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PROJECT ON 3-FLUID HEAT EXCHANGER

ABSTRACT The detailed behavior of three -fluid, parallel flow heat exchangers has been investigated The e!uations governing the two -di"ensional te"perature distributions of the three fluids have been derived and nondi"entionali#ed Perfor"ance characteristics have been deter"ined for a wide range of operating para"eters for single-pass heat exchangers The perfor"ance of two-pass heat exchangers for both concurrent and countercurrent flow has been studied for selected operating conditions Results have been presented graphicall$ in ter"s of the te"perature effectiveness of the two outer fluids as

functions of heat-exchanger si#e for sets of fixed operating conditions Nondi"ensional operating para"eters have been defined which allow an efficient presentation of the large volu"e of perfor"ance data re!uired to represent a practical range of operating conditions %a"ple proble"s are included to illustrate the use of the perfor"ance graphs for design applications & heat exchanger has a first tube bundle for circulating a first fluid, a second tube bundle for circulating a second fluid, and a shell which acco""odates the tube bundles arranged in series in the shell, so that when a third fluid is circulated through the shell it successivel$ contacts the tube bundles for a successive heat exchange between the third fluid and a respective one of the two first-"entioned fluids, to provide a heat transfer between three fluids INTRODUCTION:

& heat exchanger is a piece of e!uip"ent built for efficient heat transfer fro" one "ediu" to another The "edia "a$ be separated b$ a solid wall to prevent "ixing or the$ "a$ be in direct contact The$ are widel$ used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, che"ical plants, petroche"ical plants, petroleu" refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treat"ent The classic exa"ple of a heat exchanger is found in an

internal co"bustion engine in which a circulating fluid 'nown as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the inco"ing air There are four pri"ar$ classifications of heat exchangers according to their flow arrange"ent (n parallel-flow heat

exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the sa"e end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side

Countercurrent )&* and parallel )+* flows

(n counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger fro" opposite ends The counter current design is the "ost efficient, in that it can transfer the "ost heat fro" the

heat )transfer* "ediu" due to the fact that the average te"perature difference along an$ unit length is greater %ee countercurrent exchange (n a cross-

&n interchangeable plate heat exchanger exchanger

Tubular heat

flow heat exchanger, the fluids travel roughl$ perpendicular to one another through the exchanger ,or efficienc$, heat exchangers are designed to "axi"i#e the surface area of the wall between the two fluids, while "ini"i#ing resistance to fluid flow through the exchanger The exchanger-s perfor"ance can also be affected b$ the addition of fins or corrugations in one or both directions, which increase surface area and "a$ channel fluid flow or induce turbulence The driving te"perature across the heat transfer surface

varies with position, but an appropriate "ean te"perature can be defined (n "ost si"ple s$ste"s this is the .log "ean te"perature difference. )/0T1* %o"eti"es direct 'nowledge of the /0T1 is not available and the NT2 "ethod is used

7 6 ,ig 64 %hell and tube heat exchanger , single pass

,ig 34 %hell and tube heat , 3-pass tube side %hell and tube heat , exchanger, 3-pass shell side

,ig 54

Ty e! "# heat exchanger! D"$%&e ' e heat exchanger

1ouble pipe heat exchangers are the si"plest exchangers used in industries On one hand, these heat exchangers are cheap for both design and "aintenance, "a'ing the" a good choice for s"all industries +ut on the other hand, low efficienc$ of the" beside high space occupied for such exchangers in large scales, has led "odern industries to use "ore efficient heat exchanger li'e shell and tube or other ones +ut $et, since double pipe heat exchangers are si"ple, the$ are used to teach heat exchanger design basic to students and as the basic rules for "odern and nor"al heat exchangers are the sa"e,

students can understand the design techni!ues "uch easier To start the design of a double pipe heat exchanger, the first step is to calculate the heat dut$ of the heat exchanger (t "ust be noted that for easier design, it8s better to ignore heat loss in heat exchanger for pri"ar$ design The heat dut$ can be defined as the heat gained b$ cold fluid which is e!ual to the heat loss of the hot fluid She&& an( t$%e heat exchanger

& %hell and Tube heat exchanger %hell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes One set of these tubes contains the fluid that "ust be either heated or cooled The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat re!uired & set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be "ade up of several t$pes of tubes4 plain, longitudinall$ finned, etc %hell and tube heat exchangers are t$picall$ used for highpressure applications )with pressures greater than 59 bar and te"peratures greater than 3:9 ;C* <3= This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape %everal ther"al design features "ust be considered when designing the tubes in the shell and tube heat exchangers4

