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Chapter 22

The Age of Nation-States

Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States The Crimean War (1853–1856) 1. A. B. C. D. E. 2. A. B. C. D. E. 3. A. B. C. D. E. 4. 5. The Crimean War was rooted in the: desire for unification of all German-speaking people. hopes of the Italian people for unification on the peninsula. long-standing desire of Russia to extend its influence over the Ottoman Empire. British desire to dominate all eastern trade. French desire to force the Russians out of Poland. The Crimean War was the first to: utilize modern trench warfare. engineer and use early airplanes. be covered by war correspondents and photographers. issue modern mess kits, including penicillin. result in more than 2 million casualties. The final military action of the Crimean War was located: in the region of Alsace and Lorraine, bordering the French and German border. off the coast of Britain, in the English Channel. near the Danube River in southern Germany. along the coast of the Black Sea and at the Russian fortress of Sevastopol. the Ruhr Valley. On March 28, 1854, France and Britain declared war on ___________ in alliance with the Ottomans. At the close of the Crimean War, the image of an invincible Russia that had prevailed across Europe since the close of the ____________ Wars was shattered.

Reforms in the Ottoman Empire 6. A. B. C. D. E. 7. A. B. C. D. E. 8. Issued in a degree from the sultan, the Hatt-i Sharif of Gülhane, attempted to: formally annex Serbia and all Slavic peoples to the Ottoman Empire. reorganize the empire’s administration and military along European lines. pressure bureaucrats to only recognize Christianity as a legitimate religion. democratize the Ottoman Empire. Islamicize the Ottoman Empire. Reforms that were drawn up by administrative councils did all of the following EXCEPT: end the practice of tax farming. seek to eliminate corruption. liberalize the economy. raise taxes on imported goods. lead to tension with local rulers. During the age of Tanzimat, the Ottoman Empire actually sought to copy _______________ legal and military institutions and the secular values flowing from liberalism. Putting reforms into practice was difficult, especially in Egypt and Tunis where local rulers were virtually independent of ______________.

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. Francisco Franco C. with French assistance. A. B. D. A. B. NJ 07458. 15. 18. socialist. The Italian peninsula was transformed into a nation-state under a constitutional monarchy by: 1850. Machiavelli C. Descartes E. 1865.Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States Italian Unification 10. Inc. . Cavour was a: fanatical Catholic. Count Camillo Cavour’s methods to achieve Italian unification would best coincide with which philosopher’s ideology? A. 14. 1855. The state of ________. All rights reserved. overthrow Mazzini and allow direct Italian unification. Rousseau 13. strong republican. B. D. the most independent state on the Italian peninsula. A formal treaty in December 1858 confirmed an agreement between Cavour and Napoleon III which would: provoke a war in Italy that would permit them (Italy and France) to defeat Austria. A. Locke B. Nationalists had long wanted to unite the small. mostly __________ principalities of the Italian peninsula into a single state. D. E. recognition of papal authority in central Italy. strong monarchist. E. He was the most important nationalist leader in Europe and brought new fervor to the hopes of Italian nationalism and unification in the 1830s and 1840s: A. E. Venetia was gained and added to Italy in exchange for: Italy’s formal recognition of Prussia as an independent nation-state. 1860. C. defeat the Russians at Sebastopol with Italian and French forces. 12. 1845. 16. 17. Cavour believed that only __________ intervention could defeat Austria and unite Italy. C. fervent democrat. A. Italy’s military aid to the Prussians in the Cri mean War. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Robespierre D. Benito Mussolini 11. B. D. C. E. Italy’s alliance with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War. spark revolution in Serbia. Italy’s ceding of Sardinia to the French. Camillo Cavour E. Upper Saddle River. Giuseppe Mazzini B. Giuseppe Garibaldi D. spark revolution in Austria. C. led the country’s unification effort.

A. E. German unification. gaining European-wide support for its policies. Austria and Prussia. in hopes of supporting a larger population to undergo European dominance. Helmut Kohl B. C. Prussia excluded Austria from German affairs by: denying Austrian claims at the Convention of Gastein. D. C. B. Poland. defeating Austria in the Seven Weeks’ War. A. This was the most important political development in Europe between 1848 and 1914: the leadership of Bismarck. E. The two strongest states in the German Confederation were: Schleswig and Holstein. E. B. Richard Wagner 23. B. Otto von Bismarck D. 22.Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States German Unification 19. Hesse and Bavaria. D. 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.. Bismarck embraced the cause of German nationalism: as a strategy to enable Prussian conservatives to outflank Prussian liberals. Upper Saddle River. William I C. as a political move to solicit an Italian ally in a forthcoming war against Austria. A. A. B. offering Austria a share of its colonies in Africa. . Bremen and Brandenberg. B. C. E. Prussia. E. NJ 07458. out of his own deep sense of ideological nationalism. conservative.. The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of 1848–1849—but by iron and blood. C. D. 24. socialist. encouraging and succeeding in an Italian defeat of Austria. idealist. 21. B. D. 20. the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Inc. Frederick William IV E. as a means of deterring a French invasion with a growing military force. Bavaria and Bremen. Bismarck is best described as a/an: reactionary. D.. All rights reserved. The Danish War of 1864 broke out of Denmark’s desire to formally annex: Austria. liberal. Schleswig-Holstein. . A. 25. E. C.‖: A. C. Who declared ―Germany is not looking to Prussia’s liberalism but to her power. D. A. Austria and Alsace. Italy’s alliance with Prussia against Austria. Russian defeat in the Crimean War.

