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# Lecture 8

PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
PHYS1171 - Motion
Lecture 8 - 1D Kinematics
Dr. Tim McIntyre
The University of Queensland
Semester 1, 2013
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Lecture 8 - 1D Kinematics
Todays lecture covers
Using the equations for one-dimensional (1D)
motion under constant acceleration
Free-fall
Preparation
Lecture 8 - One-dimensional Motion
Reference
Read Biological Physics (2010), Sections 1.5 - 1.6
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Which of the following is false?
1 In dealing with one-dimensional motion, d, v and a can be
treated as scalar quantities (which can be positive,
negative or zero)
2 The velocity of an object at a given later time is
determined by just the initial velocity and the initial
(constant) acceleration
3 The position of an object at a given later time is
determined from just its initial position and initial velocity
4 Acceleration will be assumed to be constant for the
lectures on kinematics
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
ID Kinematics - Equations
From the reading we have two equations that apply for
constant acceleration along the x-axis:
v
f
= v
i
+ at
x = v
i
t +
1
2
at
2
A useful third equation derived from these two equations is
v
2
f
v
2
i
= 2ax
As we are treating motion in one dimension, we treat each of
the parameters as scalers (positive or negative numbers). Signs
are important! Subscript i indicates the initial condition (t=0)
and subscript f indicates the nal condition.
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Example - Surviving a car crash
A person wearing a seatbelt has a good chance of surviving a
car crash if the magnitude of the deceleration is no more than
300 m/s
2
. Over what duration must a crash occur for the
occupants of the car to survive being brought to a standstill
from an initial speed of 100 km/hr ?
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Free-fall
Free-fall is an example of one-dimensional motion with
constant acceleration.
Acceleration is g (downwards).
Ignore air resistance
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Question...
For a ball thrown straight upwards, at the top of its trajectory
the ball has
1 Zero velocity and acceleration
2 Zero velocity but non-zero acceleration
3 Non-zero velocity but zero acceleration
4 Non-zero velocity and non-zero acceleration
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Question...
You throw a ball upward with an initial speed of 10 m/s.
Assuming that there is no air resistance, what is its speed when
it returns to you?
1 More than 10m/s
2 10 m/s
3 Less than 10m/s
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Question...
A person 10 m up in a tree drops a ball to a person below. At
the same instant the person on the ground throws a ball
upwards to the person in the tree so that it just reaches the
height of the person in the tree. Which of the following is true?
1 The ball thrown upwards reaches the person
in the tree rst
2 The ball that was dropped reaches the person
on the ground rst
3 The balls arrive at the same time
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Question...
You throw a ball straight up into the air. After it leaves your
hand, at what point in its ight does it have the maximum
value of acceleration?
1 Just after it leaves your hand
2 At the top of the motion
3 Just before it returns to your hand
4 All of the above
5 None of the above
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Example - Jumping
A froghopper is a small insect which can launch itself upwards
with an acceleration of about 400 times gravity (see National
Geographic News, July 2010). In the rst stage of its jump,
while its feet are in contact with the ground, the froghopper
accelerates to reach a top speed of 4.0 m/s. This is reached
when its body is 2 mm above the ground. After losing contact
with the ground, acceleration is then only due to gravity.
Calculate the following after the froghopper loses contact with
the ground (ignore air resistance):
1 The time to reach a maximum height
2 The maximum height reached
3 The speed on hitting the ground
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Example - jumping
A froghopper is a small insect which can launch itself upwards with an acceleration of about 400 times
gravity (see National Geographic News, July 2010). In the rst stage of its jump, while its feet are in contact
with the ground, the froghopper accelerates to reach a top speed of 4.0 m/s. This is reached when its body
is 2 mm above the ground. After losing contact with the ground, acceleration is then only due to gravity.
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Example - jumping
A froghopper is a small insect which can launch itself upwards with an acceleration of about 400 times
gravity (see National Geographic News, July 2010). In the rst stage of its jump, while its feet are in contact
with the ground, the froghopper accelerates to reach a top speed of 4.0 m/s. This is reached when its body
is 2 mm above the ground. After losing contact with the ground, acceleration is then only due to gravity.
