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CHAPTER TWO: THE STRATEGY CHANGE CYCLE: The author sets forth his preferred approach to strategic planning

for: .public organizations, .nonprofit organizations. .boundary-crossing services and .communities. Key Terms: .Strategy: .Change: .Cycle: .Process: .Activities .Policies . ormulate .Assessments .!ssue .Planning. .Adoption .!mplement .Action. ."ecisions. .#esults.

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ACTIVITIES IN THE STRATEGY CHANGE CYCLE: Setting organizational direction. ormulating broad o!icies. 'a(ing intern"! "nd e#tern"! "ssessments. Paying attention to the needs of $ey st"$e%o!ders. !dentifying (ey iss&es "eveloping strategies to deal ,ith each iss&e Planning revie, and adoption roced&res. !mplementing !"nnin'. 'a(ing fundamental decisions. Ta(ing "ction. Continually monitoring and assessing the res&!ts. THE STRATEGIC CHANGE CYCLE:

A. 1.

A strategic planning process: A strategic management process:

#esearch and practical e2perience are applied to public and nonprofit organizations !n moving through the change cycle. . Strategic thin(ing and acting. . Tactical thin(ing and acting. #e3uires the follo,ing (no,ledge: . Purpose of 456 . #ules of 456 . Strengths of 476 . 8ea(nesses of 476 . 9pportunities posed by 4:6 . Threats posed by 4:6 .a game plan .the conte2t players ..etc. !nstead of relying completely on a specific planning process, thin(ing and acting strategically are ,hat matter A TEN STEP STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS: At each step in the process there should be simultaneous consideration of: .actions ;implementation< .results ;conse3uences< .evaluation at each step of the ten step strategic planning process. The 'ener"! re(&irements of the process is: .the presence of a dominate coalition ,illing to sponsor and follo, the process and, .a process champion to push the process.

Conte2t: STEP )

The organization. INITIATING THE AGREEING ON A STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS:

Key terms "nd de*initions: .success .negotiate .internal .e2ternal .mandate meaning: P!"yers: Premise: Conce t: internal, e2ternal decision-ma(ers, Strategic planning for public =nonprofit organizations ,or(s best if the organization has an established policy-ma(ing body to oversee the effort. >egotiate agreement among (ey internal decision-ma(ers about the general strategic planning effort and planning steps. The elements of the agreement consist of:

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The purpose of the effort. Preferred steps in the process. orm and timing of reports. #ole function and membership of players. The role, function and member ship of the strategic planning team. The commitment of necessary resources to proceed ,ith the effort. Stipulation of any important limits or boundaries on the effort.

+e"nin': !t means that the planners ,ill enhance the probability of success for their strategic plan. +et%ods: $. Someone must initiate the process. %. There must be a sta(eholder analysis. &. !nitiator must identify the (ey decision-ma(ers. ). !dentify ,hich players must be involved in the effort. Princi !es: $. Success of the strategic plan is dependent upon the full support and commitment of (ey organizational decision-ma(ers.

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Success of public programs is generally dependent upon the involvement of (ey e2ternal decision-ma(ers. I-ENTI.YING ORGANI/ATIONAL +AN-ATES:

STEP ,

Key terms "nd de*initions: .mandate .legislation .ordinance .organization .political .constrain .cause .theory .ob?ective .decision rule Conte#t: . ormal mandate ;@egislatively narro,<. .!nformal mandate ;political broad<. P!"yers: .!nternal players .organizational decision-ma(ers .organizational members A2ternal players: .interest groups .other agency players. Premise: $. e, organizations are precisely a,are of their formal mandate. %. e, organizational members have read the relevant legislation, ordinances, charts, articles and contracts that outline their organizationBs formal mandates &. 'any organizational members are not clearly a,are of their organizationBs informal political mandates. Conce t: A formal mandate is generally consist of ,ritten formal legislation, opinion or e2ecutive orders, ,hich establish the basis for an organizationBs conte2t, policies, behavior and discretion. An informal mandate consists of the e2ternal support an organization receives to perform behaviors that are unstated in its formal mandate. +e"nin':

