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# Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics

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SOLVED EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE26.1
A gas is contained in a vessel fitted with a movable piston. The container is placed on a hot stove.A total of
100 cal of heat is given to the gas and the gas does 40 J of work in the expansion resulting from
heating.Calculate the increase in internal energy in the process.
Sol.
Heat given to the gas is AU = AQ AW
= 418 J 40 J = 378 J.
First law of thermodynamics may be viewed from different angles. Equation (26.1) tells us that if we take a
system from an initial state i to a final state f by several different process, AQ AW should be identical in all
the process. This is because AQ AW = AU = U
f
U
i
depends only on the end states i and f . Both AQand
AW may be different in different process, but AQ AW is the same for all the process talking the system
from i to f. Thus , we do not write AQ = Q
f
Q
i
or we do not write AW = W
f
W
i
, but we do write AU = U
f
U
i
. The first law may be taken as a statement that there exists an internal energy function U that has a
fixed value in a given state.
It should be remembered that when work is done by the system, AW is positive. If work is done on the
system AW is negative. When heat is given to the system, AQ is negative . A positive AW decreases the
internal energy and a positive AQ increases it.
EXAMPLE26.2
Calculate the work done by a gas as it is taken from thestate a to n, b to c and c to a as shown in figure.
P
200 kPa
120 kPa
O 200 cc 450 cc
e d
a b
c
V
Sol. The work done by the gas in the process a to b is the area of adobe. This is
W
ab
= (120 kPa) (250 cc)
= 120 10
3
250 10
6
J = 30 J
In the process b to c the volume remains constant and the work done is zero.
In the process c to a the gas is compressed. The volume is decreased and the work done by the gas is
negative. The magnitude is equalt to the area of caed. This area is cab + baed.
=
2
1
(80 kPa) (250 cc) + 30 J
= 10 J + 30 J = 40 J.
Thus, the work done in the process c to a is 40 J.
QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER
1. Should the internal energy of a system necessarily increase if heat is added to it?
2. Should the internal energy of a system necessarily increase if its temperature is increased?
3. Acylinder containing a gas is lifted from the first floor to the second floor. What is the amount of work done
on the gas? What is the amount of work done by the gas? Is the internal energy of the gas increased? Is the
temperature of the gas increased?
4. A force F is applied on a block of mass M. The block is displaced through a distance d in the direction of the
force. What is the work done by the force on the block? Does the internal energy change because of this
work?
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
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5. The outer surface of a cylinder containing a gas is rubbed vigorously by a polishing machine. The cylinder
and its gas become warm. Is the energy transferred to the gas heat or work?
6. When we rub our hands they become warm. Have we supplied heat to the hands?
7. A closed bottle contains some liquid. The bottle is shaken vigorously for 5 minutes. It is found that the
temperature of the liquid is increased. Is heat transferred to the liquid? Is work done on the liquid? Neglect
expension on heating.
8. The final volume of a system is equal to the initial volume in a certain process. Is the work done by the
system necessarily zero? Is it necessarily nonzero?
9. Can work be done by a system without changing its volume?
10. An ideal gas is pumped into a rigid container having diathermic walls so that the temperature remains
constant. In a certain time interval, the pressure in the container is doubled. Is the internal energy of the
contents of the container also doubled in the interval?
11. When a tyre bursts, the air coming out is cooler than the surrounding air. Explain.
12. When we heat an object, it expands. Is work done by the object in this process? Is heat given to the object
equal to the increase in its internal energy?
13. When we stir a liquid vigorously, it becomes warm. Is it a reversible process?
14. What should be the condition for the effciency of a carnot engine to be equal to 1?
15. When an object cools down, heat is with drawn from it. Does the entropy of the object decrease in this
process? If yes, is it a violation of the second lawof thermodynamics stated in terms of increase in entropy?
Objective - I
1. The first law of thermodynamic is a statement of
(A) conservation of heat (B) conservation of work
(C) conservation of momentum (D*) conservation of energy
-ninl-+i + vin l-n +i +i-
(A) -ni =-ii +i -i-i t (B) +i =-ii +i -i-i t
(C) =n =-ii +i -i-i t (D*) -i =-ii +i -i-i t
2. If heat is supplied to an ideal gas in an isothermal process,
l< =n-ii v+n n ~i<zi n = +i -ni <i i -i
(A) the internal energy of the gas will increase
n= +i ~i--l+ -i c i(ni
(B*) the gas will do positive work
n = i-in+ +i +ni
(C) the gas will do negative work
n = +iin+ +i + ni
(D) the said process is not possible
-i+- v+n =-i -ti t
3. Fig. shows two processes A and B on a system. Let AQ
1
and AQ
2
be the heat given to the system in
processes A and B respectively. Then
l-zi n l+=i l-+i l+ n <i +n A B <lzi - t ni-i +ni A B n l-+i +i <i ni -ni( +nzi
AQ
1
( AQ
2
t -i -
(A*) AQ
1
> AQ
2
(B) AQ
1
= AQ
2
(C) AQ
1
< AQ
2
(D) AQ
1
s AQ
2
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
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4. Refer to above fig. Let AU
1
and AU
2
be the changes in internal energy of the system in the processes A
and B then
v<lzi - l-zi n ni-i v+ni A B n l-+i l+ ~i--l+ -i n l-- +nzi AU
1
AU
2
t -i
(A) AU
1
> AU
2
(B*) AU
1
= AU
2
(C) AU
1
< AU
2
(D) AU
1
= AU
2
5. Consider the process on a system shown in fig. During the process, the work done by the system
l-zi n <lzi - +n l-i +il := +n n l-+i ,ii l+i ni +i -
(A*) continuously increases (B) continuously decreases
(C) first increases then decreases (D) first decreases then increases
(A*) l--- c ti t (B) l--- +n ti ti t
(C) tn c -i t l+ +n ti-i t (D) tn +n ti-i t l+ c -i t
6. Consider the following two statements.
(a) If heat is added to a system, its temperature must incresase.
(b) If positive work is done by a system in a thermodynamic process, its volume must increase.
