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THE WASHINGTON HEKALJ) SJJNPAX. AUGUST 30. 1914.
BATTLING IN THE AIR
militarists, statesmen and thinkers, who knew it roust com. a well at peace propagandists, who thonrht thev knew It never could come. can now hardly realize that It actually Ir here. All of tha wealth and enlightenment nd manhood of Europe have Been pawned to stake a throw of the dice of war. Uncertainty banc menacing over battle lines that now stretch tha length of national frontiers r.o longer frontier of nations, but the frontiers of contendirg armies. All this was not because of superincumbent Weieht of armaments, but because of Ingrowing national necessities ambition. and overgrown In bis famous Gettysburg speech. substance, In Lincoln said. Abraham that the war of the rebellion waa to test whether or not this nation, or any nation, conceived In liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal, can long- endure. The present European war Is not to that proposition, for our civil war settled it. but this war Is to reestablish a new balance of power in Europe If Germany wins, however, then the result of the war will be to establish a balance of power between Germany and the rest of the world. In this war will be tested the enginery of destruction and slaughter that has been building and accumulating for half It is the most stupendous a century experiment that the human race has ever tried. The magnitude of It confounds the senses. The calamity obsesses the All the mind and stumps realization vast armies of oldtime wars the hosts of Xerxes. of Persia, the locust hordes Atttla. Ghengls Khan, and Tamerlane-we- re small Indeed compared with the vast armies engaged In the present conflict The ar will teach many useful lessons help in the design of armathat will ments of the future and In the science of their use. but. oh. the cost of it' The first flight of the Wright brothers marked an epoch in the history of war engines The military aeroplane is so new a comer that Us full sphere of Activities has not jet been determined and Its possibilities compassed However, to all students of war It was evident from the first that the aeroplane was dostlned to play a very Important part in military operations, especially for purpo-of reconnaissance The influence of Improvements 1:1 all Jvinds of weapons and machinery of war is to render strategics more and more complicated The more invention and In fience and discovery are employed imthe development and perfection of of use plements of war the more the those Implements requires high Inventive genius and high scientific skill The aeroplane, the latest war engine, has required the greatest skill In Its de
extra-nationre-te- st ei
tae Brat of a Ktln of see mly preparer article )" Maxim, iTbon kaonltdsa ! dttnctl of war and vrho ehlnerr aa an Inrcntor make P.U optaUaa cobbibi tb preaent Europe rai value at the present time- - Editor. At hat the greet European war ha come a. catastrophe ao ttupendout that
velopment, and It also requires supreme intelligence, skill and daring in its use But at the present time aviation t only In It Infancy. New and startllar de velopments in the aeroplane and in aero nautical strategy are euro to develop a a result of the present great eonni:t. Always, even In the old days before gunpowder and firearms wera Invented, scouts and videttes were regarded a the eyes and ears of an army. The aeroplane has given wings to the scout and the vidette with the eyes of the eagle and the speed of the wind. The aeronautical scout, from bis lookout in the sky. Is able to keep headquarter Informed of an enemy's maneuver! and thereby to prevent surprises. Ever since Germany entered Belgium the Belgian and French aeroplanes have teen and reported ever significant movement of the Germans, and the. allies have, consequently, been able to counter with all their force every attack of the Invaders. Had Germany adequately realized the value of the aeroplane In sufficient tlma before the war, and prepared berslf with an adequate number of aeroplanes with trained aviators, to sweep the French and Belgian air scouts from the sky, then Germany would have been able today not only to prevent her own movements being spied on, but rlso would be able, unopposed, to spy upon all movements of the allies an advantage which might easily have turned ths whole tide of the campaign. Even If Germany sueeeeds In her ad vance through Belgium Into France, the cost in men. munitions, treasure, ana time will be enormous. Had Germany sufficiently appreciated the value of the aeroplane, not only for purposes of spjlng upon an enemy, but also to prevent an enemy from spying, and had she built and equipped fifty thousand aeroplanes, we should be reading today a different story of the war. The following table shows the relative aeronautical equipment of the contending forces, according to the best available Information France Russia Germany England Austria Italy
By HUDSON MAXIM
Aerial Fleets of the Warring Nations Limitations of Aerial Bombardment of Warships, Armies and Cities. The Triumph of the Military Aeroplane The
Zeppelin Tried and Found Wanting.
