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User

Manual
2.6.0
AT260_UM_E1
Forsk 2007 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this document is prohibited 3
Contact Information
Atoll 2.6.0 User Manual Release AT260_UM_E1
Copyright 1997 - 2007 by Forsk
The software described in this document is provided under a license agreement and may only be used or copied under
the terms and conditions of the license agreement. No part of this document may be copied or reproduced in any form
without prior authorisation from Forsk.
The product or brand names mentioned in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective reg-
istering parties.
About the Atoll User Manual
The Atoll User Manual is a guide and reference for users working with Atoll. While many of the features in Atoll are easy
to use, self-explanatory and aided by easy navigation, this User Manual helps in making effective and efficient use of all
the features that Atoll offers. This document is aimed at familiarizing the user with the working environment of Atoll and
enabling them to operate and use all of Atolls features and functionalities.
The Atoll User Manual consists of the following sections:
Installation: The installation procedure is explained and the different Atoll installation configurations are de-
scribed.
Working environment: The working environment of Atoll, including the icons and buttons available in various
toolbars, is described.
Data: Managing geographic data and radio network data within Atoll is explained.
Calculation: Computation features, propagation models and calculation tools are described.
Technology modules: Each technology module is explained separately, i.e., GSM GPRS EGPRS and AFP,
UMTS HSPA, cdmaOne IS-95 and CDMA2000, WiMAX, TD-SCDMA, and Microwave links.
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Atoll User Manual
Forsk 2007 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this document is prohibited 5
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1 The Working Environment.................................................................................................... 23
1.1 The Atoll Windows ....................................................................................................................... 23
1.1.1 Working with Document Windows.................................................................................................... 24
1.1.2 Working with Docking Windows ....................................................................................................... 24
1.2 The Explorer Window................................................................................................................. 25
1.2.1 Working with the Explorer Window Tabs.......................................................................................... 25
1.2.2 Navigating in the Explorer Window.................................................................................................. 26
1.2.3 Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer........................................................... 26
1.2.4 Working with Layers Using the Explorer .......................................................................................... 26
1.3 Working With Objects................................................................................................................. 27
1.3.1 Using the Object Context Menu ....................................................................................................... 27
1.3.1.1 Renaming an Object................................................................................................................... 27
1.3.1.2 Deleting an Object...................................................................................................................... 27
1.3.1.3 Displaying the Properties of an Object ....................................................................................... 27
1.3.2 Display Properties of Objects........................................................................................................... 28
1.3.2.1 Defining the Display Properties of Objects ................................................................................. 28
1.3.2.2 Examples of Using the Display Properties of Objects ................................................................ 32
1.4 Printing in Atoll............................................................................................................................... 33
1.4.1 Printing Data Tables and Reports .................................................................................................... 33
1.4.2 Printing a Map.................................................................................................................................. 33
1.4.2.1 Printing Recommendations......................................................................................................... 34
1.4.2.2 Defining the Printing Zone.......................................................................................................... 34
1.4.2.3 Defining the Print Layout ............................................................................................................ 35
1.4.3 Previewing Your Printing.................................................................................................................. 36
1.4.4 Printing a Docking Window.............................................................................................................. 36
1.4.5 Printing Antenna Patterns ................................................................................................................ 36
1.5 Working with Maps....................................................................................................................... 37
1.5.1 Changing the Map Scale.................................................................................................................. 37
1.5.1.1 Zooming In and Out.................................................................................................................... 37
1.5.1.2 Zooming In on a Specific Area.................................................................................................... 37
1.5.1.3 Choosing a Scale........................................................................................................................ 38
1.5.1.4 Changing Between Previous Zoom Levels................................................................................. 38
1.5.2 Moving the Map in the Document Window....................................................................................... 38
1.5.3 Using the Panoramic Window.......................................................................................................... 38
1.5.4 Centring the Map Window on an Object........................................................................................... 38
1.5.5 Measuring Distances on the Map..................................................................................................... 39
1.5.6 Displaying Rulers Around the Map................................................................................................... 39
1.5.7 Displaying the Map Legend.............................................................................................................. 39
1.5.8 Exporting a Map............................................................................................................................... 40
1.5.9 Copying a Map to Another Application............................................................................................. 40
1.5.10 Map Window Pointers ...................................................................................................................... 40
1.6 Working with Data Tables ........................................................................................................ 41
