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103 Oldtowne Rd. ULTRALIGHT UFOS?
Seguin, Texas 78155 Incidentally, we need to be aware and careful of putting all our
delicate eggs in what may prove to be an even more fragile basket. I
DENNIS W. STACY refer specifically to the series of UFO sightings stemming from lower
Editor New York state, about which we have all heard so much in recent
WALTER H. ANDRUS, JR. months. The "accepted" explanation of said events is that they are
International Director and attributable to a group of maverick ultralighters who are flying their
Associate Editor vehicles after dark, in formation, and lighted in such a way as to
THOMAS P. DEULEY emulate the popular notion of a flying saucer, or UFO.
Art Director
Despite the fact that such behavior is unlawful, what if it proves
MILDRED BIESELE to be true? What happens to our carefully reasoned arguments of
Contributing Editor
objectivity and public concern then? In short, how often can we call
ANN DRUFFEL "wolf" a priori to the gathering of all available information and an
Contributing Editor
ultimate, perhaps embarrassing resolution of a particular set of
DAVE WEBB As long as events warrant, we should pursue the public's
Co-Chairmcn, education about the UFO phenomenon. On the other hand, it
Humanoid Study Group behooves us all to follow a course of moderation as well. Then if a
PAUL CERNY particular case collapses, it will not seem as if ufology as a whole
Promotion/Publicity comes tumbling down with it. We were here before the sightings in
MARGE CHRISTENSEN southern New York state; I trust we will be here after as well.
Public Relations
Religion and UFOs
In this issue
Books/Periodicals/History MASSACHUSETTS MUFON FORUM, By Walter N. Webb 3
RE-ENTRY RE-EXAMINED, By Dan Wright & Harriet Beech 5
Promotion/Publicity RADAR/SONAR CONTACT, By Walter N. Webb 7
ALCALDE UFO ANALYZED, By Kenneth Ewing & John Warren 11
Staff Writer LETTERS 16
CARTOON, By Leonard Bruce 18
Staff Artist DIRECTOR'S MESSAGE, By Walt Andrus, Jr 20
COVER ART By Simone Mendez
Landing Trace Cases
Medical Cases
UFO Crash/Retrieval
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Despite a gray misty day, nearly. border from Maine to Montana. At one sessions. The subject was "Maxine,"
150 persons crowded into the point, Barry commented, a security who consciously recalled driving by
Centerville Community Center in alert was declared along the full length "hundreds" of paralyzed rabbits on a
Beverly for Massachusetts MUFON's of the northern U.S. border. (So much Nebraska road in 1959 and
first all-day UFO Forum on Sunday, documentation emerged from this encountering a brillant light followed by
August 12, 1984. The 9 AM-4 PM event wave alone that Clear Intent devoted a two-hour time lapse. In 1983 she filled
attracted MUFON State Directors three chapters to the series of in the missing time under hypnosis with
from nine states including five of the six incidents.) an emotional, gut-wrenching account.
New England states (Connecticut, Evidence was offered that the Tearfully, she asserted that her car was
Maine, Massachusetts, New government investigation of UFOs still stopped by three entities in the road
Hampshire, and Vermont) as well as continues. For example, a 1976 and that she was then abducted.
Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, and NORAD regulation established Budd summarized "things we can
New York. The Forum was standard procedures for reporting say we know" about UFO kidnap
coordinated by Massachusetts unknowns to regional control centers. reports:
MUFON Director Marge Christensen. Barry also referred to a NORAD UFO " 1. Testing procedures appear to
Following Marge's opening sighting report form for witnesses to fill have ruled out both hoaxes and
remarks, moderator Dr. Eugene out. It was dated "27 October 1977," psychological explanations for a
Mallove, MUFON's Consultant, on which is eight years after the supposed number of abduction claims.
Interstellar Communications, closing of official government UFO 2. Literally thousands of people
introduced the first two of the day's five investigations! may have been abducted as indicated
d i s t i n g u i s h e d speakers. Barry The speaker concluded by saying: by Hopkins' own investigations and by
Greenwood and Larry Fawcett labeled "All we can say for sure is that UFOs the great number of letters he has
their topic, "UFO Secrecy '84: Big are real, unidentified, intelligent, and, at received from potential abductees.
Brother Is Watching Them!" (The least in some cases, a potential threat to 3. A physical component to UFO
former delivered the same paper at the our national security." abductions is suggested by the
1984 MUFON UFO Symposium.) Larry presented to, the audience presence of unexplained incision-like
Barry and Larry, of course, are the co- two former Air Force security scars and other bodily traces, the recall
authors of Clear Intent, which already policemen, one witnessing the 1980 of physical sensations, the proven
is in its third printing. Both investigators Rendlesham Forest affair in England disappearance of the victim in some
are active in Citizens Against UFO (No. 188, Oct. 1983, and No. 196, July- cases, and the logical and tactical
Secrecy (CAUS) and in MUFON as Aug. 1984) and the other observing a nature of the UFO landing site.
Assistant State Directors for more distant UFO from the RAF 4. A psychic component exists in
Massachusetts and Connecticut. Bentwaters base a week later. Each the form of witness precognition,
witness told his story before the externally controlled behavior,
BIG BROTHER & UFOS attentive gathering. Of the more than telepathic contact with the entities, and
200 personnel reportedly present paranormal aftereffects.
Barry stated, that government during the close encounter at 5. "Some kind of interaction with
UFO documents so far released span a Rendlesham, Larry announced that he the abductee's physical body is central
40-year period, from 1942 to 1981. has now located and spoken with nine to the purpose of UFO abductions."
These have yielded a number of individuals involved in the incident. 6. Occurring in only a few of
sighting reports from Air Force and Budd's cases, "dialogue with UFO
military installations where security UFO ABDUCTIONS occupants seems at least a marginal
police and guards witnessed unknown purpose of UFO abductions."
objects maneuvering over sensitive Budd Hopkins, noted investigator 7. An abductee is probably
areas at very close ranges and below of UFO abduction cases and author of unconscious during part of the
treetop level. Missing Time, spoke on "What We Can experience, and some of the recalled
Perhaps the most publicized of Say We Know a b o u t UFO imagery may actually be hallucinatory,
these once-secret reports embraced Abductions." To give those assembled perhaps the consequence of
the October-November, 1975 wave of the flavor of a UFO abductee's anesthetics employed by the captors.
UFO sightings at Air Force bases and experience, the New York artist
installations along the U.S.-Canadian played a tape from one of his hypnosis (continued on following page)
MUFON, CONTINUED investigations. But Jacobs also warned near a farm dam. When the owner of
that the latter two adjuncts also have the farm appeared, he shouted at the
8. "Amnesia is, at least to some their problems and thus require great object which then moved laterally and
extent, externally caused" and "varies care in the interpretation of their data. vanished behind a bush. The ball soon
radically from individual to individual, The speaker presented a capsule reappeared and began changing colors.
both in its scope and its tenacity." history of our improving UFO After two hours of observation, police
The investigator mentioned other knowledge through the last several were summoned. As the object moved
points common to this type of decades. He credited private away, the farmer and police fired at it,
encounter: UFO abductions tend to researchers with gathering massive hitting it once. At this point the ball
last one to two hours; "a large number evidence on UFO characteristics, began moving up and down and
of abductees will experience more than effects, humanoids, etc., and with stopped changing colors. It then
one abduction in their lifetimes;" some publishing detailed individual cases and continued into heavy cover where it
subjects report the insertion of tiny studies. disappeared.
nasal implants; a number of episodes As for theories, David expressed In a more recent example, a
describe the removal of sperm or ova his view that "ETH has stood the test of Zimbabwe dairy farm owner and his
s a m p l e s , s u g g e s t i n g "genetic time" despite being vigorously workers watched a blue light behaving
experimentation" as another purpose challenged by the various ultra- strangely on numerous occasions from
of abductions; UFO entities seem to be terrestrial hypotheses. late 1982 to early 1984. One time they all
"objectively and scientifically inclined Commenting upon abductions, he saw the light hovering against a distant.
and generally indifferent to human emphasized that these cases "require hill. Wishing it would come closer, the
emotions; the experience often leaves exceptional caution." The witness may farmer said the object seemed to
behind "the psychologically hurtful" be "telling the truth, lying, or thinking respond, for it abruptly crossed the
aftereffects, and, Budd added, "that is he is telling the truth but isn't." valley and stopped within 600 feet of the
one of the saddest, and yet most Abduction episodes are important, the startled men. The UFO cast such a
certain, things" resulting from such speaker declared, because they could brilliant light that the farmer said it hurt
encounters. be "revealing information about entities his eyes and he was unable to discern a
"Something is going on, on a vast and the intelligence behind UFOs." shape. The frightened black workers
scale, that intimately affects thousands were convinced they were watching a
of people," concluded Hopkins, "an CULTURAL CONTEXT ghost!
intelligent program for interacting with
human beings, but an interaction that The final lecturer of the day was
has yet to reveal its purpose." Cynthia Hind, MUFON's Continental All speakers participated in a panel
Coordinator for Africa and author of discussion which consisted of a spirited
TOOLS OF STUDY UFOs: African Encounters. She give-and-take between themselves and
repeated her '84 MUFON Symposium the audience. It lasted well over an
The next paper was delivered by paper for her New England audience- hour. Following the Forum, a private
MUFON's History Consultant, Dr. "Tribal Reactions to UFOs" (No. 196, dinner was held at a nearby restaurant
David M. Jacobs, author of The UFO July-Aug. 1984). and was attended by 50 of the
Controversy in America and Associate The bush people of Africa, Cynthia registrants.
Professor of History at Temple reported, have only a limited Massachusetts MUFON hopes
University. Dr. Jacob's subject was knowledge of the Western World. They that the one-day event can become an
"UFOs and the Problem of are unaware of UFOs, space flight, or annual affair. In fact, several speakers
Knowledge." sci-fi. Governed by the spirits of their have already accepted for next year's
David pointed out that most of our ancestors, these unsophisticated Forum.
knowledge concerning UFOs has been observers "report exactly what they
based upon human observation with a see," and what they see corresponds, in
smattering of physical-trace evidence.
The blame for inadequate data rests
many respects, to the unexplained
phenomena pestering other cultures
largely upon the failure of the scientific around the globe. For years, according
community to consider the to Mrs. Hind, native Africans have UFO
phenomenon worthy of study. described seeing lights, spheres, and
Despite this drawback, amateur
researchers are improving their own
maneuvering objects that "follow,
communicate, and put them into
investigative techniques: MUFON's trance."
Field Investigator's Manual is available;
individuals are conducting better
She cited a number of cases,
some of them comprising both MUFON
quality probes into sightings; the European and native observers. In a
polygraph and hypnosis are being 1972 South African episode, a 103 OLDTOWNE RD.
increasingly employed as aids in UFO farmhand spotted a bright red ball of SEGUIN, TX 78155
light about 2l/2 feet in diameter hovering
RE-ENTRY shape." The unusual misty substance identifiable.
continued to envelop it with a nearly Bob urged Butch to "step on it!"
As a matter of record, at 9:55 PM, glowing quality through which While they raced toward the scene,
Sunday, May 20, 1984, debris from a numerous points of light were visible. though, the lights seemed to fade out.
Soviet launch vehicle, Soyuz T-10, re- Steve looked in his. rearview This, they agreed, may have been
entered Earth's atmosphere. Blazing a mirror and saw that three or four cars because the lights were pointing
path across Texas to the northeast, it behind his own were slowing. This forward and seemed to be recessed like
caused switchboards across mid- confirmation that others were a ship's portholes. As the object
America to light up on this unusually observing the oddity was reassuring. crossed their path, then, the lights
clear night. Then the most striking aspect of the w o u l d appear to have been
Most callers described a diffused event occurred. "All of a sudden, it just extinguished. The men insist that the
cloud of sparks and vapor trails behind shot out and it was gone." He described object should nevertheless have
a huge fireball in a flat trajectory. Some the accelerative effect as "infinitely remained visible as a dark mass against
witnesses in Michigan remarked on the faster," emphasizing that the craft, the sky, but when they reached a
several fragments accompanying the while continuing on a level course clearing only seconds later, it was not
main body. These, they reasoned, must eastward, was out of sight in less than a within view. Despite their brief search
have been a formation of sorts, small second. He looked at his watch, which of the area, they did not sight the
crafts ejected from a "mother ship." read 9:55. Quickly, he turned onto a vehicle again.
A June 17. reponse generated by road heading north and scanned the Later, on the eleven o'clock news,
the Space Surveillance Center, North entire eastern horizon but saw nothing they heard mention of reported
A m e r i c a n Aerospace Defense more. sightings of a high-flying object with a
Command (NORAD), resolved the sparkler effect (i.e. the spacecraft
matter. The launch vehicle had taken GIANT TRIANGLE debris). What they observed, the men
cosmonauts to the Salyut-7 space are convinced, was not at all associated
station, then was deorbited on April 11. Butch Fuller and Bob Fowler were with any re-entry.
out testing the Fullers' new car, driving
CIGAR SHAPE in the countryside of southern Ingham BEAUTY OR BEAST?
County some ten miles away. As the
Steve Crum had spent Sunday two were starting for home sometime Shirley Sturgis and Melody Hoerl
evening at his parents' residence in around 10 PM, they noticed two bright had spent their Sunday shopping and
southern Eaton County. As he headed lights descending and approaching attending a movie in Kalamazoo. At a
home, his mind was occupied with the from the west. Assuming them to be few minutes after ten, Shirley turned
status of his father's health. Turning aircraft headlights, they wondered onto Constantine Road, a few miles
west onto Bellevue Highway, the young aloud whether a plane was in trouble. from Three Rivers near the Indiana
teacher noticed an object descending at The object appeared to slow to less border.
a sharp angle in the opposite direction. than traffic speed, crossing the road Not yet up to highway speed, the
He assumed this to be a jetliner from two hundred yards or so ahead of them trees on their left cleared away for a
Chicago headed for nearby Lansing, at what they estimated to be a few railroad crossing. At that moment, they
given the delta-wing shape. hundred feet above the ground. As the witnessed what they instantly
For perhaps two minutes, he giant vehicle glided over the roadway, discerned to be an aerial phenomenon.
casually watched it slowly approach to Butch turned off the radio, rolled down Hovering just over a tangle of scrub
his left, taking note of its seemingly his window and stuck his head out, but trees was an elongated object, tapered
oversized appearance, a greater he heard nothing. at either end and shrouded in a silvery
number of headlights than expected, They later described the craft as white mist. Behind the nearly opaque
and a whitish mist surrounding the likened to a triangle, with a wingspan of camouflage, a line of steady green and
craft. Despite the peculiarities, he did football field proportions and, from its rose-colored lights shone along the
not believe at this point that he was nose to the rear, about four times the base. The extreme upper portion was
viewing anything extraordinary. width of the two-lane road. The edges of somewhat more clearly visible, a
Half a mile away now, the object the vehicle were rounded. Its finish was tapering silver outline. The cloudlike
leveled off at an estimated thousand a "battleship grey" that reflected the
feet and "transformed into a cigar lights somewhat. No mist was (continued on next page)
RE-ENTRY, CONTINUED while they gawked at the spectacle only be in the offering.
thirty yards away, she argued Shirley reluctantly started to move
covering encompassed the entire vehemently that they must leave: "It the truck forward, then halted again
length of the object and beyond, some was coming down very, very slowly, almost immediately as they reached the
forty yards or more, and seemed to almost like a slow-motion sideways crossing stopsign. They were a scant
prevent the surface lights from casting movement....and I just felt like we had a sixty feet from the craft as it continued
onto the trees immediately below. choice. We could stay and hope that it to "creep" toward them, protruding'
Shirley slammed on the brakes at wouldn't stall the Bronco out, or we now from the line of trees.
first glance of the strange vehicle. She could get out of there. And Shirley was N e a r l y hysterical, Melody
rolled down her window but heard all enthused and ready to get out and screamed at Shirley to leave. Though
nothing, leaving the engine running and meet this thing, and I kept saying, 'I fascinated by the sight, for the sake of
headlights on (with no effect to either). want to leave; I'm scared. I really want her friend Shirley crossed over the
She was elated to witness "one of the to go.'" Having been exposed to media tracks and continued down the road for
most beautiful things I've ever seen". accounts of ,E-M effects, physical perhaps half a mile. While the seconds
Melody, by contrast, was greatly abductions and consequent traumas, passed, she noted a more conciliatory
agitated. For the next few moments, Melody wanted no part of what might tone in Melody's reactions and so
suddenly turned the truck around,
racing back to the scene. But the
object was nowhere to be found.
When they arrived at Shirley's
home, they were made aware of the
sighting by Shirley's son and daughter-
in-law, who were among the many that
had -mistaken the re-entry as
anomalous. They maintain that what
they saw was extremely close at hand
and of an unconventional nature.