(A) Both a and b are correct (B) a is correct but b is wrong
(C*) b is correct but a is wrong (D) Both a and b are wrong
l---lnli- <i +i-i l-i +il -
(a) l< l-+i +i -ni <i i-i t. -i :=+i -i ~z c -i t
(b) l< l+=i -ni nl-+ +n n l-+i i-in+ +i l+i i-i t . -i :=+ ~i-- n lz ~iz+ ti -i t
(A) a b <i -i ti = t (B) a = t l+-- b ~= t
(C*) b = t . l+-- a ~= t (D) a b <i -i ti ~= t
7. An ideal gas goes from the state i to the state f as shown in fig. The work done by the gas during the
process -
(+ ~i<zi n= i = ~-ii f -+ l-zii-=i i-i t := +n n n= l+i ni +i -
(A) is positive (B) is negative (C*) is zero
(D) cannot be obtained from this information
(A) i-in+ t (B) +iin+ t (C*) zi- t
(D) := = --i ,ii i-- -ti l+i i =+-i t
8. Consider two processes on a system as shown in fig. The volumes in the initial states are the same in
the two porcesses and the volumes in the final states are also the same. Let AW
1
and AW
2
be the work
done by the system in the processes A and B respectively.
(+ l-+i l+ n <i +n l-zi n <lzi- l+ n t <i -i +ni n l-+i +i il-i+ ~-ii~i n ~i--
(+ =ni- t -ii ~l-n ~-ii~i n ii ~i-- (+ =ni- t ni-i l+ +ni A-ii B n l-+i ,ii l+ n
+i +nzi AW
1
-ii AW
2
t
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
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(A) AW
1
> AW
2
(B) AW
1
= AW
2
(C*) AW
1
< AW
2
(D) Nothing can be said about the relation between AW
1
and AW
2
AW
1
-ii AW
2
n - =--i + ln +z ii -ti +ti i =+-i t
9. A gas is contained in a metallic cylinder fitted with a piston. The piston is suddenly moved in to compress
the gas and is maintained at this position. As time passes the pressure of the gas in the cylinder
(A) increases (B*) decreases (C) remains constant
(D) increases or decreases depending on the nature of the gas.
l-- nn t( (+ ii- + i: n n= ii t: t l-- +i ~-i-+ n= +i =-il- +- + ln( -nii i-i
t ~i ~-- n := l-il- l-i + l<i i-i t -i i: n ii t: n= +i <i =n + =ii
(A) c ni (B*) i ni (C) l-i t ni
(D) c ni i ini t n= +i v+ l-i l-i +ni
Objective - II
1. The pressure p and volume V of an ideal gas both increase in a process.
(+ v+n n ~i<zi n = + <i p ~i-- V <i-i n lz ti-i t -i
(A) Such a process is not possible
:= v+i +i v+n =-i -ti t
(B*) The work done by the system is positive
l-+i + ,ii l+i ni +i i-in+ t
(C*) The temperature of the system must increase
l-+i +i -ini- c -i -ilt(
(D) heat supplied to the gas is equal to the change in internal energy.
n= +i <i n: -ni. ~i--l+ -i n l- - + i ti -i t
2. In a process on a system, the initial pressure and volume are equal to the final pressure and volume.
l-+i l+ n( (+ v+n n vil-i+ <i ~i--. ~l--n <i ~i-- + i t -i
(A*) The initial temperature must be equal to the final temperature
vil-i+ -ini- . ~l--n -ini- + i ti-i -ilt(
(B*) The initial internal energy must be equal to the final internal energy.
vil-i+ ~i--l+ -i . ~l--n ~i--l+ -i + i ti-i -ilt(
(C) The net heat given to the system in the process must be zero
:= v+n n l-+i +i <i n: + n -ni zi - ti -i -ilt(
(D) The net work done by the system in the process must be zero
:= v+n n l-+i + ,ii l+i ni + n +i zi- ti -i -ilt(
3. A system can be taken from the initial state p
1
, V
1
to the final state p
2
, V
2
by two different methods. Let
AQ and AW represent the heat given to the system and the work done by the system. Which of the
following must be the same in both the methods ?
(+ l-+i +i vil-i+ l-il- p
1
, V
1
= ~l--n l-il- p
2
, V
2
-+ <i v+ni ,ii n ii i =+-i t ni-i AQ
AW +nzi l-+i +i <i n: -ni ~i l-+i ,ii l+ n +i +i v<lzi - +- t -i <i-i v+ni n l---
n = +i =ni- ti-i -ilt( ?
(A) AQ (B) AW (C) AQ + AW (D*) AQ - AW
4. Refer to fig. Let AU
1
and AU
2
be change in internal energy in process A and B respectively, AQ be the
net heat given to the system in process A + B and AU be the net work done by the system in the
process A + B.
l-l- l-zi n . ni-i v+ni A B n ~i--l+ -i n l- - +nzi AU
1
AU
2
t. v+n A+ B n l-+i +i
<i n: + n -ni AQ t ~i A + B v+n n . l-+i ,ii l+i ni +i AW ti -i
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
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(A*) AU
1
+ AU
2
= 0 (B) AU
1
- AU
2
= 0 (C*) AQ - AW = 0 (D) AQ + AW = 0
5. The internal energy of an ideal gas decreases by the same amount as the work done by the system
(A*) The process must be adiabatic (B) The process must be isothermal
(C) The process must be isobaric (D*) The temperatuer must decrease
~i<zi n= +i ~i--l+ -i n +ni. l-+i ,ii l+ n +i +i nizii + i ti-i t -i -
(A*) v+n ,i n ti -i -ilt( (B) v+n =n-ii ti -i -ilt(
(C) v+n =n<ii ti -i -ilt( (D*) -ini- n +ni ti -i -ilt(
WORKED OUT EXAMPLES
Q.1 A sample of an ideal gas is taken through the cyclic process abca (figure. It absorbs 50 J of heat during the
part ab, no heat during bc and rejects 70 J of heat during ca. 40 J of work is done on the gas during the part
bc. (a) Find the internal energy of the gas at b and c if it is 1500 J at a. (b) Calculate the work done by the gas
during the part ca.
~i<zi n = + (+ vl-<zi +i -+i v+n abca = n ii i-i t (l-zi 1), t iin ab n 50 n -i ~zii li- +-i
t . bc n +i : -ni n ti -ti +-i t -ii iin ca n 70 n -ni l=l - +-i t iin bc n n = 40 n +i
l+i i-i t (a) l< a ~i -l+ -i 1500 n t -i b ( c ~i -l+ -i ai- +il (b) iin ca n n =
,ii l+ n +i +i ni-i +il
Sol. (a) In the part ab the volume remains constant. Thus, the work done by the gas is zero. The heat absorbed
by the gas is 50 J. The increase in internal energy from a to b is
AU = AQ = 50J.
