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PART A: READING COMPREHENSION (20 MARKS) Read the following articles and answer all the questions in the answer booklet provided. SECTION 1: Article 1 School Sports: Role in Students Social and Physical Development

We all are familiar with the maxim 'Health is wealth'. According to the World Health Organization, 'Health is a state of complete physical wellness, the absence of disease.' Academic pursuits serve the purpose of nourishing the mind, but a healthy mind resides in a healthy body. One can develop and maintain a healthy body by actively participating in games and sports. Sports are essential for 5

students but they are neglected in schools. Governments all over the world have formulated new national sports policies to bring rich dividends to sportsmen. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to popularize and encourage participation in games and sports among students.

II

One important reason for the prominence of sports in schools is tradition. Often, 10 we do something in a certain way because that is the way we have done it before. Moreover, human beings have a tendency to stay with what they have been doing, and that is true regardless of how well or how poorly it is working for them. In that sense, the past controls people. Past practices come to be viewed as the natural way to proceed legitimate, appropriate and inherent in the scheme of things. The truth is that schools do not have to be in the sports business at all; they could leave that to someone else. However, due to the fact that it has been a tradition for schools to emphasize certain sports, they continue with the tradition. 15

III

In addition, child development experts note that children become interested in team sports around ages five to six. Some early childhood educators feel that if children learn the importance of co-operating with their peers at a young age, they will be more socially ready for kindergarten and grade school (Nonis, 2005). However, adults must emphasize co-operation over competition in team 20

sports, especially with young children. Adults who supervise and coach need to

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serve as examples of co-operation, not competition. Nor should they show 25 favouritism to young children based on their demonstrated skills in sports (Landers-Potts & Grant, 2006). Children's motivation to participate in team sports moves from a focus on competition in early childhood to one on cooperation and friendship by the late elementary school years (Stern, Bradley, Prince & Stroh, 2003). Thus, it is important to help young children develop mentally to appreciate 30 the co-operativeness of team sports. Sports keep ones body alert, active, youthful and energetic. They instil in students a spirit of adventure. Sports increase the circulation of blood, boost metabolism, burn calories and improve the respiratory and digestive system. While playing games, various exercises are performed automatically and one need not join a gymnasium to exercise. Other activities to help one keep fit are brisk walking, running, cycling, skipping, swimming and yoga. 35

IV

Next, the high priority of sports in schools is that the authorities believe in the importance of active involvement in co-curricular activities among students. According to Malaysias Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, the 40 curriculum may be revised to make sports compulsory to relive the glory days of sports in schools. He said the education policy would be revised to give importance to sports as the Education Ministry wants to produce students who excel not only in academics but also co-curriculum. "There are many co-curricular activities. We have sports, clubs, associations and uniform units. I want to change the policy. Sports will be made compulsory in schools," he said at the Sekolah Menengah Tinggi Muar alumni dinner held recently. Muhyiddin, who is also the Education Minister, said the ministry would introduce incentives to make this happen. 45

VI

Another good reason for having sports in schools is the possibility of college 50 sponsorship. This is especially important for lower income families who do not have the financial means to help their children further their education. Many of the better colleges offer up to 100% scholarships for the best athletes or sports people they can identify in high schools around the country. So, if parents

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finances are low, then they would do well to encourage their children to try out a 55 number of sports to see which, if any, they can excel in during their high school years. Of course sports are not for everyone and it could be that students are just not sports-minded. However, if they are, then it is a great way of getting their education at a much reduced rate. In conclusion, effective measures should be taken to ensure students active 60 participation in games and sports. The government should evolve a long-term national sports policy. Students should be informed about the advantages of participating in sports. Training facilities for various games should be introduced. The existing training facilities in schools should be upgraded and expanded. The selection of players for national and international games should be fair. Participation in sports and games will improve the overall health of the nation and its citizens. 65

VII

Retrieved and adapted from: Robert S. Griffin (2010) http://sports.lives/children/school

Answer the following questions in complete sentences where appropriate.

1. State whether the following statements are TRUE (T) or FALSE (F). a) People have the inclination to stay with what they have been doing even if it is not working for them. b) Adults who supervise and coach need to serve as examples of opposition, not co-operation. c) One must join a gymnasium to perform various exercises. d) The Malaysian Education Ministry wants to produce students who do extremely well in academics and also in co-curriculum. (2 marks)

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2. According to the passage, what does the word tradition (line 10) mean? (1 mark) 3. How does participating in sports help students to develop physically? (2 marks)

4. How does Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin plan to revise the education policy with regard to sports? (1 mark)

5. The following statements are true based on the passage except a) All colleges offer up to 100% scholarships for the best athletes in schools. b) Scholarships are crucial to lower income families who cannot afford to pay for their childrens tertiary education. c) Parents could encourage their children to try out various sports to see if they can excel in any one of them during their high school years. d) If students are active in sports, they have the opportunity to get their education at a much reduced rate. (1 mark) 6. List two advantages of taking part in sports as mentioned in the passage. (2 marks) 7. In your opinion, how can the existing training programmes in schools be upgraded?

