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DASAR TELEKOMUNIKASI

AKHIR 2012/2013

What is Communication?
Communication, derived from the Latin word "communicatio", is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, image, signal, text, or behavior.

What is telecommunications ?
(tele = far off, distance) Webster calls the telecommunication is the communications at a distance. Telecommunication is a technology that eliminates distance between continents, between countries, between persons. Telecommunications refers to the transfer of data (communications) from a source to a destination across a distance.

The IEEE Standard Dictionary defines telecommunications as the transmission of signals over long distance, such as by telegraph, radio, or television. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) officially recognized the term telecommunications in 1932 and defined it as: any telegraph or telephone communication of signs, signals, writings, images and sound of any nature, by wire, radio, or other system or processes of electric or visual signaling.

Currently, the ITU defines telecommunications as any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signals, writings, images, and sounds; or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, visual, or other electromagnetic systems.

UU RI No. 36 th. 1999 Tentang Telekomunikasi


Telekomunikasi adalah setiap pemancaran, pengiriman, dan atau penerimaan dan setiap informasi dalam bentuk tanda-tanda, isyarat, tulisan, gambar, suara, dan bunyi melalui sistem kawat, optik, radio, atau sistem elektromaknetik lainnya..

The History of Telecommunications


Part I (1750-1800), Huurdeman introduces his subject and describes the beginnings of optical telegraphy.

Part II (1800-1950) covers the spread of optical telegraphy and the rapid diffusion of electrical telegraphy generally based on a variation of Morse telegraphy.
Part III (1850-1900) covers the worldwide spread of electric telegraphy, submarine telegraph cables, the telephone, telephone switching, as well as the invention of radio. Part IV (1900-1950) continues the discussion of telephony and radio and ends with a discussion of long-distance telephone transmission by copper-lines and radio-relays.

Part V (1950-2000an) takes up transmission via radio-relays, coaxial cables, satellites, and fiber optics. It ends with sections on deregulation and new telecommunications applications such as cellular telephones and multimedia.

Chronology of telecommunications

MAJOR CREATORS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS


Claude Chappe (17631805) Claude Chappe began the era of telecommunications with the successful operation of his optical telegraph between Paris and Lille on August 15, 1794. Samuel Finley Breese Morse (17911872) The electrical telegraph had many fathers and they all developed unique solutions, so that a dozen different electrical telegraph systems operated simultaneously in various countries. Alexander Graham Bell (18471922) The telephone era begun in 1876 in the United States with the operation of a telephone line across a 2-mile stretch between Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with telephone apparatus produced by Bell.

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (18571894) Heinrich Hertz laid the basis for radio transmission with successful experiments in 18871889 that proved the existence of electromagnetic radiation and its similarity to the behavior of light. Guglielmo Marconi (18741937) It was Marconi who two years after Hertz died began the radio era. Marconi succeeded in transmitting a radio signal over a few kilometers at Bologna in 1896. He successfully combined technical ingenuity with commercial aptitude. Almon Brown Strowger (18391902) A funeral director in Kansas City, Missouri, Almon B. Strowger, with his girl-less, cuss-less, out-of-order-less, and wait-less telephone exchange started a development that has resulted in todays gigantic worldwide telephone network, which is interconnected through thousands of automatic telephone exchanges.

Michael Idvorsky Pupin (18581935) Michael Idvorsky Pupin was born the son of a free and independent farmer in Idvor, Serbia Croatia. He emigrated to the United States, where he developed the Pupin coil, which made him a millionaire. Alec H. Reeves (19021971) Alec H. Reeves conceived the idea of digitizing speech and patented his pulse-codemodulation (PCM) procedure, but at a time when the prevailing technology prevented its economical realization.

1794: dimulainya era telekomunikasi dengan keberhasilannya mengoperasika optikal telegraph antara Paris dan Lille. 1844: Morse mematenkan telegraph. 1876: Alexander Graham Bell menemukan pesawat telepon 1881: Direktori halaman kuning telepon yang pertama 1891: Dial (nomor-nomor) telepon pertama; 512.000 sambungan telepon di Amerika 1887: Telepon yang bekerja dengan koin pertama kali dipasang di Hartford Bank oleh penemunya William Gray. 1915: Panggilan pertama secara resmi dari pantai ke pantai dilakukan oleh Alexander Graham Bell di New York City kepada Thomas Watson di San Francisco.