> Tube dia"eter4 2sing a s"all tube dia"eter "a'es the heat exchanger both econo"ical &nd co"pact ?owever, it is "ore li'el$ for the heat exchanger to foul up faster and the s"all si#e "a'es "echanical cleaning of the fouling difficult To prevail over the fouling and cleaning proble"s, larger tube dia"eters can be used Thus to deter"ine the tube dia"eter, the available space, cost and the fouling nature of the fluids "ust be considered > Tube thic'ness4 The thic'ness of the wall of the tubes is usuall$ deter"ined to ensure4 > There is enough roo" for corrosion > That flow-induced vibration has resistance > &xial strength > &vailabilit$ of spare parts > ?oop strength )to withstand internal tube pressure* > +uc'ling strength )to withstand overpressure in the shell* > Tube length4 heat exchangers are usuall$ cheaper when the$ have a s"aller shell dia"eter and a long tube length Thus, t$picall$ there is an ai" to "a'e the heat exchanger as long as ph$sicall$ possible whilst not exceeding production capabilities ?owever, there are "an$ li"itations for this, including space available at the installation site and the need to ensure tubes are available in lengths that are twice the re!uired length )so the$ can be withdrawn and replaced* &lso, long, thin tubes are difficult to ta'e out and replace

> Tube pitch4 when designing the tubes, it is practical to ensure that the tube pitch )i e , the centre-centre distance of ad@oining tubes* is not less than 6 3A ti"es the tubes- outside dia"eter & larger tube pitch leads to a larger overall shell dia"eter, which leads to a "ore expensive heat exchanger > Tube corrugation4 this t$pe of tubes, "ainl$ used for the inner tubes, increases the turbulence of the fluids and the effect is ver$ i"portant in the heat transfer giving a better perfor"ance > Tube /a$out4 refers to how tubes are positioned within the shell There are four "ain t$pes of tube la$out, whichare, triangular )59;*, rotated triangular ):9;*, s!uare )B9;* and rotated s!uare )CA;* The triangular patterns are e"plo$ed to give greater heat transfer as the$ force the fluid to flow in a "ore turbulent fashion around the piping %!uare patterns are e"plo$ed where high fouling is experienced and cleaning is "ore regular > +affle 1esign4 baffles are used in shell and tube heat exchangers to direct fluid across the tube bundle The$ run perpendicularl$ to the shell and hold the bundle, preventing the tubes fro" sagging over a long length The$ can also prevent the tubes fro" vibrating The "ost co""on t$pe of baffle is the seg"ental baffle The se"icircular seg"ental baffles are oriented at 6D9 degrees to the ad@acent baffles forcing the fluid to flow upward and downwards between the tube bundle +affle spacing is of large ther"od$na"ic concern when designing shell and tube heat exchangers +affles "ust be spaced with

consideration for the conversion of pressure drop and heat transfer ,or ther"o econo"ic opti"i#ation it is suggested that the baffles be spaced no closer than 39E of the shell8s inner dia"eter ?aving baffles spaced too closel$ causes a greater pressure drop because of flow redirection Conse!uentl$ having the baffles spaced too far apart "eans that there "a$ be cooler spots in the corners between baffles (t is also i"portant to ensure the baffles are spaced close enough that the tubes do not sag The other "ain t$pe of baffle is the disc and donut baffle, which consists of two concentric baffles &n outer, wider baffle loo's li'e a donut, whilst the inner baffle is shaped li'e a dis' This t$pe of baffle forces the fluid to pass around each side of the dis' then through the donut baffle generating a different t$pe of fluid flow ,ixed tube li!uid-cooled heat exchangers especiall$ suitable for "arine and harsh applications can be asse"bled with brass shells, copper tubes, brass baffles, and forged brass integral end hubs heat transfer which includes a source of a two-phase flow, for exa"ple a boiler & tan' separator 3 is connected to the source of the two-phase flow, in which the flow is subdivided into two fluids having different phase states, in particular into li!uid and vapor (f the source 6 is a boiler, the tan' separator 3 subdivides the li!uid supplied fro" the boiler into a blow down water and a flush stea" The s$ste" is provided with a heat exchanger which is for"ed in accordance with the present invention and identified as a whole with reference nu"eral 5 The li!uid )the blow down water* is supplied fro" the tan' separator into a left part