!t means that an organization has the opportunity to specifically interpret broadly ,ritten legislation or e2ecutive orders. !t thereby re,rites the mandate to its o,n values and biases +et%ods: $. Specify ob?ectives %. Specify causal theory. &. Specify financial resources ). Specify the decision rules. Princi !es: $. 9rganizations should specifically follo, its re3uired actions. %. 9rganizational actions are a function of formal directives and legal constraints. Therefore, the organization should (no, the range or limits of its constraints on its behavior. &. 9rganizational behavior is not limited to assumptions about restrictions or unstated directives or re3uirements. STEP 0 CLARI.YING ORGANI/ATIONAL +ISSION AN- VAL1ES

Key terms "nd de*initions: .st"$e%o!der: Any player ,ho can place a claim on an organizationBs attention, resources or output. !t is also a player ,ho is affected by the organizationBs output. st"$e%o!der "n"!ysis: A ,ay for an organizationBs decision-ma(ers and planning team to immerse themselves in the politics surrounding the organization. ..mission .values .social .political .community .collaborate .government agency .nonprofit organization .customer Conte#t: organization .community P!"yers: Premise: $. An organizationBs mission in association ,ith its mandates represents the social ?ustification for its e2istence. %. Communities are less li(ely to thin( they have a mission. !nstead, they are li(ely to tal( about their purpose and values.

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An understanding of the political aspects of an organizationBs situation provides invaluable data that can identify strategic issues. An understanding of the political aspects of an organizationBs situation provides invaluable data for the development of effective strategies. An understanding of sta(eholder interests and concerns is the (ey to ta(ing truly ethical action. The public sector is much more comple2 than the private sector.

Conce t: A mission Calues are Sta(eholders +e"nin': $. %. &. ). *. !t means there must be identifiable social or political needs that the organization see(s to fill. An organizationBs purpose defines the arenas ,ithin ,hich it ,ill collaborate or compete. 'oreover, it charts the future course of the organization. >onprofit and funding based organizations have diverse and comple2 constituencies. A sta(eholder analysis clarifies the e2tent to ,hich an organization needs different missions or strategies for different sta(eholders. A sta(eholder analysis clarifies the e2tent to ,hich an organization should change its mandate.

+et%ods: Sta(eholder Analysis: $. !dentify the organizationBs sta(eholders. %. !dentify sta(eholder criteria for ?udging the organizationBs performance. &. !dentify the level of performance relative to the stated criteria from the sta(eholders perspective ). "etermine ho, the sta(eholders influence the organization. *. !dentify organizationBs needs from the various sta(eholders.. +. "etermine the importance of the various sta(eholders to the strategic plan. -. !mplement in-depth discussions on the organizationBs: . identity, .purpose, .desired response to (ey sta(eholders, .philosophy, .core values .ethical standards. .. Dse data and information from the discussion to develop an organizational mission statement ; a paragraph or slogan< Princi !es: $. Satisfy (ey sta(eholders.

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9rganizations must al,ays be seen as a means to an end. Pay attention to all-important sta(eholders. Communities must ?ustify their e2istence in relation to the degree to ,hich they address the values and meet the social and political needs of their various sta(eholders. ASSESSING E3TERNAL AN- INTERNAL ENVIRON+ENTS:

STEP 2

Key terms "nd de*initions: .opportunities: .threats: .strengths: .,ea(nesses: .inside factors: factors that are under the organizationEs control .outside factors: factors that are not under the organizationBs control. .forces: .trends: .events Conte#t: The e2ternal environments The internal environment: P!"yers: .internal players .e2ternal players .sta(eholders Premise: $. 9pportunities and threats are usually about the future. %. Strengths and ,ea(nesses are usually about the present. &. 'embers of an organizationBs governing body are often better at identifying and assessing e2ternal threats and opportunities than employees. ). 'ost organizations have data and information on their inputs ;physical plant, full time e3uivalent personnel,. *. e, organizations have clear data and information relative to an important set of crucial inputs for ensuring stability and managing change. They are the organizationBs: .philosophy .core values .distinctive competencies .culture +. 9rganizations have a poor idea of their: .present overall strategy

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.strategies for individual units .strategies for individual functions. 9rganizations can say very little about their: .outputs ;e2ample-- ho, many students a school graduates.< .outcomes on their clients, customers or payers ;e2ample: the competence level of those graduates<.

