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PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

PHYS1171 - Motion

Lecture 8 - 1D Kinematics

Dr. Tim McIntyre

The University of Queensland

Semester 1, 2013

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Lecture 8 - 1D Kinematics

Todays lecture covers

Using the equations for one-dimensional (1D)

motion under constant acceleration

Free-fall

Preparation

Read Five Minute Physics -

Lecture 8 - One-dimensional Motion

Reference

Read Biological Physics (2010), Sections 1.5 - 1.6

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Reading Quiz (assessed)

Which of the following is false?

1 In dealing with one-dimensional motion, d, v and a can be

treated as scalar quantities (which can be positive,

negative or zero)

2 The velocity of an object at a given later time is

determined by just the initial velocity and the initial

(constant) acceleration

3 The position of an object at a given later time is

determined from just its initial position and initial velocity

4 Acceleration will be assumed to be constant for the

lectures on kinematics

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

ID Kinematics - Equations

From the reading we have two equations that apply for

constant acceleration along the x-axis:

v

f

= v

i

+ at

x = v

i

t +

1

2

at

2

A useful third equation derived from these two equations is

v

2

f

v

2

i

= 2ax

As we are treating motion in one dimension, we treat each of

the parameters as scalers (positive or negative numbers). Signs

are important! Subscript i indicates the initial condition (t=0)

and subscript f indicates the nal condition.

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Example - Surviving a car crash

A person wearing a seatbelt has a good chance of surviving a

car crash if the magnitude of the deceleration is no more than

300 m/s

2

. Over what duration must a crash occur for the

occupants of the car to survive being brought to a standstill

from an initial speed of 100 km/hr ?

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Free-fall

Free-fall is an example of one-dimensional motion with

constant acceleration.

Acceleration is g (downwards).

Ignore air resistance

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Question...

For a ball thrown straight upwards, at the top of its trajectory

the ball has

1 Zero velocity and acceleration

2 Zero velocity but non-zero acceleration

3 Non-zero velocity but zero acceleration

4 Non-zero velocity and non-zero acceleration

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Question...

You throw a ball upward with an initial speed of 10 m/s.

Assuming that there is no air resistance, what is its speed when

it returns to you?

1 More than 10m/s

2 10 m/s

3 Less than 10m/s

4 Need more information

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Question...

A person 10 m up in a tree drops a ball to a person below. At

the same instant the person on the ground throws a ball

upwards to the person in the tree so that it just reaches the

height of the person in the tree. Which of the following is true?

1 The ball thrown upwards reaches the person

in the tree rst

2 The ball that was dropped reaches the person

on the ground rst

3 The balls arrive at the same time

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Question...

You throw a ball straight up into the air. After it leaves your

hand, at what point in its ight does it have the maximum

value of acceleration?

1 Just after it leaves your hand

2 At the top of the motion

3 Just before it returns to your hand

4 All of the above

5 None of the above

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Example - Jumping

A froghopper is a small insect which can launch itself upwards

with an acceleration of about 400 times gravity (see National

Geographic News, July 2010). In the rst stage of its jump,

while its feet are in contact with the ground, the froghopper

accelerates to reach a top speed of 4.0 m/s. This is reached

when its body is 2 mm above the ground. After losing contact

with the ground, acceleration is then only due to gravity.

Calculate the following after the froghopper loses contact with

the ground (ignore air resistance):

1 The time to reach a maximum height

2 The maximum height reached

3 The speed on hitting the ground

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Example - jumping

A froghopper is a small insect which can launch itself upwards with an acceleration of about 400 times

gravity (see National Geographic News, July 2010). In the rst stage of its jump, while its feet are in contact

with the ground, the froghopper accelerates to reach a top speed of 4.0 m/s. This is reached when its body

is 2 mm above the ground. After losing contact with the ground, acceleration is then only due to gravity.

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Example - jumping

A froghopper is a small insect which can launch itself upwards with an acceleration of about 400 times

gravity (see National Geographic News, July 2010). In the rst stage of its jump, while its feet are in contact

with the ground, the froghopper accelerates to reach a top speed of 4.0 m/s. This is reached when its body

is 2 mm above the ground. After losing contact with the ground, acceleration is then only due to gravity.

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Question...

You drop a rock o a bridge. When the rock has fallen 4 m,

you drop a second rock. As the rocks continue to fall, what

happens to their separation?