As the internal energy is 1500 J at a, it will be 1550 J at b. In the part bc, the work done by the gas is AW =
40J and no heat is given to the system. The increase in internal energy from b to c is AU = AW = 40 J.
As the internal energy is 1550 J at b, it will be 1590 J at c.
(b) The change in internal energy from c to a is
AU = 1500 J 1590 J = 90 J.
The heat given to the system is AQ = 70J.
Using AQ = AU + AW,
AW = AQ AU
= 70 J + 90 J = 20 J.
gy (a) iin ab n ~i-- l-- t-i t ~- n = ,ii l+i ni +i zi - ti ni n = ,ii ~zii li- -i 50 n t a =
b -+ ~i -l+ -i n lz
AU = AQ = 50J.
- l+ a ~i -l+ -i 1500 J ti ni ~- b 1550 ti ni iin bc n . n = l+i ni +i
AW = 40J t -ii l-+i +i +i: -ni -ti <i ni t b = c -+ ~i-l+ -i n lz AU= AW = 40 J.
b ~i -l+ -i 1550 J t . ~- c t 1590 J ti ni
(b) c = -+ ~i-l+ -i n l--
AU = 1500 J 1590 J = 90 J.
l-+i +i <i ni -ni AQ= 70J.
AQ= AU+ AW v +- +-
AW = AQ AU
= 70 J + 90 J = 20 J.
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
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Q.2 A thermodynamic system is taken through the cycle abcda (figure) (a) Calculate the work done by the gas
during the parts ab, bc, cd and da. (b) Find the total heat rejected by the gas during the process.
(+ -ninl-+ l-+i +i -+ abcda = n ii i-i t (l-zi) (a) ab, bc, cd, da iini n = ,ii l+ n +i +i ni-i
+il (b) v+n n n= ,ii l-+il=- +i ni +n -ni ai- +il
Sol. (a) The work done during the part ab
}
b
a
dV p = (100 kPa)
}
b
a
dV
(100 kPa) (300 cm
3
100 cm
3
) = 20 J
The work done during bc is zero as the volume does not change. The work done during cd
=
}
d
c
dV p = (200 kPa) (100 cm
3
300 cm
3
) = 40 J
The work done during da is zero as the volume does not change.
(b) The total work done by the system during the cycle abcda
AW = 20 J 40 J = 20 J.
The change in inertial energy AU = 0 as the initial state is the same as the final staet. Thus
AQ = AU + AW = 20 J. So the system rejects 20 J of heat durig the cycle.
gy (a) iin ab n l+i ni +i ,
=
} }
=
b
a
b
a
dV ) kPa 100 ( pdV
= (100 kPa) (300 cm
3
100 cm
3
)
= 20 J.
iin bc n ~i-- l-i- t ~- l+i ni +i zi - ti ni cd n l+i ni +i
=
}
d
c
p dV =(200 kPa) (100 cm
3
300 cm
3
)
= 40 J.
- iin d a n ~i-- ~ll- - t ~- l+i ni +i zi - ti ni
(b) -+ a b c d a n l-+i ,ii l+i ni +n +i
AW = 20J 40J = 20 J.
~i -l+ -i n l- - AU= 0 ti ni ~- AQ= AU+ AW = 20J, ~ii - =- i -+ n l-+i 20 J -ni l-+il=-
+-i t
Q.3 Calculate the increase in internal energy of 1kg of water at 100Cwhen it is converted into steamat the same
temperature and at 1 atm (100 kPa). The density of water and steam are 1000 kg/m3 and 0.6 kg/m
3
respec-
tively. The latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.25 10
6
J/kg.
100C -i 1l+n i i-i +i :=i -i ( 1 i nni (100 kPa) <i ii n ll- - l+i i-i t
-i :=+i ~i -l+ -i n lz +i ni-i +il i-i ( ii + i- +nzi 1000l+n i/ni
3
-ii 0.6l+n i/ni
3
t i-i
+ i- +i n-- -ni = 2.25 10
6
n/l+ni
Sol.
The volume of 1kg of water
=
1000
1
m
3
and of 1 kg of steam =
6 . 0
1
m
3
.
The increase in volume
=
6 . 0
1
m
3

1000
1
m
3
= (1.7 0.001) m
3
= 1.7 m
3
.
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
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The work done by the system is pAV
= (100 kPa) (1.7 m
3
)
= 1.7 10
5
J.
The heat given to convert 1 kg of water into steam
= 2.25 10
6
J.
The change in internal energy is
AU = AQ AW
= 2.25 10
6
J 1.7 10
5
J
= 2.08 10
6
J.
1l+n i i-i +i ~i--
=
1000
1
ni
3
-ii 1 l+ni ii +i ~i-- =
6 . 0
1
ni
3
~i-- n lz
=
6 . 0
1
ni
3

1000
1
ni
3
= (1.7 0.001) ni
3
= 1.7 ni
3
l-+i ,ii l+i ni +i
pAV= (100 kPa) (1.7 m
3
)
= 1.7 10
5
J.
1l+n i i-i +i ii n ll- - +- + ln <i ni -ni
= 2.25 10
6
J.
~i-l+ -i n l--
AU = AQ AW
= 2.25 10
6
J 1.7 10
5
J
= 2.08 10
6
J.
4. The internal energy of a monatomic ideal gas is 1.5 nRT. One mole of helium is kept in a cylinder of cross-
section 8.5 cm
2
. The cylinder is closed by a light fractionless piston. The gas is heated slowly in a process
during which a total of 42 J heat is given to the gas. If the temperature rises through 2C, find the distance
moved by the piston. Atmospheric pressure = 100 kPa.
(+ nii + ~i<zi n = +i ~i -l+ -i 1.5 nRT t (+ ni n tilnn +i 8.5 = ni
2
~- v-i +i in n- (cylinder)
n ii ni t n- (+ t-+ ( ii i lt- l-- = < t n = +i (+ v+n n ii ii nn l+i i-i t . l=n
42 J -ni n= +i <i i-i t l< -i n lz 2C t -i l-- ,ii -ni ni <i ai- +il i nni <i
= 100 kPa
Sol. The change in internal energy of the gas is
AU = 1.5 nR (AT)
= 1.5 (1 mol) (8.3 J/mol-K) (2K)
= 24.9 J.
The heat given to the gas = 42 J
The work done by the gas is
AW = AQ AU
= 42 J 24.9 J = 17.1 J.
If the distance moved by the piston is x, the work done is
AW = (100 kPa) (8.5 cm
2
) x.
