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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(a) preface (b) Acknowledgement (c) declaration (d) Certificate

TOPIC 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12 13 Introduction History Objective

TITLE . . . . .

Page No.

Research methodology Data collection mothod Snapshot of toothpaste brands factor analysis Research technique for brands position Limitations Suggestions Conclusion Bibliography Questionnaire

. . . .

PREFACE

The Project work is field which uses tools and techniques to transfer subjectivity in the environment into objectives, also the findings of the research, when applied show results, which can be measured and evaluated so there is feedback this is what makes it a dynamic activity.

This survey is an analytical study of a different facts of the product. The focus is given on the Brand profile. This project entitled five brands of

laptop , is for the partial fulfillment of B.B.A.(Hons) Degree.

The idea behind this project is to give practical knowledge and to make them to face real life situation. The project survey is commonly used for the collection from the respondents through questionnaire. In this method statistical techniques have been used systematically. This project survey is not only with my own efforts but also that of others.

(.) B.B.A II Semester

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Preparing a project of this nature is an arduous task and I was fortunate enough to get support from a large number o persons. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to all those who generously helped in successful completion of this report by sharing their invaluable time and knowledge. It is my proud and previledge to express my deep regards to Respected , Head of Department .., Department of , Dr. Hari Singh Gour University Sagar for allowing me to undertake this project. I feel extremely exhilarated to have completed this project under the able and inspiring guidance of Miss. . She rendered me all possible help me guidance while reviewing the manuscript in finalising the report. I also extend my deep regards to my teachers all family members, friends and all those whose encouragement has infused courage in me to complete to work successfully.

(..) B.B.A II Semester

DELCLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE


Date :

I declare that the project work entitled company profile report titled " FIVE BRANDS OF LAPTOP" on Market Segmentation is my own work conducted under the supervision of Miss. . Department of Business Management, Dr. Hari Singh Gour centerl University Sagar (M.P.) To the best of my knowledge the I also ensure that this work done by me is purely original and is my own creativity

( B.B.A II Semester

CERTIFICATE
The project report titled " FIVE BRANDS OF LAPTOP " been prepared by . BBA II Semester 16th batch, under the guidance and supervision of Miss for the partial fulfillment of the Degree of B.B.A.

Signature of the Supervisor

Signature of the Head of the Department

Signature of the Examiner

INTRODUCTION
A Laptop is a portable personal computer with a clamshell form factor, suitable for mobile use. A laptop has most of the same components as a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device such as a touchpad (also known as a trackpad) and/or a pointing stick, and speakers into a single unit. A laptop is powered by mains electricity via an AC adapter, and can be used away from an outlet using a rechargeable battery. Laptops are also sometimes called notebook computers or notebooks. Other terms, such as ultrabooks or netbooks, refer to specific types of laptop / notebook. Most of the modern day laptop computers also have a webcam and a mic (microphone) pre-installed. Portable computers, originally monochrome CRT-based and developed into the modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications such as the military, accountants and sales representatives. As portable computers became smaller, lighter, cheaper, and more powerful and as screens became larger and of better quality, laptops became very widely used for a variety of purposes.

HP is

an American multinational corporation, providing products, technologies, software, solutions and services and having its headquarters in Alto, California. The current CEO of HP is Margaret Cushing Whitman. It has grown since its merger with Compaq in 2002 along with the mighty acquisition of EDS in 2008. The revenue as of 2012 is US$ 120.357 billion.

Lenovo is the Chinese multinational technology corporation.


Lenovo is the worlds second-largest PC vendor by 2012 unit sales. Lenovo acquired the American company IBMs PC business, despite cultural conflicts the corporation has a revenue of US$ 29.57 billion. The current CEO of the company is Yang Yuanqing

Dell is an American multinational corporation. It is the third


largest PC vendor in the world. Dell owns a wholly acquired subsidiary called Alienware. The total revenue as of 2012 stands at US$ 63.07 billion. The current CEO of Dell is Micheal S. Dell. However, there is a sharp decline in the sales of the products by 21% since last year and there is high anticipation of Dell in a leveraged buyout amounting to more than US$ 20billion

Apple

Inc., formerly Apple Computer, Inc., is an American international corporation having its headquarters 7in Cupertino, California. Its market capitalization as of 2013 is

431.96B. The current CEO of Apple is Timothy D. Cook. The fourth quarter ending on 29th September, 2012 saw revenue of $36 billion and net profit of $8.2 billion. The sales of laptops making up 80 percent of the Macs sold during the quarter.

Sony

Incorporation is a Japanese multinational company having its headquarters in Konan Minato, Tokyo. The current CEO of Sony is Kazuo Hirai. The company is involved in giving services and products that include computer hardware, entertainment, video games, laptops etc. The revenue as of 2012 stands at 6.395 trillion

HISTORY OF LAPTOP
The first mass-produced microprocessor-based portable computer was the Osborne 1 in 1981, which used the CP/M operating system. Although it was large and heavy compared to today's laptops, with a tiny 5" CRT monitor, it had a nearrevolutionary impact on business, as professionals were able to take their computer and data with them for the first time. This and other "luggables" were inspired by what was probably the first portable computer, the Xerox Note Taker. The Osborne was about the size of a portable sewing machine, and more importantly, could be carried on commercial aircraft.

dell From 1997 to 2004, Dell enjoyed steady growth and it gained market share from competitors even during industry slumps. Dell attained and maintained the #1 rating in PC reliability and customer service/technical support, according to Consumer Reports, year after year, during the mid-to-late 90s through 2001 right before Windows XP was released. Dell surpassed Compaq to become the largest PC manufacturer In 2003, the company was rebranded as simply "Dell Inc." to recognize the company's expansion beyond computers.

