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Leadership is an effective instrument by which a manager can establish a feeling of mutual objectives and unity in a group, thereby ensuring

maximum efficiency of the group. To achieve this, a manager has to have special skills in understanding impersonal and group behaviour, establishing interactions and communication, and promoting cooperation. The quality of leadership determines the success or failure of an organization. Leadership can be defined here as the effort to influence the behaviour of individuals or group members in order to accomplish organizational, individual or personal goals. t is an essential component of organizational effectiveness. ! leader has to possess one or more forms of powers to orient others to the desired direction "#rench and $aven, %&'&() charisma, a position of authority, expert knowledge, and power of reward and punishment. The powers of authority, reward and punishment are primary powers, which add strength to leadership quality and influence. These are powers which are delegated to a manager by the organization. *xpert knowledge and charisma power are personal, intrinsic to the leader, and add to his or her strength. To be effective, a manager should have a good understanding of leadership, of motivating factors, of how people think and act, and should adopt a personal and active attitude towards designated goals. Leadership should be both effective and successful. +hile successful leadership draws a response from individuals or group members on the basis of rewards and punishments, effective leadership is based on mutual understanding and social exchange. !n effective leader makes the individual or group members understand the problem and reasons for any actions or for changes needed in their own perceptual terms, and then makes a well reasoned decision. ,ore recently, the concept of the super leader has been developed. ! super leader is one who leads others to lead themselves. -uper leadership inspires, stimulates and supports self.leadership in subordinates. t recognizes self.influence as a /powerful opportunity for achieving excellence, rather than as a threat to external control and authority/ ",anz and -ims, %&01(. -trategies for self.leadership include) "i( effective behaviour and action, "ii( strategies focused on behaviour, and "iii( cognitive focused effective thinking and feeling.

Leadership theories
Leadership is influenced by numerous factors relating to traits, behaviour and situation. t is the outcome of a complex relationship between leaders, subordinates, the organization, social values and economic and political conditions. The concept of leadership is understood mainly through three theories, based on trait, behaviour and situation.

Trait approach

The traditional concept is that effective leaders have personality traits which distinguish them from the common herd. Leadership effectiveness has been found to be associated with age, height, intelligence, academic achievements, judgmental ability and insight. 2owever, none of these have been correlated with leadership in all situations. The willingness to lead transcends all these traits. The trait approach has been popular, but controversial. -togdill "%&13( identified several general factors which differentiate leaders from non. leaders) Capacity refers to problem solving capabilities, making judgments and working hard. Achievements relate to accomplishments such as academic record, knowledge and sports. Responsibility refers to dependability, reliability, self.drive, perseverance, aggressiveness and self.confidence. Participation and involvement mean highly developed social interaction, popularity, swift adaptation to changing situations, and easier cooperation compared to non.leaders. Socio-economic status, i.e., effective leaders usually belong to higher socio.economic classes.

Behaviourial approach
The behaviourial approach to leadership is based on the concept of how a leader behaves and what actually is done to achieve leadership effectiveness. 4epending on participation and sharing in decision making, leaders have been classified "Lewin, Lipit and +hite, %&5&, quoted in Tosi, $izzo and 6arroll, %&07( as) Autocratic leaders, who exclude subordinates from the process of decision making. They assign work without consulting subordinates or knowing their inclinations and desires.

Democratic or participative leaders are effective and more productive because they consult subordinates on various matters and include them in the process of decision making. Tasks are assigned on the basis of interests and preferences of subordinates.
Laissez-faire leaders have little or no self.confidence in their leadership ability, do not set goals for the group, and do not enhance group interaction and communication. n fact, the laissez.faire type of leader do little supervision. 6onsequently, the group has to make many on.the.job decisions.

-tudies at 8hio -tate 9niversity focused on task and social behaviour of leaders, and identified initiatin structure and consideration as two important determinants of successful leadership behaviour. The studies observed the effect of various leadership styles on group performance and job satisfaction "-togdill, %&13(. nitiating structure is the extent to which a leader conceptualizes the roles of both the leader and the subordinates towards goal achievements. t relates to organizational structure, communication channels and evaluation of group output. 6onsideration is the degree to which job relationships are associated with mutual trust, faith, respect, friendship, support from subordinates and informal communication. 8n the basis of these dimensions, four leadership styles have been identified, namely low structure . low consideration: low structure . high consideration: high structure . high consideration: and high structure . low consideration. The high structure . high consideration style of leadership has been found to be most effective "-togdill, %&13(.

