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Uploaded by Joel Reyes Noche

Presented at the Council of Deans and Department Chairs of Colleges of Arts and Sciences (CODDCCAS) 3rd Quarter General Assembly held at the Ateneo de Naga University, Naga City, Camarines Sur, Philippines, on September 4, 2009

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What are some possible solutions?

the mathematics they should have learned

in elementary school?

jrnoche@adnu.edu.ph

Ateneo de Naga University

Council of Deans and Department Chairs of Colleges of Arts and Sciences

3rd Quarter General Assembly

September 4, 2009

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

Do you understand?

What are some possible problems?

What are some possible solutions?

Do you understand?

students. [Rac98]

We must understand what one who understands understands.

We must understand what one who does not understand

understands.

We must understand what one who teaches one who does not

understand to understand understands.

We must understand what curriculum will lead one who does

not understand to understand.

We must understand what curriculum will lead one who does

not teach for understanding to teach for understanding.

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

Do you understand?

What are some possible problems?

What are some possible solutions?

We must understand what a weak student understands.

We must understand what a good teacher understands.

We must understand what curriculum will lead a weak student

to become a strong student.

We must understand what curriculum will lead a bad teacher

to become a good teacher.

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

Do you understand?

What are some possible problems?

What are some possible solutions?

mathematics.”

“I should only use my teacher’s strategies, even if they don’t

make sense to me.”

“I don’t need mathematical skill and understanding if I have a

calculator.”

Do you understand?

What are some possible problems?

What are some possible solutions?

Outline

1 Do you understand?

Classroom mathematics vs. real-world mathematics

Teachers’ strategies vs. students’ strategies

Skill vs. understanding

Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

Skill and understanding

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics vs. real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies vs. students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill vs. understanding

knowledge—one which applies to school mathematics and the

other to real life.” [TJ00, p. 99]

and as with illusions understanding is based on accepting the

unreasonable as reasonable.” [Rac98]

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics vs. real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies vs. students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill vs. understanding

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics vs. real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies vs. students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill vs. understanding

Saying

1 1 2

+ =

2 3 5

is like saying

1 apple + 1 orange = 2 bananas

But

An apple and an orange are fruits.

2 and 3 are 5.

Therefore, 12 + 13 = 25 ?

Halves and thirds are “not real” (abstract).

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics vs. real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies vs. students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill vs. understanding

“For the first part of the test, you got 7 out of 15 items correctly.

For the second part of the test, you got 6 out of 10 items correctly.

7 6

Thus, your score for the entire test is 15 + 10 = 13

25 .”

given in an exam.

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics vs. real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies vs. students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill vs. understanding

“All too often, the questions which pupils solve in class are based

on the repetition and practice of an algorithm which has just been

demonstrated. No choice is involved, no mathematical thinking is

required and a pupil using an alternative method would be in the

wrong. No wonder then that school-taught algorithms are rarely

used in real life!” [TJ00, p. 113]

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics vs. real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies vs. students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill vs. understanding

short method of regrouping.

2 12 8 12 12 8 12 12

932

−356 −356 −356 −356

6 76 576

For some students, this subtraction procedure is very difficult to

understand. So why are teachers using it?

Is it because it is the only subtraction procedure they know?

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics vs. real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies vs. students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill vs. understanding

Calculate without using a calculator: 42.13 − 6.7 =

Why should a student be able to do arithmetic using pen and

paper when it is easier and more accurate to use a calculator?

Should we focus on teaching concepts?

Using a calculator, find the area of the shape shown below.

60 m

15 m

40 m 20 m

25 m

80 m

understands arithmetic?

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

Give these students 6.25 pesos and then take away 4 pesos from

them. Ask them how much would remain. Would they give the

above answers?

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

If you were actually going to divide 812 pesos among these four

students, how would they react if you gave them 23 pesos each?

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

trained to believe that, and act as if, activities in the

classroom are not affected by and do not affect the real world.

students the importance of checking if their answers are

realistic.

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

the strategy that they wish to use. [...] Allowing children to use

the varied strategies that they generate, and helping them

understand why superficially-different strategies converge on the

right answer and why superficially reasonable strategies are

incorrect seems likely to build deeper understanding.” [Sie03, p. 224]

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

“Unusual”

932 Rename Subtrahend

−356

932 932 +4 = 936 +40 = 976

600

−356 −356 −4 = −360 −40 = −400

− 20

− 4 576

576

Left-to-Right Add-Up

932 632 582 356 360 400 900

−300 − 50 − 6 + 4 + 40 +500 + 32 = 576

632 582 576 360 400 900 932

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

0 12 99 10 12 99 10 12

12

100

12

−214 −214 −214 −214

8 98 9798

or

10012 −2 = 10010 −10 = 10000 −1 = 9999

−214 +2 = −212 +10 = −202 +1 = −201

9798

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

and conceptual understanding.

the statement true? [TJ00, p. 20] (The digits −187

in the boxes are not necessarily the same.) 738

What number should go in the box to make the statement

true? 3 + 4 + 5 = + 7

What number is indicated by the arrow?

2.0 2.1

6

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

Conclusion

them.

Show your students that the mathematics in the classroom is

the same as the mathematics in the real world.

Allow them to use the problem-solving strategies that work

best for them.

Give them non-standard problems that require both skill and

understanding.

Do you understand? Classroom mathematics should be real-world mathematics

What are some possible problems? Teachers’ strategies and students’ strategies

What are some possible solutions? Skill and understanding

References

Everyday mathematics parent handbook: Algorithms and arithmetic in everyday mathematics, 2002.

Retrieved December 17, 2008, from

http://instruction.aaps.k12.mi.us/EM_parent_hdbk/algorithms.html.

Joel Noche.

Systematic errors in arithmetic of some college students.

Kamawotan, 3(1–2):74–86, May 2009.

Sid Rachlin.

Man scars—so seems lost.

In George W. Bright and Jeane M. Joyner, editors, Classroom Assessment in Mathematics: Views from a

National Science Foundation Working Conference, pages 231–241. University Press of America, 1998.

Robert Siegler.

Implications of cognitive science research for mathematics education.

In J. Kilpatrick, W. Martin, and D. Schifter, editors, A Research Companion to Principles and Standards for

School Mathematics, chapter 20, pages 219–233. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston,

VA, USA, 2003.

Becoming a Successful Teacher of Mathematics.

RoutledgeFalmer, London, 2000.

Joel Reyes Noche How do you teach college students the mathematics ...

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