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uploaded by user Astrachemist Class: Lecture/Exam: School: Semester: Professor: BIO 358 Exam 2, Topics 9-16 SBU N/A Souza

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Topic 9: Human Sexual Behavior Part 2


Humans are contingent breeders: both monogamous and promiscuous The fundamental claim: Humans are sexual vehicles replicating in a Malthusian world, just like all other animals, and therefore we have conflicts of interest with non-kin, just like all other animals. Butwe can cheaply, coercively manage those conflicts of interest, requiring cooperation independently of kinship. Thats the theory. We are the planets first kinship-independent social breeders

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Basic human sexual behaviors records of the past Our contemporary minds and bodies are records of the past a. Female and male sexual responses are not identical i. Resources are important to both, but females are more tuned to resources than males. ii. Dimorphism in the sexual response b. The Coolidge Effect i. Human males exhibit the Coolidge effect ii. Both sexes show the Coolidge effect Sexual selection, sexual dimorphism and the human past a. Sexual selection has profound effects in non-human animals b. Females are carrying out a massive breeding experiment with the males i. They modify the males genetically, ex: bird tail feathers c. Members of the same species can exert very powerful shaping selection on other members of the same species d. Sexual selection part of social selection e. Humans are not very socially selected, unlike peacocks and pea pheasants for ex i. Were relatively sexually monomorphic, f. Male beards are strongly sexually dimorphic g. Social selection is very powerful The world of mating and child-rearing in non-human animals a. Matrilocal i. Close kin females at core, non-kin males around ii. Females stay put, females born into group stay iii. When males are born and mature, they emigrate out to another group, and new males come in from the outside iv. You cant keep mating with siblings b/c of strong inbreeding, so one of the 2 sexes has to move v. Ex: lions, macaques, langurs b. Patrilocal i. Close kin males at core, non-kin females around ii. Less common, but seen in chimps and bonobos

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iii. A male core, males stay put, females born in the group move on to neighboring groups when mature, new adult females come in from neighboring groups Human kinship-independent social breeding, a first look It takes a village to raise a child a. Humans are neither matrilocal or patrilocal, they combine both into larger units that are either male centered, or more commonly, female centered b. Kinship groups are mutually cooperative in humans, but mutually hostile in non-human animals Human life history How our large brains are produced any why it takes a village a. Village is a new environment, and therefore, design information plays by different rules, and animal is systematically altered. b. In village, we are subject to selection and to new opportunities c. Closest living relative, chimp, has brain 3.5 times smaller than ours d. Human mind is produced by the village e. Human neonate body weight is huge i. We are half the size of a gorilla, but our babies are twice the size of a gorilla baby f. Our economic system is just the modern version of the human village g. It doesnt just take a village to raise a human child, it takes a village just to give birth to a human baby

Key Concept Question: choice C

Topic 10: Human Sexual Behavior Part 3: Big brained babies human life history is unlike any other animal.
Overarching theory: humans are a new level of organization in the universe for a single reason: o Were sexual vehicles with conflicts of interest, just like all animals, but we control those conflicts of interest, and as a result social cooperation independent of kinship emerges in us for the first time ever. Human village arises for a single reason: our access to inexpensive coercive threat, which makes coercive suppression of conflicts of interest cost effective for us 1st domino: remote killing, 2nd: human village, 3rd: human reproductive and sexual behavior Cheap coercive violence creates village, village creates the uniquely human, powerful mind

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Precocial and altricial animals how animals get to be smart a. Animals dont get smarter and smarter; some animals have gotten no smatter than they were 10 million years ago b. Theres a cost of being smarter, and a benefit of being smarter i. When the cost and benefits get to equilibrium, animals stop getting smarter c. Brain size / Cognitive capacity i. The issues 1. Brains are expensive to maintain

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II.