Theory X and theory Y


There are two basic classes of people) those who want to lead and take responsibility, i.e., the leaders and managers: and those who want to be directed and do not want to take responsibilities. 8n this basis, ,c;regor "%&7<( classified leadership as either an authoritarian style "Theory =(, or a more egalitarian style "Theory >(. Theory X Theory = assumes that) man is inherently lazy, dislikes work and avoids it whenever possible: as a result, leaders must use strong measures to control the behaviour of subordinates and properly control them so that they work towards organizational goals: and most human beings are incapable of self.direction and control, preferring to respond to direct orders rather than assume responsibility for their own actions. !ccording to Theory X, management does not trust employees with important decisions. They are altogether excluded from the decision making process. ,anagement assumes complete responsibility for organizing, planning, making important decisions, directing and motivating people. f management does not act, employees will do little or nothing. Theory Y The Theory > style of leadership is based on ,aslow?s concept of self.actualization. t considers that) work can be enjoyable,

people will work hard and assume responsibility if they have the opportunity to satisfy their personal needs while at the same time achieving organizational goals, people have a great deal more capability and potential for imagination and creativity than they are given credit for, given proper conditions, individuals will work hard to do a good job, and an individual?s performance is actually based on innate rather than external controls. mplementing a Theory > approach, a manager nurtures an environment which is favourable to the growth of both organization and subordinates. The theory recognizes that employees have the capability to be high performers, to develop and assume responsibility, and to be self.motivated. Therefore management only has to ensure the appropriate working conditions to bring out all these abilities. +ith the right kind of leadership, employees will not be inactive and resistive. 8n the contrary, management can trust employees and assign responsibility for taking important decisions to lower levels. The overall effect is to make work inherently satisfying to the employee.

Managerial grid approach


The managerial grid approach utilizes . with modifications . the consideration and initiating structure dimensions of leadership. !s discussed earlier, these dimensions are directed towards people and production respectively "@lake and ,outon, %&7&(. 9sing this approach, five types of leadership styles have been identified) The improvised or e!tempore style, which considers neither people nor production. t is an ineffective style of leadership. The country club style of leadership is oriented towards people, but has the least concern for production. The autocratic type of leadership is oriented towards production. t has most concern for production and least concern for people. The middle-of-the-road type of leader maintains a balanced between production and people. The team type of leadership style influences group members into a vibrant, effective, problem solving and decision making team, which is essential for organizational effectiveness. This is the most effective style of leadership, since it has concern for both production and people.

Likert's four systems


!ccording to Likert "%&7%(, optimal performance can only be achieved if attention is paid to the human aspects of subordinates? problems and behaviourial aspects, such as motivating forces, communication processes, interaction.influence processes, decision making processes, goal setting processes, control processes, and performance characteristics. @ased on these considerations, leadership styles could be either job centred or employee centred, and then further classified as follows) Job centred *xploitive.authoritative type of leadership, which is similar to the high structure.low consideration type discussed earlier. t is manipulative and results in low productivity. @enevolent.authoritative style of leadership, which is a slight improvement on the exploitive.authoritative type of leadership. t produces average results. mployee centred !n employee.centred leadership style can either be consultative or participative. ! consultative style of leadership is ideal. !lthough control is basically with top management, it is shared with managers at middle and lower levels. 8verall productivity is good. ! participative group style maximizes the quantity and quality of performance, and is thus an ideal approach.

!ituational approach
! situational approach to leadership is based on the premise that environmental factors affect a leader?s style and effectiveness. 6onsequently, effective and successful leadership depends on the relationship between organizational situations and leadership styles. #iedler?s situational theory identifies effective leadership styles under changing situations "#iedler, 6hemers and ,ahar, %&11(. These can be either relationship motivated or task motivated. ! relationship.motivated leadership style relies on good personal relations and group participation to accomplish tasks. Leaders with this style perform most effectively in modest control situations which present mixed problems related to task, group members and authority. The relationship.motivated leader gets cooperation from the group by being sensitive, diplomatic and tactful.