try except Franee and hat expended during the last ten years In aeronautical experiments and equipment a hundred million dollars against sixty millions expended by France, but, unfortunately for the Germans, they have loved their Zeppelin unwisely and too well. The aeroplane, or hevler.than-al- r machine, hat now been to perfected that It can rise and fly quite irrespective of weather conditions. It is no longer necessary to wait for the hours tunset and dawn The aeroplane can now weather a gale, and the skill of the aeronaut hat become to masterful at to compel the envy of tha eagle and the hawk. While a few years ago we marveled to tee'an aeroplane rise from the ground at all. with its tingle occupant, now It Is no marvel to see an aeroplane earning half a dozen men Curtlss has recently shown us that It Is quite practicable to butld an aeroplane of such size and power at to be able to carry a dozen men on at long a Journey as would be required In the ordinary exigencies of war J Thrfore. tt Is not only practicable, but easv. now- - to build aeroplanes capable of earning half a dozen men with arms, explosives and accoutrements necessary to the raiders' outfit A hundred thousand men could easily be carried over any frontier fortifications Into an enemy's country to destroy stores, powder magazines, railroads and bridges Although they could not carry artillery, yet they would not have to face artillery In the unprotected Interior, and when danger got too threatening they could fly away aaln like a flock of birds Of course, many lives would be last, but should a quarter, or a half, or even three- quarters of their number be lost, they would vet come out as well as the Ger- man legions that have been thrown against the Liege forts Tha exploits of j war are. of necessity, venturesome and hasardous. and danger cannot be elimi nated from them three Kliiil of war Aeroplane. There are three kinds of aeroplanes which the lessons of the present war will teach the nations to build in large numbers, both for attack and defense. First, the scouting aeroplane, capable of rising In and breasting any weather and able to fly at very great speed and to mount to very great heights. Second, the aeroplane destroyer a
22 18 W
France has fourteen hundred aeroplanes against Germany's thousand. Even Russia has only 200 less than Germany Germany has forty dirigible balof loons. Even France has twenty-tw- o these well she is France that for better It appreciated the value of the aeroplane than did German), but France should have appreciated Its value even better1 than she did. and nave spent In aerobalplanes the cost of her twenty-tw- o loons Had Francs known before the war what she will know after the war, she would today have had at least 50.000 aeroplanes In the sky
Arronantlcal if Pranre.
France leads the world In aeronautics. Germany has done more than any coun- -
of high explosive Is set off en the earth's positions and every movement surface, tha ball of Incandescent gases Tor this purpose the aeroplane la idnjir-abl- y adapted. bounds upward, spreading out In the form ef an Inverted cone- - While It will Heretofore warfare has been confined of the Aeronautical Society of America blow a hole of considerable size Into the to th plana ef the ground, still the effect In a horizontal I earth' surface, and military plane It practically nl. Building Hand- ha been directed mainly to tha strategy capture ing In the vicinity of an explosion of ! ot fortified positions and commanding this character do not have their win- heights. Movements of an enemy behind dows blown in. but have them blown out- a mountain rang or chain ef hill ha ward in the direction of the explosion. j been guesswork. Therefore, surprises Bombs which could be carried by an and ambuscades have been common. aeroplane and dropped upon the deck I But the flying machine takes warfare of a battleship might damage the super- Into the third dimension. can fly over structure a little, but they would have I all fortifications, and fromIt I no material effect upon the ship Itself lng position read th plans it command-ef an enemy Dropped upen coast fortifications aerial nice an open book. bombs would not even destroy that green Thus, aeroplane must be met and fought grassy effect. with aeroplane, fleet mutt be hurlBut there I the difficulty of hitting ed against aerialaerial and the commandanything with an aerial bomb dropped er who hopes to fleet conquer on the earth stanch, powerful and very swift maSince the advent of aviation, many In- from an aeroplane. Jn order to float, must flrtt conquer the sky. chine, capable of carrying two men with ventor have directed thtr energies to an aeroplane must travel about thirty Alexander and Partus pasted ach arms and equipment for attacking and aerial bombs and applimiles an hour Even at this speed it Is destroying other aeroplanes. This tort of ances. Thtre have been from time to mqvlng forward at the rate of forty-fo- other a few mile apart without either knowing of proximity the of th ether. aeroplane will be required