1 The separation increases as they fall

2 The separation stays constant

3 The separation decreases as they fall

4 Cant tell

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

Lecture 8

PHYS1171

Introduction

Reading

Equations

Example 1

Free-fall

Questions

Example 2

Questions

Summary

Summing Up

After this lecture you should . . .

Understand the equations that describe 1D motion

Be familiar with the important aspects of free-fall

Supplementary Questions Biological Physics (2010)

Problems 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6

Next lecture

Read Five Minute Physics -

Lecture 9 - Two-dimensional Motion

PHYS1171 Lecture 8

0

10

20

30

40

30

60

70

1 ln deallng wlLh one-dlmenslonal

mouon, d, v and a can be LreaLed as

scalar quanuues (whlch can be posluve,

negauve or zero)

2 1he veloclLy of an ob[ecL aL a glven laLer

ume ls deLermlned by [usL Lhe lnlual

veloclLy and Lhe lnlual (consLanL)

accelerauon

3 1he posluon of an ob[ecL aL a glven

laLer ume ls deLermlned from[usL lLs

lnlual posluon and lnlual veloclLy

4 Accelerauon wlll be assumed Lo be

consLanL for Lhe lecLures on klnemaucs

Whlch of Lhe followlng ls false?

!

0

3

10

13

20

23

30

33

40

43

30

1 Zero veloclLy and accelerauon 2 Zero veloclLy buL non-zero accelerauon 3 non-zero veloclLy buL zero accelerauon 4 non-zero veloclLy and non-zero

accelerauon

lor a ball Lhrown sLralghL upwards, aL Lhe Lop of lLs Lra[ecLory Lhe ball has

0

10

20

30

40

30

60

70

1 Zero veloclLy and accelerauon 2 Zero veloclLy buL non-zero accelerauon 3 non-zero veloclLy buL zero accelerauon 4 non-zero veloclLy and non-zero

accelerauon

lor a ball Lhrown sLralghL upwards, aL Lhe Lop of lLs Lra[ecLory Lhe ball has

(repeaL)

!

0

3

10

13

20

23

30

33

40

1 More Lhan 10m/s 2 10m/s 3 Less Lhan 10m/s 4 need more lnformauon

?ou Lhrow a ball upward wlLh an lnlual speed of 10 m/s. Assumlng LhaL Lhere

ls no alr reslsLance, whaL ls lLs speed when lL reLurns Lo you?

!

0

10

20

30

40

30

60

70

80

90

1 1he ball Lhrown upwards reaches Lhe person ln Lhe

Lree rsL

2 1he ball LhaL was dropped reaches Lhe person on Lhe

ground rsL

3 1he balls arrlve aL Lhe same ume

A person 10 m up ln a Lree drops a ball Lo a person below. AL Lhe same lnsLanL

Lhe person on Lhe ground Lhrows a ball upwards Lo Lhe person ln Lhe Lree so

LhaL lL [usL reaches Lhe helghL of Lhe person ln Lhe Lree. Whlch of Lhe followlng

ls Lrue?

!

0

10

20

30

40

30

60

70

1 !usL aer lL leaves your hand 2 AL Lhe Lop of Lhe mouon 3 !usL before lL reLurns Lo your

hand

4 All of Lhe above 3 none of Lhe above

?ou Lhrow a ball sLralghL up lnLo Lhe alr. Aer lL leaves your hand, aL whaL

polnL ln lLs lghL does lL have Lhe maxlmum value of accelerauon?

!

0

10

20

30

40

30

60

70

1 1he separauon lncreases as Lhey fall 2 1he separauon sLays consLanL 3 1he separauon decreases as Lhey fall 4 Can'L Lell

?ou drop a rock o a brldge. When Lhe rock has fallen 4 m, you drop a second

rock. As Lhe rocks conunue Lo fall, whaL happens Lo Lhelr separauon?

0

10

20

30

40

30

60

70

1 1he separauon lncreases as Lhey fall 2 1he separauon sLays consLanL 3 1he separauon decreases as Lhey fall 4 Can'L Lell

?ou drop a rock o a brldge. When Lhe rock has fallen 4 m, you drop a second

rock. As Lhe rocks conunue Lo fall, whaL happens Lo Lhelr separauon (repeaL)?

!

PHYS1171, Semester 1, 2013

Forces and Motion

Lecture 8

Answers to recommended textbook questions

1.1 a = 10 m/s

2

; v = 10 m/s

1.2 (a) -77 m/s

2

; (b) 7.9g

1.3 11.5 s

1.5 13.0 m/s

2

1.6 25.5 m/s

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