Lenovo
In the 1980s, with economic reform in progress, the Chinese government hired Liu Chuanzhi to distribute imported computers. Liu founded Lenovo in 1984 with a group of ten engineers in Beijing with 200,000 yuan. Their first significant effort, an attempt to import televisions, failed. The group rebuilt itself within a year by conducting quality checks on computers for new buyers. Lenovo soon started developing a circuit board that would allow IBM-compatible personal computers to process Chinese characters. This product was Lenovo's first major success. In 1990, Lenovo started to manufacture and market computers using its own brand name.

hp
The Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. It provides products, technologies, software, solutions and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health and education sectors.

Apple
The Mac Book was a brand of Macintosh notebook computers manufactured by Apple Inc. from early 2006 to late 2011. It

replaced the iBook series and 12-inch PowerBook series of notebooks as a part of the AppleIntel transition from PowerPC. Positioned as the low end of the Mac Book family, the Apple Mac Book was aimed at the consumer and education markets. It was the best-selling Macintosh in history, and according to the sales-research organization NPD Group in October 2008, the mid-range model of the Mac Book was the single best-selling laptop of any brand in US retail stores for the preceding five months.

Sony
Although Sony made computers in the 1980s exclusively for the local (Japan) market, the company withdrew from the computer business around the turn of the decade. Sony's reentry to the global computer market under the new VAIO brand, began in 1996 with the PCV series of desktops.

Laptop modal at binning of the company

Modern laptop of the compant

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
The research study tends to follow and achieve specific objectives.

The objectives of this particular study are:-

To know the personal views of Udaipur people regarding choices among various branded PC Laptop.

To study which branded PC Laptop is mostly preferred by people as per their choices. Comparison between various branded PC Laptop. Find out factor influencing the people at the time of purchasing Laptop QUALITY, DURABILITY, VARIETY, PRICE.

Review of Literature
Conduct a Review of the Branding Literature relating to brand image
Definition

Earlier definitions of brand image are presented in broad terms by Dobni (1990) who put forward the following writers understanding of brand image. Newman stated it as everything the people associate with the brand (1957). Reynolds (1965) confirms that an image was centred on drawing a few key beliefs from a vast variety of sources, thus creating your own impression based on the brand. Herzogs concurs that brand image was the sum of the total impressions. (1973). Indeed, such definitions all concur together; echoed by the words of Levy who stated that a brand image is a constellation of pictures and ideas in peoples minds that sum up their knowledge of the brand and their main attitudes towards it (1978). A more recent insight into brand image was added by Woodside who defined image as the

degree of positive or negative affect associated with psychological object (Reid, 2001). From these definitions a clear trend is appearing with regard to the perception of brand image with key figures around the midnineteen hundreds, supporting a collective view that an individual takes in a collaboration of ideas that the company puts forward as a representation of themselves. This allows them to draw a clear conclusion of a company from a few certain points which strike a cord with the individuals. Theory behind brand image

According to Tyler (1957), there are three approaches to brand image: Subjective, Objective and Literal. The first type, is a subjective image, this is when a potential customer hears or sees the brand name/logo and feel obliged to purchase the product or service, despite a lack of understanding as to why this is the case. The case simply

relates to how the brand is perceived as significant to an individuals self-consciousness. The second type of brand image is the objective form which is the attempt to generate an emotional need for the product, leaving you with the feeling that you need to purchase the product so as to satisfy this need. The third is literal image, i.e. a logo which represents a company. This implies that upon seeing this picture/logo, the name of the company does not need to be uttered as the picture tells the consumer the whole story e.g. Nike with the tick or McDonalds with the golden arches. Evidently, the approach used to obtain and sustain a brand image will vary upon several factors as reflected by the analysis presented by Tyler. Oxenfeldt and Swanns idea was that the brand image should allow the company to establish its position within its market segment, protecting it from competition, thus allowing them to build upon this with market share growth (Park et al, 1986).

Moreover Park et al (1986) put forward in Bhats article that the importance of establishing a brand image relevant to its market segment in which it is based, is significant so as to ascertain a strong brand position, help create a barrier to entry for potential competitors: thus raise the brands performance in the market. Further, Meenaghan stated that at the product/brand level the components of identity are in effect the elements of the marketing mix, which combine to form the image of the brand in the mind of the consumer (1995). From this, it is clear that to gain a strong brand image, one needs to exploit all areas of the marketing mix to achieve what Oxenfeldt and Swann stressed and that brand image is the key component in establishing market dominance. Also, Krishman (1996) in Faircloths assessment with the aid of the Landor survey discovered that there is a strong correlation between brand equity and brand image. The stronger the brand equity, the stronger the brand image and vice versa.