D. Russo-Japanese War. petty bourgeois members. under any circumstances. 28. The unification of Germany was a blow to European __________. France: From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic 33. 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. C. Bismarck’s values were stereotypically ________ later in his political career. in 1866 Prussia went to war with ________. E. D. Captain Dreyfus was accused of: embezzling state funds. The Paris Commune was dominated by: genuine proletarians. C. Napoleonic Wars. Inc. E. if France retained the revolutionary tricolor flag.. C. without a new constitution. liberal republic. C. 30. A. Upper Saddle River. monarchists. Bundesrat and Reichstag. E. After siding with this country against Denmark in 1864. 31. A. 32.Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States 26. with the House of Orléans as his heirs. A. passing secrets to the Germans. D. E. Senate and Commisat. The war of 1870 against ___________ had been the French government’s last and most disastrous attempt to shore up its foreign policy and secure domestic popularity. C. socialists and anarchists. A. 29. corrupting a minor. Franco-Prussian War. D. A. liberal monarchy. Parliament and Bundestag. All rights reserved. NJ 07458. A. . military dictatorship. E. B. 36. B. In 1871 Germany was a: military monarchy. constitutional republic. German unification was completed as a result of the: Crimean War. consorting with the English. B. strict communists. B. Reichstag and Parliament. 34. The two houses of the North German Confederation were the: Dem Deutschen Volke and Bundestag. C. Chambord refused to become king of France: with a conservative monarchist majority in the National Assembly. B. E. The German Empire was proclaimed in 1871 at the Palace of ________. D. cowardice in the face of the enemy. 27. B. D. Seven Weeks’ War. 35.

E. C. 39. there was little public support for it in Bohemia. A. 42. . A. NJ 07458. the Germans of Bohemia were afraid the Czech language would be imposed on them. Liberals. B. D. both B and C. Russians.Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States 37. C. the Magyars believed they might be forced to make similar concessions to their own subject nationalities. Emperor Francis Joseph’s scheme for centralized administration of the Habsburg Empire meant that the government was dominated by: A. D. Austria-Hungary’s formation of a dual monarchy in 1867: meant greater Austrian control of Hungary. He instituted the most extensive restructuring of Russian society and administration since Peter the Great: Alexander II Alexander III Nicholas I Nicholas II Michael I 45. B. B. German-speaking Austrians. This institution was a profound cultural gap that separated Russia from the rest of Europe and was ended in February 1861: A. E. C. D. enabled Austria-Hungary to become a major imperial power in Africa. C. Alexander II. E. 40. D. Which of the following groups would have supported the Compromise of 1867? Czechs Hungarians Romanians Croatians Serbians Czech ―trialism‖ was vetoed and argued against because: Francis Joseph was not willing to accept the concept. Tributism 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. meant that Austria and Hungary became virtually separate states. B. Viennese bureaucrats. Bourgeoisie B. D. 43. Conscription D. A. E. Legalism E. would no longer help preserve Habsburg rule in Hungary.. Russia: Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings 44. C. All rights reserved. Hungarians. Serfdom C. meant that a Magyar occupied the Hungarian throne. The Habsburg Empire 38. Austrian refusal to support Russian during the ____________ War meant the new tsar. E. 41. A. B. The ________ of 1867 transformed the Habsburg Empire into a dual monarchy. Inc. The National Assembly backed into a _____________ form of government against its will. ended the threat of nationalist divisions within the empire.

E. reactionary nationalism. B. B. D. voting by secret ballot. D.Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States 46. 50. . Upper Saddle River. A. A. B. The changes had no impact. The size of the government work force rose to prevent mail fraud. E. All rights reserved. Inc.‖ How did the changes in the British postal service affect the quantity of mail and the size of the government work force? A. E. 48. A. The new changes did not affect the quantity of mail. D. The leader of Ireland's movement for home rule was: Gladstone. 49. this nation was treated as merely another Russian province: Finland. Poland. 199 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. votes for women. C. C. C. Stuart. Great Britain: Toward Democracy 47. radical socialism. but the size of government increased significantly. renowned republicanism. B. but the quantity of mail rose significantly. O'Malley.. E. D. Until the close of World War I. and the mail quantity decreased. The new changes did not affect the size of the government. C. Latvia. The Ballot Act of 1872 introduced: universal male suffrage. a literacy poll for voting requirements. B. C. Gladstone’s ministry of 1868 to 1874 witnessed the c ulmination of: staunch conservatism. suffrage to Caucasian males without Anglican religious requirements. Both the quantity of mail and the size government work force rose. Parnell. Lithuania. Romania. E. Refer to the passage ―The Arrival of Penny Postage. Disraeli. classical British liberalism. A. D. NJ 07458.