1.6.1 Opening a Data Table...................................................................................................................... 42
1.6.2 Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields.............................................................................. 42
1.6.2.1 Accessing the Table Tab of an Object Types Properties dialogue............................................ 42
1.6.2.2 Adding a Field to an Object Types Data Table.......................................................................... 42
1.6.2.3 Deleting a Field from an Object Types Data Table.................................................................... 43
1.6.3 Editing the Content of a Table.......................................................................................................... 43
1.6.4 Opening an Objects Record Properties Dialogue from a Table ...................................................... 44
1.6.5 Defining the Table Format................................................................................................................ 45
1.6.6 Copying and Pasting in Tables......................................................................................................... 47
1.6.7 Exporting Tables to External Files.................................................................................................... 48
1.6.8 Importing Tables from External Files................................................................................................ 49
1.7 Grouping, Sorting, and Filtering Data................................................................................. 50
1.7.1 Grouping Data Objects..................................................................................................................... 51
1.7.1.1 Grouping Data Objects by a Selected Property.......................................................................... 51
1.7.1.2 Advanced Grouping.................................................................................................................... 51
1.7.1.3 Examples of Grouping................................................................................................................ 52
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1.7.2 Sorting Data......................................................................................................................................53
1.7.2.1 Sorting Data in Tables.................................................................................................................53
1.7.2.2 Advanced Sorting........................................................................................................................54
1.7.3 Filtering Data.....................................................................................................................................54
1.7.3.1 Filtering in Data Tables by Selection...........................................................................................54
1.7.3.2 Advanced Data Filtering..............................................................................................................55
1.7.3.3 Restoring All Records..................................................................................................................56
1.7.3.4 Advanced Filtering: Examples.....................................................................................................57
1.7.4 User Configurations ..........................................................................................................................58
1.7.4.1 Exporting a User Configuration...................................................................................................59
1.7.4.2 Importing a User Configuration...................................................................................................59
1.7.5 Folder Configurations........................................................................................................................60
1.7.5.1 Creating a Folder Configuration..................................................................................................60
1.7.5.2 Applying a Saved Folder Configuration.......................................................................................61
1.7.5.3 Reapplying the Current Folder Configuration..............................................................................61
1.7.5.4 Exporting a Folder Configuration.................................................................................................61
1.7.5.5 Importing a Folder Configuration.................................................................................................61
1.7.5.6 Deleting a Folder Configuration...................................................................................................61
1.7.6 Creating and Comparing Subfolders.................................................................................................62
1.7.7 Filtering Data Using a Polygon..........................................................................................................62
1.7.7.1 Selecting a Polygon as a Polygon Filter......................................................................................63
1.7.7.2 Selecting a Computation or Focus Zone as a Polygon Filter ......................................................63
1.7.7.3 Drawing a Polygon Filter .............................................................................................................63
1.7.7.4 Removing the Polygon Filter .......................................................................................................63
1.8 Tips and Tricks...............................................................................................................................63
1.8.1 Undoing and Redoing.......................................................................................................................63
1.8.2 Refreshing Maps and Folders...........................................................................................................64
1.8.3 Searching for Objects on the Map.....................................................................................................64
1.8.3.1 Searching for a Map Object by Its Name ....................................................................................64
1.8.3.2 Searching for a Map Object using Any Text Property.................................................................64
1.8.3.3 Searching for a Point on the Map................................................................................................65
1.8.4 Using the Status Bar to Get Information...........................................................................................65
1.8.5 Using Icons from the Toolbar............................................................................................................65
1.8.6 Using Shortcuts in Atoll.....................................................................................................................67
2 Starting an Atoll Project...........................................................................................................71
2.1 Before Starting a Radio-Planning Project.........................................................................71
2.2 Creating an Atoll Document.....................................................................................................71
2.2.1 Creating a New Atoll Document From a Template............................................................................71
2.2.1.1 Templates Available....................................................................................................................71
2.2.1.2 Creating a New Atoll Document From a Template......................................................................72
2.2.1.3 Defining a New Atoll Document...................................................................................................73