Amid hundreds of reports

misidentifying a re-entry vehicle, these
five people, the authors are convinced,
confronted something genuinely
anomalous. Each learned of the re-
entry afterward, yet all insist that they
had witnessed an entirely different craft
that exhibited flight characteristics
beyond present-day technology.
In light of the obvious correlations
of these accounts and the astute
observations of credible witnesses, we
wish to speculate: Is it reasonable that
intelligent visitors would have the
technological capacity to monitor
decaying orbits of space vehicles and
predict their moment of re-entry? If so,
would these visitors have the
sociological insight to realize that, in
light of a known event such as a satellite
re-entry, separate UFO reports are
unlikely to be given credence? If this is
also correct, might such simultaneous
occurrences become a modus operandi
of sorts as the several hundred
inoperative satellites now in orbit fall
back through the atmosphere with
increasing frequency? •

A longtime friend and coworker of
mine at Boston's Museum of Science is
Valerie Wilcox of Aubarndale,
Massachusetts. During a telephone
conversation with me on July 27,1984,
Val commented that an English
acquaintance recently mentioned a
UFO experience that he had while he
was in the Royal Navy. He told her he
was present when an unidentified target
was picked up on his ship's radar and
then tracked by sonar after it entered
the water! Part of the log referring to
this event was alleged to have been
confiscated. Val offered to have us both
come to dinner some evening in late
August or early September so that I
could question the individual about his —ILLUSTRATIONS BY BRUCE LEONARD
The following report resulted from and occupation are on file. I have The witness believes his frigate
interviews with the witness at Val's assigned the witness the pseudonym was cruising approximately northeast
house on September 6,1984, and at his "Tom Preston." between Spitsbergen and Norway,
place, of business on September 12 (a some 30 to 50 miles off the northern
follow-up interview). Since he was THE SIGHTING Norwegian coast. On a map he placed
sworn to secrecy at the time of the his position at roughly 71° north latitude
incident and still is a British citizen, the It was late February (possibly the and 20° east longitude in the Norwegian
observer requested that I not tape our 28th), 1963, and a contingent of the Sea. Thinking back to that morning, the
interviews nor use his name or the Royal Navy's North Atlantic Fleet had observer recalled that the sky was clear
name of his ship in this report. He also been participating in exercises off except for scattered clouds; the seas
declined to fill out MUFON Form 9 Norway for about three days. Part of were probably running three to five
(Radar Cases) due to the classified this contingent of approximately ten feet; and winds were probably blowing
nature of the instrumentation. ships included Tim Preston's frigate (a at Beaufort Force 2 (3.5 to 6 knots, or 4
However, I was permitted to take destroyer escort). to 7 miles per hour, a slight breeze).
notes. Preston, a 20-year-old lieutenant Each of the three radarscopes in
In the 21% years since this amazing trained in navigation and radar-sonar the room displayed a different height
episode occurred, I was told I was the operations (over 12 months of radar level in the atmosphere. At
first person to hear the complete story. experience), was on the early morning approximately 0315 hours, Preston
Val and the observer's wife were the watch (2400 to 0750 hours) in the recalled, a stationary "bleep" appeared
only others told anything about the darkened radar-sonar room. Second in abruptly on the highest-level scope.
incident (his wife learned about it only command of this facility, Tom The target's vertical height was
two years ago). The wintess proved to happened to be in charge of the shift at approximately 35,000 feet, and it was
be very cooperative, congenial, and the time of the UFO incident. Besides located somewhat west of the zenith
quite credible in my opinion. He is 41 himself, other personnel in the room (overhead point) at perhaps 70°
years old, has been married seven years comprised three radarscope operators elevation. The bleep indicated a
to an American wife, and lives and and two sonar operators. The senior
works in Newton. His name, address, officer was not present. (continued on next page)
RADAR/SONAR, CONTINUED remaining overhead at its original one and the same! The target's speed
altitude and holding the same relative was considerably reduced, "down to
seemingly hard solid object giving off a position on the radarscope. hundreds of miles per hour" but "still
strong reflection; the size of the target moving damn fast," remarked Preston,
on the screen, according to the JET SCRAMBLE and it was now moving along a zigzag
witness's best recollection, implied an path away from the ship. Sonar first
actual diameter or length for the object At this juncture, according to the picked up the target at its upward
of between that of a jet fighter and a 707- witness, a call went out for fighter horizon, perhaps 50 feet below the
-in other words, said Preston, roughly assistance in making an identification ocean surface, and continued to
100 to 120 feet across. intercept. Within minutes, Tom heard register an echo from the object as it
the sound of jets through the open dropped rapidly into deep water (the
SUDDEN APPEARANCE door, and he could see the bleeps of two witness claims that the depth in this
aircraft on* the scope racing from the area should have been "no more than
One of the strange things about southwest toward the unidentified 2,000 feet"). Sonar contact with the
this u n k n o w n target was the image. (He believes the aircraft must unidentified object suddenly ceased
suddenness of its appearance: One have been English Electric Lightnings, after .an indeterminate period of no
moment the screen was empty; the the RAF's fastest fighters in the early more than two or three minutes. The
next moment the target was there. If it 1960s.) abrupt cessation of the echo might have
in fact represented a genuine reflection The observer recalled that when simply indicated that the object
from a real object at the indicated the jets came within about 10 to 15 miles dropped behind a rise in the uneven sea
.altitude, the object would have had to of the unknown, the UFO suddenly bottom.
have entered the radar, field at performed a steep angular descent at Tom's frigate had begun steaming
unbelievable speed, either horizontally incredible speed, crossing all three toward the target's entry point a flank
or vertically, and then stopped instantly radar screens as it descended and speed and probably arrived at the spot
without any deceleration. When I asked passing completely below the radar in about 20 minutes. A visual and sonar
about the possibility of anomalous horizon (750 to 1,000 feet height)-all search over the entry point, however,
propagation creating a false target, the within about two or three seconds! The yielded nothing. No further contact of
observer said no unusual atmospheric object's path crossed the ship's bow
conditions existed at the time that from port to starboard. (continued on next page)
might have caused A.P.
Tom stated that he went out on SONAR CONTACT
deck a number of times during the
observation and peered upward As the target descended, the two
through binoculars in attempts to spot sonar operators aimed their pulses in
the UFO against the night sky. He was the general direction of the dropping
unsuccessful, however, in spotting the object. Almost immediately (in a matter
object visually. (A visual confirmation of seconds) following loss of radar
also eluded others in the fleet so far as contact, both sonar operators received
Preston was able to determine later.) audible "pings," indicating a strong
After a few minutes, Tom notified echo from a fast-moving submerged
his senior officer who came into the target at a range of probably 20,000
radar room, looked at the target on the yards (roughly 10 miles).
scope, and then withdrew. The officer (Sonar is the u n d e r w a t e r
proceeded to radio the nearest ship to counterpart of radar, only the former
learn if it also "painted" the same target. employs sound waves rather than radio
It did. Thus, a radar set malfunction was waves. The distance to the submerged
ruled out. (Tom's conversations with object can be found from the time taken
radar operators aboard other ships for the waves to travel to the object and
following the episode determined that back to the ship, knowing the velocity
they had the unknown on their screens of acoustical sound waves through sea
as well.) water. Tom explained that sonar's
When an attempted radio contact usually limited range was extended in
with the unexplained source failed to this case by means of a classified
elicit any response, the fleet's flagship procedure.)
was contacted and an order The underwater target appeared
subsequently issued to all ships to to be traveling in the same general
execute an evasive maneuver, basically azimuth and at the same descent angle
a "Z" pattern. Preston said the UFO (at least initially) as the airborne object,
appeared to follow the maneuver, implying that the two unknowns were
RADAR/SONAR, CONTINUED I asked Tom if the meeting might UFO accounts involve objects
have been part of a general order observed entering and/or leaving
any kind was made with the submerged carried out on other ships in the fleet as water. Sightings of many unidentified
object. well in connection with the UFO objects remaining underwater
When asked to estimate the total incident. He responded that he didn't throughout the entire observation may
duration of the entire radar-sonar know if it was or not. in fact be due to the activity of foreign
observation, the witness said he was The witness recollected that he submarines as well as to biolurriines-
uncertain owing to the length of time was in the ward room about 10 minutes. cent phenomena (the mysterious
that had elapsed since the event. But he He said he never heard anything further "wheels of light").
came up with "five or six minutes about the unknown target. The only other publicized USO