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Question...
You drop a rock o a bridge. When the rock has fallen 4 m,
you drop a second rock. As the rocks continue to fall, what
happens to their separation?
1 The separation increases as they fall
2 The separation stays constant
3 The separation decreases as they fall
4 Cant tell
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
Lecture 8
PHYS1171
Introduction
Equations
Example 1
Free-fall
Questions
Example 2
Questions
Summary
Summing Up
After this lecture you should . . .
Understand the equations that describe 1D motion
Be familiar with the important aspects of free-fall
Supplementary Questions Biological Physics (2010)
Problems 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6
Next lecture
Lecture 9 - Two-dimensional Motion
PHYS1171 Lecture 8
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1 ln deallng wlLh one-dlmenslonal
mouon, d, v and a can be LreaLed as
scalar quanuues (whlch can be posluve,
negauve or zero)
2 1he veloclLy of an ob[ecL aL a glven laLer
ume ls deLermlned by [usL Lhe lnlual
veloclLy and Lhe lnlual (consLanL)
accelerauon
3 1he posluon of an ob[ecL aL a glven
laLer ume ls deLermlned from[usL lLs
lnlual posluon and lnlual veloclLy
4 Accelerauon wlll be assumed Lo be
consLanL for Lhe lecLures on klnemaucs
Whlch of Lhe followlng ls false?
!
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1 Zero veloclLy and accelerauon 2 Zero veloclLy buL non-zero accelerauon 3 non-zero veloclLy buL zero accelerauon 4 non-zero veloclLy and non-zero
accelerauon
lor a ball Lhrown sLralghL upwards, aL Lhe Lop of lLs Lra[ecLory Lhe ball has
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1 Zero veloclLy and accelerauon 2 Zero veloclLy buL non-zero accelerauon 3 non-zero veloclLy buL zero accelerauon 4 non-zero veloclLy and non-zero
accelerauon
lor a ball Lhrown sLralghL upwards, aL Lhe Lop of lLs Lra[ecLory Lhe ball has
(repeaL)
!
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1 More Lhan 10m/s 2 10m/s 3 Less Lhan 10m/s 4 need more lnformauon
?ou Lhrow a ball upward wlLh an lnlual speed of 10 m/s. Assumlng LhaL Lhere
ls no alr reslsLance, whaL ls lLs speed when lL reLurns Lo you?
!
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1 1he ball Lhrown upwards reaches Lhe person ln Lhe
Lree rsL
2 1he ball LhaL was dropped reaches Lhe person on Lhe
ground rsL
3 1he balls arrlve aL Lhe same ume
A person 10 m up ln a Lree drops a ball Lo a person below. AL Lhe same lnsLanL
Lhe person on Lhe ground Lhrows a ball upwards Lo Lhe person ln Lhe Lree so
LhaL lL [usL reaches Lhe helghL of Lhe person ln Lhe Lree. Whlch of Lhe followlng
ls Lrue?
!
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1 !usL aer lL leaves your hand 2 AL Lhe Lop of Lhe mouon 3 !usL before lL reLurns Lo your
hand
4 All of Lhe above 3 none of Lhe above
?ou Lhrow a ball sLralghL up lnLo Lhe alr. Aer lL leaves your hand, aL whaL
polnL ln lLs lghL does lL have Lhe maxlmum value of accelerauon?
!
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1 1he separauon lncreases as Lhey fall 2 1he separauon sLays consLanL 3 1he separauon decreases as Lhey fall 4 Can'L Lell
?ou drop a rock o a brldge. When Lhe rock has fallen 4 m, you drop a second
rock. As Lhe rocks conunue Lo fall, whaL happens Lo Lhelr separauon?
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20
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40
30
60
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1 1he separauon lncreases as Lhey fall 2 1he separauon sLays consLanL 3 1he separauon decreases as Lhey fall 4 Can'L Lell
?ou drop a rock o a brldge. When Lhe rock has fallen 4 m, you drop a second
rock. As Lhe rocks conunue Lo fall, whaL happens Lo Lhelr separauon (repeaL)?
!
PHYS1171, Semester 1, 2013
Forces and Motion
Lecture 8