Reids (2001) understanding of brand image concerns the product of interaction involving the consumers specific experience with a certain brand, helped by advertising which reveals how the brand is to be understood and used, predominantly for brands that contend at parity. Another contemporary understanding of brand image was put forward by Hsieh (2002), who felt that building a brand image based on the identified benefit-based image dimensions consisted of a set of benefit brand associations. This helped consumers understand with clarity what a brand can do for themsymbolically, economically, sensorial or as a utility. White and Hsieh (2002) seem to recognise the key importance that advertising plays in promoting the elements of a brand image thus differentiating the brand from rival brands, giving them a competitive advantage. To summarise, it is plain to see that these academics are in complete agreement that one of the key attributes of a company, if not the key attribute, is the brand image. It is evident that there is a clear link between brand image and

market share, as depicted by Krishmans research. In addition, establishing a strong brand image is indeed a powerful way of developing market power, which consequently helps to create a tight control over its position within the market. Due to barriers to entry, a rounded marketing plan focussing on all aspects of the marketing mix; this also helps to retain a consistent consumer interest.

Brand image: practical example


In this section we will relate how brand image is encompassed in modern organisations and how they use this as a comparative advantage over there rivals to ensure that they keep there competitive edge. Manchester United In the Brand Strategy journal, the players were seen to be key to any clubs brand image. The actions of players and the perception by supporters is hence key to brand image. For example, ex-Man Utd David Beckham opened the Manchester Commonwealth Games wearing an Adidas sweatshirt. These images were then broadcast across the globe and this was

much

more

powerful (Brand

then

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endorsement Saving

through face of

advertising. sponsorship).

Strategy

briefing:

These sort of images enable organisations such as Man Utd to develop into icons which according to Douglas B. Holt is one step further than brand image, as they succeed because they forge a deep connection with the culture. In essence, they compete for culture share. This can clearly be applied to industries, like, the football industries, as many fans have a strong link between them and their club i.e. it is part of their culture.

Summary
In summary, from our research, it is clear that there is a link between successful advertising and a well-established brand image. This was made clear in our theory research, which was also represented, in our practical examples. Furthermore, it appears that to generate a strong brand image, requires continuous, diverse advertising over a period of time, which

satisfies all areas of the marketing mix, allowing a firm to generate a rounded brand image. Once this brand image is achieved, it can be built upon, as it will give a firm a competitive advantage, act as a barrier to entry and will act as a stable base so as to develop their organisation. This argument was put forward by Park et al (1986) and backs up the information that was provided in Jobber which stated that there are several benefits that arise from having a strong brand image: company value, consumer perceptions and preferences, barrier to competition, high profits, base for brand extensions, quality certification and trust (1996). The theories suggest that behind nearly all brand images there is a logo, signifying the brand and reflecting all the ideas one associates with the brand i.e. quality, style etc. It is an important factor in differentiating a firm from its rivals, as Rooney (1995) states brand leaders are often too close to being identical, hence any factor which differentiates your brand from the main stream is of value.

Meenaghan (1995) noted that to build up a successful brand image, a well-rounded marketing plan will be required focussing on all areas of the marketing mix. It needs to focus on the organisations strengths in all areas and ensure that the good/service is positively differentiated from its closest rivals.

Marketing Mix
Promotion:
Manchester United has established a range of global, commercial partnerships with certain blue chip firms such as Vodafone and Nike. Indeed this has helped put Manchester United on the global scene. Nike has launched their new Cool Motion double layer kit, promoted by many of the players such as Scholes and Ferdinand, wearing Nike Boots, which have helped connect the famous market leader with this Premier Football team. Further, legends such as Cantona have helped create this maverick image for Manchester United, but also

having such a combination of powerful sponsors has brought the team a reputable image. (ManUtd.com, 2004a).

British Sky Broadcasting and Manchester United Television Since 1991, the English league has become the most popular and televised league in the world enabling Manchester Uniteds playing achievements to be followed globally and on a regular basis. Manchester United has developed a partnership with BSKYB, who provide the distribution, production and programming. MUTV operates a magazine format of past matches, interviews with players and staff and up to the minute information on the club. This is a clear example of brand extension and brand differentiation. Meenaghan (1995) stated that one must ensure that the good/service is positively differentiated from its closest rivals. In addition, White and Hsieh cited that differentiating the brand from rival brands, gives one a competitive advantage. This is certainly the case with Manchester United as it currently has 75,000 UK subscribers to MUTV, indicating high levels of brand loyalty.

ManUtd.com Website

Cocoran, I, (2001) noted the partnership with Lycos has helped the club take advantage of its content and brand strength via the development of local-language sites for its non-English speaking fans, specifically in South East Asia. It is clear that Manchester United have recognised the advantages of digital branding as a form of brand extension and in doing so they have transferred the teams success on the pitch toward a global audience of millions, by embracing the power of the web. Club Tours -Global extension of the brand. Manchester United has strengthened its brand image by expanding its market share in untapped areas around the globe. Through information researched,

(www.brandchannel.com, 2004) Peter Draper, the clubs Director of Marketing, explains how, Currently, 90 percent of our business comes out of the UK, but 80 percent of the fan base is abroad. Theres clearly an opportunity for us there. The team has undergone tours of the US, China and the Far East in order to promote Manchester United merchandise, encourage

new sponsors and establish a firm fan base abroad. Manchester United has opened at least ten mega-stores across Asia, and plans to develop one hundred Manchester United branded football restaurants over the next ten years, with the aim to cash in on the lucrative interest many Asian nations hold in the English game.