Thus,
(10
5
N/m
2
) (8.5 10
4
m
2
) x = 17.1 J
or, x = 0.2m = 20 cm.
gy n= +i ~i-l+ -i n l--
AU = 1.5 nR (AT)
= 1.5 (1 mol) (8.3 J/mol-K) (2K)
= 24.9 J.
n= +i <i ni -ni = 42 J
n= ,ii l+i ni +i
AW = AQ AU
= 42 J 24.9 J = 17.1 J.
l< l-- + ,ii - +i ni <i x t -i
AW = (100 kPa) (8.5 cm
2
) x.
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
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~-
(10
5
N/m
2
) (8.5 10
4
m
2
) x = 17.1 J
i x = 0.2ni= 20=ni
5. A steam engine intakes 100g of steam at 100C per minute and cools it down to 20C. Calculate the heat
rejected by the steam engine per minute. Latent heat of vaporization of steam = 540 cal/g.
(+ ii : - 100C +i 100 n in ii vl- lnl- ~ < n -i t ~i :=+i 20C-+ ai + < -i t ii : - ,ii
vl- lnl- l=l - +i ni -ni +i ni-i +il ii + i- +i n -- -ni = 540 + nii/n in
Sol. Heat rejected during the condensation of steam in one minute
= (100 g) (540 cal/g) = 5.4 10
4
cal.
Heat rejected during the cooling of water
= (100 g) (1 cal/g-C) (100C - 20C)
= 8000 cal.
Thus, heat rejected by the engine per minute
= 5.4 10
4
cal + 0.8 10
4
cal
= 6.2 10
4
cal.
ii + =i-- n (+ lnl- n l=l- -ni
= (100nin) (540 +nii/nin) = 5.4 10
4
+nii
i-i + a ti- n l=l - -i
= (100 nin) (1+nii/nin-C) (100C - 20C)
= 8000 +nii
~- :- ,ii vl- lnl- l-+il=- -ni
= 5.4 10
4
+nii+ 0.8 10
4
+nii
= 6.2 10
4
+nii
6. Figure shows a process ABCAperformed on an ideal gas. Find the net heat given to the system during the
process.
~i<zi n= l+i ni (+ v+n ABCA l-zi n <zii i ni t v+n n l-+i +i <i ni +n -ni ai- +il
Sol. As the process is cyclic, the change in internal energy is zero. The heat given to the system is then equal to
the work done by it.
The work done in part AB is W
1
= 0 as the volume remains constant. The part BC represents an isothermal
process so that the work done by the gas during the part is
W
2
= nRT
2
In (V
2
/V
1
)
During the part CA,
V T.
So, V/T is constant and hence,
V
nRT
p = is constant
The work done by the gas during the part CA is
W
3
= p (V
1
V
2
)
= nRT
1
nRT
2
= nR (T
2
T
1
)
The net work done by the gas in the process ABCAis
W = W
1
+ W
2
+ W
3
= nR[T
2
In
1
2
V
V
(T
2
T
1
)]
The same amount of heat is given to the gas.
tn - l+ v+n -+i t . ~- ~i -l+ -i n zi - l- - ti ni l-+i +i <i ni -ni :=+ ,ii l+ n +i + i
tini
iin ABn l+i ni +i W
1
= 0 (+i l+ ~i-- l-- t ) iin BC =n-ii v+n +i <zii -i t ~- := iin n n =
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
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,ii l+i ni +i
W
2
= nRT
2
In (V
2
/V
1
)
iin CAn l+i ni +i
V T.
~- V/T l-- tni l==
V
nRT
p = l--i+ tni
iin CA n n = ,ii l+i ni +i
W
3
= p (V
1
V
2
)
= nRT
1
nRT
2
= nR (T
2
T
1
)
v+n ABCAn n= ,ii l+i ni +i
W = W
1
+ W
2
+ W
3
= nR[T
2
In
1
2
V
V
(T
2
T
1
)]
-ni +i :--i ti nizii n = +i <i i ni
7. Consider the cyclic process ABCAon a sample of 2.0 mol of an ideal gas as shown in figure. The tempera-
tures of the gas at A and B are 300 K and 500 K respectively. A total of 1200 J heat is withdrawn from the
sample in the process. Find the work done by the gas in part BC. Take R = 8.3 J/molK
2.0 ni n ~i<zi n - + (+ vl-<zi + ln( -+i v+n ABCAl-zi n <zii i ni t A~i B n = +i -i +nzi
300 K ( 500 Kt := v+n n vl-<zi = + n 1200 J -ni il= +i i-i t iin BCn n = ,ii l+i ni +i
ai- +il( R = 8.3 n/ninK
Sol. The change in internal energy during the cyclic process is zero. Hence, the heat supplied to the gas is equal
to the work done by it. Hence,
-+i v+n n n = +i ~i--l+ -i n l- - zi - ti -i t ~- n = +i v<i- +i ni -ni. :=+ ,ii l+ n
+i + i ti -i t ~ii -
W
AB
+ W
BC
+ W
CA
= 1200 J. .......(i)
The work done during the process AB is
v+n AB n l+i ni +i
W
AB
= P
A
(V
B
V
A
)
= nR(T
B
T
A
)
= (2.0 mol) (8.3 J/molK) (200 K)
= 3320 J
The work done by the gas during the process CA is zero as the volume remains constant. From (i),
v+n CA n n= +i ~i-- l-- t ~- :-+ ,ii l+i ni +i zi- tini =ni+i (i) =
3320 J + W
BC
= 1200 J
or W
BC
= 4520 J.
= 4520 J.
8. 2.00 moles of a monatomic ideal gas (U= 1.5 nRT) is enclosed in an adiabatic, vertical cylinder fitted with a
smooth, light adiabatic piston. The piston is connected to a vertical spring of spring constant 200 N/m as
shown in figure. The area of cross-section of the cylinder is 20.0cm
2
. Initially, the spring is at its natural
length and the temperature at the gas is 300K. The atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. The gas is heated
slowly for some time by means of an electric heater so as to move the piston up through 10cm. Find (a) the
work done by the gas (b) the final temperature of the gas and (c) heat supplied by the heater.
