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Powerpoint format lecture © J. Jeswiet 2007 The contents of this lecture are the sole copyright of J. Jeswiet, Professor of Mechanical Engineering. Unlicensed use of the contents of this lecture outside MECH 213 is illegal. Inquiries should be addressed to: J. Jeswiet, Mechanical Engineering, McLaughlin Hall, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 Fax: 613-533-6489 jeswiet@me.queensu.ca

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Lecture 6

Queen’s University, Mechanical Engineering

© J. Jeswiet

MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING MECH 213

G’day everyone.

Topics: • Surface Roughness II • A brief overview of current trends in metrology

summary

Surface Metrology

surface behavior (performance)

surface creation (manufacture)

surface texture

surface texture

surface measurement and analysis (for functional correlations)

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ADF . For Surface Roughness we look at amplitudes of peaks. DIN 4768 DIN 4762 ISO 4287. Ry 1000X 100X STANDARD ISO 4287. so we call the PDF an Amplitude Density Function. DIN 4768 ISO 4287. Rt.1. DIN 4768 DIN 4786 ISO 4287. DIN 4768 Ry Rt Rmax 3rd order surface PARAMETER DESCRIPTION Ra Rz (DIN) Rz (ISO) Rmax Rt Ry Rq Rp Ssk Kku Roughness average Mean peak-to-valley height Ten point height Maximum peak-to-valley height Vertical height between max/min Maximum roughness depth RMS of roughness average Maximum peak height Skewness Kurtosis Rudimentary statistics: ie: no. Rmax. ADF Amplitude Density Function.Ra Ra. BS 1134. p(y): 3 . DIN 4768 DIN 4768 ISO 4287. ANSI B46. BS 1134. of students frequency Histogram Probability Density Function. BS 1134. PDF 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Mark achieved Interpretation: a probability density function can be seen as a "smoothed out" version of a histogram.

and gives more weight to higher peaks. Rq is the standard deviation.Rq: Root Mean Square Average Rq is calculated by taking the root mean square the series of measurements of deviations from the centreline. Amplitude Density Function. ADF . p(y): • standard deviation • surfaces (a) & (b) • Rq of (a) > Rq of (b) (a) (b) 4 . Rq = 1. For a Gaussian distribution of heights. of Ra Reference: page 19 of ISO 4287 Advantage? Rq is more sensitive to high and low peaks.25 Ra. σ.

R9 R5 R1 R7 R3 R2 R4 R6 R8 R10 l. measured from a line parallel to the mean line. Rz: average of maximum values. shows how much material can be removed before the part size reaches a limit. can be affected by dirt or imperfections.Rz: another surface parameter TenTen-point height. DIN 4768 Compare Rz to Rt. Rz: the average of the five highest and the five deepest valleys within the sampling length. Rt Rz = (R1 + R3 + R5 + R7 + R9 ) − (R2 + R4 + R6 + R10 ) 5 R1 R3 R5 R7 R2 R4 R6 R8 R9 R10 TenTen-point height. 5 . sampling length Rt and Rz: can be used for a surface that has subsequent metal removal operations such as lapping and honing. sampling length Rz = (R1 + R3 + R5 + R7 + R9 ) − (R2 + R4 + R6 + R10 ) 5 ISO 4287. Rz: l.

The R parameters do not give any information about surface irregularity shapes or spacing. . For that we can use SKEWNESS and KURTOSIS which are statistics functions. Gaussian distribution negative skewness positive skewness Skewness: DESIGN: ok as a Bearing Surface negative positive Negative Skewness: A concentration of the material near the top of the profile signifying a plateau like surface 6 . Skewness of data. ISO 4287. measure of asymmetry of data. Skewness is described by: Sk = 1 Rq3 ∫ ∞ −∞ y 3 p(y)dy Sk = 0. page 23.

kurtosis < 3.Kurtosis: Kurtosis. sharp peaks and valleys. rounded peaks and valleys in the profile. Kurtosis measure of sharpness of peak distribution (Greek for hump). 7 . K: K = 1 R q4 ∫ ∞ −∞ y 4 p(y)dy KURTOSIS Gaussian Distribution: K = 3 A sharp amplitude distribution curve indicates large. A broad. flat amplitude distribution indicates many small. or a measure of the sharpness of the probability function. or Kurtosis: “the degree of peakedness of a probability function near the mode” Coefficient of Kurtosis. valleys kurtosis > 3.

(a) (b) 0 25 50 100.Bearing ratio curve: Abbot . bearing the load. 8 . DETAILS OF THE MEASUREMENTS IN LAB 201. (b) 50% of the surface is bearing the load.Firestone curve. % Bearing ratio (a) 25% of surface is carrying.