Manchester United has succeeded in promoting the brand globally and adapting its image to different markets which is highlighted by the fact that they have 40 million fans in Asia (Lifestyle, 2004). Park et al (1986) stated that establishing a brand image relevant to the market segment in which it is based, is significant so as to ascertain a strong brand position. David Gill cites in his PLC report of 2003 that the key marketing strategy for the Manchester United brand development team is to expand operations into any country where they feel it is possible to convert the local population into loyal followers of the club and future customers in the multinational empire.

Product
Merchandise In the early nineties, the extent of the United range was very narrow (consisting of goods such as scarves, mugs and hats), but now the product line is inexhaustible, including everything possible from wallpaper in childrens bedrooms to cuddly toys, soft drinks and underwear.

As the popularity of the Internet has come to prominence, this has acted as a further opportunity of extending the brand image around the globe, providing new found supporters in East-Asia and America with the opportunity to purchase their goods. Manchester United have proposed tactics to sell their

brand image in countries where popularity is however limited, such as America and the Far-East.

Place
Old Trafford Club Stadium The club recognised at an early stage in the brands development, the potential earning power of the clubs home ground, Old Trafford with 68,000 supporters walking through the gates on any given match day. Currently shown in Manchester United financial data is that 36% of the clubs revenue is generated from match days. (ManUtd.com, 2004c). Reid (2001) stressed that the brand has to be experienced, therefore by providing a well equipped stadium, this helps attract a greater influx of foreign visitors.

Price
The use of price can be viewed as the sole negative factor of Manchester United brand image. Exploitation is evident in the form of the fans that pay outrageous prices for gate admissions (34) and replica shirts (45) and via their business partners, the exploitation of children in the sweatshops of Asia as exposed by the BBCs current affairs flagship Panorama. While the clubs players such as Ferdinand, Giggs and Keane are paid so handsomely to wear the products of leading sports manufacturers the workers in the sweatshops of Indonesia and other Asian countries are earning 72 pence for 24 hours

of work. (Skynews.com, 2002). The enormous difference between what the goods cost to manufacture and their price is the reason behind the clubs huge profits and enormous transfer kitty. It is clear that there is a large disparity between with the wealth of Manchester United and the workers who make the products so crucial to the global spread of the brand image.

Brand Preference
Customers buying products are buying utility, function, and performance as much as image and status (Terpstra and Sarathy, 1997, p. 375). Actually, Customer merchandise has implications more than their utilitarian, functional, and commercial significance (Czikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton, 1981; Ericksen, 1996; Leigh and Gabel, 1992; Levy, 1959; Mick, 1986). Consumers do not consume products for their material utilities but consume the symbolic meaning of those products as portrayed in their images (Elliot, 1997, p. 286). Therefore, the acquired goods are not only bundles of attributes that yield particular benefits (Holt, 1995, p. 1) but also indications of symbolic meanings to the public. Consumers are more likely to use brands to express how they are either similar to or different from people of their in-group (Markus and Kitayama, 1991). Bhat and Reddy (1998) also reported that brands have practical and emblematic importance for consumers. The emblematic

importance, which is attached to brands, is often broadcasted via the use and consumption of brands (Gottdeiner, 1985; McCracken, 1986). Consequently, there seems to be a noteworthy relationship between brand images, consistent with the emblematic importance of brands,

and consumers self images (Zinkham and Hong, 1991). Individuals are more likely to buy brands whose personalities intimately match their own self images (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000). Similarly, consumers express themselves by selecting brands whose personalities are recognized to be consistent with their own personalities (Aaker, 1999; Kassarjian, 1971; Sirgy, 1982). In many circumstances, consumers self image influences his/her purchase decisions (Zinkham and Hong, 1991) In other words, consumers use products to illustrate, maintain, and reinforce their self concepts to themselves (Sirgy, 1982; Wallendorf and Arnould, 1988; Zinkham and Hong, 1991). Therefore, purchase and consumption are good vehicles for self-expression (Jamal and Goode, 2001, p. 483). Previous research indicated that self image/self expression affect consumers product preferences and their purchase intentions (Ericksen, 1996; Mehta, 1999). For example, Ericksen (1996) found a significant relationship between self image and intention to buy an American automobile (Ford Escort). Based on this finding, it might be inferred that individuals prefer brands that have images compatible with their perceptions of self (Jamal and Goode, 2001, p. 483; Belk, et. al., 1982; Ericksen, 1996; Solomon, 1983; Zinkham and Hong, 1991). Moreover, this self image consistency strengthen positive attitude

toward products and brands (Ericksen, 1996; Sirgy, 1982, 1985, 1991; Sirgy, et. al., 1997). Specifically, the more similar a consumers self image is to the brands image, the more favorable their evaluations of that brand should be (Graeff, 1996, p. 5).