Task.motivated leaders prefer clear guidelines and standardized or patterned work methods to complete successfully the task they have accepted. They have strong task orientation and perform best in high.control or low.control situations. The high.control situations are those where leaders get support from group members and the tasks are clearly specified. n addition, leaders have high authority, which enables them to use their powers of reward and punishment appropriately. Low.control situations . the opposite of high.control situations . are relatively difficult, challenging and straining. Tannenbaum and -chmidt?s situation theory contends that the most effective leadership style depends on forces in the leader, the follower and the situation. ! leader chooses his or her leadership style based on the interactions and prevalence of these forces for optimizing organizational productivity "Tannenbaum and -chmidt, %&'0(.

"unctions of leaders
The basic objective of leaders is to ensure that the group accomplishes its goals. Leaders? functions depend on the group being led, with actions adjusted to different situations. Therefore, they have to develop a feeling of mutual interest among the group members, promote cooperation and effective communication to ensure maximum efficiency of the group, foster a feeling of team spirit among the group members, and manage strife and dissension efficiently and constructively. @roadly speaking, managers perform tas" and maintenance functions "Arech, %&30(, depending upon different positions and situations. Task functions Task functions are the activities which are performed to realize organizational goals. They concern leaders as) Policy-ma"ers# The primary function of leaders is to establish group goals and policies in accordance with broader policies and organizational goals. Planners# Leaders plan with a time perspective and develop a methodology for implementation, including use of human and physical resources. Barticipation of team members in the planning process facilitates smooth implementation. $!ecutives# !n important responsibility of leaders is to coordinate the activities of the various groups and individuals in their team.

$!perts# Leaders are expected to be experts in their areas of specialization and their job, so as to enhance the ability and effectiveness of group members. %roup representatives# Leaders represent their groups and expound group demands, achievements and constraints to superiors. This is the ?gate.keeping? function. Controllers# Leaders control group activities and interpersonal relations within the group so that the goals of the organization can be achieved effectively. Purveyors of rewards and punishments# Leaders have powers of reward and of punishment, by virtue of the authority they enjoy. These powers can be used for disciplining, motivating and controlling. Maintenance functions ,aintenance functions are those activities that help in gratifying the needs of group members. These relate to leaders as) Arbitrators and mediators# Leaders act as arbitrator.negotiators and as mediators in resolving intergroup conflicts and re.establishing good group relations. &deal role models# 4epending on the situation, leaders sometimes have to portray themselves as ideal role models for the group members to follow. %roup symbols# Leaders have to augment, reinforce and maintain a sense of belonging and involvement within the group. They therefore have to have a strong sense of identity with their groups. 8nly then can they properly represent the group. Surro ates for individual responsibility# Leaders have to assume responsibility for decision making when group members do not want to be involved in the process and prefer to escape from responsibility. &deolo ists# nfluential and effective leaders are a source of beliefs and basic tenets for group members, who start accepting the leader?s ideas and thinking. 'ather fi ures# Leaders serve as a perfect focus for the positive emotional feelings of individuals in the group. They are considered ideal for identification, transference and feelings of submissiveness. Scape oats# Leaders are an obvious target for the hostility and onslaught of frustrated, disappointed or disenchanted group members. -ince leaders are responsible for group activities and achievement, they have to accept the blame for failure.

#haracteristics of leaders

#rom the viewpoint of a follower, the characteristics of leaders are) (r anization# -ubordinates like leaders who plan and are well organized. They should follow the chain of command in issuing instructions. They should also delegate authority as necessary. 'earlessness# Leaders should not be afraid for their positions, nor afraid of their superiors, the toughness of a job, colleagues or the honest mistakes of their staff. Respect for the wor" of others# Leaders should recognize that the work of their teammates is as important as their own work, and deserves equal recognition. +hile they should be excited about their own work, leaders should simultaneously cultivate the right climate so that their teammates can also be enthused about their work. Satisfaction# Leaders should have a feeling of satisfaction and gratification when a teammate achieves something which they themselves thought would be impossible. Promotion of the interests of subordinates# f leaders believe that their subordinates are right, they should fight for them no matter what the odds and the situation. 'ran"ness# Leaders should talk to subordinates directly and inform and explain without losing tempers or creating stress. They should be candid and criticize constructively. Respect for the individual# -ubordinates prefer leaders who respects an individual?s identity and experience. Leaders should never show bias. )nowled e# -ubordinates want leaders who are knowledgeable and know most of the answers. !t the same time, leaders should admit ignorance when they do not know the answer to a problem, and be willing to seek help from other sources. They should also be willing to learn from others. n fact, they should never stop learning. Predictability# Leaders should be predictable, usually the same all the time and not enigmatic. *olerance# Leaders should be tolerant of small mistakes which teammates may occasionally make. +nderstandin # -ubordinates should perceive their leaders to be humane and understanding, and should not be afraid to go to them if they have committed a foolish mistake, are ashamed or are proud and satisfied. Leaders should create confidence and should be neither hasty nor rude. ,onesty and transparency# -ubordinates wants leaders who are transparent in their dealings and cannot be bribed by anyone. Leaders should be able to see through perfidious designs in any form, and should cultivate strong moral fibre and earn the