although it could have been a lot When Preston came on duty once sonar contact that this investigator
longer." In fact, if one considers all the again at 2400 hours, he said he was could uncover turns out to be not much
elements of time involved throughout surprised to discover that a "spanking more than an unsubstantiated rumor
the espisode--the initial radar new book" had replaced the radar log related in the late Ivan T. Sanderson's
observation prior to notification of the used the previous morning. Invisible Residents (New York: The
senior officer, the subsequent ship-to- World Publishing Company, 1970;
ship communications, the attempted 20 YEAR SECRET Avon Books, 1973). Citing Martin
radio contact with the target, the Caidin's Hydrospace (New York; E.P.
evasive maneuver of the fleet, the Tom obeyed his senior officer's Dutton & Co., 1964) and Ed Hyde's
arrival of the jets, and the sonar instructions to the letter and never article "U.F.O.'s-At 4500 Fathoms!,"
contact-it would appear that a duration revealed to anyone what happened on Man's Illustrated (Mar. 1966) as two of
on the order of at least 15 to 20 minutes the British frigate that morning in 1963 his sources, Sanderson pooled the
would have been more reasonable. until just two years ago. Preston and his various versions of the story and came
wife happened to be watching Nova's up with a composite account which can
SUBSEQUENT EVENTS infamous "The Case of the UFO" in be summarized as follows:
October, 1982. Immediately after the Sometime in 1963 (the same year
After Tom witnessed the senior PBS program had ended, Tom turned as the Preston episode) the U.S. Navy
officer enter the UFO observations in to his wife and told her he had was c o n d u c t i n g a n t i s u b m a r i n e
the radar log book, their shift ended. participated in a UFO sighting while in exercises off Puerto Rico. The craft
Radar room personnel on the early the Royal Navy. He remembered that included five smaller naval vessels,
morning watch ate breakfast and then he didn't go into much detail and never submarines, aircraft (at least one
turned in..Probably sometime between referred to the experience again until towing a dunking or dipping sonar
1200 and 1300, Tom said he was the observation with Val in July, 1984. below the ocean surface), and possibly
awakened and ordered to report to the What did he think the object was? the carrier Wasp serving as the
ward room, along with the five radar "I have no idea," Tom replied simply. command ship.
and sonar operators on his shift that He added that whatever it was, "it was
morning. There was a little grumbling at guided." The witness emphasized that HIGH-SPEED USO
having their "sack time" interrupted. both the radar and sonar targets
Awaiting the men in the ward room consisted of crisp, hard reflections, not A sonar operator aboard a
were their senior officer and the "ghost" echoes. The radar target, he destroyer reported that one of the subs
commander of the ship. All sat down stressed, was "absolutely not" an suddenly commenced pursuit of an
around a table over coffee. aircraft, balloon, bird, or false weather unknown submerged object that was
The senior officer proceeded to go target. Nor could it have been a radar moving at "over 150 knots" (170-plus
over the events of that morning, asking set malfunction since operators on miles per hour!). According to most
questions about the radar-sonar other ships had the same target on their accounts, similar sonar reports of a
observations. He told the six men that screens. high-speed object began coming in from
their conversations were being taped all of the other ships and from the
and explained that until more was EVALUATION sonar-trailing aircraft. One of
known about the unknown target, they Sanderson's sources stated that no less
were to remain silent about what they As far as I am personally aware, than 13 craft recorded in their logs that
had seen. "Gentlemen," the officer this case is totally unique in the history their sonars had tracked this object.
said, "we will rememberthat we have all of UFO reports. It is the first known Allegedly, the unknown target
signed the Official Secrets Act (or combined radar-sonar contact of a continued to be tracked for four days as
words to that effect)." Although there UFO. With perhaps a single exception, it maneuvered down to depths of 27,000
were no threats, the implication was it is also the first known sonar-tracking feet! (This must have been in the
clear that to divulge anything to anyone of a USO (Unidentified Submarine vicinity of the Atlantic's deepest point ~
concerning the tracking of the UFO Object), UFOs reportedly seen 28,374 feet below sea level-in the
would be considered a breach of entering, passing through, or exiting
security. bodies of water. The most significant (continued on next page)
RADAR/SONAR, CONTINUED atmosphere may bend radar beams at this report to that of "significant
such an angle that they pick up distant unknown."
Puerto Rico Trench.) surface or airborne targets below the
If the above story is true, nothing of horizon and make them appear at
known earthly origin can travel elevated locations on the radarscope.
underwater at such speeds or Nothing would be evident to the naked
maneuver at such depths. The fastest eye in the sky.
nuclear subs can attain 45 knots (52 Nevertheless, according to the
miles per hour) and dive to around witness, none of the conditions that IVIUFON
3,000 feet. The bathyscape Trieste, might lead to AP were in fact present at
with a specially constructed pressure- the time.
resistant hull, descended to a record But there are other arguments
35,820 feet in 1960. However, it was against anomalous propagation and
incapable of maneuvering about. natural phenomena in general being the "ALL THE NEWS"
It is unfortunate that more than 21 cause of the radar-sonar targets. Was it
years elapsed before the Preston case just a coincidence that the target As most of you are probably
reached the attention of a UFO suddenly darted away at the moment aware, journalistic standards in this
investigator. We have here yet another the jets approached after having country are set by The New York
example of government UFO secrecy remained stationary for quite possibly Times. Indeed, the paper's front-page
at work-this time a foreign nation, some 10 or 15 minutes? Was it a logo reads "All the News That's Fit to
Great Britain. Largely due to his coincidence that an unidentified, high- Print," as if the Times were the sole
a p p r e h e n s i o n over p o t e n t i a l speed sonar target, appeared in the arbiter in the land of what constitutes
repercussions if he revealed his same direction of the airborne target's "news" and what does not. Too often
experience, Tom felt compelled to keep point of disappearance below the that judgment has weighed against the
his knowledge of the event to himself. radar horizon and within seconds of reporting of UFO sightings and related
Since it hadn't occurred to him at the loss of radar contact? What sort of anomalous phenomena.
time that the radar log notes would be airborne natural phenomenon can Subtle signs are afloat, however,
removed, he had only his memory to suddenly submerge and maneuver that the rigid editorial policy of the
rely upon during our interviews. He almost equally well through a water Times may be undergoing a change. In
expressed uncertainty about some of environment? late August, for example, the paragon
the details and about his exact location of the eastern press yielded to what
off the coast of Norway. Nevertheless, EVASIVE ACTION must have been the pressure of local
the gist of what took place seems quite events and reported on the hundreds of
clear. The image on radar gave all the sightings of a huge, triangle-shaped
If we assume that the observer's outward appearances of reacting to the UFO which had been plaguing lower
recollections are approximately correct jets' approach and then successfully New York state and western
regarding the UFO's 35,000-foot e l u d i n g f u r t h e r detection by Connecticut for several months. In
vertical height, 70° elevation angle^ submerging in the ocean and eventually September of this year the subject even
three-second descent, and approxi- retreating from view. Another example made the editorial pages in an article by
mate 10-mile-distant entry point, then of apparent intelligent behavior: The Sydney Schanberg, "Must We Identify
we can infer that the object's 30° target appeared to follow the fleet's UFOs?" The author concluded, if I read
descent path covered 14 miles at a evasive "Z" maneuver. correctly, that UFOs are a sort of
speed of about 17,000 miles per hour-in Owing to (1) the lengthy passage of healthy mystery and need not be
the neighborhood of a slow meteor's more than two decades since the brushed aside surreptitiously nor
veolocity! experience occurred and the resultant necessarily explained away altogether.
diminished accuracy of remembered Other recent developments have
ANOMALOUS PROPAGATION details, (2) the unavailability of written also been encouraging, including the
data or records concerning the continuing Times coverage of reports
The radar target apparently was instrumented readings, (3) the of "Chessie," an elusive, perhaps
not confirmed visually. This situation availability of only a single witness, and previously unknown sea creature seen
would ordinarily lead one to believe (4) the lack of visual confirmation, I swimming Chesapeake Bay, and an
anomalous propagation might be might ordinarily have listed this article which appeared in the
responsible. AP arises when abnormal reported experience as "simply" an prestigious Tuesday "Science Times"
atmospheric conditions interfere with "unknown." section about the "wildmen" of China.
the normal propagation of radar waves, But because of the credibility of the We've known all along UFOs and
causing a display of false targets in witness and the report's unique and other anomalies were worth reporting.
places and at altitudes where no potentially important nature as a Thanks to the Times, the rest of the
physical object should appear. For combined radar-sonar UFO contact, I country may soon realize it, too.
example, superrefractive layers in the have elected to upgrade the status of -EDITOR