(+ -nii ii - n- n t-+i ( l-+-i -nii ii l-- nni t ~i t :=n 2.00 ni n (+ nii + ~i<zi n = lz
t l-- +i l-zi n <zii ~- =i 200 N/m l-v n l--i + ini - l-v n = i i ni t n- +i ~- v-i +i +i
-i zi+n 20.0 cm
2
t vi-i n l-v n ~-i n n n-i: n t ~i n = +i -i 300 Kt i nni <i 100 kPa t
n = +i (+ l - ti ,ii + z =n + ln( ii ii nn l+i i-i t l== l-- - +i ~i 10 cm-+ nl-
+-i t ai- +il( (a) n= ,ii l+i ni +i (b) n= +i ~ l-n -i. ~i (c) ti ,ii v<i- +i ni -ni
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
Page # 10
manishkumarphysics.in
Sol. (a) The force by the gas on the piston is
(a) n= ,ii l-- nnii ni n
F = p
0
A + kx
where p
0
= 100 kPa is the atmospheric pressure, A= 20cm
2
is the area of cross-section, k=200 N/m is the
spring constant and x is the compression of the spring. The work done by the gas as the piston moves
through l = 10cm is
ti inni <i p
0
= 100 kPa ~-v-a +i +i -izi+n A= 20cm
2
l-vn l--i+ k=200 N/m -ii l-vn n
=+-- x t l-- +i l = 10cm -ni- n n= ,ii l+i ni +i
}
=
l
0
dx F W
=p
0
Al +
2
1
kl
2
= (100 10
3
Pa) (20 10
4
m
2
) (10 10
2
m)
+
2
1
(200 N/m) (100 10
4
m
2
)
= 20 J + 1 J = 21 J.
(b) The initial temperature is T
1
= 300 K. Let the final temperature be T
2
. We have
(b) vil-i+ -i T
1
= 300 K ni-i l+ ~l-n -i T
2
t
nRT
1
= p
0
V
0
and nRT
2
= pV
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
A
kl
p
0 (V
0
+ Al)
= nRT
1
+ p
0
Al + kl
2
+
0
1
Ap
nRT kl
or, T
2
= T
1
+
0
1
2
0
Ap
klT
nR
kl Al p
+
+
= (300 K) +
) K mol / J 3 . 8 ( ) mol 0 . 2 (
J 2 J 20

+
+
Pa ) 10 100 ( ) m 10 20 (
) K 300 ( ) m 10 10 ( ) m / N 200 (
3 2 4
2

= 300 K + 1.325 K + 30 K
= 331 K.
(c) The internal energy is (~i--l+ -i ) U = 1.5 nRT.
The change in internal energy is (~i--l+ -i n l--)
AU = 1.5 nR AT
= 1.5 (2.00 mol) (8.3 J/molK) (31 K)
= 772 J.
From the first law, (vin l-n =)
AQ = AU + AW
= 772 J + 21 J = 793 J.
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
Page # 11
manishkumarphysics.in
9. Asample of an ideal gas has pressure p
0
, volume V
0
and temperature T
0
. It is isothermally expanded to twice
its original volume. It is then compressed at constant pressure to have the original volume V
0
. Finally, the gas
is heated at constant volume to get the original temperature. (a) Show the process in a V-T diagram (b)
Calculate the heat absorbed in the process.
~i<zi n= + (+ vl-<zi +i <i p
0
~i-- V
0
-i T
0
t :=+i =n-ii = :=+ nn ~i-- n <n- ~i--
-+ v=il- l+i i-i t :=+ z-i- :=+i l-- <i nn ~i-- V
0
ti- -+ =-il- l+i i-i t ~-- n
:=+i l-- ~i-- nn -i vi-- +- -+ nn l+i i-i t (a) v+n +i V-T ~ii n <zii: (b) v+n n
~zii li- -ni +i ni-i +il(
Sol.
(a) The VT diagram for the process is shown in figure. The initial state is represented by the point a. In the
first step, it is isothermally expanded to a volume 2V
0
. This shown by ab. Then the pressure is kept constant
and the gas is compressed to the volume V
0
. From the ideal gas equation, V/T is constant at constant
pressure. Hence, the process is shown by a line bc which passes through the origin. At point c, the volume
is V
0
. In the final step, the gas is heated at constant volume to a temperature T
0
. This is shown by ca. The
final state is the same as the inital state.
(b) The process is cyclic so that the change in internal energy is zero. The heat supplied is, therefore, equal
to the work done by the gas. The work done during ab is
W
1
= nRT
0
In
0
0
V
V 2
= nRT
0
In 2 = p
0
V
0
In 2.
Also from the ideal gas equation,
p
a
V
a
= p
b
V
b
or, pb =
2
p
V 2
V p
V
V p
0
0
a 0
b
a a
= =
.
In the step bc, the pressure remains constant. Hence the work done is,
W
2
=
2
p
0
(V
0
2V
0
) =
2
V p
0 0
.
In the step ca, the volume remains constant and so the work done is zero. The net work done by the gas in
the cyclic process is
W = W
1
+ W
2
= p
0
V
0
[In 2 0.5]
= 0.193 p
0
V
0
.
Hence, the heat supplied to the gas is 0.193 p
0
V
0
.
gy
(a) := v+n +i VT ~i i l-zi n <zii i ni t vil-i+ ~-ii l-< a ,ii <zii i ni t vin < n t 2V
0
~i--
-+ =n-ii n v=il- ti ti t :=+i ab ,ii <zii i ni t :=+ z-i- <i l-- ii i-i t ~i n = +i
V
0
~i-- -+ =-il- l+i ni t ~i<zi n = =ni+i = l-- <i V/T l--i + ti ni ~- v+n +i ii bc
,ii i l+ nn l-< = ti+ i ti t l-< c ~i-- V
0
t ~l-n -i n . n= +i ~i-- l-- i- t (
T
0
-i -+ nn l+i i ti t :=+i ca ,ii <zii i ni t ~ l-n ~-ii vil-i+ ~-ii =i ti t
(b) v+n -+i t ~- ~i--l+ -i n l- - zi - t :=ln( v<i- +i ni -ni n = ,ii l+ n +i + i
tini ab + <i i- l+i ni +i
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
Page # 12
manishkumarphysics.in
W
1
= nRT
0
In
0
0
V
V 2
= nRT
0
In 2 = p
0
V
0
In 2.
=ii ti ~i<zi n= =ni+i =
p
a
V
a
= p
b
V
b
i pb =
2
p
V 2
V p
V
V p
0
0
a 0
b
a a
= =
.
vin -i bc n ~i-- l-- t ~- l+i ni +i zi - t -+i v+n n n = ,ii l+i ni + n +i the pressure
remains constant. Hence the work done is,
W
2
=
2
p
0
(V
0
2V
0
) =
2
V p
0 0
.