a. Brains are 2% of body mass, but burn 20% of consumed calories, 50% calorie consumption during childhood b. Need resources i. Ex: herbivores have smaller brains b/c adapted for plant nutrition. ii. Tendency: herbivores have smaller brains than carnivores 2. Growing brains are poor at sophisticated control of behavior continued growth and optimal performance are incompatible a. Growing brains dont function as well as brains that have stopped growing, ex: doing business in an office undergoing construction b. Means youngsters (growing brains) need protection, theyre born incompetent c. Carnivores can protect theyre young better than herbivores d. Precocial: animals (herbivores) walking in minutes of birth, need to be able to run away as soon as born b/c cant be protected well by parents, (b/c brains are small and cant keep growing them after born, and dont have access to high calories) e. Altricial (opposite of precocial): animals (carnivores) have access to higher quality good, bigger brains, better protection, and can keep growing their brains. i. Humans are the most altricial animal that ever existed 3. Brains need reliable programming (information) to work an unprogrammed brain is just and expensive lump of tissue. d. A. The Logic of Precociality i. B/c parents cant protect you, you have to be self-sufficient immediately, which means you cant grow your brain, which means your behaviors are less sophisticated, and depend on speed, evasion, simple strategies to survive. ii. Precocial animals usually prey, non-ecologically dominant iii. Youngsters are up and running within minutes of birth. e. B. The Logic of Altriciality i. Newborns are helpless and blind, unlike precocial animals ii. Parents can protect newborns, therefore brains grow after birth f. Human village can provide a lot of resources and powerful protection, more than for any non-human animal that ever lived. i. Part of the secret to our unique minds; resources and protection are in abundance in the human village What big brains are for a first look at information sharing and the hostile manipulation problem a. Issue #3: Brains need reliable programming (information) to work an unprogrammed brain is just and expensive lump of tissue. i. Need access to information to be smart ii. 3 sources of information 1. Information comes from genetic design information
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2. Information from individual experience 3. Cultural information a. Non-human animals transmit culture iii. We suppress conflicts of interest problem, and obtain reliable information from others iv. We suppress hostile manipulation problem the use of information to manipulate v. The human village also provides information b. 3 things that limit our smartness: i. Resources ii. Protection iii. Information c. The human village gives us all three of these things above on an unprecedented scale What does it take to raise a big-brained human human life history a. How does brain development evolve from extravagant resources and extravagant protection? b. The human brain is 3.5X bigger than our closest living relative (chimp) i. Our brain size made possible by the evolution of the human village c. Village creates environment in which genetic selective events occur d. A. The implications of extended gestation i. b/c longer gestation, need more food and more protection ii. after birth, we keep growing our brains at an extraordinary pace e. B. The implications of babyhood i. Babyhood = Newborn babies brains grow at a fetal rate, for 9 11 months ii. Consequences: newborns cant hold up head for months, cant walk until 9 12 months, unlike chimps who can do it earlier at 4 months iii. We invest in growing bigger brains in the beginning, so were smarter adults, not smarter babies iv. A human baby needs 24 hour protection and support 1. a human village provides this, both protection and resources f. C. Implication of childhood i. We wean early at around 3, but our brains keep growing. Chimps wean later, and brain growth stops, adult teeth grow, and same diet remains ii. We provide specialized, high-calorie food to children iii. To have access to high-calorie food, you need to be ecologically dominant 1. Villages can provide this 2. Means that we can support brain growth after weaning, no other animal can do that or does that iv. Village takes over care of children when mothers can reproduce again v. Human children dependent on both their mothers and human village to survive g. 3 stages: extended gestation, babyhood, and childhood i. Brain grows at all three stages, so by the end we have huge brain