2.2.2 Working in a Multi-User Environment................................................................................................75
2.2.2.1 The Atoll Multi-User Environment................................................................................................75
2.2.2.2 Creating a New Atoll Document From a Database .....................................................................76
2.2.2.3 Working With a Document on a Database..................................................................................77
2.2.2.4 Refreshing an Atoll Document From the Database.....................................................................78
2.2.2.5 Archiving the Modifications of an Atoll Document in the Database.............................................79
3 Managing Geographic Data.................................................................................................85
3.1 Geographic Data Types.............................................................................................................85
3.2 Supported Geographic Data Formats.................................................................................86
3.3 Importing Geo Data Files ..........................................................................................................87
3.3.1 Importing a Raster-format Geo Data File..........................................................................................87
3.3.2 Importing a Vector-format Geo Data File..........................................................................................88
3.3.3 Importing MSI PlanetGeo Data .....................................................................................................89
3.3.3.1 Importing One MSI PlanetGeo Data Type...............................................................................89
3.3.3.2 Importing a MSI PlanetGeo Database.....................................................................................90
3.3.4 Grouping Geo Data Files in Folders..................................................................................................90
3.3.5 Embedding Geographic Data............................................................................................................91
3.3.6 Repairing a Broken Link to a Geo Data File......................................................................................91
3.4 Digital Terrain Models.................................................................................................................92
3.5 Clutter Classes...............................................................................................................................92
3.5.1 Assigning Names to Clutter Classes.................................................................................................92
3.5.2 Defining Clutter Class Properties......................................................................................................93
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Table of Contents
3.5.3 Adding a Clutter Class...................................................................................................................... 94
3.5.4 Refreshing the List of Clutter Classes.............................................................................................. 94
3.5.5 Displaying Total Surface Area per Clutter Class.............................................................................. 94
3.6 Clutter Heights............................................................................................................................... 95
3.7 Contours, Lines, and Points.................................................................................................... 95
3.7.1 Managing the Display of a Vector Layer .......................................................................................... 95
3.7.2 Managing the Properties of the Vector Layer................................................................................... 95
3.7.3 Moving a Vector Layer to the Data Tab............................................................................................ 96
3.8 Scanned Images........................................................................................................................... 96
3.8.1 Importing Several Scanned Images ................................................................................................. 96
3.8.2 Defining the Display Properties of Scanned Images........................................................................ 97
3.9 Population Maps ........................................................................................................................... 97
3.9.1 Managing the Display of Population Data........................................................................................ 98
3.9.2 Displaying Population Statistics ....................................................................................................... 98
3.10 Rain Maps........................................................................................................................................ 98
3.10.1 Managing Rain Map Properties........................................................................................................ 98
3.10.2 Displaying Rain Statistics................................................................................................................. 99
3.11 Custom Geo Data Maps............................................................................................................ 99
3.11.1 Creating a Custom Geo Data Map................................................................................................... 99
3.11.2 Adding a File to a Custom Geo Data Map...................................................................................... 100
3.11.3 Managing the Properties of a Custom Geo Data Map ................................................................... 101
3.11.4 Displaying Statistics on Custom Geo Data..................................................................................... 101
3.11.5 Integrable Versus Non Integrable Data.......................................................................................... 101
3.12 Setting the Priority of Geo Data........................................................................................... 102
3.12.1 Setting the Display Priority of Geo Data......................................................................................... 102
3.12.2 Setting the Priority of Geo Data in Calculations ............................................................................. 103
3.13 Displaying Information About Geo Data.......................................................................... 103
3.14 Geographic Data Sets.............................................................................................................. 103
3.14.1 Exporting a Geo Data Set .............................................................................................................. 104
3.14.2 Importing a Geo Data Set............................................................................................................... 104
3.15 Editing Geographic Data......................................................................................................... 105
3.15.1 Editing Clutter Class Maps............................................................................................................. 105
3.15.1.1 Creating a Clutter Polygon........................................................................................................ 105
3.15.1.2 Editing Clutter Polygons ........................................................................................................... 106
3.15.1.3 Displaying the Coordinates of Clutter Polygons ....................................................................... 106
3.15.1.4 Deleting Clutter Polygons ......................................................................................................... 106