In the step ca, the volume remains constant and so the work done is zero. The net work done by the gas in
the cyclic process is
W = W
1
+ W
2
= p
0
V
0
[In 2 0.5]
= 0.193 p
0
V
0
.
~- n = +i <i ni 0.193 p
0
V
0
t
10. Asample of 100 g water is slowly heated from27Cto 87C. Calculate the change in the entropy of the water.
Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg-K.
100 g n +i (+ vl-zi 27C= 87C-+ nn l+i i-i t n +i (- i i (entropy) n l- - +i ni-i +il(
n +i llzi -ni = 4200 J/kg-K
Sol. The heat supplied to increase the temperature of the sample from T to T + AT is
AQ = ms AT.
where m = 100 g = 0.1 kg and C = 4200 J/kg-K.
The change in entropy during this process is
AS =
T
Q A
= ms
T
T A
.
The total change in entropy as the temperature rises from T
1
to T
2
is,
}
=
2
1
T
T
1 2
T
dT
ms S S
= ms In
1
2
T
T
.
Putting T
1
= 27C = 300 K and T
2
= 87C = 360 K,
S
2
S
1
= (0.1 kg) (4200 J/kg - K) In
300
360
= 76.6 J/K.
gy vl-<zi +i -i T = T + AT -+ ci- n v<i- +i ni -ni
AQ = ms AT.
ti m = 100 g = 0.1 kg -ii C = 4200 J/kg-K.
:= v+n n (-ii n l--
AS =
T
Q A
= ms
T
T A
.
-i T
1
= T
2
-+ c ti t ~- (-ii n l--
}
=
2
1
T
T
1 2
T
dT
ms S S
= ms In
1
2
T
T
.
-i T
1
= 27C = 300 K -+ c ti t ~- (-ii n l-- T
2
= 87C = 360 K,
S
2
S
1
= (0.1 kg) (4200 J/kg - K) In
300
360
= 76.6 J/K.
11. Aheat engine operates between a cold reservoir at temperature T
2
=300 Kand a hot reservoir at temperature
T
1
. If takes 200 J of heat fromthe hot reservoir and delivers 120J of heat to the cold reservoir in a cycle. What
could be the minimumtemperature of the hot reservoir?
Sol. The work done by the engine in a cycle is
W = 200 J 120 J = 80 J.
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
Page # 13
manishkumarphysics.in
Chapter 26-Lawsof Thermodynamics
The efficiency of the engine is
40 . 0
J 200
J 80
Q
W
= = = q
.
From Carnots theorem, no engine can have an efficiency greater than that of a Carnot engine.
Thus, 0.40
s
1
1 1
2
T
K 300
1
T
T
=
or,
1
T
K 300
s
1 0.40 = 0.60
or, T
1
>
60 . 0
K 300
or, T1
>
500 K.
The minimum temperature of the hot reservoir may be 500 K.
EXERCISE
1. A thermally insulated, closed copper vessel contains water at 15C. When the vessel is shaken vigorously
for 15 minutes, the temperature rises to 17C. The mass of the vessel is 100g and that of the water is 200g.
The specific heat capacities of copper and water are 420 J/kg-K and 4200 J/kg-K respectively. Neglect any
thermal expansion. (a) How much heat is transferred to the liquid-vessel system? (b) How much work has
been done on this system? (c) How much is the increase in internal energy of the system?
-ni ~-in+ -i +i < izi n i-i 15C ii t~i t izi +i t - - i = 15 ln- -+ ltnii i-i
t -i -ini- 17C -+ c i-i t izi +i <ni- 100 n in ~i :=n -l-i- i-i +i < ni- 200 n in t
-i i-i +i llzi -ni +nzi 420 J/kg-K~i 4200 J/kg-Kt l+=i ii v+i +i -ni v=i -n t (a)
<izi l-+i +i <i n: -ni l+--i t ? (b) := l-+i l+--i +i l+i i-i t ? (c) l-+i +i ~i--l+
-i n lz l+--i t ?
Ans. (a) zero (b) 1764 J (c) 1764 J
2. Figure shows a paddle wheel coupled to a mass of 12 kg through fixed frictionless pulleys. The paddle is
immersed in a liquid of heat capacity 4200 J/K kept in an adiabatic container. Consider a time interval in
which the 12 kg block falls slowly through 70cm. (a) How much heat is given to the liquid? (b) How much
work is done on the liquid?. Calculate the rise in the temperature of the liquid neglecting the heat capacity of
the container and the paddle. [HCV_Chp_26_Ex. 2]
l-zi n (+ lti. l-i iiiti- lil-i + ,ii 12 kg <ni- = i t~i t lti . ,i n izi n i 4200
J/K-ni -in-i in < n i t~i t -= =ni--in +i +--i +i 12 kg +i ni+ ---zi =
iiii 70cmln i-i t (a) < +i l+--i -ni <i i-i t ? (b) < l+--i +i l+i i-i t ? izi
lt +i -ni iil-i +i -n ni-- t( < + -ini- n l, ai- +i `
Ans. (a) zero (b) 84 J (c) 0.02C
3. A 100kg block is started with a speed of 2.0m/s on a long, rough belt kept fixed in a horizontal position. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the belt is 0.20. (a) Calculate the change in the internal
energy of the block-belt system as the block comes to a stop on the belt. (b) Consider the situation from a
frame of reference moving at 2.0 m/s along the initial velocity of the block. As seen fromthis frame, the block
is gently put on a moving belt and in due time the block starts moving with the belt at 2.0 m/s. Calculate the
incrase in the kinetic energy of the block as it stops slipping past the belt. (c) Find the work done in this
frame by the external force holding the belt.
(+ n-i ( i <i -il- - 100 l+ni <ni- ini (+ ni + 2.0 ni= -in = nl- i-i +-i t
ni+ -ii - + n nl-+ iii nii+ 0.20 t (a) = ti ni+. - l-+i +i ~i-l+ -i n lz +i
ni-i +il (b) := l-il- n (+ (= l-<zi -zi 2.0 ni= n = ni + + il-i+ n +i l<zii n nl-ziin
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
Page # 14
manishkumarphysics.in
t := l-<zi -zi = <i- . ni + ii = - ii ni t -ii +z =n n ni + - 2.0 ni= =
-n-i i-i + <-i t = ti ni+ - iz l+=n-i < + <-i t. ni+ +i nl- -i n lz +i ni-i
+il (c) := l-< zi -zi n - +i iin- in n ,ii l+i ni +i ai- +il
Ans. (a) 200 J (b) 200 J (c) 400 J
4. Calculate the change in internal energy of a gas kept in a rigid container when 100J of heat is supplied to it.
<c izi n ii t: n = +i ~i--l+ -i n l- - +i ni-i +i :=+i 100J -ni <i i-i t
Ans. 100 J
5. The pressure of a gas changes linearly with volume from 10 kPa, 200cc to 50 kPa, 55cc. (a) Calculate the
work done by the gas. (b) If no heat is supplied or extracted from the gas, what is the change in the internal
energy of the gas?