Conce t: A2ternal scanning : A formal process of e2ternal assessment. >o one in the organization implements a systematic or effective ?ob of e2ternal scanning. Fey success factors: #epresent: .things an organization must do. .criteria an organization must meet , to successfully relate to the its e2ternal environment. Paying attention to opportunities and threats, coupled ,ith a sta(eholder analysis helps to identify an organizationBs (ey success factors Per*orm"nce: The dearth of performance data and information causes a challenge for organizations and sta(eholders. Sta(eholders ?udge organizations according to their o,n criteria. Particularly for e2ternal sta(eholders, these criteria typically relate to performance. The dearth of data and information on performance create: .ma?or organizational conflicts 8hyG 1ecause there is no method to assess the relative effectiveness of : .alternative strategies .resource allocations .organizational designs .distributions of po,er "istinctive Competencies = Core competencies =Capabilities: #epresent an organizationBs: .strongest abilities, .most effective actions .most effective strategies, .routine resources +e"nin': #elative to e2ternal scanning, most organizations function ,ithout the benefit of accurate e2ternal assessments. Hence, they cannot (eep tabs on events in the national and global environments that affect their organizations and missions. +et%ods:

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'onitor political, economic, social, technological, educational and physical environmental forces, trends and events. 'onitor e2ternal sta(eholders that directly or indirectly influence the organizationBs resources ;customers, clients, payers, funders, dues-paying members, regulators, relevant policy bodies<. 'onitor competitors. 'onitor competitive forces 'onitor possible sources of competitive advantage. 'onitor collaborators 'onitor collaborative forces. 'onitor forces of collaborative advantage. Construct scenarios that e2plore alternative futures in an e2ternal environment.

Princi !es: Sta(eholder Analysis: ;a< 9rganizational resources are a function of e2ternal sta(eholder support. ;b< Sta(eholder criteria: ;a< 9rganizational performance is determined by sta(eholder criteria. ;b< Core competency is a function of organizational strengths and ,ea(nesses. STEP 4 I-ENTI.YING STRATEGIC ORGANI/ATIONAL ISS1ES:

Key terms "nd de*initions: .strategic issues: are basic policy 3uestions: are basic critical challenges that affect the organizationBs: .mandates, .missions or values .product or services level and mi2, .clients, users or payers, .cost, financing, .organization or management. .iteration: .mandate. .mission .issue .e2ternal environment .internal environment Conte#t: !nternal and e2ternal environments P!"yers: .9rganization .sta(eholders

.policy-ma(ers .employees .volunteers .etc. Premise: $. Strategic issues involve conflicts of some type. %. A properly formulated strategic issue also doubles as the frame,or( for its resolution. Conce t: Strategic planning focuses on achieving the best fit bet,een an organization and its environment. 'ore specifically, it focuses organizational attention on ,hat is truly important for the survival, prosperity and effectiveness of the organization. Planning from the outside in: This perspective is represented by paying attention to: .mandates .e2ternal environment. Planning from the inside out: This perspective is represented by paying attention to: .mission, .organizational values .internal environment Strategic issue conflicts may be characterized as in terms of ive 48Bs6 and an 4H6: .ends ;,hatG< .means ;Ho,G< .philosophy ;8hyG< .location ;8hereG< .timing ;8henG< .persons favored or disadvantaged by different ,ays of resolving an issue ;8hoG< Three (inds of strategic issues: ;a< Though the issues must be monitored, no action is re3uired at the present time. ;b< !ssues that are emerging and li(ely to re3uire some present or future action. These issues can generally be managed by the organizationBs strategic planning cycle. ;c< !ssues that re3uire an immediate non-routine response +e"nin': 9rganizational prosperity . +et%ods: A strategic issue statement should contain three elements:

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'a(e a concise, positive statement ;one sentence< in the form of a 3uestion. @ist the factors that ma(e the issue a fundamental challenge. "escribe ,hat ma(es this a strategic issue in terms of the organizationBs: .mandates .mission .values .internal strengths .internal ,ea(nesses .e2ternal opportunities .e2ternal threats The planing team should prepare a statement of conse3uences for overloo(ing the strategic issue. 1asic approaches to the identification of strategic issues: ."irect .indirect .goals .vision of success. !es: Address strategic issues 3uic(ly and effectively. The strategic planning process is iterative in character. !nformation in steps $, % and & become part of the strategic issue in step four. Affective strategy builds on organizational strengths. Affective strategy ta(es advantage of organizational opportunities. Affective strategy minimizes organizational ,ea(nesses and threats. .OR+1LATING STRATEGIES AN- PLANS TO +ANAGE ISS1ES:

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STEP 5

Key terms "nd de*initions: .formulate: .plans .manage: .strategy: A pattern of purposes, policies, programs, actions, decisions or resource allocations .development: .process: Conte#t: .A2ternal environments !nternal environments P!"yers: .9rganization .sta(eholders

.policy-ma(ers .employees Premise: An effective strategy must meet the follo,ing criteria: ;a< technically ,or(able and acceptable to (ey sta(eholders ;b< fit the organizationBs philosophy and core values. ;c< be ethical and moral and legal. ;d< pursue the common good. Conce t: A strategy defines: .,hat an organization is, .,hat it does .,hy it does it Strategies vary in terms of : .level .function .timeframe Affective strategy formulation and implementation processes lin(: .rhetoric .choices .actions .conse3uences into reasonably coherent patterns across levels, functions and timeframes. "raft strategies and perhaps drafts of formal strategic plans are formulated in this step to articulate desired patterns. +e"nin': The broad definition of strategy focuses attention on creating consistency across peopleBs rhetoric ;,hat they say< choices ;,hat they decide upon and are ,illing to pay for< their actions ;,hat they do< and the conse3uences of their actions. +et%ods: Str"te'y -e6e!o ment: ive Part "evelopment Process $. !dentification of practical alternatives, dreams or visions to resolve strategic issues. This is to be achieved by ,riting each option in action terms ; 4do6, 4get,6 4buy,6 4achieve.6 <. %. Planning team list the constraints to the achievement of the alternatives, dreams or visions. &. Planning team develops ma?or proposals for overcoming the constraints and

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achieving the alternatives, dreams or visions. !dentify actions that must be ta(en over the ne2t t,o to three years to implement the ma?or proposals. "evelop a detailed si2-month ,or( program to implement the specified actions.

Str"te'ic O tions -e6e!o ment "nd An"!ysis +et%od: $. %. &. ). @ist multiple options for addressing each issue. @in( the options by arro,s indicating ,hich option cause or influence the other options. The result is a map of action-to-outcome relationships. The options to,ard the end of a chain of arro,s are essentially goals or mission statements #evie, and revise option maps. Select specific action-to-outcome chains as strategies.

Princi !es: $. %. "evelop strategies ,ith implementation in mind. Avery failure of implementation is a failure of formulation. REVIEWING AN- A-OPTING THE STRATEGIES AN- PLANS:

STEP 7

Key terms "nd de*initions: .adoption: .implementation: plans .strategies: .SPCC: .effective .goals: .inducement: .proposal .decision-ma(ing Conte#t: The organizationBs internal and e2ternal environments. P!"yers: .internal sta(eholders: .e2ternal sta(eholders: Premise: $. %. "eference to sta(eholder goals, concerns and interests are of primary importance. There are many ,ays to defeat a proposal in formal decision-ma(ing settings.

Conce t: 9fficial approval by the strategic planning coordinating committee ;SPCC<, implementing groups and other organizations is re3uired for the adoption of a proposal or strategic plan. Small strategies and plans do not re3uire step seven. !nstead, it can be merged ,ith step si2. That is not the case, ho,ever, ,ith large strategies, community or net,or( plans and strategies. !t is important for a plan to be sponsored by players ,ith the s(ill and (no,ledge to negotiate the intricacies of plan adoption. 'eaning: !nternal and e2ternal sta(eholders represent the ma?or influence in the revie, and adoption of a proposal or strategic plan. +et%ods $. %. &. Princi !es: $. %. Pay attention to internal and e2ternal sta(eholders. The magnitude of sta(eholder support is a function of the organizationBs ability to find or create e3uivalent sta(eholder inducements. 9rganizational inducements I Sta(eholder support. STEP 8 ESTA9LISHING AN E..ECTIVE ORGANI/ATIONAL VISION:

Key terms "nd de*initions: .vision .organization: .develop: .describe: .mission: .decision rules: .performance: .criteria: .standards: .process:

.motivation: Conte#t: The internal and e2ternal organizational environments: P!"yers: .!nternal and e2ternal sta(eholders Premise: $. %. &. ). e, organizations have a description of its vision of success. The result of circulating the vision is the mobilization of employee energy to,ards the purposes of the organization. The result of circulating the vision is a reduced need for direct employee supervision. A vision consist of the tension bet,een the:

!deal organizational desires -----C!S!9>---------- #ealistic organizational possibilities. Conce t: A vision of success is ,here the organization develops a description of ,hat it should loo( once it has implemented its plan and achieved its full potential. 1y circulating a description of the vision employees ,ill (no, ,hat is e2pected of each and every person n the organization. The rationale for developing the vision in step eight ;.<. !t does not have to originate in step eight. irst: .Some organizations develop vision statements earlier in the strategic planning process ;p.%)-%*<. .Some processes may begin ,ith a statement of vision. .Some processes use the vision to determine its strategies issues Some processes use the vision to develop strategies. .Some processes use the vision to convince (ey players to adopt strategies. .Some processes use the vision to convince (ey players to adopt plans. .Some processes use the vision to convince (ey players to adopt implementation efforts. Second: .'ost organizations re3uire going through several iterations of the planning cycle before they develop an articulate vision.

+e"nin': $.1y (no,ing the organizationBs vision, members are freed to act on their o,n initiative. +et%ods: $. The formulation of an organizational vision involves the description of its ;a< mission. ;b< basic strategies ;c< performance criteria ;d< decision rules ;d< ethical standards Circulate the organizational vision throughout the organization. 'ost organizations can improve their effectiveness by simply: . identifying strategic issues .satisfactorily resolving the identified strategic issues.

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Princi !es $. %. The magnitude of an organizational success is e3uivalent to the magnitude of detail in its organizational vision. The guide to strategy implementation is a function of a organizationBs vision of success.

9rganization-------------- vision of success guides ------- strategic implementation STEP : -EVELOPING AN E..ECTIVE I+PLE+ENTATION PROCESS:

Key terms "nd de*initions: .strategic thin(ing: .implementation: .develop: .effective .action plan: .ob?ectives: .results: .schedule: .resource: .communication: .monitor: .accountability:

Conte#t: !nternal and e2ternal organizational environments. P!"yers: !nternal and e2ternal sta(eholders. Premise: The successful implementation of strategies result in a ne, set of implicit or e2plicit principles, norms, rules and decision-ma(ing procedures. Conce t: or a small organization, this step can be incorporated in step si2. This is not the case for large organizations, communities or net,or(s. Thin(ing strategically about implementation and development of a strategic implementation plan ,ill ensure the success of an implementation plan. That is, the implementation plan must consist of sufficient: ;a<number of sponsors, supporters and other personnel ;b<time. ;c<funds. ;d<attention. ;e<administrative services ;f<support services. ;g<other services. 1udget the plan ,isely . +e"nin': Affective implementation means a successful strategic plan. +et%ods: Action Plan:

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!mplementation roles and responsibilities of oversight bodies, organizational teams and individuals. ;a< Specific ob?ectives. ;b< e2pected results. ;c< 'ilestones Specific action steps and related details. Schedules. #esource re3uirements and sources A communications process. ;a< revie, ;b<monitoring ;c<midcourse correction procedures ;d<accountability procedures

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Princi !es: $. %. &. ). 1uild a sufficient number of (ey players into action plans. 1udget the plan ,isely. 8or( 3uic(ly on implementation tas(s. 8hat happens in practice is al,ays a blend of ,hat is intended and ,hat emerges over time.

STEP ); REASSESSING STRATEGIES AN- THE STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS: Fey terms and definitions: .revie,: .strategic planning process: . Premise: Attention should be focussed on: .successful strategies, .,hether the strategies should be maintained, .replaced by other strategies or, .terminated. Concept: 'uch of this ,or( can be accomplished in the ongoing implementation process. 'ethods:

A2amine the strategic planning process in terms of: . its strengths and ,ea(nesses. .modifications to improve the ne2t round of strategic planning TAILORING THE PROCESS TO SPECI.IC CON-ITIONS: #elative to customization, a number of adaptations or variations should be considered on the strategic planning cycle. Se(&encin' t%e ste s: Though it is discussed in a linear fashion, the strategic change cycle in iterative in practice. Hence, the process does do al,ays begin at the beginning. +et%od: #elative to a linear se3uential process, the first eight steps are follo,ed by implementing the planned actions and evaluating the results. Principle: $. %. !t does not matter ,here you start, you ,ill al,ays end up at the beginning. !mplementation generally begins prior to the completion of the planning.