3.15.2 Editing Contours, Lines, and Points ............................................................................................... 106
3.15.2.1 Creating a Vector Layer for Contours, Lines, and Points ......................................................... 106
3.15.2.2 Creating Contours, Lines, and Points....................................................................................... 107
3.15.2.3 Editing Contours, Lines, and Points.......................................................................................... 107
3.15.3 Editing Population, Rain, or Custom Data Maps............................................................................ 109
3.15.3.1 Creating a Vector Layer and Vector Objects ............................................................................ 109
3.15.3.2 Editing Contours on the Vector Layer....................................................................................... 110
3.16 Saving Geographic Data......................................................................................................... 112
3.16.1 Saving Modifications to an External File ........................................................................................ 112
3.16.1.1 Exporting an Edited Clutter Class Map in a Raster-Format File............................................... 112
3.16.1.2 Exporting an Edited Vector Layer in Vector-Format File .......................................................... 113
3.16.2 Updating the Source File................................................................................................................ 114
3.16.3 Combining Several Files into One File........................................................................................... 114
3.16.4 Exporting an Embedded File.......................................................................................................... 114
3.16.5 Creating a New File From a Larger File......................................................................................... 115
4 Antennas and Equipment.................................................................................................... 119
4.1 Working With Antennas........................................................................................................... 119
4.1.1 Creating an Antenna ...................................................................................................................... 119
4.1.2 Importing Planet-Format Antennas ................................................................................................ 120
4.1.3 Importing 3-D Antenna Patterns..................................................................................................... 121
4.1.4 Smoothing a Vertical Antenna Pattern........................................................................................... 122
4.2 Printing an Antenna Pattern.................................................................................................. 122
4.3 Working With Equipment........................................................................................................ 123
4.3.1 Defining a TMA............................................................................................................................... 123
4.3.2 Defining Feeder Cables.................................................................................................................. 123
4.3.3 Defining a BTS ............................................................................................................................... 123
4.3.4 Updating the Values for Total Losses and the BTS Noise Figure for Transmitters........................ 124
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5 Managing Computations in Atoll ....................................................................................127
5.1 Computations in Atoll: Overview..........................................................................................127
5.2 Computing in Polygonal Areas.............................................................................................127
5.2.1 Computation, Focus and Hot Spot Zones: Overview......................................................................127
5.2.2 Computation, Focus and Hot Spot Zones: Effects..........................................................................128
5.2.3 Drawing a Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone..........................................................................129
5.2.4 Creating a Computation or Focus Zone From Polygons.................................................................130
5.2.5 Importing the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zones From a File.................................................130
5.2.6 Exporting the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone to a File........................................................131
5.2.7 Deleting the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone.......................................................................131
5.2.8 Resizing the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone.......................................................................131
5.2.9 Moving a Point of the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone.........................................................131
5.2.10 Adding a Point in the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone.........................................................132
5.2.11 Removing a Point from the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone................................................132
5.2.12 Displaying the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot size......................................................................132
5.2.13 Displaying the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Coordinates.........................................................132
5.3 Propagation Models...................................................................................................................132
5.3.1 Propagation Models: General Information......................................................................................133
5.3.1.1 Selecting Propagation Models...................................................................................................133
5.3.1.2 Assigning a Propagation Model to All Transmitters...................................................................133
5.3.1.3 Assigning a Propagation Model to One Transmitter..................................................................134
5.3.1.4 Assigning a Default Propagation Model for Coverage Predictions............................................134
5.3.2 Propagation Model Priority..............................................................................................................135
5.3.2.1 Displaying General Information about the Propagation Model..................................................135
5.3.2.2 Choosing the Appropriate Propagation Model ..........................................................................135
5.3.2.3 Managing Propagation Model Folders ......................................................................................136
5.3.3 Propagation Models Available in Atoll.............................................................................................136
5.3.3.1 The Standard Propagation Model .............................................................................................136
5.3.3.2 The Okumura-Hata Propagation Model ....................................................................................144
5.3.3.3 The Cost-Hata Propagation Model............................................................................................145
5.3.3.4 The ITU 529-3 Propagation Model ............................................................................................146
