You are on page 1of 38

HYDERABAD

Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine Operating and Maintenance Considerations

HYDERABAD

GT INSPECTIONS

Running Inspections Standby Inspections Shutdown Inspections

HDGT.PPT/ 2

HYDERABAD

Running Inspection Data Parameters to be monitored -Summary

Speed Load Fired Starts Fired Hours Site Barometric Reading Temperatures Inlet Ambient Compressor Discharge Turbine Exhaust Turbine Wheelspace Lube Oil Header Lube Oil Tank Bearing Drains Exhaust Spread

Pressures Compressor Discharge Lube Pump(s) Bearing Header Cooling Water Fuel Filters (Fuel, Lube, Inlet Air) Vibration Data for Power Train Generator Output Voltage Field Voltage Phase Current Field Current VARS Stator Temp. Load Vibration Start-Up Time Coast-Down Time

RUNNING INSPECTIONS
HYDERABAD

OPERATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

Start up
Increased Startup time Jaw clutch disengagement at a lower speed Higher vibrations during critical speeds

- Indicative of unhealthy starting means / turbine bearings


HDGT.PPT/ 4

HYDERABAD

Critical speeds Typical (Fr-5P)

First critical 1900 rpm Second critical 3250 rpm Third critical 5200 to 5600 rpm

Critical speeds Typical (Fr-6B)


First critical 1650 to 1880 rpm Second critical 3260 to 3900 rpm Third critical 7050 to 7350 rpm

HDGT.PPT/ 5

HYDERABAD

Critical speeds Typical (Fr-9E)

First critical 980 rpm Second critical 1300 rpm Third critical 2300 rpm

Critical speeds Typical (Fr-6FA)


First critical Second critical 1840 rpm 4743 rpm

HDGT.PPT/ 6

RUNNING INSPECTIONS
HYDERABAD

OPERATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

Load Limitation / Hunting


Unable to maintain load Unable to increase load

- Indicative of clogged hydraulic filters and / or damaged fuel pump and / or relief valve
HDGT.PPT/ 7

RUNNING INSPECTIONS
HYDERABAD

OPERATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

Combustion Trouble / exhaust spread


Increasing trend in exhaust temperature spread Changing pattern of exhaust temp. spread with load

- Indicative of unequal fuel distribution to fuel nozzles


HDGT.PPT/ 8

RUNNING INSPECTIONS
HYDERABAD

OPERATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS
Lower Loads under similar conditions Higher Exhaust Temperature under similar

conditions - Indicative of compressor fouling

HDGT.PPT/ 9

HYDERABAD

STANDBY INSPECTION
Inspections carried out during Off-peak periods when Unit is not running for a long duration

Check Battery system, Oil levels, instrument calibrations, replacement of various filters & servicing of accessory systems etc. Put the unit on ratcheting / barring gear for atleast 30 min daily Crank the Turbine once in a Fortnight to drive away Moisture Run the Gas Turbine FSNL once every month to avoid corrosion to turbine wheel dovetails
HDGT.PPT/ 10

HYDERABAD

PERIODIC SHUTDOWN INSPECTIONS A Maintenance Program should:


Optimize owners maintenance costs
Maximize equipment availability

HYDERABAD

Factors Affecting Maintenance Planning and Maintenance Program


Manufacturers Recommended Maintenance Program

Design Features

Duty Cycle

Cost of Downtime

Diagnostics

Type of Fuel

Maintenance Program
Availability Need On-Site Maintenance Capability Expert Systems

Utilization Need

Environment

Reserve Requirements

HYDERABAD

Because not all customers operate their gas turbines the similarly

not all customer maintenance programs are the same.


Case 1
8,000 Hrs/Yr 160 Starts/Yr HGP at 3 years

Case 2
1,000 Hrs/Yr 400 Starts/Yr HGP at 3 years, not 24 years

BHEL Provides Guidance for Customer Maintenance Planning

HYDERABAD

Maintenance Cost and Equipment Life Are Influenced by Key Service Factors
Fuel Firing Temperature Steam/Water Injection Cyclic Effects (Start-up rate, number of trips) Air Quality

Service Factors Different From the Reference Condition* Can Increase Maintenance Cost & Reduce Maintenance Intervals

HYDERABAD

Potential Failure Modes


Hot-Gas-Path Components Continuous Duty Application Cyclic Duty Application Creep Deflection Thermal Mechanical Fatigue Creep Rupture Rubs/Wears. Corrosion Oxidation Erosion. High-Cycle Fatigue.