+"$in' &se o* 6ision< 'o"!s "nd iss&es: Visions: .i'&re ,.) .,2=,4.

T%o&'% t%e 6ision "cti6ity is !"ced in ste ei'%t< 6isions m"y "!so >e &sed to: . rom t t%e identi*ic"tion o* str"te'ic iss&es .'&ide t%e de6e!o ment o* str"te'ies .ins ire t%e "do tion o* str"te'ic !"ns .'&ide im !ement"tion e**orts. Go"!s: Go"!s m"y >e de6e!o ed "t di**erent oints in t%e cyc!e. .some rocesses >e'in ?it% " 'o"!. .T%ey 'ener"!!y em>ody ": . re*orm "'end" .m"nd"tes

.'&ide str"te'y *orm&!"tion in re!"tion to s eci*ic iss&es .'&ide im !ement"tion o* s eci*ic iss&es. Go"!s de6e!o ed "t t%ese !"ter st"'es "re more det"i!ed "nd s eci*ic t%"n t%e 'o"!s de6e!o ed "t t%e e"r!y st"'es o* t%e rocess. Str"te'ic !"nnin' rocesses 'ener"!!y do not >e'in in ste one. T%ere*ore< t%ey do not >e'in ?it% " 6ision or " 'o"!. Iss&es: Inste"d< t%e rocess tends to >e'in ?it% some sort o* str"te'ic iss&e@sA. or t%ey "re &rs&in' " *"i!in' or *"i!ed str"te'yB .T%is is c"!!ed iss&e dri6en !"nnin'. A $ey *e"t&re %ere is t%ere does not %"6e to >e "'reement on 'o"!s to >e'in t%e ne#t ste . T%ere needs mere!y to >e "'reement on " str"te'y to de"! ?it% t%e iss&e. Go"!s ?i!! 'ener"!!y emer'e *rom t%e str"te'iesBstr"te'y s eci*ic 'o"!s: APPLYING THE PROCESS ACROSS ORGANI/ATIONAL S191NITS< LEVELS AN- .1NCTIONS ON AN ONGOING 9ASIS. Key terms "nd de*initions: .system .planning: .process: .management: .system management: STRATEGIC PLANNING SYSTE+: 8hen the strategic planning process is continually applied to an entire organization, it becomes necessary to construct a ST#ATAJ!C P@A>>!>J S7STA'. $. The system integrates the process in a manner that engages the organization in ST#ATAJ!C 'A>AJA'A>T.

The strategic planning process may be applied across SD1D>!TS, @ACA@S A>" D>CT!9>S ; igure %.%< The application is grounded in @A7A#A" 9# STACFA" units of management system:

STRATEGIC PLANNING SYSTE+ .OR LAYERE- OR STACKE- 1NITS O. +ANAGE+ENT Policy 1oard $st Krt Corporate direction %nd Krt Corporate revie, and analysis &rd Krt Corporate revie, and analysis )th Krt. Corporate Plan "evelopment

CA9 and Cabinet "epartment "epartmental #evie,s "ivision Strategic plan "evelopment and revie, "ivision #evie,s 1ureau Plan "evelopment Plan "evelopment 9perating Plan "evelopment L #evie,

A2ternal Anvironment: Specific A2ternal Anvironment: Jeneral

irst Cycle of the System: .bottom-up development of strategic plans ,ithin a frame,or( developed at the top. !t is follo,ed by revie,s and reconciliation at each succeeding level Second Cycle of the System: This cycle engages in the development of operating plans designed to implement the strategic plans. ST#ATAJ!C P@A>>!>J '9"A@S: Strategic !ssues 'anagement System: This is the (ind of system that is typically seen in the public and nonprofit sector. !ts intent is to manage specific strategic issues ,ithout integrating the resultant strategies across all sub-units, levels and functions. Tight integration is not necessary because most issues: .do not affect all parts of the organization, .are sub?ect to different politics, .on their o,n timeframe.. Contract 'odel: ;ch. $0< Joal 'odel: ;ch.$0< Portfolio 'odel: ;ch.$0<