5.3.3.5 The ITU 370-7 Propagation Model (Vienna 93) ........................................................................147
5.3.3.6 The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) Propagation Model ......................................................................148
5.3.3.7 The WLL (Wireless Local Loop) Propagation Model.................................................................149
5.3.3.8 The Microwave Propagation Model...........................................................................................150
5.3.3.9 The Longley-Rice Propagation Model .......................................................................................153
5.4 Tuning Reception Parameters..............................................................................................153
5.4.1 Setting the Receiver Properties ......................................................................................................153
5.4.2 Computing Shadowing Margins......................................................................................................154
5.4.3 Using Cell Edge Coverage Probability in Predictions .....................................................................155
5.5 Coverage Studies........................................................................................................................156
5.5.1 Coverage Prediction: General Settings...........................................................................................156
5.5.1.1 Setting Calculation Areas..........................................................................................................156
5.5.1.2 Setting Calculation Resolutions.................................................................................................157
5.5.1.3 Creating Coverage Calculations................................................................................................158
5.5.1.4 Creating Coverage Studies per Transmitter Group...................................................................159
5.5.1.5 Accessing Coverage Prediction Properties...............................................................................159
5.5.1.6 Setting Coverage Resolutions...................................................................................................160
5.5.1.7 Organising Result Outputs of a Coverage Study......................................................................160
5.5.1.8 Defining the Coverage Conditions.............................................................................................160
5.5.1.9 Managing Prediction Display.....................................................................................................161
5.5.1.10 Running Coverage Calculations................................................................................................163
5.5.1.11 Locking Coverage Studies ........................................................................................................163
5.5.2 Prediction Study Templates............................................................................................................164
5.5.2.1 Calculating a Coverage by Transmitter.....................................................................................164
5.5.2.2 Calculating a Coverage by Signal Level....................................................................................164
5.5.2.3 Calculating Overlapping Areas..................................................................................................164
5.5.2.4 Creating a Coverage Study Template.......................................................................................165
5.5.2.5 Deleting a Coverage Study Template .......................................................................................165
5.5.3 Path Loss Management..................................................................................................................165
5.5.3.1 Storage of Path Loss Matrices ..................................................................................................165
5.5.3.2 Locking Path Loss Results........................................................................................................166
5.5.3.3 Checking the Validity of Path Loss Results...............................................................................167
5.5.3.4 Exporting Main Path Loss Matrices...........................................................................................168
5.5.4 Prediction Coverage Outputs..........................................................................................................168
5.5.4.1 Displaying Prediction Reports ...................................................................................................168
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5.5.4.2 Exporting Prediction Reports.................................................................................................... 169
5.5.4.3 Printing Prediction Reports....................................................................................................... 169
5.5.4.4 Viewing Prediction Study Statistics........................................................................................... 170
5.5.4.5 Exporting Prediction Coverages ............................................................................................... 170
5.5.4.6 The Types of Coverage Prediction Export Available................................................................ 171
5.5.5 Prediction Studies Comparisons .................................................................................................... 171
5.5.5.1 Comparing Two Similar Prediction Studies .............................................................................. 172
5.5.5.2 Comparing a Global Study with a Study by Transmitter........................................................... 172
5.6 Point Analysis Predictions...................................................................................................... 173
5.6.1 Displaying Point Analysis Results .................................................................................................. 173
5.6.1.1 Using the Receiver ................................................................................................................... 173
5.6.1.2 Studying the Profile from a Transmitter.................................................................................... 173
5.6.1.3 Displaying Predicted Signal Levels at a Point .......................................................................... 174
5.6.1.4 Listing All Signal and C/I Levels at a Point............................................................................... 175
5.6.2 Managing Point Analysis................................................................................................................ 175
5.6.2.1 Selecting a Transmitter in Point Analysis ................................................................................. 175
5.6.2.2 Selecting the Power Definition Item in Point Analysis .............................................................. 176
5.6.2.3 Taking into Account Shadowing in a Point Analysis................................................................. 176
5.6.2.4 Displaying Signal Levels or Losses in Point Analysis............................................................... 176
5.6.2.5 Displaying Link Budget at a Receiver....................................................................................... 177
5.6.2.6 Using a Site as a Target for Point Analysis .............................................................................. 177
5.6.2.7 Displaying SPM Parameters over a Profile Analysis ................................................................ 177
5.6.2.8 Exporting a Point Analysis Study.............................................................................................. 177