respect of their teammates. Leaders should always be committed to good moral principles. Accessibility# Leaders should be easily approachable when needed, and subordinates should be able to get away from their leader when their business is settled. Providin opportunities# Leaders should be willing to provide new opportunities and chance for work even if it is something new and the subordinate may not have experience in that work. %uidance# Leaders should lead by training others. They should be able to show their subordinates how to do a job, but, in doing so, they must not show off. -ubordinates like people who grow out of their own job to become leaders. Leaders should try to match people and jobs. -illin ness to listen# Leaders should be willing to listen when a subordinate has something to say, but should be able to end the conversation gracefully if necessary. %enuineness# -ubordinates should believe that their leaders sincerely wants them to succeed and will be proud of them when they do. Discretion# Leaders should respect the privacy of their teammates. They should not admonish them in the presence of others, nor gossip about them. !t the same time, leaders should give credit to and acclaim their people publicly when appropriate. &nformed# Leaders should be well informed about what is happening around them. They should not give credence to gossip. %race# Leaders should neither denigrate nor undermine a teammate for any reason. Authority# Leaders should have authority to mete out rewards and punishment as necessary. People orientation# Leaders should like people, be cooperative and inspire their teammates. Positive personality# -ubordinates like leaders who are active, humble, gracious, thoughtful and confident. Leaders should be firm but fair to everybody, and, if necessary, should be able to compromise, but should not placate. %ood communication# -ubordinates like to be informed of the actions of their leader and the reasons for them. ;ood leaders have to be good communicators. +hen discussing business leadership, the distinction between good management and good leadership is often made. Leading and managing are two distinct yet symbiotic

qualities that every organisation looks for in a person who is moving up the ladder. 2owever, this right blend is rare and cannot be easily found. ;ood managerial skills are all about planning and utilising time, resources and man power to get the work done. 2owever, having good leadership skill is a different ball game all together. ! leader is a visionary, who must have the ability to see the bigger picture of things. This quality will help a good manager build a self driven team. 4elegation becomes easy for a manager who has a self driven team. ,anagers must become good leaders too. This will not only help their subordinates but also help the organisation achieve its short term and long term goals. 8rganisations must understand the difference between leaders and managers. The learning and development team in the organisation should take cognizance and should consciously train people to be both leaders and managers. t is often believed that it is easy to be a good manager, but it is seldom true. ! good manager must have clear convictions and manifest those convictions into reality. ! person, who has successfully achieved this fundamental principle and understands the deeper role of a guide, is a leader. TodayCs business environment is over.managed and under.led. Today, employees aspire to work under bosses whom they can follow. They want to place trust in someone who is not only working for the greater good of the organisation, but also helping his or her subordinates to grow and achieve bigger milestones. ;ood ,anagers with leadership qualities always work on being good mentors for there subordinates. ;ood managers not only use their Dpositional powerC to direct, supervise and manage the resources of an organisation but also play inspire, influence and challenge people to achieve greater goals. This helps in achieving the organisational vision in a very short span of time. The collective effort of the organisation and its employees can only be successful with proper facilitation of the managers. !n organisation that has smart managers is always ahead of the competition because they provide necessary on ground information to the top management, which helps it strategise for the organisation. They also help in the proper implementation of staff to achieve the target vision of the firm. ! good manager always contributes to the bottom line of the company by ensuring that the task assigned to an employee is successfully completed. -o, how does he or she achieve this objectiveE . 6ommunication is the key) ! good manager always communicates the business objectives to the employees. This allows them to see how their department and personal objectives support and contribute to the bigger picture. . !ssessment skills) ! good manager also needs to be able to evaluate their subordinates skills, knowledge and abilities. This gives them the ability to assign tasks and responsibilities to the appropriate team member so department objectives can be achieved successfully.