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ii. Each stage is absolutely dependent on human village to provide resources, protection and information iii. Big human brain is therefore possible b/c of kinship-independent social cooperation in the human village The logic of the human village the fine points of kinship-independent social breeding a. A. The risk/benefit logic of monogamy and promiscuity i. Key issue, our ancestors behaved adaptively 1. When risk-benefit, cost-benefit of monogamy was favorable, they mated monogamously; when risk-benefit, cost-benefit of promiscuity was favorable, they mated promiscuously; back and forth 2. we have inherited adaptations to both strategies ii. Adult mortality risk is the variable that determines monogamy vs polygynandry (promiscuity). 1. Low adult mortality risk environments humans choice monogamy 2. High adult mortality risk environments humans choice promiscuity a. Parents have high risk of dying before children grow to adulthood iii. Our ancestors purchase life-insurance by mating promiscuously iv. Cost of life insurance (males): paternity uncertainty 1. Male gets a lot of reproductive opportunity, but gives up paternity certainty v. Benefit of life insurance (males): 2 benefits 1. Offspring w/ other couples 2. Wife has call on other males vi. Benefits of life insurance (females) 1. Female has call on resources from other males who father offspring. Mulltiple males will contribute, some likely to survive vii. Cost of life insurance (female): 1. Resource distribution: males will give resources to females who need them least (those not pregnant and not nursing, b/c theyre a reproductive opportunity) a. In a promiscuous mating environment, females give up optimal access to resources in return for life insurance b. In a monogamous environment, females get more optimal access to resources b/c males have paternity certainty and invest resources where needed. c. Monogamy = optimal resources, promiscuity = suboptimal viii. Each sex pays a price, and each sex gets a benefit 1. When need life insurance, you will drive towards monogamy, when dont need it, youll drive towards promiscuity ix. Monogamy = low adult mortality risk 1. Each sex benefits a. Males get paternal certainty b. Females get optimal access to male resources
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x. Promiscuity = high adult mortality risk 1. Each sex buys life insurance by mating promiscuously xi. Our world = low adult mortality risk, and therefore monogamy 1. Our ancestors have higher risk, promiscuous mating is an intelligent, strategic response to the dangers we no longer face b. B. Ethnography an introduction i. The Canela in Amazonia switched from promiscuity to monogamy ii. Humans are not monogamous or promiscuous breeder, were both! iii. It takes a village to produce the large human brain

Key Concept Question: choice d

Topic 11: How and when we became human: The fossil record Part 1
Humans were contingent breeders: sometimes promiscuous, sometimes monogamous, depending on adult mortality risks Humans emerge b/c of access to inexpensive coercive threat, allowing us to suppress non-kin conflicts of interest

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Coercion and cooperation revisited a. We are the first animal to be able to fulfill a fundamental inequality of non-kin cooperation: b > ccoop + ccoerc OR b ccooper > ccoerc i. Were the first animal for whom the cost of coercion is small enough that they dont overwhelm the net benefits of non-kin cooperation as they do in non-human animals: b < ccoop + ccoerc OR b ccooper < ccoerc b. Prediction: the first animal in the history of the earth to be able to kill from a distance, should be the first animal to evolve non-kin cooperation. i. We are this animal. We evolve capability to throw with elite skill, allowing killing from a distance, and developing kinship-independent social cooperation. c. Individuals who can do the above impose strong social selection on one another i. This causes rapid evolution, as in the case with dogs evolving from wolves Context of human evolution a. The first humans evolve in Africa, around 2 million years ago they go out of Africa into Southern Eurasia, then about 50k years ago, another group of Africans drive other groups to extinction (Neanderthals) and populate the globe. b. We didnt evolve from chimps; we and chimps evolve from a common ancestor (6 million years ago), and that ancestor was more like a chimp and gorilla than human-like. c. ~2 million years, species named homo = man, before that, from 6 million to 2 million years ago, named australopithecus (austral = south, pithe = ape, together = southern ape, discovered in South Africa)

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d. Hominids = collective branch from 6 million years ago to present, both homo and australopithes are hominids e. A. Geophysical Background to Human Origins i. Rainforest vs Savannah; more animals in savannah than in rainforest ii. Plate tectonics produces profound climate change, and its done so in Africa 1. Africa used to be mostly rainforest, then dried out iii. Savannah is rich in biomass 1. Tropical sunlight converted into animal biomass f. B. Fossils and the Dated fossil record i. As bone is buried in deposits, minerals are exchanged, turning bone to stone 1. Fossils are bone-like replicas of stone ii. Fossils usually formed in slow-moving water, water brings minerals, minerals layer over bone iii. Strata can give both absolute and relative age 1. Tectonic activity is due to lava/magma under earths crust, when magma escapes via volcanic eruption, it spread ash everywhere, and ash can be dated! 2. Ash settles and creates layer cake, and can be dated b/c of radioactive isotopes present (ex: K) 3. Radiometric dating give absolute age 4. Layers (tuffs) give relative age Human Life History and the Fossil Record a. A. Human Life History Revisited Big Brains and Kinship-Independent Social Cooperation i. Our life history has been redesigned as a consequence of our social cooperation ii. In an organism that can suppress conflicts of interest, social cooperation on a whole new scale evolves, including kinship-independent social breeding iii. The village will arise in an animal that can project threat from a distance iv. The village will support the re-design of life history b. B. Human Brain Expansion Explodes with the origin of Homo ca. 2 mya i. Just after 2 mya brain size expands exclusively in our linage, not in chimps or gorilla, but in hominids 1. Why? b/c of emergence of village, b/c of kinship-independent social cooperation (altriciality) supporting the redesign of our life history The Fossil Record Allows Us to Test Theories of Human Uniqueness a. Hypothesis: Bipedalism is the source for our uniqueness? i. Well, it does free up the hands to do all sorts of things ii. Pelvis anatomy accurately tells us whether bipedal or quadrupedal 1. Footprints do, too iii. Emergence of bipedalism and brain expansion are 3 4 million years apart, not a valid cause and effect relationship iv. We have falsified this hypothesis