5.6.2.9 Printing a Point Analysis Study................................................................................................. 178
5.7 Calculation Tools in Atoll......................................................................................................... 178
5.7.1 Atoll Features for Computing.......................................................................................................... 178
5.7.2 Distributing Calculations on Several PCs....................................................................................... 179
5.7.3 Improving Calculation Performances ............................................................................................. 179
5.7.4 Displaying Calculation Events in a Log Window............................................................................ 180
5.7.5 Exporting Calculation Events in a Log File..................................................................................... 180
6 GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA Project Management............................................. 183
6.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Projects: Overview........................................................................... 183
6.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Projects Protocol............................................................................... 183
6.3 Defining GSM/GPRS/EDGE Resources......................................................................... 184
6.3.1 Defining GSM/GPRS/EDGE Resources: Overview....................................................................... 184
6.3.2 Frequencies.................................................................................................................................... 184
6.3.2.1 Managing Frequency Bands..................................................................................................... 185
6.3.2.2 Managing Frequency Domains and Groups............................................................................. 185
6.3.3 HSNs.............................................................................................................................................. 186
6.3.3.1 Managing HSN Domains and Groups ...................................................................................... 186
6.3.4 BSICs ............................................................................................................................................. 187
6.3.4.1 Defining the BSIC Format......................................................................................................... 187
6.3.4.2 Managing BSIC Domains and Groups...................................................................................... 187
6.4 Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE Radio Data..................................................................... 188
6.4.1 HCS layers ..................................................................................................................................... 188
6.4.1.1 Hierarchical Cells: Overview..................................................................................................... 188
6.4.1.2 Managing HCS Layers.............................................................................................................. 188
6.4.1.3 Assigning HCS Layers to Transmitters..................................................................................... 189
6.4.2 Timeslot Configurations.................................................................................................................. 190
6.4.2.1 Managing Timeslot Configurations ........................................................................................... 190
6.4.3 Cell Types ...................................................................................................................................... 190
6.4.3.1 TRX Types: Definition............................................................................................................... 190
6.4.3.2 Managing Cell Types................................................................................................................ 190
6.4.3.3 Cell Type Parameters............................................................................................................... 191
6.4.3.4 Examples of cell types.............................................................................................................. 192
6.4.3.5 Assigning Cell Types to Transmitters ....................................................................................... 194
6.4.3.6 Defining Extended Cells ........................................................................................................... 194
6.4.4 Subcells.......................................................................................................................................... 195
6.4.4.1 Managing Subcells in Transmitters........................................................................................... 195
6.4.4.2 Displaying the Subcell List........................................................................................................ 195
6.4.4.3 Subcell Property Details ........................................................................................................... 195
6.4.5 Advanced Modelling of Multi-Band transmitters............................................................................. 198
6.4.6 TRX Equipment.............................................................................................................................. 199
6.4.6.1 Creating TRX Equipment.......................................................................................................... 199
6.4.6.2 Managing TRX Equipment Properties ...................................................................................... 200
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6.4.6.3 Assigning TRX Equipment ........................................................................................................200
6.4.7 Codec Equipment............................................................................................................................201
6.4.7.1 Creating Codec Equipment.......................................................................................................201
6.4.7.2 Managing Codec Equipment Properties....................................................................................201
6.4.7.3 Setting Codec Mode Adaptation Thresholds.............................................................................202
6.4.7.4 Setting Codec Mode Quality Thresholds...................................................................................202
6.4.7.5 Assigning Codec Equipment to Transmitters ............................................................................202
6.4.7.6 Assigning Codec Equipment to Terminal Types .......................................................................203
6.4.8 GPRS/EDGE Equipment.................................................................................................................203
6.4.8.1 Creating GPRS/EDGE Equipment............................................................................................203
6.4.8.2 Managing GPRS/EDGE Equipment Properties.........................................................................204
6.4.8.3 Computing Automatically Coding Scheme Thresholds .............................................................204
6.4.8.4 Setting Coding Schemes Parameters .......................................................................................204
6.4.8.5 Displaying Rate Graphs ............................................................................................................205
6.4.8.6 Setting GPRS/EDGE Transmitters............................................................................................206