(1 mark)

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SECTION 2: Article 2

Sports in the Lives of Children

Despite the fact that there are classes specifically for physical education in secondary as well as primary schools nowadays, the students either shirk these periods or prefer to go to the library. Most physical education teachers do not bother about these offences committed by the students. Neglecting sports can become the cause of indiscipline in schools. Therefore, to overcome this 5 problem, sports should be made compulsory in schools.

II

Firstly, sports would promote fitness and good health among students. Due to modern technological developments which include sophisticated computers with games and Internet packages, passive pastimes are becoming more popular. Instead of taking the risk of becoming fat and suffering from eye strain and 10 headaches, forced sports at schools will help students stay fit. There are also cases where school-going children lack time to practise sports as they probably live very far from their schools. In addition, parents may not appreciate it when their offspring neglect their studies when they focus too much on sports. Thus, compulsory sports would indeed prove to be beneficial to these students. They 15 would then actively participate in friendly volleyball matches or score marks at the basketball pitch instead of having tired eyes riveted on the computer screen.

III

Next, the learning response time of children would be better if sports were made compulsory in schools. This is because when children play sports regularly, they develop a particular sense of increased alertness. As a result, the children would have instantaneous responses to any topic put forward to them by the teachers. A healthy body together with a healthy mind is indeed an advantage to children. There would be a definite contrast between a student who had stayed up watching a late film on television the night before and another one who had participated in an afternoon game of badminton the previous evening. The 25 former would be helplessly yawning during class and he or she would not be able to follow the teachers explanation, whereas the latter would be keen and 20

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attentive in class.

IV

Sports programmes include inter and intra-school competitive sports, outdoor recreational or adventure sports, fitness, sport development and physical 30 recreation activities. The range of activities is immense, from the traditional and popular sports such as cricket, rugby league and union, netball, hockey, softball and swimming, to the newer favourites such as abseiling, canoeing, ice skating, ropes courses, martial arts, trampolining and skateboard riding. School sports provide a vehicle for learning a number of skills - physical, emotional and moral and are an important expression of one's culture. In school sports, the prime concern is to give all students the opportunity for participation, enjoyment and skills development.

Students are encouraged to participate in a way that suits their interests and 40 abilities. During school sports, students will develop a variety of skills that will equip them for lifelong participation in regular sports and recreation activities. Regular participation in physical activity is associated with a range of physical and mental health benefits both in childhood and adulthood. Active children 45 become healthy adults and schools play a key role in contributing to that outcome.

VI

Physical activity in the school setting takes place in a variety of contexts from formal inter and intra-school competitions to physical education, recreation, general leisure and fitness activities, and as such the safety of students is a 50 priority for all staff. The types and rates of injury vary markedly between sports. Injury prevention measures are based on the nature of the activity or sports, its players or participants and the external environment, and these play significant roles in reducing injuries. Children are required to wear protective equipment, 55 which may range from helmets, eyewear and mouth guards to shin padding and gloves. In sports such as cricket and baseball, the use of protective equipment is part of the culture and is well accepted. In other sports, the use of protective equipment is increasingly being adopted. 60

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VII

In brief, sports should be a compulsory and valued part of the schools curriculum as they are an integral part of a child's development. Sports require physical involvement in organized games or activities within an accepted set of rules. These are the reasons why sports should be made compulsory in schools. Sports in educational institutions stimulate the brain and aid students in their studies.

Retrieved and adapted from: Kyra Nova (2008) http://quazen.com/kids/teens/school

Answer the following questions in complete sentences where appropriate.

1. What do the following words and phrases refer to as used in the article?

a) these offences (line 4) b) The former (line 25-26 ) c) these (line 51) d) protective equipment (line 56) (2 marks)

2.

What is the main idea of paragraph III? (1 mark)

3. State four sports programmes where students are given the opportunity for participation, enjoyment and skills development.

(2 marks) 4. What does the writer mean by schools play a key role in contributing to that outcome (lines 44-45)? (2 marks)
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5. In your opinion, why is an accepted set of rules (line 59) important when it comes to sports? (1 mark)

6. Read the following statements carefully. Write (F) if the statement is a FACT and (O) if the statement is an OPINION.

a) Neglecting sports can become the cause of indiscipline in schools. (paragraph I) b) Due to the modern technological developments which include sophisticated computers with games and Internet packages, passive pastimes are becoming more popular. (paragraph II) c) Regular participation in physical activity is associated with a range of physical and mental health benefits both in childhood and adulthood. (paragraph V) d) In brief, sports should be a compulsory and valued part of the schools curriculum as they are an integral part of a childs development. (paragraph VII)

(2 marks)

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PART B: WRITING (20 MARKS)

QUESTION 1
You have been asked to write an article entitled Why Sports Should Be Made Compulsory In Schools for your college bulletin. Using the information from the two reading passages, write an article of about 300 400 words to support your opinion. Include three main ideas and supporting details in your article. (You must use the information that you have gathered from reading the two passages but marks will be deducted if you lift information directly from the passages). In-text citations and proper acknowledgement of references used must also be included.

END OF QUESTION PAPER

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