. *mpowering people) ;ood managers must encourage their subordinates to take ownership of the task assigned to them. They must facilitate their learning process of there subordinates. 4elegation is an art. ;ood managers must plan well, so as to know what to delegate and whom to delegate and how much time should be allocated for the person who will be performing this task. This also ensures that people under good managers grow as better managers in due course of time . 2andling people) ;ood managers often get the most from their employees. They always orient their teams to the existing or changing processes, provide job information and align performance expectations to the job allocated: they identify training requirements and provide periodical feedback. 9ltimately, a great manager is somebody who can make the sum of a team greater than a collection of individuals. ;reat managers handle people with grace and ease, caring for them and encouraging them to achieve their goals. #inally, a great manager allows the team to flourish and creates value to each individual as well as for the company . 6onflict resolution) ! teamForganisation comprises of people who come from various mind sets and different backgrounds. 6onflict resolution through smart interpersonal skills is a very important role to be played by a manager. . $ewarding employees) ! good manger always highlights an employeeCs achievement to the top management and helps his recognition programme in place. !part from managing, motivating and utilising the companyCs resources to scale up business: smart managers have the ability to deal with set backs, failures and unforeseen challenges. 4uring hard times, managers can only become leaders if they have the ability to communicate hard truths to the company and employees. ,anagers not only have the ability to deal with tough challenges but also to mentor others to stand tall during crises. Leadership starts individually, and the way in which an individual approaches his daily life. *very person must be self driven and learn to lead his life only then will they be effective in dealing with other people. G+hen the ;oing ;ets Tough, the Tough ;et ;oing.H ! true leader must follow this religiously. 6ompanies who have thinking managers have a pool of leaders in them. n tough times, these managers keep their thinking hats on and come up with many alternative solutions and plans so that the business continuity of the organisation is never at stake. ,any innovations in organisation have been introduced by such managers and hence, it gives the company a cutting edge over its competition. *very executiveCs career goes through four important steps i.e., hire, inspire, admire and retire. n a middle management level, a good manager must start inspiring people to have goals and achieve them and if they are successful in doing so, during the end of their careers, they would win peopleCs admiration. ,ost good managers are good leaders since they have the right vision in place and they manage people and organisational priorities and most importantly help the organisation make more leaders and good mangers.

+hen discussing business leadership, the distinction between good management and good leadership is often made. Leading and managing are two distinct yet symbiotic qualities that every organisation looks for in a person who is moving up the ladder. 2owever, this right blend is rare and cannot be easily found. ;ood managerial skills are all about planning and utilising time, resources and man power to get the work done. 2owever, having good leadership skill is a different ball game all together. ! leader is a visionary, who must have the ability to see the bigger picture of things. This quality will help a good manager build a self driven team. 4elegation becomes easy for a manager who has a self driven team. ,anagers must become good leaders too. This will not only help their subordinates but also help the organisation achieve its short term and long term goals. 8rganisations must understand the difference between leaders and managers. The learning and development team in the organisation should take cognizance and should consciously train people to be both leaders and managers. t is often believed that it is easy to be a good manager, but it is seldom true. ! good manager must have clear convictions and manifest those convictions into reality. ! person, who has successfully achieved this fundamental principle and understands the deeper role of a guide, is a leader. TodayCs business environment is over.managed and under.led. Today, employees aspire to work under bosses whom they can follow. They want to place trust in someone who is not only working for the greater good of the organisation, but also helping his or her subordinates to grow and achieve bigger milestones. ;ood ,anagers with leadership qualities always work on being good mentors for there subordinates. ;ood managers not only use their Dpositional powerC to direct, supervise and manage the resources of an organisation but also play inspire, influence and challenge people to achieve greater goals. This helps in achieving the organisational vision in a very short span of time. The collective effort of the organisation and its employees can only be successful with proper facilitation of the managers. !n organisation that has smart managers is always ahead of the competition because they provide necessary on ground information to the top management, which helps it strategise for the organisation. They also help in the proper implementation of staff to achieve the target vision of the firm. ! good manager always contributes to the bottom line of the company by ensuring that the task assigned to an employee is successfully completed. -o, how does he or she achieve this objectiveE . 6ommunication is the key) ! good manager always communicates the business objectives to the employees. This allows them to see how their department and personal