(+ n = +i <i ~i-- + =ii ii = ll-- ti+ 10 kPa, 200cc = 50 kPa, 55cc ti i-i t (a) n=
,ii l+ n +i +i ni-i +i ` (b) l< n = = -ni +i ~i<i-v<i- -ti ti -i n = +i ~i--l+ -i n
l-- +i tini ?
Ans. (a) 4.5 J (b) 4.5 J
6. An ideal gas is taken from an initial state i to a final state f in such a way that the ratio of the pressure to the
absolute temperature remains constant. What will be the work done by the gas?
~i<zi n= +i vil-i+ l-il- i = ~l--n l-il- f -+ := v+i n ii i-i t l+ <i n -i +i ~-i-
l-i t-i t -i n= ,ii l+i ni +i +i tini ?
Ans. zero zi -
7. Figure shows three paths through which a gas can be taken from the state A to the state B. Calculate the
work done by the gas in each of the three paths.
l-zi n -i- i <lzi- l+ n t. l-n (+ n= ~-ii A= ~-ii Bn n ii i =+-i t + i +
~- l<zi n= ,ii l+ n +i +i ni-i +il
Ans. 0.30 J in AB, 0.450 J in ACB and 0.150 J in ADB
8. When a system is taken through the process abc shown in figure, 80 J of heat is absorbed by the system
and 30 J of work is done by it. If the system does 10 J of work during the process adc, howmuch heat flows
into it during the process?
(+ l-+i. l-zi n <lzi- +n abc ,ii n ii i-i t -i l-+i, 80 n -ni ~ziili- +-i t (
:=+ ,ii 30 n +i l+i i-i t l< l-+i +n abc n 10 n +i +. -i := +n n :=+ ,ii l+--i
-ni n ti +i i ni`
Ans. 60 J
9. 50 cal of heat should be supplied to take a system from the state Ato the state B through the path ACB as
shown in figure. Find the quantity of heat to be supplied to take it fromAto B via ADB.
(+ l-+i +i l-zi n <lzi- i ACB + ~-l<zi ~-ii A= B-+ n i- n :=+i 50 +nii -ni <i i-i
t l-+i +i A= B -+ i ADB = n i- :=+i <i ni -ni ai- +il
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
Page # 15
manishkumarphysics.in
Ans. 55 cal
10. Calculate the heat absorbed by a system in going through the cyclic process shown in figure.
l-zi n <lzi- -+i +n + ln l-+i ,ii ~ziili- -ni +i ni-i +il
Ans. 31.4 J
11. Agas is taken through a cyclic process ABCAas shown in figure. If 2.4 cal of heat is given in the process,
what is the value of J?
(+ n= +i l-zii- =i -+i v+n ABCA= nii i-i t l< := v+n n 2.4 +nii -ni <i n: ti -i J
+i ni- +i tini `
Ans. 4.17 J/cal
12. A substance is taken through the process abc as shown in figure. If the internal energy of the substance
increases by 5000 J and a heat of 2625 cal is given to the system, calculate the value of J.
(+ <ii +i abc +n = l-zii-=i n ii i-i t ~n <ii +i ~i--l+ -i 5000 J = c i <i i ~i
l-+i +i 2625 cal -ni <i n: ti -i . J + ni- +i ni-i +il(
Ans. 4.19 J/cal
13. Agas is taken along the pathABas shown in figure. If 70 cal of heat is extracted from the gas in the process,
calculate the change in the internal energy of the system.
(+ n= l-zi n <lzi- i AB + ~-l<zi n ii i-i t l< n= = +n n ni ni -ni 70 +nii t -i
l-+i +i ~i -l+ -i n l- - ai- +il
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
Page # 16
manishkumarphysics.in
Ans. -241 J
14. The internal energy of a gas is given by U = 1.5 pV. It expands from 100 cm
3
to 200 cm
3
against a constant
pressure of 1.0 10
5
Pa. Calculate the heat absorbed by the gas in the process.
l+=i n = +i ~i-l+ -i U= 1.5 pV. ,ii +- +i i-i t l< t l-- <i 1.0 105 i -+n + lz
100 =ni
3
~i-- = 200 =ni
3
~i-- -+ =l- ti-i t. := +n n n= ,ii ~ziili- -ni +i ni-i +il
Ans. 25 J
15. A gas is enclosed in a cylindrical vessel fitted with a frictionless piston. The gas is slowly heated for some
time. During the process, 10 J of heat is supplied and the piston is found to move out 10 cm. Find the
increase in the internal energy of the gas. The areaof cross-section of the cylinder =4cm
2
andthestmospheric
pressure = 100 kPa.
iiilt- l-- +- (+ n-i+i izi n (+ n= ii t : t n= +i iii < + ln( ii ii nn l+i i-i
t +n + <i i- 10 J -ni <i i-i t ~i l-- 10 cm nl- +-i t n= +i ~i--l+ -i n l+--i lz
t : l-- +i ~- -i +i -i zi+n = 4cm
2
~i i nni <i = 100 kPa
Ans. 6 J
16. A gas is initially at a pressure of 100 kPa and its volume is 2.0m
3
. Its pressure is kept constant and the
volume is changed from 2.0m
3
to 2.5m
3
. Its volume is nowkept constant and the pressure is increased from
100 kPa to 200 kPa. The gas is brought back to its initial state, the pressure varying linearly with its volume.
(a) Whether the heat is supplied to or extracted from the gas in the complete cycle? (b) Howmych heat was
suplied or extracted?
(+ n= i-i n 100 kPa <i t -ii :=+i ~i-- 2.0m
3
t :=+ <i +i l-- i- t( -ii ~i-- +i
2.0m
3
= 2.5m
3
n ll- - l+i i-i t ~ :=+ ~i-- +i l-- i- t (. <i +i
100 kPa = 200 kPa + l<i i-i t n= +i il= ~-i il-i+ ~-ii n <i +i ~i-- + =ii li+
= <n- t ( nii i-i t
(a) =- i -+ n n = +i -ni <i n: i -ni ni n: `
(b) l+--i -ni <i n: i ni n: ?
