, training, access, equipment, and
support to: schools, libraries, healthcare providers, and universities; organizations
and agencies that provide support to low income; unemployed, aged, or
otherwise vulnerable populations; facilities located within a state-designated
economic zone
• To improve the use of broadband service by public safety agencies; and
• To stimulate the demand for broadband, economic growth, and job creation

• Increases affordability and broadband subscribership and adoption


Evaluation Criteria • Provides the greatest broadband speed possible
• Enhances service for health care delivery, education, or children
• If approved, will not result in unjust enrichment as a result of support for non-
recurring costs through another Federal program; and
• Application comes from an economically disadvantaged small business concern

Projects funded under the National Telecommunications and Information


Restrictions Administration (NTIA) Broadband Technology Opportunities Program
may not receive funding from the Rural Broadband Grant program of USDA.

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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM FACT SHEET (RUS)
Federal United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Utilities Services (RUS)
Agency

Funding $2.5 Billion

Key Dates/ Not specified


Time Limit

Information For further information, visit NTIA’s website, www.ntia.doc.gov/broadbandgrants or the


USDA website www.rurdev.usda.gov/index.html

Who Is Public and private entities (for-profit, not-for-profit, or institutions) that provide
Eligible to telephone or broadband services in rural areas.
Apply?

Program To provide broadband service to areas classified as being located in a rural area.
Goals

What is a A rural area is defined by the USDA, as being an area of the United States that is not
Rural Area? contained in an incorporated city or town with a population in excess of 20,000
inhabitants.

• At least 75% of the area to be served is in a rural area without sufficient access to
high speed broadband service to facilitate rural economic development
Evaluation • Project applications for broadband systems must deliver end users a choice of more
Criteria than one service provider
• Projects with highest proportion of rural residents that do not have access to
broadband service
• Projects from borrowers or former borrowers under Title II of the Rural Electrification
Act of 1936.
• Projects that demonstrate, if approved all proposed project elements will be fully
funded
• Project applications for activities that can be 100% completed if requested funds are
provided
• Projects that can commence promptly upon approval

• Projects funded under the Rural Broadband Grant Program may not receive funding
from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), who will
Restrictions administer the program.

• Projects funded under the National Telecommunications and Information


Administration (NTIA) Broadband Technology Opportunities Program may not receive
funding from the Rural Broadband Grant program of USDA.

Page 62 of 64
GLOSSARY
Access will mean the last mile of infrastructure, being the final leg of delivering connectivity from a service
provider to a customer.

Broadband will mean Internet access of at least one megabit per second (1 Mbps) for upload and
download, as well as the infrastructure or means necessary to provide such Internet access for residential
users; and at least 2 Mbps for community anchor institutions.

Community Anchor Institutions will mean institutions such as libraries, schools, and churches, community
centers and others that serve as public access points to the Internet. These organizations should be given
priority funding to ensure that the public has guaranteed access and programs that teach digital literacy.
This will help to keep the cost to residential users at affordable levels.

Community Technology Centers will mean centers that provide community access to information and
communications technologies, and the education necessary to meet the social, economic, educational and
cultural needs of community residents.

Institutionalized Constituents will mean broadband users in large populations or groups in public or
privately-owned and managed living or research facilities, e.g., colleges, prisons, homes for the disabled
and others.

Low-Income will mean an individual family's taxable income for the preceding year that does not exceed
150 percent of the poverty level.

Network will mean wired or wireless infrastructure used to connect or interconnect computer, telephony,
electronic, or telecommunications systems.

Rural Areas will mean counties within the state having less than 200,000 population, and the municipalities,
individuals, institutions, communities, programs and such other entities or resources as are found therein. In
counties of 200,000 or greater population, rural areas means towns with population densities of 150
people or less per square mile, and the villages, individuals, institutions, communities, programs and such
other entities or resources as are found therein. [See NYS Executive Law §481(7).]

Sustainable Adoption will mean stimulating the demand for broadband services and applications to
increase the use of internet services. Online services such as e-government applications, digital literacy
programs, and educational programs would fall into this category.

Unserved will mean areas of the state without any broadband infrastructure in place regardless of the
technology-type (wireless/DSL/Cable).

Underserved will mean any area with less than 768 kbps and where less than 25 percent of areas served
in particular zip codes or census tracts are not connected to the Internet.

Page 63 of 64
State Capitol
Empire State
Page Plaza
64 of 64
P.O. Box 2062
Albany, NY 12220
Customer.relations@cio.ny.gov