In great num- time fearful forecasts of the destruction feet a second, and as a bomb Hannibal ambushed and destroyed bers In order to keep the sky clear of of warships, coast fortifications and would be traveling at the same speed as whole Roman army at Lake Thratymenuf an enemy's aeronautical spies. large cities, for It was claimed that the I the aeroplane it would move forward the Romans knew nothing of the feet the first second, while because Third, the raiding aeroplane, carrying aeroplane would be able to drop explo- forty-fou- r whereabouts of Hannibal Lack of men. arms and equipment for making sive bombs capable of wrecking the I dropping sixteen feet The next second knowledge of Lee s army before the batheaviest battleship, blowing up coast raids into an enemy's country. of tle Gettysburg spread terror through feet. And so and utterly laying waste move forward forty-foAt aeroplanes may be built with com- fortifications the North Washington waa In a state and towns. It was predicted that on. parative quickness, we may. If the war cities of panic, while, on the other hand. Leo' the aeroplane be would able Its with However, sixty miles an hour Is a lack of knowledge of the whereabout of lasts long, see fleets of scouting aero- bombs, to scatter armies like chaff before moderate speed for an aeroplane, and the Army of the Potomac made the pres-enplanes, raiding aeroplanes and aeroplane at that speed the bomb would be traveldestroyers participating- In every engage- the whirlwind. of that army, up In line of Of course, aviators may drop any form ing forward eighty-eigfeet per second battle on Cemetery drawn ment. Hill, a surprise to of infernal machine which, on exploding, when it was dropped, so that during the him. Limitation of the nirlartbU will mangle bystanders with fragments first second, while it descended but six Surprises in force can no longer occur of scrap Iron, but the effect must necesteen feet it would move forward eighty-eig- under the eye of the aeroplane. In every Ilalluen. sarily b very local would fall thirty-tw- o It feet feet battle hereafter, aircraft will It Is necessary only to realize the Tha best use which aviators will h- the next second, and move forward important be hurled against aircraft in strange defact that a dirigible balloon, even though able eighty-eigBo that moniacal encounter, so on feet; and to of bombs make and infernal while the combatIt may be ribbed and rigid like tha Zepmachines will be for the destruction of by the time it struck the earth It would ants underneath will be assailed by the pelin, and capable of carrying powerful one from be the rlace hundred feet several In sky Naturally, falling another the wreckage such ef friend and fee alike. engines and supporting twenty-fiv-e or admirably adapted to the de- at which it was aimed The United States government haa been thirty person In addition to Its normal bombs are of dirigible balloons The Much has been said about gunfire incomprehensibly negligent in providing load of food. fuel. arms, and explosives, struction aviator Is able to maneuver at from aeroplanes upon underlying troops its army and navy with aerial equipment mutt. Including all Its burden, be even will around above a huge dirigible A man standing on the earth, being Although the aeroplane made lta first lighter than the air Otherwise it would and attack and it from any quarter, but seen endwise bj he airman, presents a flight in America, still neither the Wright not float present war will soon put an end to much smaller target to his vertical Are brothers nor sny other American aerothe n A fluffy goose feather or a bit of dirigibles, so that their destruction will than he presents when fired at horis'jn-- 1 nautical inventor has received much enla heavier than air, so that the not enter into the plans of future aerota'Iy from th earth, because in th one couragement from this government huge Zeppelin Is lighter for Its slse than nautical warfare. It Is not the fault of the department case h Is seen end-tand In the other It the lightest feather- - Consequently, while the air man himself of the army and navj, but the fault of case side-tprobsbly is no one There subject must alwav be a thing to make the which there Is more popular errorabout ma-Our legislators have failed to I Congress. and Is a conspicuous target for If hi winds laugh lack of sound Judgment than concerning chine Is hit and crippled the result is realise how we are being outpaced In It must also be so enormous In slse as the use and destructive effects of h gh fatal to him aeronautics by other countries, and thereto make the broad side of a barn look explosives. by placed at the mercy ef other counnattlr of the Air. tries, should we become Involved in war small as a target An anarchist once attempted o blow Modern warfare has been reduced to No fabric has yet been discovered It well always to hore that war will Bridge two London UP with small sticks By artilsiege operations of a series not come to us. but It Is equally well to which does net rapidly leak the