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Key Concept Question: choice B

Topic 12: How and when we became human: The fossil record Part 2
Evidence points to elite throwing emerging first, then brain expansion comes later, not the other way around. Humans use inexpensive coercion to control conflicts of interest, then a new social cooperation emerges (kinship independent social cooperation), and everything else flows from that (ex: sexual and child-rearing behaviors, evolution of the first humans) Transition from non-human, small scale social breeding to uniquely human kinship-independent social breeding, is dependent on the evolution of elite human throwing.

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Redesign of the human body to throw what do we expect? a. The archerfish is another animal that can kill from a distance; it spits water bullets at insects to knock them down into the water. Their eyes and nervous systems also take refraction into account. i. Why then havent they developed kinship-independent social cooperation? 1. b/c they cant use this weapon against CONSPECIFICS b. we expect our body to be completely redesigned to make throwing possible, just like the archerfishs mouth, eyes, nervous system, tongue are redesigned to spit. c. We can understand animal body functions (throwing, skilled swimming, fast running) by studying skeleton d. We can recognize elite throwing in our skeleton The australopith platform meeting Lucy a. Compare Lucy (autralopiths) to modern humans, and learn about throwing and its evolution Redesign of the muscles that torque the torso a. We can learn about redesign of muscles by studying their attachments to the skeleton, which fossilizes b. Muscles torqueing the pelvis relative to the legs i. Gluteus maximus biggest muscle in body 1. When a trait (in this case, a muscle) is important, it becomes a sexually selected trait; people start selecting mates based on if they have that trait. a. WE DO THIS! BOTH MALES AND FEMALES (PORNOGRAPHY) 2. Muscle fibers wrap around outside of pelvis, and down and around the leg 3. Attaches to rim of pelvis, then wraps around back of the hip, and connects to outside of knee a. Wrapped around the body b. This is useful for TORQUING the body (b/c attached around) ii. Tensor fascia lata 1. Opposes the gluteus maximus; theyre arrayed oppositely

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a. Bilaterally paired muslces; accelerate and decelerate the trunk 2. Detorques body after gluteus maximus does its job so that you dont keep spinning after release projectile 3. Tensor fascia lata on one side cooperates with gluteus on other side 4. Attached at the anterior point of apical crest of pelvis c. Muscles torqueing shoulders relative to pelvis This acceleration is piled on top of lower body acceleration to achieve speed of throw i. Obliques 1. Muscles run across diagonally, not up and down 2. They crisscross the abdomen diagonally, torqueing the upper body relative to the pelvis 3. Internal and external oblique a. Internal attach to same place as tensor fascia lata, just above them b. External attach to pubic arch ii. Latissimus dorsi 1. Also run diagonally on back, in order to twist body 2. Attached to same place as gluteus maximus, top of the back of the apical crest d. Differences between modern human and australopith pelvis and pelvic muscle attachments show that our pelvises are bigger and have larger distances spinal column and location of muscle attachments to provide for more leverage = stronger torque. Also, some locations have stronger bones for attachments. e. Australopiths do not have a throwing pelvis i. Therefore, adaptation to throw is after Lucy. The earliest members of Homo meeting the Nariokotome boy a. Nariokotome boy is a Homo Erectus b. Pelvis shows similarities to our pelvis, it looks modern, not like Lucys (Australopiths) c. No members of autralopiths have a throwing pelvis, but first members of HOMO already do d. Feet important to throwing, too. Redesign of the feet a. Big toe in autralopiths is shorter than second tow, in humans its same size or bigger than 2nd toe b. Ball of foot + big toe = surface we push off of for throw c. Australopiths did not have a ball on their feet d. Ball of foot is from 1st metatarsal i. The peroneus longus muscle attaches here 1. Attaches under the foot, to 1st metatarsal, goes back under ankle and up to knee. 2. Torques foot and stabilizes foot during violent throwing motion st e. 1 metatarsal is big and robust in humans, but small in australopiths