SUMMARY binoculars, but could not see any wings. associated in any way with UFOs. We
As with so many cases of this type are not using names beause many
' Mel Medina of Alcalde, NM, (lights in the sky) we will never know for people want no publicity. We have not
reported to the state police and the Rio sure if there was a large unidentified asked permission of the others. The
Grande Sun newspaper having seen object there that evening, which was names themselves have no public
bright lights and a strange-shaped invisible to radar, or if the large number recognition value outside their own
object from approximately 7:05 to 7:30 of witnesses who saw the object were towns. We believe the statistics of the
PM MST, April 24, 1984. The object simply unable to recognize the KC-135 observations are most important. We
was nearly stationary from 7:10 to in the dim twilight or judge accurately interviewed a member of each of the 17
about 7:25 in the direction northeast by the size of the object. groups either in person or by
east. At that time it started to move We learned many interesting telephone.
from left to right in front of him and then things during the course of the The eyewitness data are
turned east toward Truchas Peak. investigation, which will be recorded summarized in Table I. Of our 17
Eventually it disappeared from view. here for future use of our local groups, 7 people could give angular
Upon f u r t h e r investigation we organization. Some of these items may size; 11 people gave elevation. Almost
uncovered 16 other groups of also be of use to investigators everyone could give direction or
witnesses, whose stories more or less elsewhere. The next two sections will compass bearing. Five people gave
confirmed Medina's story. We were discuss the eyewitness reports and the both angular size and elevation. Many
able to obtain radar data from the FAA radar data. Following this- will be a or most people do not think in terms of
through the Freedom of Information discussion of what the object was NOT. angular measurements. They said it
Act, which contained the tracks of 22 We then make our analysis of the was "big as a house," etc. We tried to
identifiable commercial or private sightings in terms of the KC-135 get them to think of a finger at arm's
flights near the area the object was seen explanation. We learned a few things length or something similar. Within the
during the time from 7:00 to 8:00 PM about investigating techniques which accuracy of our data, a finger at arm's
MST. In addition, a military craft we have recorded in a separate section. length is about 1.5 degrees or 3 full
entered the area from the east at 7:25, The final section acknowledges help moons. A fist at arm's length is about 7.5
turned south, then back east and was we received from many sources. degrees. Angular measurement is the
out of the area by 7:30. It was later only meaningful number. One cannot
determined to be a KC-135 aerial EYEWITNESS REPORTS estimate size unless one knows
tanker on a refueling mission, whose distance. We planned to get these
rendezvous point was northwest of Las The firsthand observers discussed distances by triangulation. Distance
Vegas, NM. The KC-135 is the size of a in this report represent a cross-section estimates by witnesses can be very
Boeing 707 and according to an FAA of the Hispanic population in northern deceptive.
military liaison officer is usually "lit up New Mexico. Their educational level Compass bearing was obtained by
like a Christmas tree" when making a varied from highschool or less to asking the individual to face in the
rendezvous. The radar data indicated Masters level college degrees. Their direction of the phenomenon and point.
that it remained at its assigned altitude English language proficiency varied We all carried magnetic compasses.
between 22,000 and 24,000 feet, but from excellent to minimal, in the Elevation is a bit more difficult.
that it slowed down from 360 MPH to situation where Spanish was their Pointing can be off by a factor of 2 or 3.
185 MPH as it turned back east. dominant language. Some observers We had a protractor with a plumb line
We believe that this military craft were long term businessmen in their and by sighting one can obtain an angle.
can account for many of the eyewitness communities or they simply work there, We would ask people to think in terms
accounts, but not all. It is difficult to while others commuted from their of draftman's triangles which easily give
understand how Medina could have respective towns to various jobs in Los 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Most people
observed the craft for 15 minutes Alamos County (location of the Los understand that. The object was seen
before it crossed the Sangre de Christo Alamos National Laboratory). from Medanales and Truchas and
mountains and entered the Espanola There were 17 independent groups Chimayo at least 15 miles and possibly
Valley. Almost all observers estimated ranging from 1 to 4 persons for a total of 20 miles apart. Figure 1 shows a map of
the object's size as substantially larger 34 people (27 male and 7 female). Many the area with an estimated trajectory
than a commercial airliner. Medina were interested in talking to us, but
observed the object through many others did not want to be (continued on next page)
To Taos
Ca BolsE
Rio Grande
Estimated Trajectory*
- fr"ora Eyewitness TeporV Penls^o^
Lvelarde (To Chacon
S Charaa River and Mora
iMedanales To Ojo
ToV Caliente
Chan 1 >i02
and Empty Barren
Tierra* Country Side UFO#1
Ararilla\ -7>19

