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10/15/12 Feet (Human Anatomy): Bones, Tendons, Ligaments, and More

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The feet are flexible structures of bones, joints, muscles, and soft tissues that let us stand upright and perform activities like walking, running, and jumping. The feet are divided into three sections: The forefoot contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals). The midfoot is a pyramid-like collection of bones that form the arches of the feet. These include the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone. The hindfoot forms the heel and ankle. The talus bone supports the leg bones (tibia and fibula), forming the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest bone in the foot. Muscles, tendons, and ligaments run along the surfaces of the feet, allowing the complex movements needed for motion and balance. The Achilles tendon connects the heel to the calf muscle and is essential for running, jumping, and standing on the toes.

Feet Conditions Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation in the plantar fascia ligament along the bottom of the foot. Pain in the heel and arch, worst in the morning, are symptoms. Osteoarthritis of the feet: Age and wear and tear cause the cartilage in the feet to wear out. Pain, swelling, and deformity in the feet are symptoms of osteoarthritis. Gout: An inflammatory condition in which crystals periodically deposit in

Claw toes: Abnormal contraction of the toe joints. Achilles tendon injury: Pain in the back of the heel may suggest a problem with the Achilles tendon. causing severe pain and swelling. and irritated skin. Metatarsalgia: Pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot. and More joints. swelling. causing dry. Calluses usually develop on the balls of the feet or the heels and may be uncomfortable or painful. Feet edema can also be a sign of heart. warmth. Bunions may occur in 2/3 . Tendons. 2008. Irritation and other feet problems may develop without special footwear to accommodate the mallet toe. if necessary. Nail fungal infection (onychomycosis): Fungus creates discoloration or a crumbling texture in the fingernails or toenails. Flat feet can be corrected with shoe inserts (orthotics). and pain. A neuroma may cause pain. Saunders Elsevier. Calluses: A buildup of tough skin over an area of frequent friction or pressure on the feet. Plantar wart: A viral infection in the sole of the foot that can form a callus with a central dark spot. 2007. Joints in the feet. Nail infections can be difficult to treat. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. People with diabetes should examine their feet daily for any injury or signs of developing infection such as redness. Mallet toes: The joint in the middle of a toe may become unable to straighten. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune form of arthritis that causes inflammation and joint damage. Claw toe can be painful and usually requires a change in footwear. and burning and often improves with a change in footwear. and can be painful. or liver problems. flaking. Fracture: The metatarsal bones are the most frequently broken bones in the feet. Strenuous activity or ill-fitting shoes are the usual causes. which may cause severe pain during walking or standing. Mosby Elsevier. Review ed on May 04. Ingrown toenails: One or both sides of a toenail may grow into the skin.10/15/12 Feet (Human Anatomy): Bones. Ingrown toenails may be painful or lead to infections. Athlete's foot: A fungal infection of the feet. All rights reserved. Plantar warts can be painful and difficult to treat. kidney. People with plantar fasciitis. either from injury or repetitive use. flat feet. My Notes: www. Cecil Medicine. L. causing a claw-like appearance. S. The injury can be sudden or a nagging daily pain (tendinitis). potentially causing other feet problems. Goldman. 2010 © 2010 WebMD. swelling. but are often caused by heredity or ill-fitting footwear. ankle. Bunions (hallux valgus): A bony prominence next to the base of the big toe that may cause the big toe to turn inward. Diabetic foot infection: People with diabetes are vulnerable to infections of the feet. LLC. Heel spurs: An abnormal growth of bone in the heel. Morton's neuroma: A growth consisting of nerve tissue often between the third and fourth toes. numbness. SOURCES Canale. which can be more severe than they appear.webmd. Corns: Like calluses. The big toe is often affected by gout. Fallen arches (flat feet): The arches of the feet flatten during standing or walking. red. and bruising may be signs of a fracture. and toes may be affected by rheumatoid arthritis. or high arches are more likely to develop heel spurs. Pain. Swollen feet (edema): A small amount of swelling in the feet can be normal after prolonged standing and common in people with varicose veins. Daily washing and keeping the feet dry can prevent athlete's foot. Corns typically have a cone shape with a point. redness. causing the toe to point down. corns consist of excessive tough skin buildup at areas of excessive pressure on the feet. Ligaments.

and Mallet Toes-Related Information Plantar Fasciitis-Related Information See All Foot Problems and Care Topics www.webmd. and More Further Reading: Slideshow: Pictures of Common Foot Problems What Is Acrocyanosis? Clubfoot-Credits Clubfoot-Related Information Fungal Nail Infections-Related Information Hammer. Ligaments. Tendons. Claw.10/15/12 Feet (Human Anatomy): 3/3 .