Standards organizations have set up a number of preferred traversing lengths.stylus Some details about surface roughness measurements: λc . an adequate number of peaks & valleys is included in the data.5 times the peak-topeak spacing of the profile roughness. This means that at least two peaks and valleys are found in each cut-off length.030 inches) is the most commonly used cut-off length for engineered surfaces 9 . λc = 0.8mm (0. as shown. The cut-off length should be at least 2. If a profile is assessed over a length equal to 6 times the cutoff length. the filter cut-off length is used to differentiate between the roughness and waviness.

So what will you see in laboratory 201? An example of output from the equipment in a laboratory INFORMATION ABOUT THE “LAY” ON DRAWINGS – “direction” of surface roughness. 10 .

More Surface Roughness Tolerancing for drawings For ForISO ISO--metric metric “lay” symbols: 11 .

The latest in Surface Metrology Scanning Laser Microscope Triangulation Laser Sensor X/Y Positioning Tables Anti-Vibration Table 25 μm Spatial Resolution (X & Y) 12 μm Vertical Resolution (Z) 12 .

Techniques now exist which allow the observation of very small variations.2 K X 5 CrNiMo 18/10 42 CrMoS 4 100 Cr 6 13 . For instance. optical methods have been successfully applied to soft materials such as paper: scanning conoscope probe [SCP] of paper with two crossed grooves left by a ballpoint pen Measured textures (UBM) 10x 5x 1x St 37 .

Visual & Statistical Inspection Inspections Performed using Surfrax and Matlab The End for Surface Roughness Lectures On Onto tothe thenext nextlecture lecture MANUFACTURING MANUFACTURING Thank Thank you you for for your your attention attention Questions? 14 .

Filtering: waviness. roughness Trace – leveled with the mean set to zero Waviness – “Roughness removed” Roughness – “Waviness removed” Laboratory 201 – Metrology: As-Measured Profile turned surface Stylus moves back and forth 15 .

16 . Optoelectronics & Biomedical Industries. a 1000 atom cluster has roughly 25% of its atoms at the surface. increases ie: in a nanocrystal. Master CD with sinusoidal profiles Advances in Metrology have occurred with the evolution of Manufacturing Technology in: new production techniques and new measurement techniques. therefore the properties of the solid are strongly influenced by the properties of the near surface.Metrology is now significance to the Electronics. techniques Size matters: In Nanotechnology. the overall dimensions of an object decrease dramatically and the importance of the surface relative to that of the volume increases.

Characterizing a surface in terms of depth regimes: and in the the Biomedical Industry WPI’s SLM measuring an experimental runway pavement at NASA Wallops Space Flight Facility Courtesy Chris Brown WPI 17 .

Supplementary information 18 .Texture measurement (UBM) measurement range: sampling interval: stylus: 500 x500 µm 2 µm 5 µm radius.

Quick Review Average Roughness Ra. AA or CLA is where l is the sampling length and y is the ordinate of the profile n l l n where Ym = mean Y The shape and relative size ot the stylus can have an effect upon the readings: The stylus can also become dull and have an effect upon the readings: 19 .

014 1.Thun.Effect of Tip Radius 1.006 1.002 1.004 1.000 Ruler Length (um) from Mark Malburg/ Chris Brown.012 Relative Length 1. WPI As Measured (2 um radius) Numerical 5 um radius Surface measurement conditions scanned region stylus radius sampling interval maximum range for z-axis nominal resolution for z-axis 500 x 500 µm 5 µm 2 µm ± 50 µm 50 nm Thermal spray coatings EMPA . 20 .010 1. Switz.008 1.

21 . if a surface is too rough the sharp peaks will break through the lubricating layer. smooth surfaces reduce the danger of seizure between unlubricated surfaces.stylus normal (1.4mN) force conic section (90 degree) spherical tip (5μm) Conventional profile measurement workpiece Sampling internal: Vertical resolution: Tracing length: Filtering? (88nm) (1nm) (0. if a surface is too smooth it may not sustain an oil film.56mm) profile: 10μm 100μm Some comments about design and surface roughness: or why should designers worry about it? it friction and wear between two unlubricated surfaces increases with surface roughness.

. • interferometric (e..y)) scanning laser: • horizontal: triangulation.g.Nanoscope). Phase Shift) • gray scale. Type III . Zygo. American engine manufacturer German car industry 22 . contact stylus: (e. contact.g.profiling (mostly z=z(x)). It turns out that not all industries use the same parameter Cummins.g. Mahr/Federal .. focus (e. Wyko. STM (e.Instruments – used for full profiling Type I .g. Taylor Hobson . UBM) • vertical: confocal (e.. UBM. Veeco (Digital Instruments .Talysurf) Type II .profiling nonnon-contact (mostly z=z(x.Perthometer.g. structured light.scanned probe microscopy AFM. Zeiss).. Olympus.

Fractals are an example of a technique that can be used to quantify 3 D surfaces.Parameters used by French car industry With the drive to produce 3 D surfaces for specific functions there is now an interest in developing standards for 3 D roughness profiles. 23 .

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