Path of KC-135
Military Jet
?i28< • Truchas S
Village a
ispanola UFO#2J e

I7il5 Truchas Peak

I J —- c
10 15 h
Scale in Kiles -|- Pecos Baldy
iPojoaque i
To Tesuque Ktns.
and Santa Fe

ALCALDE, CONTINUED Figure 1. Map of the 17 separate eyewitness tracks was a military plane and as we
sightings of the April 24, 1984, UFO in the later found out by telephone from the
Espanola valley. Also shown are paths of the FAA in Albuquerque, it was a KC-135 on
based on eyewitness observations. KC-135 aircaft and 5 other unidentified radar
Based on these distance and angular trajectories occurring during the time a refueling mission from an airport at
size estimates, we calculated the size of interval from 7:00 to 7:30 PM. Amarillo, Texas. The KC-135 was at an
the object in feet, shown in Table II. We altitude of about 22,000 feet above sea
calculated a minimum size of about Through experience with search level. The plane slowed down while
1000 feet. The maximum number and rescue operations, we were aware turning around Truchas from 375 mph
seems too large to be worth considering that the Federal Aviation Administra- to 185 mph. The plane was lit up for
— about a mile in size. tion (FAA) radar covers our area. rendezvous purposes. The radar trace
Another difficulty we had was in Computerized data output are kept on showed the plane came in from the
establishing clock time estimates magnetic tape for 15 days and may be east, turned around the town of
needed to establish a space-time obtained by private citizens under the Truchas to the west and was at a slant
trajectory. Rural communities, in Freedom of Information Act for the distance of about three miles from the
general, are not as tied to a clock as cost of producing computer listings. It witnesses at Truchas and then left at a
those of us in more urban areas. We takes about three weeks to get the data. bearing of about 100 degrees. We were
know that something very large passed We have one hour's worth of radar told that it was to rendezvous with
over part of northern New Mexico on traces encompassing the event. During another plane near Las Vegas, NM.
the night of April 24 (Tuesday), that period 22 flights of aircraft The circuit took less than five minutes
between 7 and 8 PM MST with most of containing transponders passed over on our radar trace. The time of this
the observations at about 7:30. We the area of interest. These are probably occurrence was about 7:25 to 7:30 PM
cannot be more accurate. mostly commercial flights. They were at EST. The path was at the height of our
an altitude of about 30,000 feet or 4 or 5
RADAR DATA miles above the surface. One of the (continued on next page)
I «ltl»t U*.IM
• IK ntl. I4»S Ht» •/!«'•« Ml
1 OMilhi 444.4J9 U41II » II«MI
IMM IKMI ••!! 1*11 •!• •!•• *U
«K« M HOI »«•! M«UCCM)t MUl period 7:00 PM to 8:00 PM. There were
more unidentified returns per five
minute interval in the period from 7:20
to 7:35 than in corresponding five
minute intervals outside of that period.
4n.ui There are three possible explanations
we can think of. One hour's worth of
data is insufficient to understand the
•11.111 fluctuating background; the KC135
•II .Ml
produced some sort of multiple
scattering effect; or there was another
•M.I4T large object present almost capable of
hiding itself from radar. The
exaplanations are given in order of
decreasing likelihood. The statistical
analysis is given in the Appendix.
44).n< t< /A 143
• M.MI In the course of our investigation
several other explanations for the
4II.«U object were suggested, including
414.119 blimps, weather balloons, aurora, and
laser experiments originating at the Los
411.141 PEAK Alamos National Laboratory.
4ti. u* The Goodyear blimps were in
• II. Ut
Houston and Los Angeles on the night
• U.IU
•19.441 in question. The National Center for
Atmospheric Research at Palestine,
Texas, did not have any large balloons
going up or coming down on this day.
4 4 4 9 4
Sunspots were very active during
I I I 4 t
9 II 1 I
the week of April 23. There was a very
IU IIIUMCI I bright X-ray flare on the east limb of the