6.5 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Management.........................................................................206
6.5.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Multi-service Traffic Data.................................................................................206
6.5.1.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Services.....................................................................................................206
6.5.1.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Mobility Types............................................................................................208
6.5.1.3 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Terminals...................................................................................................209
6.5.1.4 GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profiles ..............................................................................................211
6.5.1.5 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environments.............................................................................................213
6.5.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Multi-service Traffic Cartography.....................................................................214
6.5.2.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment Traffic Maps..........................................................................215
6.5.2.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Traffic Maps ...........................................................................217
6.5.2.3 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Live Traffic Maps per Sector......................................................................219
6.5.2.4 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Density Maps..................................................................................222
6.5.2.5 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Cumulated Traffic ......................................................................................224
6.5.3 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Analysis ................................................................................................224
6.5.3.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Capture .........................................................................224
6.5.3.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Capture Outputs .............................................................................225
6.5.3.3 Using a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Analysis .............................................................................226
6.6 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network Dimensioning....................................................................226
6.6.1 Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE Dimensioning Models..........................................................................226
6.6.2 Key Performance Indicators: Definitions.........................................................................................227
6.6.3 Dimensioning GSM/GPRS/EDGE Transmitters..............................................................................227
6.6.4 Dimensioning Outputs in GSM/GPRS/EDGE .................................................................................228
6.6.5 Steps of the Dimensioning Process in GSM/GPRS/EDGE.............................................................230
6.7 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Resources Allocation.......................................................................230
6.7.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbours......................................................................................................231
6.7.1.1 Allocating GSM/GPRS/EDGE Transmitter Neighbours Manually.............................................231
6.7.1.2 Defining GSM/GPRS/EDGE Exceptional Pairs of Neighbours .................................................232
6.7.1.3 Displaying GSM/GPRS/EDGE Exceptional Pairs of Neighbours on the Map...........................233
6.7.1.4 Allocating GSM/GPRS/EDGE Transmitter Neighbours Automatically......................................233
6.7.1.5 Displaying the Current GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbour List.......................................................236
6.7.1.6 Modifying the Allocated GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbours ..........................................................237
6.7.1.7 Displaying GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbours and their Characteristics on the Map....................238
6.7.1.8 Adding or Removing GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbours and Exceptional Pairs on the Map........239
6.7.1.9 Performing an Audit of the Current GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbourhood Plan..........................240
6.7.2 Allocating GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Resources Manually in Atoll .........................................................241
6.7.2.1 Assigning BSIC Domains to Transmitters .................................................................................241
6.7.2.2 Assigning Manually BSICs to Transmitters ...............................................................................241
6.7.2.3 Allocating a BCCH to Transmitters Manually............................................................................242
6.7.2.4 Creating TRXs in Transmitters..................................................................................................242
6.7.2.5 Managing TRXs in Transmitters................................................................................................243
6.7.2.6 Displaying the TRX List.............................................................................................................243
6.7.2.7 TRX Property Details.................................................................................................................243
6.7.3 Interference Matrices ......................................................................................................................244
6.7.3.1 Calculating Interference Matrices..............................................................................................244
6.7.3.2 Importing and Exporting Interference Matrices .........................................................................245
6.7.3.3 Managing Interference Matrices................................................................................................246
6.7.3.4 Generating a Report on Interference Matrices..........................................................................247
6.7.4 Managing Exceptional Separations For Frequency Allocation........................................................247
6.7.4.1 Defining Exceptional Separations for Frequency Allocation......................................................247
6.7.4.2 Displaying AFP Exceptional Separations on the Map...............................................................248
6.7.4.3 Adding or Removing AFP Exceptional Separations on the Map...............................................248
6.7.5 Using AFP to Allocate Resources in Atoll .......................................................................................249
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6.7.5.1 Adjusting AFP Parameters from the Data Model...................................................................... 249
6.7.5.2 Using the Generic AFP Interface.............................................................................................. 249
6.7.5.3 Starting AFP ............................................................................................................................. 250
6.7.5.4 AFP Step 1: Generic Inputs...................................................................................................... 251
