Brief introduction

CIDI, the Centre Information and Documentation Israel, has the longest tradition of monitoring hatecrimes against a specific ethnic group in the Netherlands. CIDI published its first report on antiSemitism in the Netherlands in 1983. CIDI uses the following definition of anti-Semitism: ‘Treating Jews, individually or as a group, differently than other individuals or groups, especially hostility against Jews based on prejudice. ‘ CIDI traditionally counts a series of crimes against 1 particular individual (by various perpetrators), as 1 single incident; equally, a series of incidents perpetrated (against various individuals) by 1 particular perpetrator is counted as 1 single incident.

2013 Anti-Semitism up 25%
In 2013 the total amount of incidents reported at CIDI is up from 114 incidents in 2012 to 147 in 2013. The biggest shifts occurred in the categories verbal abuse from 14 in 2012 to 21 in 2013 (+50%), incidents in the private domain from 16 to 27 in 2013 (+70%) and written abuse from 44 to 60 incidents (+35%). Positive is the decrease in the number of serious incidents. Violence and Threats, Damage and Desecration to Jewish objects all declined, as well as incidents in the less serious category Sport. One of the more abrasives changes has been in the domain of School, where incidents doubled (from 5 to 11). In February 2013 remarks of Turkish youth stating that ‘I hate Jews and there is nothing you can do to change that and I agree with what Hitler did to the Jews’ in national media brought attention on Holocaust education. According to CIDI this exposed that Holocaust education as it is now, is not working in the struggle against anti-Semitism. CIDI and a national organisations for Turks (IOT) recommended the ministry of Education and Social Affairs to conduct a research on prejudice amongst Dutch youth. On the one hand to clarify how widespread the phenomenon is, on the other to measure the effect of programs combating prejudice (specifically anti-Semitism). Earlier this year CIDI was tipped about the online sale of Nazi memorabilia. The biggest on line website for second-hand products (Marktplaats) was facilitating the sale of Naziproducts; which is a violation of Dutch law. After a conversation with CIDI, Marktplaats decided to amend their house rules: visible and blurred Nazi symbols are banned and all advertisements containing Nazi symbols will be deleted. Future Naziproducts will be monitored via users reporting this products and the moderator deleting them.

2 of the 4 serious incidents outlined:
Category: Violence and Assault 7th of June: In the Rotterdam area a resident of an old-age shouts ‘Hitler is my friend’ and makes a Hitler salute aimed at here. The man is angry because she confronted him selling free newspapers, which she used to hand out for free. When they meet later that year he shouts at her ‘They forgot to gas you’ and grabs her by her Star of David necklace bites her and tries to choke her in front of witnesses. The incident was reported to police and the perpetrator apologized to the police. 2013: In Amsterdam a neighbour tries to kick a Jewish man, threatens him with a stone, drives a car into his house and shouts that he is going to make the live of his Jewish neighbour impossible. The neighbour also verbally abuses the Jewish man, calling him ‘Cancer Jew’ (cancer is considered foul language) and ‘Fucking Israeli’. The man has admitted some of his acts in presence of a police officer.

Executive summary
 CIDI registered 147 antisemitic incidents in 2013, 33 more than in 2012  Shouting and harassment (Verbal abuse), which rose alarmingly in 2011 to 28 incidents, dropped back to a ‘normal’ level of 14 in 2012, increased again in 2013 to 21  All types of ‘Real Life’-incidents, which is a bundle of different categories, together slightly increased from 35 to 38  Antisemitic hate tweets increased significantly, while antisemitic hatemail declined. Across the board written abuse increased from 44 incidents in 2012 to 60 in total 2013  Incidents with known perps (e.g. neighbors, colleagues, fellow students) increased from 16 in 2013 to 27 incidents  Physical violence, i.e. assault and threats decreased form 6 to 4  Damage and desecration to Jewish and non-Jewish property (with antisemitic slogans) decreased from 14 incidents in 2012 to 10 in 2013  The amount of incidents in the category Sports declined from 13 to 6 in 2013

Tabel 1: Incidents gategorized per domain12

‘Real Life’ expression Violence and assault Threats Damage Jewish objects Desecration Jewish objects Other damages/ desecration Verbal abuse Phone Total

2008 2 3 0 2 7 17 2 33

2009 4 6 6 3 16 20 6 61

2010 4 1 2 5 10 9 3 34

2011 1 3 3 6 13 28 1 55

2012 4 2 1 3 10 14 1 35

2013 3 1 2 4 4

21 3
38

Written abuse Letter/fax/flyer/sticker E-mails, tweets Total

2008 8 30 38

2009 10 50 60

2010 7 47 54

2011 4 18 22

2012 3 41 44

2013 3 57 60

Incidents in the private domain Neighbors/ neighborhood School Work Total

3

2008 3 8 5 16

2009 9 9 1 19

2010 10 7 6 23

2011 11 5
4

2012 8 5 3 16

2013 8 11 8 27

8 24

Public domain Sports/other chants Media Demonstrations Extreme right Art/ Culture Music Total

2008 6 7 0 5 2 0 20

2009 8 7 7 2 0 24

2010 3 7 0 3 0 13

2011 5 3 0 5 0 12

2012 13 4 1

2013 6 9 1 3 3 0 22

1 0 19

1

1 incident in the category ‘other’ has not been counted in any category per domain: Other, 1 incident 2008, 3 in 2009. 2 In 2009, 2010 en 2011 data from Poldis en LBA have not been used. 3 Threats or assaults coming from people known to the victim. 4 In fact 6; 1 serious threath in school has been counted in the gategory ‘threaths.’

Tabel 2: All incidents orderd by type

2008 Violence and Assault Threats Damage to synagogues, cemetery’s and monuments Desecration of synagogues, cemetery’s and monuments Other damages and desecration Verbal abuse Phone Letters, faxes, pamphlets and stickers E-mail and tweets Neighbours and neighbourhood School Work Sports Media Demonstrations Extreme right- Hitler salute, nazi symbols Books, plays, movies and expositions Music Other TOTAL 2 3 0

2009 4 6 6

2010 4[1] 1 2

2011 1 3 3

2012 4 2 1

2013 3 1 2

2

3

5

6

3

4

7 17 2 8 30 3 8 5 6 7 0 5 2 0 1 108

16 20 6 10 50 9 9 1 8 7 7

10 9 3 7 47 10 7 6 3 7 0

13 28 1 4 18 11 5[2] 8 5 3 0

10 14 1 3 41 8 5 3 13 4 1

4 21 3 3 57 8 11 8 6 9 1 3

2 0 3 167

3 0 0 124

5 0 113

1

3

0
0

0
0

114

147

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