5- of the heat exchanger which is provided with a first tube bundle, and flows through the tube bundle so as to be discharged at the end, for exa"ple into a sewage The fluid supplied in the left tube bundle can be a fluid which does not change its phase state, and in particular is li!uid The vapor )flush stea"* is supplied to a right portion 5. of the heat exchanger provided with a second tube bundle and flows through the second tube bundle in which it condenses The fluid in the tube bundle in the right portion 5. of the heat exchanger 5 is a fluid which changes its phase state & third fluid which is a cold flow to be heated in this case can be a "a'e up water, is supplied into a shell which surrounds both tube portions located in series with one another, so that the cold flow first flows around the left tube bundle located in the left part 5- of the heat exchanger, then flows around the right tube bundle arranged in the right part 5. of the heat exchanger, and then is withdrawn fro" the shell (n the exa"ple with the heat exchanger fro" the boiler, the heated flow or the "a'e up water supplied for exa"ple with a te"perature C9 heated in the left part 5of the heat exchanger b$ heat exchange with the hot blow down water supplied for exa"ple with te"perature of 359 C that the "a'e up water is heated for exa"ple to :9 thereafter the "a'e up water flows in the right part 5. of the heat exchanger and a heat transfer is perfor"ed with the flush strea", for exa"ple with te"perature of 359 further

,(F 3 shows details of the heat exchanger in accordance with the present invention ?ere, the left tube bundle is identified as a whole with reference nu"eral 66 and has a fluid inlet 63 and a fluid outlet 65, the right tube bundle is identified with reference nu"eral 6C and has a fluid inlet 6A and a fluid outlet 6:, and the shell is identified with reference nu"eral 6G and has a fluid inlet 6D and a fluid outlet 6B (t should be "entioned that the fluid which changes its phase state can be utili#ed further (n particular, the condensate produced fro" the vapor in the right tube bundle can be not onl$ discharged, but also can be supplied bac' to a line leading to the source 6 of the two-phase flow or to another line in which the li!uid which does not change its phase state flows The heat exchanger shown in ,(F 5 substantiall$ corresponds to the first e"bodi"ent of the present invention (n this e"bodi"ent, however, the heat exchanger is arranged directl$ in the tan' separator 3 This si"plifies the overall construction of the heat exchanger in which the heat exchanger of the present invention is used Hhile in the e"bodi"ent of ,(F 6 the fluid which passes through the left part 5- of the heat exchanger and does not change its phase state and the fluid which passes through the right part 5. of the heat exchanger and changes its phase state are the fluids produced fro" the sa"e source, in particular fro"

the two-phase flow, ,(F C shows the s$ste" in accordance with another e"bodi"ent (n the s$ste" shown in this figure, vapor which is a fluid which changes its phase state, is supplied into the tube bundle 66 located in the left part 5- of the heat exchanger The vapor is condensed in the tube bundle 66, and then as a li!uid which does not change its phase state, is supplied into the tube bundle 6C located in the right part 5. of the heat exchanger and is cooled in the tube bundle 6C (n all above described e"bodi"ents, the third fluid is a cold fluid to be heated which is circulated through the heat exchanger to cool the other two fluids and to be heated (n the e"bodi"ent of ,(F C, si"ilarl$ to the previous e"bodi"ents, the third, cold fluid is circulated inside the shell 6G so that again it is first brought in a heat transfer with the fluid which does not change its phase state and thereafter is brought into heat exchange with the fluid which changes its phase state (n the s$ste" shown in ,(F A the third fluid is a heating fluid which is circulated inside the shell 6G so as to heat the other two fluids and to be cooled (n this heat exchanger the third fluid is brought into a heat transfer first with a fluid which changes its phase state and thereafter is brought into a heat transfer with a fluid which does not change its phase state &n initial flow through the tube bundles is provided b$ a li!uid which is first supplied into the tube bundle 66 located in the left part 5- of the heat exchanger and is heated into the tube bundle 66 to evaporate The vapor is then supplied into the tube