1928: Herbert Hoover menjadi presiden pertama Amerika Serikat yang menggunakan telepon di meja kerjanya. Hingga waktu itu, presiden berbicara selalu berbicara dari dan keluar kantornya. 1957: Uji coba pertama kali penggunaan pagers dimulai di Allentown dan Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 1958: Telepon pangeran diperkenalkan. Teleponpertama dengan nomor yang diberi cahaya, menjadi bagian budaya populer Amerika 1960: Telepon tombol nada sentuh mulai dipasarkan di Findlay, Ohio. Telepon ini mempunyai 10 tombol, tidak seperti sekarang yang mempunyai 12 tombol.

1963: Sambungan langsung terjadi antara Gedung Putih dan Kremlin berkaitan dengan krisis senjata di Cuba. 1963 juga telah diperkenalkan teknik digital carrier. Sebelumnya cara-cara dalam multiplex kanal telepon telah diterapkan dengan transmisi analog. Cara ini pada prinsipnya adalah membawa beberapa kanal yang berbeda dengan pemisahan frekuensi. 1964, Bell System memperkenalkan bentuk videotelepon yang dipasarkan terbatas untuk melayani wilayah New York, washungton dan Chicago. 1965 satelit komunikasi komersial pertama diluncurkan dengan menyediakan 240 rangkaian telepon dua arah.

1968: 911 dipilih sebagai nomor darurat seluruh negara. Perusahaan telepon menyetujui urutan nomor itu tidak disediakan sebagai nomor sambungan keluar. 1972: Pesan pertama surat elektronik (email). Istilah "internet" digunakan pertama kali dua tahun kemudian, tetapi konsep internet seba-gaimana kita kenal saat ini tidak ada peningkatan 1984: Telepon seluler pertama kali dikenalkan 1991: Pengenalan caller ID (internasional). Ada perbedaan pandangan saat itu. 1998: World Wide Web (www) telah lahir, menjadikan tanda internet permulaan internet seperti yang kita kenal sekarang ini. Banyak orang Amerika menyam-bungkan Internet melalui saluran teleponnya masing-masing.

2000: "Web Phone" dikombinasikan dengan telepon dengan menggunakan layar sentuh LCD dan keyboard yang dapat berselancar dengan Internet, mengecek e-mail, melakukan panggilan telepon dan mengecek pesan suara hanya dengan piranti tunggal. 2000 hingga sekarang : "Information Appliances" (pemakaian informasi) memuat Internet mobile (bergerak), tanpa kabel "Web to Go," sambungan telepon suara, panggilan telepon dan Internet pada pesawat TV kita, TV melalui telepon tanpa kabel, dan masih banyak lagi.

Basic Communication Model

SOURCE

CHANNEL

DESTINATION

In the model, a message flows from the source to a destination. The source can also be called as the sender The destination can also be referred as the receiver The information/message flows between these two points through a transmission path/medium called channel

Communication system model

Noise Source

Input Messages

Message - the information (data) to be communicated. It can consist of text, numbers, pictures, sound, video, or any combination of these. Types of Data Data (pieces of information) can be analog or digital. Analog data take on the continuous values in some interval. An example of analog data is the human voice.
Digital data take on discrete values; examples are text and integers. Digital data is data stored in the memory of a computer in the form of 0s and 1s.

Transducer
The message produced by a source must be converted by a transducer to a form suitable for the particular type of communication system. A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy to another. Energy types include (but are not limited to) electrical, mechanical, electromagnetic (including light), chemical, acoustic or thermal energy. Transducer commonly implies the use of a sensor/detector, any device which converts energy can be considered a transducer. Transducers are widely used in measuring instruments. Example: In electrical communications, speech waves are converted by a microphone to voltage variation.

Modulation is the process of conveying a message signal, for example a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Demodulation is the act of extracting (recover) the original information-bearing signal from a modulated carrier wave. A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as a demodulator. A device that can do both operations is a MODEM (from "modulatordemodulator").

Transmitter: The transmitter processes the input signal to produce a signal suits to the characteristics of the transmission channel. Medium - the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. It could be a twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, or radio waves (terrestrial or satellite microwave).

In terms of technology, telecommunications transmission systems are divided into line transmission and radio transmission systems: Line transmission is the technology of sending and receiving electrical signals by means of copper wire, and nowadays, increasingly by means of optical fiber, on overhead lines, by underground cable, and by submarine cables. Radio transmission stands for the technology of information transmission on electromagnetic waves by means of high-frequency radio and mobile radio, including cellular radio systems, radio relay, and satellites.

The function of the receiver is to extract the desired signal from the received signal at the channel output and to convert it to a form suitable for the output transducer. Output Transducer: Converts the electric signal at its input into the form desired by the system user. Example: Loudspeaker, personal computer (PC), tape recorders.