Brand Personality
Contrary to product-related attributes, which refer to be performance-oriented for customers, brand personality seems to be representative/self-expressive oriented (Keller, 1993). Brand

personality refers to the set of human characteristics associated with a brand (Aaker, 1997, p. 347). Moreover, researchers found that brand personality facilitates a consumer to articulate his/her self (Belk, 1988), an ideal self (Malhotra, 1988), or exact aspects of the self (Kleine, Kleine, and Kerman, 1993) via the use of a brand. Additionally, this concept was the essential determinant of consumer preference and usage (Biel, 1993). Brand personality can be shaped and influenced by any direct/indirect contact that the consumer has with the brand (Plummer, 1985). The direct influences included the brands user imagery, which is defined as the set of human characteristics associated with the typical user of a brand (Aaker, 1997, p. 348); the firms workers and/or boss; and the brands endorsers. On the other hand, the indirect influences

contained product-related features, product category relationships, brand name, mark or emblem, and other marketing mix elements (Batra, Lehmann, and Singh, 1993). Moreover, according to Levy (1959, p. 12), brand personality consisted of demographic characteristics such as gender (Usually it is hard to evade thinking of inanimate things as male or female), age (Just as most, people usually recognize whether something is addressed to them as a man or a woman, so are they sensitive to symbols of age), and class (The possession of mink is hardly a matter of winter warmth alone). Some examples are provided as follows. First, in the tobacco industry, Virginia Slims tends to be thought of feminine, whereas Marlboro tends to perceived as masculine (Aaker, 1997, p. 348). Second, in the pc business, Apple is considered to be young, and IBM is considered to be older (Aaker, 1997, p. 348). Third, based on the various pricing policies in relation to different department stores, Saks Fifth Avenue is perceived as upper class, whereas K-mart is perceived as blue collar (Aaker, 1997, p. 348).

Customer Perceived Value

Value has been recognized as the fundamental basis for all marketing activity (Halbrook, 1994, p. 22). Value has also been stated as a cognitive-based construct which captures any benefit-sacrifice discrepancy in much the same way disconfirmation does for variations between expectations and perceived performance (Patterson and Spreng, 1997, p. 421). Therefore, it is the outcome of a cognitive assessment procedure. Moreover, it is an affective evaluative reaction (Oliver, 1996). Customer perceived value in commerce marketplace was defined as the trade-off between the multiple benefits and sacrifices of a suppliers offering, as perceived by key decision-makers in the customers organization, and taking into consideration the available alternative suppliers offerings in a specific use situation (Eggert and Ulaga, 2002, p. 110). That is, there existed three elements in this definition: (1) the multiple components of value, (2) the subjectivity of value perceptions and (3) the importance of competition (Eggert and Ulaga, 2002, p. 109). First of all, the multiple benefits refer to a mixture of product/service attributes and/or technological support available related to a specific use condition (Monroe, 1990). The multiple sacrifices were occasionally illustrated in monetary forms (Anderson, et

al., 1993). Secondly, customers perceived value is subjective, not objective (Kortge and Okonkwo, 1993). In other words, different customers might have a variety of perceived values for consuming the same product/service. Thirdly, customers perceived value is associated with competition on the market. Competitors generate sustainable competitive advantage by means of bringing a better trade-off between utilities and sacrifice in a merchandise/service. Alternatively, customer perceived value was consisted of a take factor- the benefits a purchaser obtained from the vendors contribution- and a give factor- the buyers costs (financial and/or non-monetary) of receiving the offering (Dodds, 1991; Zeithmal, 1988). Even much of the precedent studies have emphasized product quality as the primary take factor and price as the give factor (Grewal et al., 1998; Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton, 1990; Zeithmal, 1988). But, service is also a logical driver of perceived value (Parasuraman and Grewal, 2000, p. 169). For the reason that outstanding before/after sale services provided by the seller really increase the benefits obtained (the take factor) and also decrease the buyers non -monetary costs, such as time, effort, and mental stress (the give factor) (Parasuraman and Grewal, 2000, p. 169). Consequently, customer perceived value was composed of service quality, product quality, and price (Parasuraman and Grewal, 2000, p. 169).

1. Service quality
Perceived service quality was defined as the discrepancy between expected quality and experienced quality (Gronroos, 2000, p. 67). Expected quality refers to the expectations of the customer; experienced quality is the outcome of a series of internal decisions and activities (Gronroos, 2000, p. 101). In other words, customers

subjectivity has a significant influence on perceived service. Based on a concrete background of empirical and conceptual research, Gronroos (2000, p. 81) provided a list of The Seven Criteria of Good Perceived Service Quality: professionalism and skills (i.e., service providers have required knowledge to offer skills in order to solve customers problems in a professional way), attitudes and behavior (i.e., service providers are considerate of/friendly to customers), accessibility and flexibility (i.e., service providers are easy and adaptive for customers to reach), reliability and trustworthiness (i.e., service providers are dependable and honorable), service recovery (i.e., service providers are willing to correct mistakes as soon as they can), serviscape (i.e., customers feel comfortable in the environment related to the service process), reputation and credibility (i.e., service providers can be trusted by customers).

2. Product quality

Generally speaking, people buy products to satisfy needs and wants. That is, consumers would like to obtain a mixture of utilities when they procure items for consumption, and different customers seem to acquire a variety of benefits from the same kind of goods. In order to supply the benefits for consumers, marketers need to successfully incorporate the components that constitute a product. These components include product features (quality, design, branding, and packaging) and customer service (purchase services and usage services) (Bearden, Ingram, and LaForge, 2001, p. 185). Product quality refers to how well a product does what it is supposed to do as defined by the customer (Bearden, Ingram, and LaForge, 2001, p. 186).