bundle 6C located in the right part 5. of the heat exchanger and is superheated there (n the e"bodi"ents of ,(F% : and G, the first fluid and the second fluid flow independentl$ fro" one another The first fluid is supplied into and withdrawn fro" the tube bundle 6C located in the right part 5. of the heat exchanger, while the second fluid is supplied into and withdrawn fro" the tube bundle 66 located in the left part 5- of the heat exchanger The third fluid cools or heats the fluid in one tube bundle and in the other tube bundle (n addition, in the e"bodi"ent of ,(F G the third fluid is recirculated for exa"ple, b$ a recirculating pu"p to cool the fluid in one bundle and to heat in the other b$ heat transfer between the fluids in the bundles The heat exchanger shown in ,(F D has a first tube bundle 66. and a second tube bundle 6C. which are arranged one after the other or in other words in series with one another in the parts 5a- and 5a. of the heat exchanger 5a The third fluid is circulated through the interior of the shell 6G. ?ere, however, the heat exchanger 5a is 2-shaped 0ore particularl$, its shell 6G- is bent in a 2shaped "anner, and the tube bundles 66- and 6C- are located in the corresponding legs of the 2-shape (n this construction the fluid inlets and outlets of the tube bundles and the shell are located at one side of the heat exchanger, and therefore servicing of the heat exchanger as well as its repair and "aintenance are facilitated

,inall$, the e"bodi"ent of ,(F B shows a heat exchanger which substantiall$ corresponds to the heat exchanger shown in ,(F 5, but is provided with a heat exchanger of ,(F D (n particular, the heat exchanger 5a here is 2shaped and arranged in the tan' separator 3- &lso, here a pu"p C is provided for recirculating of the li!uids bac' into a li!uid line of this s$ste" (t should be "entioned that the two fluids which are circulated in the two bundles can be fluids of the sa"e che"ical substance, for exa"ple a water flow and a stea" flow On the other hand, these two fluids can be for"ed b$ flows of different che"ical substances, for exa"ple an a""onia vapor flow and a water flow, etc (t will be understood that each of the ele"ents described above, or two or "ore together, "a$ also find a useful application in other t$pes of constructions differing fro" the t$pes described above Hhile the invention has been illustrated and described as e"bodied in heat exchanger, it is not intended to be li"ited to the details shown, since various "odifications and structural changes "a$ be "ade without departing in an$ wa$ fro" the spirit of the present invention Hithout further anal$sis, the foregoing will so full$ reveal the gist of the present invention that others can, b$ appl$ing current 'nowledge, readil$ adapt it for various applications without o"itting features that, fro" the standpoint of prior

art, fairl$ constitute essential characteristics of the generic or specific aspects of this invention &ccordingl$, it is an ob@ect of the present invention to provide a heat exchanger which has an i"proved intensification of a heat exchange between the fluids (n 'eeping with these ob@ects and with others which will beco"e apparent hereinafter, one feature of the present invention of the resides, briefl$ stated, in a heat exchanger provided with two tube bundles for circulation of a first fluid and a second fluid, and a shell which acco""odates the tube bundles in series with one another and through which a third fluid is circulated to be brought into a heat transfer with the first "entioned two fluids, so that a heat transferbetween three fluids is perfor"ed Hhen the heat exchanger is designed in accordance with the present invention, it provides for a substantiall$ intensified heat exchange between the fluids The novel features which are considered as characteristic for the present invention are set forth in particular in the appended clai"s The invention itself, however, both as to its construction and its "ethod of operation, together with additional ob@ects and advantages thereof, will be best understood fro" the

following description of specific e"bodi"ents when read in connection with the acco"pan$ing drawings 6 & heat recover$ s$ste" co"prising a source of a first fluidI a first tube bundle having a first inlet and a first outlet arranged so that said first fluid is introduced fro" said source of said first fluid into said first inlet, passes through said first tube bundle, and is then withdrawn fro" said first outletI a source of the second fluidI a second tube bundle having a second inlet and a second outlet arranged so that said second fluid is introduced fro" said source of said second fluid into said second inlet, passes through said second tube bundle is then withdrawn fro" said second outletI a source of a third fluidI and a shell which acco""odates said first and said second tube bundles and has a shell inlet and a shell outlet arranged so that said third fluid is introduced fro" said third source of said third fluid into said shell inlet, passes through said shell in contact with said first tube bundle and second tube bundle for a successive heat transfer between said third fluid and said first and second fluids, and thereafter is withdrawn fro" said shell outlet, so that all said three fluids are supplied fro" external ther"al sources to conduct a heat transfer between said three fluids and thereafter all said three fluids are withdrawn for heat recover$ 3 & heat recover$ s$ste" as defined in clai" 6, wherein said shell has an axis and extends substantiall$ in an axial direction and has two axial ends, said

tube bundles being arranged substantiall$ in said axial ends of said shell and spaced fro" one another in an axial direction 5 & heat recover$ s$ste" as defined in clai" 6, wherein said shell is substantiall$ 2-shaped and has two leg portions connected with one another, said tube bundles being arranged in said leg portions and each being provided with a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet located at one side of the heat exchanger