HYDERABAD

Maintenance Factors
Typical Max Inspection Intervals (MS6B/Ms7EA) Hot Gas Inspection 24,000 hrs or 1200 Starts Major Inspection 48,000 hrs or 2400 Starts
Criterion is Hours or Starts (Whichever Occurs First)

Hot Gas Path (Buckets & Nozzles)

Factors Impacting Maintenance


Hours Factors
Fuel Gas Distillate Crude Residual

Starts Factors
Trip From Full Load 8 Fast Load 2 Fast Start 20

1 1.5 2 to 3 3 to 4

Peak Load 6 Water/Steam Injection Dry Control 1 (GTD-222) Wet Control 1.9 (5% H20)

HYDERABAD

Operation of Gas Turbine in Extended lean-lean base mode in DLN-1 units has a maintenance factor of 10

HDGT.PPT/ 17

HYDERABAD

Maintenance Factor Definition


IDEAL INTERVAL = RECOMMENDED INTERVAL =
Interval for Continuous Base Load on Clean Natural Gas

Ideal Interval determined from application of maintenance factors

HYDERABAD

Maintenance Factors Summary

Maintenance Requirements are Based on an Independent Count of Hours and Starts Certain Operating Factors Reduce Maintenance Intervals Peak Load Steam/Water Injection >2.2% Liquid Fuel Trips From Load Fast Starts Exceeding BHEL Specification Limits can Significantly Increase Maintenance Factors and Reduce Component Life Equations for Establishing Application Specific Hot Gas Path Maintenance Intervals are Available

HYDERABAD

Estimated Effect of Fuel Type on Maintenance

Residual

Maintenance Factor
Distillates

Heavy

Light Natural Gas

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

20

Fuel Percent Hydrogen by Weight in Fuel

HYDERABAD

Turbine Start/Stop Cycle


Base Load

540 Deg C

Acceleration Light-off

Unload Ramp

Exh. Temp.

Load Ramp Full Speed No Load Trip

Full Speed No Load

Warm-up

Fired Shutdown

Start-up

Time

Shutdown

HYDERABAD

Maintenance Factor - Trips from Load


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0

Trip Severity Factor

Base

FSNL

For trips during Start-up Acceleration, assume Trip Severity Factor = 2


40 60 % Load 80 100 120

20

HYDERABAD

Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine


Major inspection
Hot-Gas-Path Inspection Combustion Inspection

Shutdown Inspections
Combustion Hot-Gas-Path Major

Special Inspections
Borescope IGV Bushing insp.

HYDERABAD

Base Line Recommended Inspection Intervals Base Load - Gas Fuel - Dry
Type of Inspection Combustion Hot-Gas Path Major MS32/52/51 Upgrade (Standard)

Hours/Starts MS6B MS6FA & 9FA Standard DLN2 & DLN1 12000/1200
24000/1200 48000/2400

MS9E Standard & DLN1 8000/900 24000/900 48000/2400

12000/800
Eliminated/1200 48000/2400

8000/450
24000/900

48000/2400

Factors That Can Reduce Maintenance Intervals Trips from Load Fuel Start Cycle Load Cycle HGP Hardware Design Steam/Water Injection Peak Load Operation

HYDERABAD

Maintenance Inspections Combustion Inspection - Key Elements


Key Hardware Combustion Liners Combustion Covers Fuel Nozzles Transition Pieces Cross Fire Tubes Flow Sleeves Check Valves Spark Plugs Flame Detectors Flex Hoses Inspect for: Foreign Objects Abnormal Wear Cracking Liner Cooling Hole Plugging TBC Coating Condition Oxidation/Corrosion/Erosion Hot Spots/Burning Missing Hardware Clearance Limits Borescope Compressor and Turbine Potential Actions: Repair/Refurbishment Liners Cracking/Erosion/Wear TBC Repair Transition Pieces Wear TBC Repair Distortion Fuel Nozzles Plugging Erosion/Wear Cross Fire Tubes Wear/Burning Availability of On Site Spares Is Key to Minimizing Downtime

WORK SCOPE:

Criteria:

Op. & Instr. Manual TILs Service Engineers

Inspection Methods:

Visual LP Borescope

HYDERABAD

Maintenance Inspections Hot Gas Path Inspection - Key Elements

WORK SCOPE: Combustion Inspection work scope +


Key Hardware Nozzles (1,2,3) Inspect for: Potential Actions:

Buckets (1,2,3)
Stator Shrouds IGVs & Bushings

Compressor Blading (Borescope)

Foreign Objects Damage Repair/Refurbishment Nozzles Oxidation/Corrosion/Erosion Weld Repair Cracking Reposition Cooling Hole Plugging Recoat Remaining Coating Life Buckets Nozzle Deflection/Distortion Strip & Recoat Weld Repair Abnormal Deflection/Distortion Blend Abnormal Wear Missing Hardware Clearance Limits

Criteria:

Op. & Instr. Manual TILs Service Engineers

Inspection Methods:

Visual LP Borescope

Availability of On Site Spares Is Key to Minimizing Downtime

HYDERABAD

Maintenance Inspections GT Major Inspection - Key Elements

WORK SCOPE: Combustion Inspection Work Scope + HotGas Path Inspection Work Scope +
Key Hardware
Compressor Blading Turbine Wheels Dovetails Journal and Seal Surfaces

Inspect for:
Foreign Objects Damage Oxidation/Corrosion/Erosion Cracking Leaks Abnormal Wear Missing Hardware Clearance Limits

Potential Actions:
Repair/Refurbishment Stator Shrouds Oxidation/Corrosion/Erosion Buckets Coating Deterioration FOD/Rubs/Cracking Tip Shroud Deflection Creep Life Limit Nozzles Deterioration IGV Bushings Wear Bearings/Seals Boring/Wear Compressor Blades Corrosion/Erosion Rubs/FOD
Availability of On Site Spares Is Key to Minimizing Downtime

Bearing Seals
Inlet System Exhaust System

Criteria:

Op. & Instr. Manual Inspection Visual Methods: LP TILs Service Engineers Borescope

HYDERABAD

Estimated Repair/ Replacement Cycles


Repair Starts Replacement Hours 3CI 4CI 2CI 3HGPI 2HGPI 3HGPI 2HGPI 5CI 6CI 3CI 3HGPI 3HGPI 4HGPI 2HGPI

Liners TPs Fuel Nozzles N#1,2,3 B#1 B#2,3 Shroud#1

CI CI CI HGPI HGPI HGPI HGPI

Shroud#2,3

HGPI

4HGPI

3HPGI

Typical and informative only. Depends upon GT type and size


HDGT.PPT/ 28

HYDERABAD

Repair/ Replacement Cycles Life Extension

New Nozzle

Nozzle Condition

Repaired Nozzle Min Acceptability Standard

First repair

2nd repair Without repair 3rd repair


Severe Deterioration

10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 Operating Hours FIRST STAGE NOZZLE WEAR - PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE LIFE EXTENSION
HDGT.PPT/ 29

Repair cost exceeds replacement cost

Acceptance Standard

HYDERABAD

SPARE PARTS PLANNING - CONSIDERATIONS


Repair / replacement intervals

Cost Procurement cycle time Repair cycle time Vs. Inspection down time Shelf life Storage facilities Environment Transport facilities
HDGT.PPT/ 30

HYDERABAD

Borescope Inspection
BORESCOPE INSPECTION CRITERIA

ACCESS AREA Compressor Blades

INSPECT FOR Foreign object damage Dirt buildup

Corrosion
Tip Erosion Trailing Edge thinning

Stator blade root erosion


Tip clearances
HDGT.PPT/ 31

HYDERABAD

Borescope Inspection
BORESCOPE INSPECTION CRITERIA

ACCESS AREA Combustion (Liner and transition piece)

INSPECT FOR Carbon build-up Hot spots

Cracking
Bulging Wear

Missing metal or thermal barrier coating


HDGT.PPT/ 32

HYDERABAD

Borescope Inspection
BORESCOPE INSPECTION CRITERIA

ACCESS AREA Turbine Nozzles

INSPECT FOR Foreign object damage Corrosion

Blocked cooling holes


Cracks Trailing edge bowing

Erosion
Burning
HDGT.PPT/ 33

HYDERABAD

Borescope Inspection
BORESCOPE INSPECTION CRITERIA

ACCESS AREA
Turbine buckets

INSPECT FOR
Foreign object damage Corrosion

Blisters
Erosion Cracks Tip clearance Missing metal
HDGT.PPT/ 34

HYDERABAD

Borescope Inspection

RIGID BORESCOPE

BORESCOPE
FLEXIBLE BORESCOPE
HDGT.PPT/ 35

HYDERABAD

VIGV Bushing Inspection


1. Set vanes to full open position
84

VIGV in fully Open Position

Airflow Direction

2. Set up dial indicator to measure motion normal to the vane chord. Position the indicator to read as close to the vane inner button as possible 3. Deflect vane in a tangential direction (perpendicular to the air flow direction) to both sides of the bushing clearance and record full dial indicator reading.
HDGT.PPT/ 36

VIGV

Dial Indicator

HYDERABAD

VIGV Bushing Inspection

HDGT.PPT/ 37

HYDERABAD

DOWN TIME REDUCTION


Casings are horizontally split

SPECIAL DESIGN FEATURES FOR EASY MAINTENANCE

With upper half of casings removed, it is possible to remove nozzles and inspect buckets without removing rotor
All bearing housings are horizontally split and bearings can be replaced without removing the rotor. Large blades are moment weighed and sequenced to avoid rebalancing of rotor after site replacement. Components like governing components, fuel nozzles, combustion components are mounted type for easy maintenance. All major accessories are separate assemblies and are accessible for inspection and maintenance.
HDGT.PPT/ 38