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Homo erectus shows a modern foot (1.5 mya), with big, powerful big toe and ball from 1st metatarsals g. Foot redesign confirms that before 2 million years, no throwing feet (autralopiths), after 2 million years, yes throwing feet (homo) What about ammunition? a. Manuports things out of geological context i. Almost all approximately size of baseball ii. Humans carried ammunition around b. We can date manuports to just before 2 million years ago i. Suggesting throwing is around 2 2.1 million years old. c. Around 1.8 million years ago = full blown homo, brain expansion and all What have we found? our theory as a theory of human origins a. Our hands have been redesigned, as well, to grip manuports, doesnt show up in late australopiths, only first homos b. Shoulders have been redesigned, too, also only show up in first homos c. Every piece of evidence provides same exact picture i. Elite throwing is exactly where we predicted Why did we first throw? a. If throwing made us unique, then why do we throw? b. Natural selection produces something b/c of an immediate benefit, not a long term one. i. It doesnt think ahead c. Power scavenging let professional hunters take down animal (cheetah, leopard)and then you take it i. A good way to chase away the professional hunters after theyre fed and calm is to throw rocks at it d. Theres a lot of reason to believe that a late australopith (or early proto-human) started power scavenging e. Proposal: In a local environment, an autralopith started to become a professional power scavenger in a new way, by making sharp stone tools and by taking advantage of bipedality to throw, and then theres extreme, intense natural selection to throw better. i. This produces a fundamentally new kind of animal, humans f. Our fundamental argument: we are a spectacular argument i. In a local environment, sometime 2 2.2 million years ago, a local australopith population started to power scavenge with a new strategy: throwing with elite skill 1. This strategy produced a secondary opportunity: exploiting cheap coercion to control conflicts of interest. 2. The evolution of a new hunting adaptation inadvertently produced a spectacularly new adaptive opportunity, and humans exploded out of that accidental opportunity. ii. Our theory is consistent with archaeological and paleo-athropological evidence; our theory is the best and most complete description and account of the entire paleo-anthropological record that weve had so far. f.

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Key Concept Question: choice A

Topic 13: Human Language cooperation and information exchange Part 1


The human body was redesigned from head to toe for elite throwing o We followed this prediction with the fossil record, and found support for it

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We speak so what? a. Humans sleep about 1/3 of their lives, awake about 2/3, and during awake time, we take a lot of the time b. Language is cross-culturally universal behavior c. Linguistic exchange of information is just a special case of social cooperation d. Conflicts of interest is what limits the exchange of information between non-kin animals Do we see what we expect? exchange of information with confluence of interest a. Hamiltons Law predicts that if the conflict of interest problem is what limits the exchange of information in non-human animals, then who should exchange information? i. Close kin b. In non-human animals: Close kin should exchange information, and non-kin should not. c. In mammals, the most common exchange of information from mother to offspring i. Non-human animals are evolved to do this, to accept info from mom and no-one else. d. Honey bees and their waggle dance. i. Their bodies gesture direction Organisms (vehicles) use information in pursuit of self-interest the hostile manipulation problem a. Hostile manipulation problem = conflict of interest problem applied to information b. Moths use chemo-receptors to find female pheromone, but bolas spider tricks moths, mimicking female scent. i. Bolas spider is producing misleading information, false information: hostile manipulation of the male c. What do we expect from non-kin conspecifics? i. SILENCE hostile manipulation problem prevents communication 1. Non-kin conspecifics will assume that any signal a non-kin produces is hostile manipulation and wont hear it. Then, since no one is listening, no one evolves to produce it. 2. Silence is exactly what we see