objectives support and contribute to the bigger picture. . !ssessment skills) ! good manager also needs to be able to evaluate their subordinates skills, knowledge and abilities. This gives them the ability to assign tasks and responsibilities to the appropriate team member so department objectives can be achieved successfully. . *mpowering people) ;ood managers must encourage their subordinates to take ownership of the task assigned to them. They must facilitate their learning process of there subordinates. 4elegation is an art. ;ood managers must plan well, so as to know what to delegate and whom to delegate and how much time should be allocated for the person who will be performing this task. This also ensures that people under good managers grow as better managers in due course of time . 2andling people) ;ood managers often get the most from their employees. They always orient their teams to the existing or changing processes, provide job information and align performance expectations to the job allocated: they identify training requirements and provide periodical feedback. 9ltimately, a great manager is somebody who can make the sum of a team greater than a collection of individuals. ;reat managers handle people with grace and ease, caring for them and encouraging them to achieve their goals. #inally, a great manager allows the team to flourish and creates value to each individual as well as for the company . 6onflict resolution) ! teamForganisation comprises of people who come from various mind sets and different backgrounds. 6onflict resolution through smart interpersonal skills is a very important role to be played by a manager. . $ewarding employees) ! good manger always highlights an employeeCs achievement to the top management and helps his recognition programme in place. !part from managing, motivating and utilising the companyCs resources to scale up business: smart managers have the ability to deal with set backs, failures and unforeseen challenges. 4uring hard times, managers can only become leaders if they have the ability to communicate hard truths to the company and employees. ,anagers not only have the ability to deal with tough challenges but also to mentor others to stand tall during crises. Leadership starts individually, and the way in which an individual approaches his daily life. *very person must be self driven and learn to lead his life only then will they be effective in dealing with other people. G+hen the ;oing ;ets Tough, the Tough ;et ;oing.H ! true leader must follow this religiously. 6ompanies who have thinking managers have a pool of leaders in them. n tough times, these managers keep their thinking hats on and come up with many alternative solutions and plans so that the business continuity of the organisation is never at stake. ,any innovations in organisation have been introduced by such managers and hence, it gives the company a cutting edge over its competition.

+hen an employee is promoted to a new managerial job or hired directly into a new managerial job I perhaps straight from college, the new manager is required to use additional skills to the ones heFshe used to rise as a star independent contributor to the company. ,any companies and their stars fail to recognize this fact and leave their success to luck and the proverbial Gthrowing spaghetti at the wall to see if it sticks.H This is bad strategy, as Gnearly 7<J of frontline managers underperform during their first two years in the seat, driving performance gaps and employee turnover across the entire frontline.H 2owever, the mindful development and training of new supervisors and managers in people skills, customer focus, and performance management skills leads to Ghigh.performing direct reportsH that create value for the customers and a winning, successful business formula.

People Skills in the Beginning


+hile some level of technical expertise is necessary for supervisory positions I depending on the specific supervisory job I nothing makes up for failure to develop people skills. There are basically two kinds of bosses) good bosses and bad bosses. ;ood bosses demonstrate clear and consistent patterns of challenge and support.They are neither GsoftiesH nor people who donCt require best efforts. !t the same time, good bosses are often credited with providing true encouragement and support that enables high performance. ;ood new managers also) Model appropriate behavior$ @ad bosses use a wide variety ofawfulFpoor behaviors I and many of them are character issues. 6haracter issues trickle down to employees, often resulting in lack of discretionary effort, company loyalty, and inappropriate behavior. %re patient$ ;oing slowly in the beginning earns the respect and credibility necessary to make changes I even those that not everyone agrees with I in the future. ,aking changes and quick can hurt effectiveness. Learn about direct reports$ +hat are an employeeCs strengths and weaknessesE Anowing who is good at what is critical to getting work done. %re visible and accessible$ The more accessible a supervisor or manager is, the smaller the Glearning curveH for getting to know and understand the boss. The more a manager is out.and.about "management by walking around(, the more dialogue will take place. @eing visible also improves productivity, as the mere presence of a supervisor communicates supervisory interest in the work and attention to quality of the work.