Ans. (a) extracted (b) 25000 J
17. Consider the cyclic process ABCA, shown in figure, performed on a sample of 2.0 mole of an ideal gas. A
total of 1200 J of heat is withdrawn fromthe sample in the process. Find the work done by the gas during the
part BC. [HCV_Chp_26_Ex. 17]
ABCA-+i +n +i l-zii- =i ~i<zi n = + <i ni n l+i i-i t v+n n n = = + n 1200 J -ni l-+ini
i-i t +n ,ii iin BCn l+( n( +i +i ni-i +il( `
Ans. 4520J
18. Figure shows the variation in the internal energy U with the volume V of 2.0 mole of an ideal gas in a cyclic
process abcda. The temperature of the gas at b and c are 500 K and 300 K respectively. Calculate the heat
absorbed by the gas during the process.
2 nin ~i<zi n = + ln (+ -+i +n abcda n ~i-- V+ =ii ~i -l+ -i U+ =ii ~i -l+ -i U
n l-- l-zi n <lzi- l+i ni t b c n= + -i +nzi 500 K -ii 300 Kt := +n n n= ,ii
~ziili- -ni ai- +il
[Q.18/HCV-II/CH-26/Ex.]
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
Page # 17
manishkumarphysics.in
Sol. The total heat absorbed by the gas = total work done by the gas
= W
ab
+ W
cd
work done by gas in bc & da = 0
= nRT
b
ln
0
0
v
v 2
+ nRTT
c
n
0
0
v 2
v
= nRTT
a
ln 2 nRT
c
ln 2
= nR n 2 (T
b
T
c
) = 400 R ln 2
= 2300 J
[Ans. 400 R n 2, Joules = 2300 J]
19. Find the change in the internal energy of 2kg of water as it is heated from 0C to 4C. The specific heat
capacity of water is 4200 J/kg-K and its densities at 0C and 4C are 999.9kg/m
3
and 1000 kg/m
3
respec-
tively. Atmospheric pressure = 10
5
Pa.
2kg i-i +i 0C = 4C-+ nn l+i i-i t -i -=+i ~i--l+ -i n l- - +i ni-i +il( i-i
+i llzi -ni 4200 J/kg-K -ii 0C-ii 4C i- +nzi 999.9kg/m
3
-ii 1000 kg/m
3
t inni
<i = 10
5
Pa
Ans. (33600 0.02) J
20. Calculate the increase in the internal energy of 10g of water when it is heated from 0C to 100C and
converted into steam at 100 kPa. The density of steam = 0.6 kg/m
3
. Specific heat capacity of water = 4200
J/kgC and the latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.5 10
6
J/kg.
10g i-i +i 0C = 100C-+ nn l+i i-i t ~i 100 kPa := i n <n l<i i-i t -i :=+i
~i--l+ -i n lz +i ni-i +il(
i +i i- = 0.6 kg/m
3
.
i-i +i llzi -ni = 4200 J/kgC -ii i-i + i- +i n -- -ni = 2.5 10
6
J/kg.
Ans. 2.5 10
4
J
21. Figure shows a cylindrical tube of volume Vwith adiabatic walls containing an ideal gas. The internal energy
of this ideal gas is given by 1.5 nRT. The tube is divided into two equal parts by a fixed diathermic wall.
Initially, the pressure and the temperature are p
1
, T
1
on the left and p
2
, T
2
on the rigth. The system is left for
sufficient time so that the temperature becomes equal on the two sides (a) Howmuch work has been done
by the gas on the left part? (b) Find the final pressures on the two sides. (c) Find the final equilibrium
temperature. (d) How much heat has flown from the gas on the right to the gas on the left?
l-zii- =i V ~i- +i n-i+i n l=+i <ii zi n t . ~i<zi n = -l-i- t := ~i<zi n = +i
~i--l+ -i 1.5 nRT ,ii <i i-i t +i (+ l-i -ni =niti <ii = <i i iini n ii i-i t
i-i n ii ~i <i -ii -i p
1
, T
1
-ii <ii ~i p
2
, T
2
t l-+i +i :-- =n -+ zi i i-i t -+
<i-i ~i -ini- i -i ti i(
(a) n= ,ii i iin l+--i +i l+i ni
(b) <i -i ~i ~l--n <i +i ni-i +il(
(c) ~l--n =i- -ini- +i ni-i +il(
(d) <i i iin +i n= = ii iin +i -+ l+--i -ni ti `
Ans. (a) zero
(b)

+ ) p p ( T p
2 1 2 1
on the left and

+ ) p p ( T p
2 1 1 2
on the right
Chapter # 26 Law of Thermodynamics
Page # 18
manishkumarphysics.in
(c)

+ ) p p ( T T
2 1 2 1
(d)

4
V ) T T ( p p 3
1 2 2 1
when = p
1
T
2
+ p
2
T
1
22. An adiabatic vessel of total volume Vis divided into two equal parts by a conducting separator. The separator
is fixed in this position. The part on the left contains one mole of an ideal gas (U = 1.5 nRT) and the part on
the right contains two moles of the same gas. Initially, the pressure on each side is p. The system is left for
sufficient time so that a steady state is reached. Find (a) the work done by the gas in the left part during the
process, (b) the temperature in the two sides in the beginning, (c) the final common temperature reached by
the gases, (d) the heat given to the gas in the right part and (e) the increase in the internal energy of the gas
in the left part.
-in+ iin ,ii (+ zin izi l=+i ~i-- V t. <i i iini n ii i-i t -in+ iin := l-il- n
l-i t i iin n (+ nin ~i<zi n= (U= 1.5 nRT) -ii <i iin n :=i n= + <i nin -l-i- t i-i
n + -+ <i P t l-+i +i i-- =n -+ :=i -t ii i-i t -il+ =i--ii t- =+ -i:
(a) +n + <i i- i iin n n = ,ii l+i ni +i
(b) i-i n <i-i ~i +i -ini- (c) n = +i ~l--n = +- -ini-
(d) <i iin +i n = ,ii <i n: -ni (e) i iin n= +i ~i--l+ -i n lz
Ans. (a) zero (b)
R ) mol 4 (
pV
,
R ) mol 2 (
pV
(c)
R ) mol 3 (
pV
(d)
4
pV
(e)
4
pV