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ii. Hostile manipulation problem determines their communication, and precludes much of their communication 1. There are two tiny exceptions How did language confuse us? projection and evidence a. Hostile manipulation dominates non-kin communication in non-human animals b. We communicate in part b/c you anticipate (project communicative intent) onto others, and vice versa. i. Its a logical error in the case of non-human animals, but works great w/ humans c. Humans project communicate intent onto others and see communication even when it doesnt exist. i. Whale songs are not communication, though we thought it was for a long time 1. Its actually males telling females Im smart, big and strong, come mate with me 2. Its a sexually selected signal, like tail-feathers on a peacock. 3. Its not language! d. An exception to the silence between non-kin is for mating purposes, b/c as mentioned in earlier lectures, during mating, males and females have a brief confluence of interest i. Ex: moth female producing pheromones to attract a male mate e. Non-kin conspecifics with conflicts of interest never exchange fake-able information (contingent information, potentially false information) i. Humans, though, do it all the time. ii. If confluence of interest = share contingent information 1. Worker bees dont have to worry that their nest-mates are going to send them on a wild goose chase; they have a confluence of interest, theyre close kin 2. Cubs and pups dont have to worry that their mothers are going to mislead them b/c their mothers have an incentive in making sure their offspring grow to healthy effectiveness; again, they have confluence of interest and share contingent information What does our theory predict about language? a. The exchange of contingent information in the face of conflicts of interest that are the issue. i. Humans are the first animal to have solved that problem 1. b/c we have access to cheap coercion, something completely new is possible for us: we can establish a domain of communication involving non-kin adults. a. Non-human animals cannot do that, therefore their communication is restricted to a small group of individuals who have a confluence of interest (most commonly close-kin) 2. Predicts that pre-human ancestors, including australopiths, did not speak and engage in language like we do

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a. The first humans who acquire capacity to project threat from a distance and therefore cheaply suppress conflicts of interest to manage hostile manipulation should evolve language. 3. The capacity to control conflicts of interest should be the sole limitation a. Means that language explodes very rapidly once animal who can control conflicts of interest evolves b. Elite throwing evolves ~2 mya, cranial volume (altriciality) or brain expansion evolves at or just after elite throwing, and language-like behavior evolves at or immediately after evolution of elite throwing VI. The human vocal apparatus a first look a. A. How the vocal apparatus looks design and redesign i. Air columns in mouth and throat are where sound resonates 1. Length and shape of column produce different tones 2. We have no conscious access to this ii. Human voice box is lower down than a chimps, this provides a longer column for sound production 1. Humans are at greater risk for chocking on food than chimps b/c of longer column b. B. How can we separate cause and effect in vocal redesign? the birds i. Lyre bird has a very complicated voice-box, but cant do anything with it ii. We can explain everything we see when we look at non-human animals iii. Hostile manipulation problem dominates communication between non-kin iv. Non-kin non-human conspecifics never exchange contingent information in the face of conflicts of interest

Key Concept Question: Choice D

Topic 14: Human Language cooperation and information Part 2


Children interact with & LEARN from non-kin from the beginning (preschool, etc) o Keeps going in adulthood, in old age We are not qualitatively new, were quantitatively new Non-kin conspecifics communicate contingent (falsifiable) information in the face of conflicts of interest only with close kin o Conflicts of interest prevent exchange of contingent information Communication is easy; conflicts of interest are hard Hostile manipulation o Non-kin conspecifics have tendency to mislead one another (for competition)