!• ao*« *t_tit. UK.* •«•• »!••

' llt.'llll " 41*. 4II« ~
I14.MM 4T9.4IW sun about 5:00 PM MST on April 24.
IM«t AA.tkl* IUC.» •»*• •>«•. IlkMII 4II.IIM
Aurora usually occur 12 to 24 hours
later, which would have been too late to
explain our event. In any case, aurora at
Figure 2. Typical FAA computer plot for our area, 7:45 to 7:50, greatly reduced. We have our latitude is unlikely and cannot
identified some of the symbols on the plot. explain the bright headlights that were
UFO sighting and was on the path probably commercial jets and the described to us.
described by the people of Truchas. letters are identification codes from the Newspaper accounts described
The KC-135 is similar to the Boeing computer. The dots and colons are the UFO as being the result of a laser
707 airliner, and has a wingspan of 131 unidentified radar returns, which can being used on that night for
feet and a fuselage length of 136 feet. include ground scattering, high environmental studies. The laser had
From Truchas the plane would have buildings, private pilots not using their been fired for six years since 1978 and
appeared as an object the diameter of identifying transponders, and of course this was the first coincidence of the
the full moon. From Medanales the UFOs. laser firing with a UFO sighting. There
plane would have appeared to be less The Albuquerque Center of the are other reasons why the laser could
than one-tenth the size of the full moon. FAA was very kind in helping us to not possibly have caused this
The KC-135 did not come near Dixon understand these plots and in phenomenon:
and Penasco. identification of the KC135 aircraft, it's a) The laser pulsed; the UFO did
Figure 1 shows the path of the origin and mission. They also explained not flicker.
military jet based on the computer- why, with so much commercial traffic b) The laser had relatively low
produced radar map for the period 7:25 to watch, they do not have time to try to power (10 MW) and diverges by a factor
to 7:30. Since most readers have never identify all the tracks in their data. of a million in area by the time it is over
seen a radar computer map from the An interesting statistical effect the Espanola valley.
FAA, a map is reproduced in Figure 2. turned up in the analysis of the It still has enough intensity to be
The straight lines in Figure 2 are unidentified radar returns during the (continued on next page)
HCIJ3 143 ft., 8' at 215 Ft. and 4' at 430 Ft.
15 LiXEOF FU6HT The third problem with the aircraft
30M.V5MITV 6 3 f i 0 M P H explanation is the size of the object
O 10 reported by so many witnesses. The
angular size of the whole KC-135 at a
u IS distance of 8 miles is approximately 12'.
a. A thumb held at arm's length is about 2
MOUNTAINS degrees. Many witnesses thought that it
10 was much larger than that.
The fourth problem is the fact that
10 HO 80 100 \10 the radar trajectory does not
7:1 SP* W5PM 7-.IOPM correspond very well with the
DISTANCE trajectory as determined by the
Figure 3. The KC-135 could not have been witnesses in Penasco and La Bolsa near
seen over the mountains 15 minutes before it Dixon. One of the witnesses in Penasco
entered the valley if it was traveling at 360 said that the object passed directly
overhead (See Fig. 1).
ALCALDE, CONTINUED the KC-135. At this distance the two Finally, the fifth problem is that, in
landing lights should have appeared as addition to the radar track for the KC-
visible by scattering from the one, except to someone with very 135, the radar data contain several
atmosphere, but is so large that it could unusual eyesight. tracks of unidentified nature before the
not possibly look like headlights or One of the stars in Ursa Major is KC-135 showed up and almost no
landing lights. really a double star system (Alcor and unidentified tracks after it left the area.
Mizar). The two stars are about 11 These tracks are also shown on Fig. 1.
KC135 PROBLEMS minutes of arc apart. This was used by While the tracks corresponding to
the ancient Arab armies as an "eye commercial aircraft and the track of the
There are at least five problems test." Let us assume that the landing KC-135 can be seen entering and
with the KC-135 aircraft as an lights on the KC-135 (wing span of 135 leaving the region of the radar plot, the
explanation of all the witness sightings ft.) are about 50 ft. apart. At 18 miles unidentified tracks appear to originate
and the radar data. These are (roughly the distance of closest and end in the middle of the region. We
enumerated below. approach to Medanales) the angular are not familiar enough with the quirks
The KC-135 crossed the Sangrede separation calculates to be 1.8 minutes of radar to be able to discriminate
Cristo mountains and entered the of arc. The witness at Medanales between ground clutter and the
Espanola valley about 7:25. By 7:30 it definitely stated that the lights looked signature of UFOs. All that we can say
had turned back east and crossed the like the headlights of a car (See is that there are an above average
mountains again. Many of the witnesses Appendix A). Even the witness at number of unidentified radar returns in
claimed to have watched the lights for a Alcalde (about 8 miles from the the time interval before the KC-135 and
long time. Because it was difficult to get distance of closest approach) should in the region where Medina claims to
good time estimates from witnesses, we have had difficulty because the angular have been seeing the UFO. The source
are not sure whether a long time means separation is only 4.25 minutes. of these returns is unexplained.
5 minutes or 20 minutes. The main Many of the observers saw a red We have come up with several
witness, Mel Medina, did note the time light above and between the two bright possible hypotheses to explain the
the UFO appeared and disappeared lights. It is difficult to understand how a available data. These will be listed in
(7:10 and 7:30). If we deduct the 5 navigational tail light could have been order of increasing strangeness:
minutes that the KC-135 was in the visible at such large distances. Our 1. The object was only the KC-135;
Espanola Valley, then for 15 minutes major witness in Alcalde saw the object many of the witness recollections
Medina was seeing something else through his binoculars and could easily were inaccurate or influenced by the
through his binoculars. At 7:10 the KC- see seven lights along the side of the subsequent article published in the Rio
135 should have been about 90 miles object. Furthermore, he reported that Grande Sun.
away to the east of Alcalde and 8000 ft. the red light separated from the object 2. There were two aircraft; a small
above the valley floor. Figure 3 shows and flew out of the binocular view and private plane with landing lights on,
the geometry with the vertical scale later returned to its original position. which wandered around the valley from
exaggerated. The earliest that the KC- If the reader has any doubt about 7:05 to 7:25 (to. account for Medina's
135 could have been seen is about 7:20. angular resolution, there is a simple observations and some of the extra
A second problem with the KC-135 experiment that can be done. Take two radar returns) and the KC-135 reported
explanation is that many witnesses flashlights; separate them by 6 inches (again, with much accuracy) by the
claimed to have seen two distinct bright on center; and then back off until you witnesses. The small plane left as the
lights when they were anywhere can't resolve them as separate lights.
between 8 and 18 miles from the path of The angular separation is 12' of arc at (continued on next page)
Table I
Summary of Sighting Information

Number Size Elevation Location Lights

Location M F Angle Noise Time Angle Speed 1st Last White Red
LaBolsa 4 7.5 none 7:30-8 10 — E S 7
Truchas 1 — none 8:00 45 slow E SE 4 1
Truchas 1 — hum 7-8 15 slow 12 1
Truchas 2 7.5 none 7:10 30 — 2
Medanales 3 1.5 none —• 15 stopped E SE 2
Alcalde 1 6.0 — 7:35 — — E SE many
Alcalde 1 — — 7:15-30 15 stopped East 2
Alcalde 2 1 1.5 hum 7:02-30 5 slow East many
Chimayo 4 — — aft 7:00 — — — . —
Chimayo Rd 1 — — — — stopped East 2 8
Chimayo Rd 1 1 3.0 — 7:30 5 — East some
Mora 1 1 •— none 7:15 — — From E 2 1
Mora 1 2 —
— 7:30 overhd — SE NW — —
Chacon 1 — none 9:00 — — SE NW 2
?? 3 4.0 7:30 — slow Twd Truchas 2 1