buoydynamite, and succeeded merelv in lery assault, bi mine and counter-minancy gas of a balloon believe In recognition of that It may come, so that we ma-- be getting himself Into trouble. armies now advance against each other of the danger of Igniting explosive mixprepared for it If it should cume. and to pace by strategic paint from a At djnamlter time alow another entered gas, also to be so prepared against it coming tures with air and the escaping provision Is made for circulating air the House of Parliament and exploded strategic point, from on commanding that no nation would dare to attack us. through the living compartments of the ten pounds of dvnamit in one of the position to another, and it has become Th requisitions upon invention are Zeppelin to blow away the gas Never- large corridors, with the result that it mure and more necessarv than ever to sterner and mere exacting for war than theless, a hush Zeppelin recently ex- merely made a hole In the floor and discover in advance of battle the posi- for sport or dommeree Therefore, that tion strength and resources of an enemy which shall bring aerial eraft to the r ploded in supposedly from the smashed a few windows upon mounted the d'epatc The gas Ignition of escaping highest degree of perfection will be the Now as a matter of fart aeroplanes swiftest horse is now far too slow a uses of war And as that warless era capable of working iomparativel t tliu Aerlnl numb. are flnng line may be of which we catch glimpses In our Limitation the little damage by dropping bombs, for messenger when Aviation makes a strong appeal to the the reason that, as I have heretofore so long tha- It could not be traveled in dreams of a distant future Is unquesImagination, and this fact, together with many times explained, unless confined, a hard dav a ride. tionably et far away, we mutt, in our errors and misconceptions In the popular explosives have but little effect Telegraph and telephone wires must prediction, look to the flying machlnea power mind concerning the use and of When a mass of high explosive is de- lace and interlace the battlefield in all which war la to build and perfect These high explosives, has led to many strange tonated upon a Arm resisting; bod. like directions, making communications a are facts which are to b faced. We today are watching the most specpredictions and weird conclusions about the earth or the deck of a battleship, ' matter not of a dav. or even of hours. the destruction wh.tch aeroplanes would or against armor plate the eRct Is o but of moments It is now of the utmost tacular demonstration of the revolutionbe capable of doing by dropping bombs rebound from the resisting body w th Importance that Information, immediate ary effects upon war ef Invention that from the sky small result For example, when a mass I and accurate, be secured concerning an was ever witnesses by man- I g ur ht -: ht swift-winge- d elder-dowJ I 1 e, mid-ai-
GETS CROSS OF HONOR FOR
EXAMINING PASSPORTS OF FLEEING AMERICANS AND LAYING RED CROSS PLANS.
French Dragoon Officer Is Enrolled in Legion as Reward for Exploit Against Uhlans. SIX
mans kept their distance. When the Dragoons trotted the I'hlans trotted, too Sfon Bruyant saw that they were tryin to reach a wood where they could There was no time to be take cover lost He knew that If thev sot there He gave orthev would escape him ders to charge The seven spurred their upon the twenty-fiv- e horses and fell The shock demoralized the Germans One was Rilled b a lance thrust The officer in command was drawing his revolver when Bruyant cut him down with his saber Six more were wounded and knocked off their horses. Th rest fled in disorder The fight lasted only a minute
Sreail CMe to Tbe Wtihinftoo Hrrild Aug 3 Details of the feat London which brought the first Cross of the Legion of Honor, the decoration which even French wife or sweetheart hopes her soldier will earn, have Just been received here The hero Is Lieut Bruy- ant a voung dragoon officer. The lieutenant and six men were scouting near the frontier about 3 JO o clock on a hot afternoon Of course the place where the Incident took place is not Suddenb permitted to be mentioned twenty-seve- n tho saw a patrol of were impatient t hlan The Frenchmen to be after them In spite of the disparity in numbers, but Bruvant was too capable a leader to rush In blindly With good shootlns the Frenchmen managed to bring down two Germans, and then the Uhlans cantered away They were four to one, but for some reason Probablv they did not wish to fight were simplv seeking information The French followed them The Ger-
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At the extreme left is an American on foot having his passport examined by a Belgian civic guard when he attempted to leave Antwerp This same photograph shows the carriage of Americans halted on the outskirts of Antwerp while guards examine the passports. At the right is shown a Red Cross nurse discussing with a Belgian officer plans for removing wounded soldiers from the battlefield to the ' hospitals.