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What, exactly, do we predict? back to the fossil record. a. Village = large kinship-independent social unit i. Arises b/c of our ability to throw w/elite skill b. Language evolves in the context of the human village c. We predict that language emerges immediately after ability to control conflict of interest problem (elite throwing) i. b/c exchange of information is very useful ii. once able to control conflict of interest problem, there should be a strong selection for language, and therefore language explodes d. hyoid bone redesign i. hyoid small bone, sometimes fossilizes, and we can use it to find language in fossil records e. Neanderthal hyoid indistinguishable from ours, therefore, they probably spoke i. Therefore, our common ancestor, homo heidelbergensis, must have had one, as well ii. Therefore, there was speech 500 800 kya (when h. heidelbergensis existed) f. Hyoid from 3 mya, at time of A. africanus shows similarities to chimp hyoid, not our hyoid i. So, individuals up to 500 kya were speaking, and individuals 3 mya were not, which is consistent with our theory The structure of language isnt special its the structure of animal minds a. Linguists thought that language is new and its our source of uniqueness b. Language is hierarchically nested combinatorality i. But so is the structure of all animal brains (minds), all the time, and humans make use of that underlying structure in language c. Iconic representation vs. symbolic representation i. Iconic = picture/statue of a spider, symbolic = word spider ii. Linguists argue that language is symbolic and non-human animal communication is iconic. 1. This is false. All animal communication, under all circumstances, at all times, human and non-human is always symbolic d. Dolphin able to look at human body and interpret it abstractly, by analogy e. All animals, human and non-human, understand all other animals only in one way: i. Symbolically 1. Animals interpret movements of their body as gestures and then interpret those gestures Language isnt magic the gestural theory of language a. Language is just a specialized, ramped-up, very efficient version of an ancient, universal animal behavior: the capacity for symbolic gesture b. Speech is just an elaborate version of gesture, and all animals are capable of it. c. A. Non-human animals are capable of sophisticated gestural communication

III.

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IV.

V.

i. Ex: Koko the Gorilla 1. Ability for abstract, symbolic sign language d. B. Humans have gestural capability i. Being human isnt about speaking, its about communication in all modalities, including sign. ii. Just b/c someone cant hear or speak, but can sign, doesnt mean theyre any less human iii. Humans are not speakers.we are elite symbolic gesture-rs. iv. We can claim that ancestral australopiths had Koko-like, symbolic gestural capability v. With the evolution of an animal who could control conflicts of interest problem, there was strong selection for that pre-human capability to become human e. C. Speech is gesture i. When we listen to someone, we are watching them gesture 1. Unconsciously we are thinking if I do that with my voice apparatus, I would mean this, and therefore, this person must mean the same thing. ii. ALL COMMUNICATION IS GESTURE The fossil record of gestural communication a. A. Human brain structure and language capability i. Broccas and Wernickes areas 1. Not speech areas, but elite, symbolic communication areas ii. Our brain is lop-sided & asymmetric, Broccas area dramatically enlarged 1. Left hemisphere bigger than right iii. When signers have strokes in Broccas area, their signing ability is impaired like a normal speakers speech would be affected, supporting point i1. from above b. B. Fossil endocasts and the evolution of elite human communication i. Can brain asymmetry due to imprints of Broccas area in fossilized skulls. ii. All homo species have this asymmetry, but Australopiths dont. iii. At the same time our brain is expanding (altricity), Broccas area is enlarging, and therefore elite communication fits our theory perfectly. Back to non-human animals and communication a. Non-human animals have speech-like behavior, its just restricted to the cases where they have confluence of interest i. exchange contingent information only with close kin confluence of interest b. We expect to find language in non-human animals, just on a much smaller scale

Key Concept Q: choice B

Topic 15: Culturally transmitted (Extragenetic) information and the uniquely human mind/brain Part 1

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Our unique human minds/brains emerge from the same theory, from which sexual and childrearing behaviors, evolution of first humans, and evolution of language have emerged We know very little about minds; we are ignorant about it

I.

II.

III.

Mind/brains are proximate devices a. Mind/brain is a Black Box b. Understand mind/brain by understanding the purpose for which it was designed c. The brain is one of the tools built by the vehicles design information for the purpose of replicating its design information i. There is no reason the mind needs to understand ultimate causation (just like we dont need to understand that we need to eat b/c were a non-equilibrium thermodynamic chemical system) d. Ultimate vs. Proximate Causation i. We dont need to understand ultimate causation in order to carry out the behavior 1. Ex: babies eat, carry out behavior w/o understanding why 2. People love and carry out loving behaviors, w/o thinking that their design info wants to replicate successfully ii. The brain creates behaviors AS IF you understood ultimate causation, with no need to actually understand it 1. Brain is considered proximate device, and acts as if you understood e. Conscious vs. Unconscious ERROR i. Brain is a proximate device ii. Both conscious and unconscious are just as proximate f. All feelings we have are ALL PROXIMATE Mind/Brains are simple devices, designed by natural selection a. Information is encoded combinatorily, giving simple look b. Amount of info our minds can store is astronomical c. Brains are like hands: they do what theyre designed to do i. Brains dont see the world in objective sense 1. Brains see the world in an adaptively useful sense d. Senses collect data, brain builds movie that runs in your head, this movie is how we perceive world Minds construct abstract movies we experience as the world a. This is done by using data that our perceptual systems provide b. We construct dynamic images of the world in a hierarchically nested combinatorial way. i. We hierarchically nest simple, abstract images, and put meaning to them c. Our minds assemble a picture of the world d. Our perceptual systems are very vulnerable to being deceived Minds may be Darwin machines a. New ideas are shaped in our mind by Darwinian selection