Penasco 1 — motor 7:15 10 FmSE 2
Penasco 1 — — 7:00 ovrhd — To W — —

ALCALDE, CONTINUED and a half hour of time. The FAA was the object left suddenly, everyone got
very cooperative and helpful. into their cars and drove off.
KC-135 came in and Medina 3. Be aware of LIDAR installations Another coworker, who lives in
mistakenly thought that there was only in your area (See APPENDIX C). The Dixon, was sitting on his patio with his
one object. LIDAR beam can occasionally be seen. wife about 10 PM, when a rectangular
3. There was a large UFO in the There are approximately 15 such object passed overhead. He estimates
area that did not register well on the installations across the country, that it was about % degree in long
radar but was seen by many witnesses. according to our local expert. In dimension and the perimeter was lit up
It flew out of the valley when the KC-135 addition there are mobile units in with various colored lights. It seemed to
arrived. Some of the witnesses saw the airplanes and even the space shuttle. make a low electrical hum as it passed
true UFO but most saw the KC-135. 4. An investigation of this sort can over. The informant thinks this
No doubt there are many other bring out stories about other sightings. occurred on May 16, 1984.
possible hypotheses and much more During this investigation many UFO Another interesting lead was called
that could be done to discriminate stories came to the surface, only three in by a resident of Espanola who claims
among these hypotheses, but we must of which might bear on the to have a film he took of a "half-dollar-
ask ourselves what is to be gained. investigation. These are your sized" UFO New Year's Eve several
There are no physical traces or "standard" UFO stories with basic years ago. We are still waiting for him to
unnatural accelerations associated with details like dates and times forgotten, find the film among his collection.
the event. With the military aircraft but they represent what a surprising
visible on the radar, skeptics would number of people have experienced. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
never admit that this is a solid UFO This spring some people were
sighting no matter what supporting coming home from a ski trip in The authors would like to
evidence is brought forth. About all that Colorado and were driving the road acknowledge help in this investigation
we can do is chalk it up to experience between Pagosa Springs and Tierra from David Platts, Bob Lanter, Louy
and wait for another UFO to appear. Amarilla in the evening, and lo and and Bernice Burkhardt, Sid Stone, Gil
behold, southwest of the road was a Miranda, Robin Hoard, Ross Graves
LESSONS LEARNED hovering, large, football-shaped object and the fine people at the Albuquerque
with two bright lights. They kept Center of the FAA.
We have learned the following driving.
lessons for future reference: About a year or two ago a APPENDIX
1. Let the newspapers and radio coworker was going home to Velarde
know you are investigating an incident. on the road from Espanola, and east of STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF
It is a quick way to get more leads. the road, above the rolling hills was a RADAR BACKGROUND DATA
2. FAA radar is available almost large, glowing, football-shaped object.
everywhere. It is well worth the cost of Many cars were stopped along the road (continued on next page)
$100 to $200 for a 90 mile square area and many people were watching. When
ALCALDE, CONTINUED Any statistical textbook contains the
same table of Chi Square. For example LETTERS
Arbitrarily the area on the radar at 13 degrees of freedom the table reads
plots was broken into four areas as follows:
defined in figure B-l. The visual UFO-MERCURY LINK?
Table Rl
sightings were basically inside the
triangle and these statistics relate to Time In the July/August, 1984, issue of
Inside NE W S
those visual sightings and not the MUFON Journal, Ann Druffel
something else. Different areas will give 07:02.5 00 18 0 05 commenced a two-part article entitled
different numbers but the basic 07:05 00 15 0 10 "Mercury A Possible Clue to UFO
significance will not change. By 07:07.5 01 17 0 06 Propulsion?" Having read both parts, I
inspection this data is not random. We 07:10 00 14 0 06 find myself unable to resist making a
are expecting a track similar to that for 07:15 05 18 0 14 few comments.
an airplane but we got an area effect 07:20 10 25 2 18 Ann would seemingly have us
only noticeable after superimposing all 07:25 03 24 6 11 believe that there is a growing body of
the data on one sheet of paper with the 07:30 05 23 3 12 evidence linking UFOs to the metal
aid of a light table and a box of colored 07:35 03 20 3 12 mercury. As I have followed the UFO
pencils. 07:4
° 01 27 0 16 literature rather closely for many years
07:45 00 22 : 2 09 this came somewhat as a surprise.
\ ' 07:50 02 16 0 05 Nevertheless, I was certainly prepared
\ NE-Area. 07:55 - 06 21 5 09 to examine the anecdotal evidence I
\(t>ixon) 08:00 03 17 1 13 assumed Ann would muster linking the
W-Area 7\ Sum 39 277 22 146 two. My contention is that no real
U zo
/ \ \ * Average 2.8 19.8 1.6 10.4 evidence to that effect was presented.
UJ / \ ChiSq 39.4 10.5 33.3 20.7 The first evidence adduced, for
/ itis;de-\ D. F. 13 13 13 13 example, was a sighting at Rio Vista,
I • _ ^ _ _ _ _ / Area. \
Chi Sq. 3.57 4.11 5.01 5.89 - California, in May of 1964. The primary
Ucunoli) (Ch'linay°)~"" '—-^^^ Prob. (%) 0.50 1.00 2.50 5 00 - source of information appears to have
Pe»tO been two newspaper accounts.
S-Areat 7.04 19.81 22.36 24.74 27.69 29.82 Subsequent information turned up that
i i 10.00 90.00 95.00 97.50 99.00 99.50 a Northern California investigator, not
10 30
DtSTAHCE referenced, claimed that mercury was
Figure B-l. Division of the area into subareas A Chi Square of 10.5 is within the discovered missing from an oilfield over
for statistical purposes. 10 to 20 percentage level of probability, which the craft hovered. That's it?
meaning that it is not significant. A Chi That's the evidence? Weak as it is, it is
There is a large group of unknowns Square of 20.7 is approaching perhaps the strongest presented in the
in the NE-area in the mountains significance at the 91% level. Chi entire article.
north east of Penasco. There is also a Square's of 33.3 and 39.4 are very highly The second sighting offered as
group of unknowns in the S-area in the significant. There is only a .5% evidence was made by a 16-year old in
region of Otowi bridge. The FAA does probability of a Chi Square+29.82 1973. The sighting itself did not involve
not have an explanation for this. These occurring by chance. There is a 99.5% mercury, but the percipient theorized
basically remain constant in time. probability of some nonrandom that the UFO was powered by "an
We counted all dots (.) as one unit explanation. Our values of Chi Square incomplete MIT concept" involving two
and all colons (:) as two units. We will are more significant than this. mercury pools, rotating in opposite
use the Chi Square statistic and assume The statistics show that something directions, as part of a nuclear fusion
the null hypothesis—that there is a increased the unknown returns in a device. Ann admits not knowing if the
constant time — invariant number of non-random way during the time case proved genuine, but that point is
unknowns in each area. The data are interval 7:00 to 8:00 PM. We do not strangely irrelevant. Clearly, the
summarized in Table B-l below. The understand this. percipient's theorizing that the UFO
data are also plotted in Figure B-2 UFOs are not simple phemomena. may have used mercury does not mean
below. that it did!
Chi Square is a statistical test used Much of the "evidence" culled up
to determine the probability of data in support of a possible link between
deviating from an average expected UFOs and mercury is in a similar vein.
value. Experimental data do scatter and ALCALDE TABLES & GRAPHS
Because sulphurous odors are
too good a fit is just as peculiar as too CONTINUED ON
sometimes reported with sightings, the
bad a fit. There are 13 degrees of FOLLOWING PAGE)
synthesis, by McMasters University
freedom in the table because there
are 14 time groups — always one less. (confirmed on next page)
30 chemists, of a mercury compound
using sulphur dioxide, becomes
s i g n i f i c a n t . This is somewhat
tantamount to saying salt smells of
chlorine. It certainly does not indicate
an association of mercury with UFOs.
Nor does the rather common use of
mercury in electrical switching devices,
discussed in Part II.
In Part II, Ann showcases an
alleged abduction case where the
percipient purports to have been given
an interstate ride. But the case is far
from convincing, being filled with rather
standard psuedo-scientific fare. Even
the percipient's description of the
"mercury" is erroneous. Having chased
many a globule of mercury across
laboratory tables and floors, I can
assure the reader that it is anything but
Ann discusses briefly ancient
Sanskrit writings alleged to describe
wars between two antediluvian
civilizations fought with nuclear-like
weapons and flying vehicles called
"vimanas." Mercury was supposed to
be an essential element in their
propulsion systems. As I vaguely
recalled hearing such tales before, I
checked the reference given - Ivan T.
Sanderson's Invisible Residents. And
indeed, Appendix B of the book
c o n t a i n s t r a n s l a t e d passages
describing airships powered with iron
7:00 rn engines that contained mercury. But
LOCAL TIME ON TUESDAY, APRIL Z4, where did Sanderson get his material?
By kind permission of Desmond Leslie
Figure B-2. Plot of the number of unknowns per 5 minute interval versus time in each of the
four areas.
and his publishers.
The name Desmond Leslie
immediately raised a red flag of caution.
Checking Sanderson's only reference
on this matter, I found, as reference
Table II SIZE ESTIMATES(a) 261, "Leslie, Desmond and Adamski,
George, Flying Saucers Have Landed,
Closest Angular Diameter Estimated Estimated etc.-- This is not an acceptable
Witness Approach Size Estimate Elevation Elevation reference in legitimate ufology, and I
Location in miles in degrees in feet in degrees in feet(b) think I know Ann well enough to say
Alcade 8 1.5 iioo 5.0 10,000 that she would not have used this
Medanales 15 1.5 2060 15.0 25,500 material had she realized its source.
Chimayo 17 3.0 4600 5.0 13,000 In Part I, Ann points out that her
LaBolsa 10 . 7.5 6900 , 10.0 15,000 background was in sociology, and
Truchas 4.5 7.5 3100 30 20,000. muses as to whether a non-technical
person should theorize about possible
a) Size + distance X angle in radians; 1 radian+57.3(o) modes of UFO propulsion. I personally
b) above sea level.
(continued on next page)
LETTERS, CONTINUED for several years recommended Anyway, what happened during
taking high school or college freshman the concluding ceremonies: A "UFO"
have no objection as long as two level courses in physics, chemistry, and (a prop, of course) showed up complete
provisos are met. math. With the plethora of adult with flashing lights.
The first is simply that the schools and junior colleges in most There had to be at least 100,000
investigator seek out professional parts of the country, it really isn't a very people at the Los Angeles Coliseum
expertise and opinion. In the southern tall order, and is a reasonable and probably a billion more watching on
California study group of which Ann is a prerequisite for the rigors of ufology. TV.
part, there are three physicists and two Perhaps for the c o n t r i b u t i n g No one in the audience knew that a
engineers, three of whose training and subscriber, who is concerned primarily UFO (and it was a well-done UFO at
experience includes plasma physics. with keeping abreast of developments that) was going to show up.
They certainly would have been helpful of ufology, such t r a i n i n g is What did the audience do when
in assessing the teenager's claim of "an unnecessary. But I firmly believe that this light-flashing UFO appeared over
incomplete MIT concept," and perhaps those who have the time to write the stadium? (Interestingly, the ABC
prevented a number of technical articles in ufology have the time to announcer referred to it as a spaceship
misconceptions that appeared in the provide themselves with a reasonable and did not use the term UFO or flying
article. Beyond the study group, there science education, and are obligated to saucer.) Did they panic, freak out, run
was the UCLA Fusion Laboratories, do so. for the gates? Did people watching on
and the physics and engineering -JOE KIRK THOMAS TV head for the hills or the nearest high
departments of many junior and 4 year bridge or skyscraper?
colleges in the southern California area. No way.
Similar resources exist throughout the OLYMPIC UFO REACTION Those in attendance at the L.A.
country for other iifologists. Coliseum (and they represented people
The second proviso is that some Tonight I watched the concluding from every race, walk of life, nation,
attempt be made to assure oneself a ceremonies for the 1984 Olympics. I etc.) cheered, clapped, applauded,
basic science education. Not all lay assume you did.too. (If you didn't, you oohed and aahed. (Granted, if it had
ufologists have a problem with basic could probably get a tape of them from
science, but for those who do, I have ABC.) (continued on next page)


" . * •• . . • I • • - • * • * * . * * . • " • ' •° .•""*'.••.