KING GEORGE IS FORCED TO PUT ON SPECTACLES
Eyes Failing Under Strain of Reading State Paper. English Monarch Has to Take Doctor's Advice.
All the worries of menacing affairs of state which have fallen so heavily on King George have "been intensified of late by a fear that his eyesight is failing. Although there are at least two monarch in Europe who are compelled to wear eyeglasses. King George has a great dread of appearing In public with hi countenance thus adorned. For months he has refused to recognize that his slsht Is falling, and In recent weeks he haa had difUculty In reading public documents in which ordinary mall type appeared At the express wish of the Queen he consulted an eminent oculist a few days ago. and was relieved by the assurance that there waa nothing radically wrong with his eyes He waa advised, however, to use glasses When reading, and has had made both for several pairs of pince-ne- z Indoor and outdoor use. though it Is morally certain that the latter will only be requisitioned when absolutely necessary. The King regularly reads at least four of the big- dally papers. Added to that he has hundreds of documents and dispatches to wade through In the course of
Women Soldiers to Front, Is Appeal of Lady Cook
Sren.l PM to The London, Aug complicated and
"Female of the Species Is More Deadly Than the Male," CATHOLICS COMPILING She Says, "And I Will Rally an Army of 1,500,000 "WHITE LIST" OF PLAYS to Fight for England."
Spsds Cab! to Tb
"I have been going around for four or fivt year trying to rouse England to the danger of invasion I have often stood in front of the Bank of England and told the people that thla war was coming. Wake up. England' I have been to the war office several times since the war started AH I can do there Is to give them some Information occasionally and give my advice My real work Is to rouse the women "
certainly not be used for seme time, Lady Cook's idea of women as soldiers is not received with sarcasm in all quarters. The sympathisers with militant think It might give "the cause an argument which never could be resisted, while the "ant!" reckon the Skirted soldier would soon get enough campaigning to discredit mllltantlira and It claim forever, and bury "sex antagonism" a mile deep. Lady Cook Is proceeding with her propaganda. She say the women are the logical defender of the home when the men are abroad. "Let English women light for their homes, their honor and their children," th said today. I will have regiments of women wearing khaki uniforms Just like men. with the possible addition of a week. knee length skirts. J expect 15.000 women to be armed. The Canadian government is using In- drilled and organized into armies In three protect dian fire patrolmen to the forests months. of "Northern 'Manitoba- -' "Boadicea. Quaes of Britain, called
Wstoisston Hrrsld. 2). Although they
both men and women Into battle when she mowed down her enemies with her cythed chariot. Women h ave been brave In the past "There are plenty of women knttUng sock and dolnif Red Croat work, but I want every woman who haa health and strength to use arms to that when th men are away they can defend their home and honor, I believe English women will make good fighter. Remember what Kipling say about the female of the species being more deadly than the male. "Queen Amelle. of Portugal, would make a splendid generaL The Puchess of Marlborough would be a splendid fighter, too. Then thre are Lady Jersey, Princess Louise, Lady Granard. Mr. John Ward and lot of other. 'England must be defended. I am willing to die on the battlefield myself and also to give thousands of, pounds to the cause. "Yes. Mr. Psnkhurxt would be a good general, too, but thl I In ao sense a militant suffragette affair.