3. Price
The price of a product/service can be analyzed associated with customers quality expectations and/or their past experiences. If the price is judged too expensive, consumers might not purchase. A low price policy causes poor positioning and neglected opportunities. However, price appears to be a standard for quality in some circumstances. A higher price level equals a better quality in the minds of customers, especially when the service is highly intangible (Gronroos, 2000, p. 80).

Hypotheses

Based on the literature discussed above, the hypotheses of this study are as follows: 1. There existed a significant relationship between brand preferences and respondents demographic characteristics. 2. There existed a significant relationship between brand personality and respondents brand preferences. 3. Brand preferences were significantly associated with variation in customers perceived value.

Research Methodology

Definition of Research:RESEARCH in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge .Also can be defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research is a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.

TYPE OF RESEARCH
The research design comprise of the plan and structure of investigation conceived so as to arrive at the responses to the research queries. It there by addresses the aims and objectives of the study, both descriptively and analytically.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The sampling technique adopted for the study is non-probability Random sampling technique according to the convenience of the researcher. A questionnaire was administered to different software companies to obtain data for the purpose of analysis.

SAMPLE SIZE
Data is collected using a sample of 50 Respondents.

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION
The sample mainly consists of data from the primary sources that are utilized for the purpose of this study. This is done by means of administrating questioners to in different software companies in the city of Udaipur. Secondary data like company journals, newsletters, records etc. were also relied on for retrieving further information.

DATA COLLECTION MATHOD


Both secondary and primary sources of data are utilized for the purpose of this study. Primary data is collected by means of administering a questionnaire to the different software companies. Secondary data is collected from various records, manuals and other sources.
S. No. 1. Particulars Project Title Description

A STUDY OF CUSTOMER PURCHASE DECISION TOWARDS LAPTOPS. (Special Reference to Udaipur)

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Sample Size Sample Unit Area Covered Sampling Procedure Research Design Data Collection Method Research Instrument Type of Questionnaire Type of Questions Method of Survey Type of Sampling

50 Students, Service Mens, Shopkeepers,etc. Udaipur Random Sampling Exploratory Survey Questionnaire Structured Close Ended, Open Ended Questions Census Survey Stratified Sampling

Importance of research work:

The purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of demographic Factors and footwear benefits sought on consumer purchasing outcomes in the urban market.

Research results show that age, household size, education, occupation and income significantly affect amount of money spent, pairs of footwear purchased and purchase plans, but not average price paid. Gender and residence of respondent were not significantly related to purchasing outcomes.

The study identified two groups of shoppers seeking significantly different benefits in purchasing footwear products: the functional shoppers and the alpha shoppers. As compared to the functional shoppers, alpha shoppers purchased more pairs of footwear, paid higher price for footwear and spent larger HRK1 amount on footwear. The results are indicative for the segmentation strategy in the footwear market.

The research also helps footwear manufacturers and retailers to better target their consumer segments

Data Analysis & Interpretation


1. Do you have a Laptop?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 PARTICULARS Yes No Total NO. OF RESPONDENTS 25 25 50 PERCENTAGE 50% 50% 100%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 25% people have laptop & 25% people do not have laptop.

2.
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

If Yes which brand do you have?


PARTICULARS Sony Dell HP Lenovo IBM Compaq Acer HCL Total NO. OF RESPONDENTS 4 2 4 6 1 4 2 2 25 PERCENTAGE 16% 8% 16% 16% 4% 24% 8% 8% 100%

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 24% people have Lenovo, 16% people have Compaq, 8% have Dell, 16% have Sony, 8% HCL, 8% have Acer, 16% have HP laptop.

3.
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 9

When did you purchase your Laptop?


PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 10 8 4 2 1 25 PERCENTAGE 40% 32% 16% 8% 4% 100%

Less than 6 months 6 months to 1 year 1 -2 years 2 5 years More than 5 years
Total

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 16% people plans for purchasing laptop in 1-2 yr., 4% plan more than 5 yr., 40% plan in less than 6 months, 32% plan in 6 month to 1 yr.

4. What is main purpose of using Laptop?


SR.NO. 1 2 3 9 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 13 10 2 Total 25 PERCENTAGE 52% 40% 8% 100%

Personal Official Both

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 52% purchasing laptop for person use, 8% purchase for both purpose, 40 % purchase for official use.

5. Your satisfaction level towards your laptop?


SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 9 13 2 1 0 25 PERCENTAGE 36% 52% 8% 4% 0% 100%

Strongly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Strongly dissatisfied partially satisfied


Total

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 52% people satisfied with their brand laptop, 36% strongly satisfied with their laptop, 8% people dissatisfied with their laptop, 4% people strongly dissatisfied with their laptop.

6.
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5

Which types of features prefer most by you in laptop?


PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 9 8 5 2 1 Total 25 PERCENTAGE 36% 32% 20% 8% 4% 100%

Processor Battery backup Screen size Ram Hard disk

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 32% people gives preference to battery backup, 36% for processor, 8% for RAM, 20% give preference screen size, 4% gives HDD.

7.
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5

What are the factors which influence your buying decision?


PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 9 7 4 3 2 25 PERCENTAGE 36% 28% 16% 12% 8% 100%

Price Availability Schemes Quality advertisement


Total

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 28% people influencing through availability of product, 36% influencing through price, 16% through schemes, 12% through Quality of laptop & 8% through advertisement.

8.
SR.NO. 1 2

Are you switch over to any other brand to this brand?


PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 5 20 Total 25 PERCENTAGE 80% 20% 100%

Yes No

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 20% people want to switch their present laptop.

Person do not have laptop. 9. When would you purchase a laptop?


SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 11 10 3 1 0 25 PERCENTAGE 44% 40% 12% 4% 0% 100%

Less than 6 months 6 months to 1 year 1 -2 years 2 5 years More than 5 years
Total

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 44% people purchase laptop in less than 6 months, 40% in 6 month to 1 yr., 12% in 1-2 yr. & 4% people plans for purchasing laptop in 2-5 yr.

10.

What price range will you be prepared to pay for such

a Laptop?
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 12 6 2 3 2 0 25 PERCENTAGE 48% 24% 8% 12% 8% 0% 100%

Rs. 25000 - 30000 Rs. 35000 - 40000 Rs. 45000 - 50000 Rs. 30000 - 35000 Rs. 40000 - 45000 Above 50000
Total

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 12% choose the range of 3000035000, 48% for 25000-30000, 8% choose for 45000-50000 & 8% choose for 40000-45000.

10.
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Rank the brand according to your preference?


NO. OF RESPONDENTS 7 1 4 7 2 3 1 1 Total 26 RANK 1 5 3 2 8 4 7 6 PERCENTAGE 27% 4% 15% 27% 8% 12% 4% 4% 100%

PARTICULARS

Sony Dell HP Compaq IBM Lenovo Acer HCL

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 27% choose Compaq, 4% choose Dell, 27% choose Sony, 4% for HCL, 4& for Acer, 11% for Lenovo, 8% for IBM.

11. The
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4

main purpose of purchasing the laptop?


PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 13 9 3 Total 25 PERCENTAGE 52% 36% 12% 100%

Personal Official Both

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 52% people choose for personal use, 12% for both use & 36% for Official use.

12.

What are the factors which influence your buying

decisions? (Rank 1-5)


SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 10 3 5 6 1 25 RANK 1 2 4 3 5 PERCENTAGE 40% 12% 20% 24% 4% 100%

Price Availability Schemes Quality Advertisement Total

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 12% people influencing through availability of product, 40% through price, 24% through quality, 20% through schemes & 4% through advertisement.

13.
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Which types of features prefer most by you in laptop?


PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 8 11 2 2 2 25 PERCENTAGE 32% 44% 8% 8% 8% 100%

Processor Battery backup Screen size Ram Hard disk Total

INTERPRETATION:

The above table indicates that, 44% give preference to battery backup of laptop, 32% to processor, 8% for screen size, 8% for RAM, 8% for HDD.

14. Please tick one of the option for each of the configuration items for your desire laptop?
(i)
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Processor
PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 2 5 9 5 4 25 PERCENTAGE 8% 20% 36% 20% 16% 100%

Celeron Centrino Duo Pentium Core Total

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 36% give preference to Duo processor, 20% for Pentium, 20% for Centrino, 16% for Core & 8% for Celeron.

(ii)
SR.NO. 1 3 4 2 5

RAM
PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 1 2 12 10 25 PERCENTAGE 4% 8% 48% 40% 60%

256 MB 512 MB 1 GB 2 GB Total

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 48% give preference to 1 GB, 8% for 512 MB, 4% for 256 MB & 40% for 2 GB.

(iii)
SR.NO. 1 3 4 2 5

Battery backup
PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 3 10 5 7 25 PERCENTAGE 12% 40% 20% 28% 100%

2.5 hrs. 3.5 hrs. 3 hrs. 4 hrs. Total

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 40%b gives preference to 3.5 Hrs., 12% for 2.5 Hrs., 20% for 3 Hrs., 28% for 4 Hrs.

(iv)
SR.NO. 1 3 4 5

Screen size
PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS 3 17 5 25 PERCENTAGE 12% 68% 20% 100%

12 15 14 Total

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that, 68%b gives preference to 15, 20% for 14 & 12% for 12.

FINDING & CONCLUSION


Marketing is a very crucial activity in every business organization. Every product produced within an industry has to be market. ted other wise it will remain as unsold stock, which will be of no value. I have realized this fact after completion of my project. Despite of various difficulties and limitations faced during my project on the topic A STUDY OF CUSTOMER PURCHASE DECISION TOWARDS LAPTOPS. I have tried my level best to find out the most relevant information for the organization to complete the assignment that was given to me. After completion of my project I have gained several experiences in the field or sales marketing. I have got the opportunity to meet various people, which fluctuate in different situation and time. project has given me the opportunity to have first experience in the corporate world.

Theoretical knowledge of a person remains dormant until it is used and tested in the practical life. The research has given to me the chance to apply my theoretical knowledge that I have acquired in my classroom to the real business world. I have completed my project in which are involved in its successful completion. In spite of few

limitations and hindrance in the project I found that the work was a challenge and fruitful. It gives enough knowledge about the computers market and the distribution process undertaken by an organization. This summer training project has enabled my capability in order to manage business effectively and in my career in future.