„ • • • • . * •• * * • ' • • • " « « • • •

DIRECTOR'S MESSAGE been published include the following: Street in collaboration with Jenny
(continued from back page) Investigation Ovni (UFO Investigation) Randies. Published by Neville
by Vincente-Juan Ballester Olmos Spearman, Ltd, in England. The price
After receiving very constructive (MUFON Representative for Spain) was not available at the time of this
feedback from our State Directors and with the forward by Dr. J. Allen Hynek. writing. Some of us had the privilege of
some members of the Board, Dan Published in Spanish, copies may be meeting Dot Street and Jenny Randies
Wright has prepared the fourth draft of obtained for $8.50 in U.S. dollars or the when they attended the UFO
his "Field Investigator's Examination" equivalent in other currency by sending Conference at the University of
composed of one hundred multiple your order to Plaza y Janes, S.A. Nebraska in November 1983.
choice, true-false, and fill-the-blank Export Department, Virgen de MUFON still has an adequate
questions. It is broken down into Guadalupe 21-33, Esplugas De supply of the best seller Clear Intent
segments that cover the following Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. (paperback) for $8.95, plus $1.50 for
subjects: (1) Light and Optics, (2) postage and handling. We will maintain
Sound, (3) Measurements, (4) this outstanding book on our
* **
Electrical/Magnetic, (5) Human and publications list.
Animal Reactions, (6) Physical Traces, One of the most exciting UFO
(7) Photography, (8) Radio and Radar, cases recently brought to the attention News'n'Notes
(9) Celestial Objects, (10) Atmosphere of the news media and known as the George F a w c e t t , M U F O N
and Weather, (11) Conventional Rendlesham Forest UFO is the subject Assistant State Director, North
Vehicles, and (12) The UFO for the book titled Skycrash - A Cosmic Carolina, reports on some of his recent
Experience. Cover Up, authored by the prime activities on behalf of ufology. Aside
New books that have recently from several speeches to various civic
investigators, Brenda Butler and Dot
groups and appearances on three local
TV stations, George says:
"From September 8-15th, I had a
two-window display in downtown
1. Title of publication: MUFON UFO A not-for-profit corporation incorporated
Lincolnton, N.C., for their 13th Annual
JOURNAL (USP 002970) (ISSN 0270-6822) under the State Laws of Texas. Apple Festival. The exhibit consisted of
2. Date of filing: Sept. 25, 1984 The Mutual UFO Network, Inc. is exempt photographs, slides, maps,
3. Frequency of issue: monthly from Federal Income Tax under Section illustrations, books, scrapbooks,
4. Location of known office of publication: 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. models and posters of UFO matters
103 Oldtowne Road, Seguin, Guadalupe, Texas MUFON is a publicly supported organization of
worldwide, which has drawn a great
the type described in Section 509(a)(2).
5. Address of the headquarters: 103 8. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and deal of interest and comments. 'How to
Oldtowne Road, Seguin, TX 78155 other security holders owning or holding 1 Join MUFON' was one of the many
6. Names and complete addresses of percent or more of total amount of bonds, posters in the windows which included
publisher, editor, and managing editor: mortgages or other securities: NONE at least 100 framed photographs and
Publisher: Walter H. Andrus, Jr., 103 9. For completion by nonprofit
Oldtowne Road, Seguin, TX 78155 organizations authorized to mail at special
almost 95 UFO books and publications,
Editor: Dennis W. Stacy rates: Publication is issued by an organization including the MUFON Journal,
P.O. Box 12434, San Antonio, TX 78212 eligible for these rates in accordance with MUFON UFO Investisator's Manual,
7. Owner: MUTUAL UFO NETWORK, Section 423.1 and 422.2. and a copy of each of the annual
INC. (MUFON), 103 Oldtowne Road, Seguin, 10. Extent and nature of circulation: MUFON Proceedings."
TX 78155
LETTERS, Continued
Average No. copies Actual No. copies
each issue during of single issue published
preceding 12 months nearest to filing date been a real UFO, there would have
A Total No copies printed . . 1460 1400 been a few freakouts, but again, people
B. Paid circulation freak out everyday.)
1. Sales through dealers and carriers, street An "alien" stepped up on a
vendors and counter sates 0 0
2 Mail subscriptions . . . 1287 1214 pedestal and made a short speech. A
C Total paid circulation 1287 1214 very authentic-looking alien, too.
D. Free distributions by mail, carrier or other Anyway, once again no one freaked out
means: samples, complimentary, and other or ran for the exits. They (the audience)
free copies 61 63
applauded when he finished.
E Total distribution . . 1348
F. Copies not distributed
If this was some sort of test for
1. Office use, left over, unaccounted, spoiled human reaction to a landing, then my
after pnntinQ 112 . 123 hat is off to the powers-that-be. If it was
2 Returns from news agents 0 0 simple coincidence, then such an
G Total .. 1460 1400
example should be proof enough that
(signed) Walter H. Andrus, Jr.
Publisher people are ready and can handle it.
Walt Andrus

The second printing of Clear postal ballot prior to the annual The UFO Study Group of Greater
Intent was sold out immediately after its corporate meeting in St. Louis on June St. Louis is hosting the MUFON 1985
release on August 21st. Prentice-Hall 30, 1985. This will be followed in 1986 UFO Symposium at the Chase Hotel in
publicist, Renae Biale, has advised that for the Canadian Director, 1987 for the St. Louis, Missouri on June 28, 29 and
the third printing will be available in late Eastern Region, and in 1988 the 30. The theme for the 1985 symposium
September or early October. Ms. Biale Western Regional Director will be is "UFOs: The Burden of Proof." Mark
has suggested that MUFON's elected. The Central Region is your calendar now so that you may plan
nationwide publicity campaign be composed of twenty states in the your vacation to "Meet Me in St.
delayed until the book stores have middle of the United States starting on Louis."
adequate supplies. The local emphasis the west with North and South Dakota, Marge Christensen has announc-
must be coordinated with the managers Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and ed that the National UFO Information
of your respective bookstores Texas and extending to the eastern Week has been scheduled for mid-
throughout the nation, since we cannot boundary composed of Michigan, A u g u s t of 1985. Every state
predict a specific date. Each local UFO Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and organization may now start making
group should use their own ingenuity in Alabama. Charles L. Tucker, Indiana their plans, displays, public events, etc.
promoting the book from personal State Director, is the present Central so they will be prepared. As MUFON
handouts on MUFON, UFO displays or Regional Director. Only current Public Relations Director, Marge has
videotapes of UFO documentaries. MUFON members residing in the initiated a newsletter uniquely titled
It is a pleasure to announce that Central Region are eligible to vote or to "P.I.P.E. Line" (Public Information and
Barry J. Greenwood, co-author of be candidates for this distinguished Public Education). It has been
Clear Intent and Assistant State responsibility. To nominate a person, established as a means of providing
Director for Massachusetts has permission must be obtained from the members of bur National Committee
additionally accepted the Staff Position prospective candidate so as to be on Public Information with an up-to-
of Historian for the Mutual UFO assured that they will accept if elected. date account each . month of their
Network. He has one of the finest The names of all candidates for the progress in the areas of public
personal collections of UFO literature, Central Region must be submitted in information and public education. It will
videotapes, books, publications, writing to MUFON in Seguin, Texas, also provide the members of this
documents and photographs in the before April 15, 1985 so a mail ballot committee with a "pipeline" for sharing
world today. David M. Jacobs, Ph.D., may be executed in adequate time. A their ideas and suggestions. The area
author of The UFO Controversy in Regional Director may succeed coordinators are Paul Cerny, West
America and a MUFON Consultant in himself/herself if duly elected to a Coast; Tom Deuley, Southwest States;
History, can attest to this fact after his second four year term, but may not Dan Wright, Central States; andMarge
recent tour of Barry's UFO library. hold his or her office for more than two Christensen, East Coast. Committee
On October 18, 1984, PM successive full terms. The name of Dan Assignments consist of the following:
Magazine, a syndicated national TV R. Wright, State Director for Michigan, Walt Webb and Dennis Stacy, Press
program, featured a segment on the has been submitted for nomination. Releases; Barry Greenwood, Tom
work of the Mutual UFO Network, Vance George Reed, State Gates, and Dan Wright, compile slide
providing favorable exposure to 14 or Director for Colorado, has selected presentation available to members for
15 million viewers. Considering that the Mrs. Judy Brigham of Wheat Ridge to P.R.; John Schuessler and Walt
crew of PM Magazine in San Antonio be the Assistant State Director. Ed Andrus, contact electronic media and
filmed for four hours in the MUFON Planz has appointed Edward O. Brown wire services; Tom Deuley, Art
office, only a small portion appeared on to the post of State Section Director for Director, to design posters for National
the network program. the Alabama Counties of Tuscaloosa, UFO Information Week; and Marge
Fayette, Lamar, Pickens, and Greene. Christensen, coordinate all State P.R.
Mr. Brown recently retired as the Directors, publish "P.I.P.E. Line," work
* **
Director of Public Relations for the with area coordinators, furnish copies
According to the MUFON Bylaws, University of Alabama and is active as of syllabi for UFO courses, edit
Regional Directors on the Board of an amateur radio operator in the MUFON Newsletter, and coordinate
Directors will be elected each year to MUFON Net with the call letters 1985 UFO Information Week.
four year terms. In 1985, the Central N4JUB. Ed has been a member of
Regional Director will be elected by a MUFON for ten years. (continued on page 19)