Truth Society to Furnish List of Fifty Decent Shows for Benefit of
Washingtonians. The compilation of a "white list" of decent play for the guidance of the Washington theatergoing public during Is being; the dramatic sesson ef UH-1completed by the Washington Truth Society, and will be published within a eouple of weeks. It was announced last
The list will embrace the names of about fifty plays booked for production In this city whleh have the Indorsement of the Truth Society's committee on public morals. An eleeUon of officers will be held Sunday. The present offleerahlp of the Truth Society Is aa follows: President, Rev. Eugene DeL. McDonnell; honorary vice president. Mgr. Thorn J. Shahsn. MgT. William T. Rus-seMgr. James F Mackln, Rev Augustus J. Duarte, Rev. Eugene A. nan-ne- n, vlee president Francis de Sales Ryan; secretary. M. Joseph Ryun, and treasurer, J. H. Borger.
The night revels have entirely ceased. No visitors are visible in restaurants and The dance halls art closed and at night the city Is In darkness No lights or reflections from adare allowed on roof on acBritisH Militants Who Have Withstood Hunger Strikes in vertisements count of the fear of air attack shop window a merchant exhibited a In Prison Declare: "At Least We Have Shown We a war map with flags showing the troop' positions. The police Instantly forbade Are Brave and Can Suffer." The people are uneasy and depressed. ttLelpsic has been transformed into hospital town and the wounded fropj Spteial Ctble to Tie Wuhlmton BmM The military seal Is not confined to the French battlefields are conveyed there. London. AuxNelson's Im-- j men Scores of the suffragettes are ofas nuries ELECTBIC VEHICLE LUNCHEON. mortal words. "England expects every fering their services Militants with the pallor of prison and man to do his duty'" often on the the marks of the suffering caused by The August luncheon ef the Washingtongue, the nation Is proceeding enthu-- : forced feeding still on their cheeks ask ton section of the Electric Vehicle Assoslattlcally but In the usual calm way of to have their services accepted by the ciation of America was held at the Occl. the British to Increase the army by tha authorities One militant with gray hair was told dental Hotel, th following attending halt million men which Earl Kitchener her E. 6 Harlow, J J Bertram. J A. Ster. ph steal condition prevented her asked for and Parliament voted. from becoming a war nurse. She cried rett, C M Marsh, W G Davit. Barry "We have at least shown that we are Mulligan, L. D. Carroll. A L. Dixon. E. Th territorial force, the nucleua of the W Mollohan. and B P Lamberton. jr M0.6M, ha become a well drilled and brave and we can suffer'" efficient organisation in the last few hlch overtook The many disaster years. Many of the members are ath- the I'hlans In the opening skirmishes of MAYOR'S WALNUT -- OIL letes. the campaign were partly due to their Cno Bottle Compound HAIR OYV The artillery brigades are organising metal lances. In looking ever the battleouner nair or neara. A 3sk ror r4acf. rtUlt, and equipping; their men and collecting field of Haelen. where the Germans lost ritv!t HHMlnl . !MlifNnM lJ,trH4taplt, Iron, 4.000 light and At first W, lances made of tube some I VftlM M) horses and vehicles It) ttMMa T0tMl mm m )Tqi.t miil)t fr. Wg2af every everyflying lay fashioned, exqulsltelv were rumors 14i. alarming about there fcirj ln. Iti4i((rtirb hour. Newspaper displayed vague re- where Most of the lances were twitted lCltttiaki9wC-eterrn.- S tlMt IU Blli port of naval engagement after naval and bent, The Belgian! used bamboo Cin U1 A U 4MM1 ict)hrltMttrtiI.u4 engagement In large type shafts. These ield to a thrust while the ft P wltkNllftltaWs. Mlt. KuUwl44..MMiM4Mlk.arllll a4 ptcM yi. telt)?. But thl situation has Improved, and German weapons, if used roughly, bend HI l .Tint Mjt1m frexn aa a Ball mi J tlrvnlitai r mmto.xf some of the papers even warn their readIn the lancer' hand 0. TraWa atw. UV TA9 majik yw aeilrau. TrUl ers not to take stock in reports ef sea One lance, was found which was bent Aiirtss MAYOR WALNUT-OI- L CO., I battles until they are confirmed by the like a bow, aa If the roan had been shot admiralty. falling had leaned Dipt Will. 2127 Wjlltttti KliiU Qtr, Ml.. 0.LA from his horse and
SUFFRAGETTES CLAMORING TO BE RED CROSS NURSES
his full weight en his long weapon as the point struck the ground Berlin is like a city of the dead, according to descriptions from Copenhagen
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