Troubleshooting in the Beginning


#riendships are an area where new managers often find trouble. ! common mistake new supervisors make is assuming that everyone else is as excited about their promotion as they are I or that friends will have the same approach to the relationship as they do. #or many, a new supervisory or management role requires supervising or managing friends or past peers. This must be handled with care. 6ommon pitfalls the new manager needs to

avoid) apologizing for the new position: showing favoritism instead of managing performance: emphasizing friendships beyond the workplace while at work: and being artificial I pretending the friendship doesnCt exist. -ome good.natured ribbing, especially from friends or coworkers, is normal. 2owever, others, for a variety of reasons, either might resent the promotion or not know when enough is enough and keep up the teasing or snipes. -ometimes, just ignoring the needling stops the behavior. 8therwise, if it keeps going, the best way to handle that situation is for the manager to keep composure. 2eFshe neither needs to justify their new positionFpromotion nor humor the situation. ,ake it clear that that commentary is unacceptable. ,aintain confidence. 4ealing with the situation immediately increases the new managerCs influence and gains himFher respect from most people. The fact is that the nature of friendships is changed and often challenged due to a supervisor or managerial relationship. This must be managed effectively.

Get to Know the Boss


Kust as the successful manager understands the importance of Gbeing the customerH the new manager understands the importance of Gbeing the boss.H The boss wants the new manager to make hisFher work life more productive and stress free. This means working effectively with the boss with a minimum of problems that could easily be avoided by understanding what is important to the boss. There is one key rule for new managers to keep in mind) Aeep the boss informed. @osses donCt like to be surprised by news they believe they should know, especially regarding important news. Lew supervisors should follow this GLo -urpriseH rule even if it means giving the boss bad news. tCs better to be forthright rather than letting the boss hear about potential problems from others. 8ther important points to keep in mind are) +hat specific topic areas does the boss want to know aboutE 2ow does the boss like to receive informationE n writingE MerballyE #ormallyE nformallyE +hen is the best time to get some of his or her timeE ,orningsE !fternoonsE 2ow do other successful managers interact and deal with the bossE !sk them. +atch the boss in meetings. 4oes the boss have any personal tendencies or quirks when it comes to work, communications, and interactionsE ;et to know the type of questions the boss might ask and anticipate them. 6ount on being questioned by the boss regarding the reasons or supporting data for holding opinions or making decisions. tCs important that the reasons and data supporting opinions and decisions are valid and well thought out. 4ouble.check and validate the information received before briefing the boss, especially in the beginning. ! faulty thought process or reasoning and invalid data can result in a quick loss of confidence by the boss I and ultimately hinder any autonomy and increased responsibility in the future.

Do Not Pass the Monkey (i.e. Dont Make E tra !ork "or the Boss#
9pward delegation of work from the manager to the boss when the manager should take the initiative to do the work is a big problem for the boss. t creates more work for the boss. This action is called Gpassing the monkey.H -ome of the more serious consequences of passing the monkey are) The boss becomes frustrated with the managerNhaving direct report responsibilities dumped on him or her. The boss loses confidence in the manager I the manager canCt handle the job ! dependent relationship emerges I the supervisor becomes dependent on the boss as the problem.solver and provider of answers. nitiative is avoided. +asted time I the upward delegated work competes for the bossCs own job requirements and responsibilities I often delaying important boss related issues. Lack of development I the manager learns little as the boss is doing the work and tackling the issue. @y keeping work monkeys off the bossCs back, new managers shows two important qualities that a boss looks for in a good manager) initiative and personal responsibility. To prevent unnecessary DdumpingC on the boss, new placed managers must remember to communicate problems and difficult issues with the boss before acting. +hen bringing up an issue, they should provide sufficient background on the problem. This includes detailing consequences of continuing with the status quo or present practice, and providing best.effort recommendations or solutions. !lso, new managers should frame issues and suggestions in a manner that benefits the bottom line of the organization. @y following these rules, the new manager can earn both the respect and support of his or her boss.#