IV.

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V.

i. Immune system, as well b. Creativity and imagination work by Darwinian selection, too c. The mind is a Darwin machine: taking a problem as an information structure, bouncing solutions off that problem, selecting the ones that work d. Human social processing is also Darwinian (ex: stock market) Minds produce species typical elite behavior a. Species-typical behavior b. What is intelligence? c. Brains are all built by design information for the purpose of replicating that design information in a competitive Malthusian World.

Key Concept Question: choice D

Topic 16: Culturally transmitted (Extragenetic) information and the uniquely human mind/brain Part 2
Species-typical behavior

I.

II.

Genetic redesign of human minds is an effect NOT a cause a. Some scientists claim that its a cause b. We say the opposite: that when humans learn to control the conflict of interest problem, and they have cooperative units, the product/effect of that was our social cooperation which gave us access to more information. Once this new information was used, our adaptive opportunities took off! c. Social Evolution has driven our Genetic Evolution from the very beginning when we learned to manage conflict of interest problem i. Culturally transmitted information within large non-kin social unit (village) put selective pressure on our genetics d. Those who could manage conflicts of interest within human village did better Transmission of cultural information is different in humans in a very specific way a. Mammals show transmission of cultural information b. Rats transmit cultural information i. Pine cone consumption in a systematic way is transmitted from only mother to rat babies (pups), it is NOT genetic ii. Bear mothers show babies which plants to eat and how to catch salmon iii. Orangutan mothers show babies which food to eat

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III.

IV.

c. Non-human animals transmit substantial cultural tradition i. But non-kin adults dont learn from each other! d. Humans are genetically adapted thru cultural transmission of information Our control of conflicts of interest gives us a vast cultural heritage a. We have access to more information because we solved the conflict of interest problem and learned to trust others and share information b. Humans arent only ones to use tools i. Chimps use a combo of 2 tools to maximize # of termites they can extract 1. Chimps transmit cultural info on how to do this c. Direct access to cultural information = when a mother passes information to a child d. Indirect access to cultural information i. Whats the problem? What can be exchanged can be stolen ii. Indirect access would have never evolved if we never managed conflict of interest problem first Our cultural heritage also compels us ethically and socially a. We are not only an economic and pedagogical animal, but also a moral/ethical animal i. Our minds are designed to manage the conflict of interest problem b. Pragmatic information c. We pursue higher purpose b/c its adaptive d. Good and evil is a property of only the human world i. The world consists of a war btwn good and evil ii. Kin-selected self-interest (evil) vs. coerced kinship-independent social cooperation (good) e. Pragmatic information and social contract information are both culturally transmitted f. Our minds have evolved to react to social contract information and to control our ethical behavior (moral outrage and guilt) i. 3 parts of brain that are dramatically enlarged compared to chimps (motor cortex, visual cortex, etc, are same size as in chimps) 1. Parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and prefrontal cortex ii. Destroying prefrontal cortex destroys uniquely human social behavior 1. Sociopaths show abnormal activity in prefrontal cortex under MRI iii. Enlarged human prefrontal cortex seems to be an adaptation to the world of good and evil iv. Confabulations are proposed social negotiations 1. This is how we negotiate social contract information a. I did this b/c this is the social rational for what I did. Is it ok? v. We use language not only to transmit pragmatic information, but to also negotiate social contracts g. We transmit pragmatic information, continuously negotiated social contract information, and identifier information

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Key Concept Q: choice B

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