Suggestion & Recommendation


Laptop Company having large number of channel partners but it is not supporting & taking care all of them equally which results in increasing discontentment among new channel partners because its not possible for company to support all of them equally. Company should take some positive action against it.

Company executive should visit dealers on regular basis.

They Should pay proper attention towards checking of various components of PC before end user delivery. Otherwise it tends towards defame of brand name in comparison to rivals.

Need to expend customer care center . Proper attention should be paid for advertisement planning otherwise it may lead to problem for dealer as well as for company.

Company should tie up with some event management company to organize various promotional activities like canopy, Carnival.

Company should make policy for fixed end user price for all dealers so that fair game will be played & dealer would not to compromise on their margin.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
The lists of reference for the purpose of completing this marketing project are as given below: BOOKS: Marketing Research Marketing Research Marketing Management Kothari C. R. (2005) By: G. C. Beri By: Boyd and Stasch By: Philip Kotler RESEARCH METHODOLOGY New Age

International Limited, Fifth Edition Saxena Rajan, Marketing Management: Tata Mcgraw, New Delhi, 2006

INTERNET: www.hcl.in www.indiainfoline.com www.google.co.in www.hp.com www.acer.com www.dell.com

www.ibm.com www.hclinfosystem.in www.altavista.com www.khoj.com

LIMITATION OF LAPTOP
laptops remain more expensive than desktop PC. Heat generated from using a laptop on the lap can also cause skin discoloration on the thighs known as "toasted skin syndrome. Because of their portability, laptops are subject to more wear and physical damage than desktops. Battery life is limited because the capacity drops with time, eventually requiring replacement after as little as a year.

Market Competition
Dell's major competitors include Hewlett-Packard (HP), Acer, Fujitsu, Toshiba, Gateway, Sony, Asus, Lenovo, IBM, MSI, Samsung, Appleand Sun Microsystems Dell and its subsidiary, Alienware, compete in the enthusiast market against AVADirect, Falcon Northwest, VoodooPC (a subsidiary of HP), CustomPotato, and other manufacturers. In the second quarter of 2006, Dell had between 18% and 19% share of the worldwide personal computer market, compared to HP with roughly 15%. In late 2006, Dell lost its lead in the PC-business to HewlettPackard. Both Gartner and IDC estimated that in the third quarter of 2006, HP shipped more units. worldwide than Dell did. Dell's 3.6% growth paled in comparison to HP's 15% growth during the same period. The problem got worse in the fourth quarter, when Gartner estimated that Dell PC shipments declined 8.9% (versus HP's 23.9% growth). As a result, at the end of 2006 Dell's overall PC market-share stood at 13.9%
(versus HP's 17.4%)

conclusion
Portability is usually the first feature mentioned in any comparison of laptops versus desktop PCs. Physical portability allows that a laptop can be used in many places not only at home and at the office, but also during commuting and flights, in coffee shops, in lecture halls and libraries, at clients' location or at a meeting room, etc. The portability feature offers several distinct advantages:

Productivity: Using a laptop in places where a desktop PC can not be used, and at times that would otherwise be wasted. For example, an office worker managing their emails during an hour-long commute by train, or a student doing his/her homework at the university coffee shop during a break between lectures. Immediacy: Carrying a laptop means having instant access to various information, personal and work files. Immediacy allows better collaboration between coworkers or students, as a laptop can be flipped open to present a problem or a solution anytime, anywhere. Up-to-date information: If a person has more than one desktop PC, a problem of synchronization arises: changes made on one computer are not automatically propagated to the others. There are ways to resolve this problem, including physical transfer of updated files (using a USB flash memory stick or CDRs) or using synchronization

software over the Internet. However, using a single laptop at both locations avoids the problem entirely, as the files exist in a single location and are always up-to-date. Connectivity: A proliferation of Wi-Fi wireless networks and cellular broadband data services (HSDPA, EVDO and others) combined with a near-ubiquitous support by laptops means that a laptop can have easy Internet and local network connectivity while remaining mobile. Wi-Fi networks and laptop programs are especially widespread at university campuses.

Other advantages of laptops:

Size: Laptops are smaller than desktop PCs. This is beneficial when space is at a premium, for example in small apartments and student dorms. When not in use, a laptop can be closed and put away. Low power consumption: Laptops are several times more power-efficient than desktops. A typical laptop uses 2090 W, compared to 100800 W for desktops. This could be particularly beneficial for businesses (which run hundreds of personal computers, multiplying the potential savings) and homes where there is a computer running 24/7 (such as a home media server, print server, etc.) Quiet: Laptops are often quieter than desktops, due both to the components (quieter, slower 2.5-inch hard drives) and to less heat production leading to use of fewer and slower cooling fans. Battery: a charged laptop can continue to be used in case of a power outage and is not affected by short power

interruptions and blackouts. A desktop PC needs a UPS to handle short interruptions, blackouts and spikes; achieving on-battery time of more than 2030 minutes for a desktop PC requires a large and expensive UPS. All-in-One: designed to be portable, laptops have everything integrated into the chassis. For desktops (excluding all-in-ones) this is divided into the desktop, keyboard, mouse, display, and optional peripherals such as speakers