6.7.5.5 AFP Step 2: Loading and Verifying the Network...................................................................... 252
6.7.5.6 AFP Step 3: Generic AFP Settings........................................................................................... 252
6.7.5.7 AFP Step 4: Generic Outputs ................................................................................................... 253
6.7.6 Frequency Plan Analysis................................................................................................................ 256
6.7.6.1 Auditing a GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Frequency Plan...................................................................... 256
6.7.6.2 Checking Consistency Between Transmitters and Subcells..................................................... 257
6.7.6.3 Using the Channel Search Tool in GSM/GPRS/EDGE ............................................................ 258
6.7.6.4 Displaying the Channel Distribution.......................................................................................... 258
6.7.6.5 Computing KPIs in GSM/GPRS/EDGE .................................................................................... 259
6.8 Specific GSM/GPRS/EDGE Prediction Studies.......................................................... 260
6.8.1 Setting Specific Coverage Conditions in GSM/GPRS/EDGE Studies............................................ 260
6.8.2 Studying Interfered Zone Predictions............................................................................................. 262
6.8.3 Computing a Coverage Study by C/I Level .................................................................................... 263
6.8.4 Studying Interferences with the Point Analysis .............................................................................. 264
6.8.5 Studying Interferences within a Transmitter Pair............................................................................ 266
6.8.6 Creating a Coverage by GPRS/EGPRS Coding Schemes ............................................................ 266
6.8.7 Computing a Coverage by GPRS/EDGE Throughput per Timeslot............................................... 267
6.8.8 Calculating GSM Circuit Quality Indicators .................................................................................... 268
7 Atoll AFP Module........................................................................................................................ 273
7.1 Atoll AFP Module: Overview................................................................................................. 273
7.2 Managing the Atoll AFP Module.......................................................................................... 273
7.2.1 Atoll AFP Cost Function: Overview................................................................................................ 273
7.2.2 Accessing Atoll AFP Module Properties......................................................................................... 273
7.2.3 Defining AFP Parameters............................................................................................................... 274
7.2.3.1 Defining Interference Cost........................................................................................................ 274
7.2.3.2 Defining Separation Constraint Violation Cost.......................................................................... 274
7.2.3.3 Other Costs Involved in the AFP Cost Function....................................................................... 275
7.2.3.4 Weighting the Cost Components.............................................................................................. 276
7.2.3.5 Setting Interferer Diversity Gain................................................................................................ 276
7.2.3.6 Setting Frequency Diversity Gain............................................................................................. 276
7.2.3.7 Setting Gain Due to Low Timeslot Use Ratio........................................................................... 277
7.2.4 Defining AFP Allocation Strategies ................................................................................................ 277
7.2.4.1 Defining AFP Allocation Strategies: Overview.......................................................................... 277
7.2.4.2 Setting Channel Spectrum Usage ............................................................................................ 278
7.2.4.3 Setting HSN Strategy in FH...................................................................................................... 278
7.2.4.4 Defining MAL Targets in SFH................................................................................................... 278
7.2.4.5 Managing MAIO Preferences in SFH....................................................................................... 279
7.2.4.6 Setting BSIC Usage Diversity................................................................................................... 279
7.3 Atoll AFP Module GUI .............................................................................................................. 280
7.3.1 Atoll AFP Cost Tab......................................................................................................................... 280
7.3.2 Atoll AFP Separation Weights Tab................................................................................................. 281
7.3.3 Atoll AFP Spectrum Tab................................................................................................................. 282
7.3.4 Atoll AFP HSN Tab......................................................................................................................... 282
7.3.5 Atoll AFP MAL Tab......................................................................................................................... 283
7.3.6 Atoll AFP MAIO Tab....................................................................................................................... 283
7.3.7 Atoll AFP BSIC Tab........................................................................................................................ 284
7.3.8 Atoll AFP Advanced Tab................................................................................................................ 284
8 UMTS HSPA Networks......................................................................................................... 289
8.1 Planning and Optimising UMTS Base Stations........................................................... 289
8.1.1 Creating a UMTS Base Station...................................................................................................... 289
8.1.1.1 Definition of a Base Station...................................................................................................... 289
8.1.1.2 Creating or Modifying a Base Station Element......................................................................... 294
8.1.1.3 Placing a New Station Using a Station Template..................................................................... 295
8.1.1.4 Managing Station Templates.................................................................................................... 296
8.1.2 Creating a Group of Base Stations................................................................................................. 300
8.1.3 Modifying Sites and Transmitters Directly on the Map................................................................... 301
8.1.3.1 Opening the Properties Dialogue for an Object on the Map..................................................... 301
8.1.3.2 Moving a Site Using the Mouse................................................................................................ 301
8.1.3.3 Moving a Site to a Higher Location........................................................................................... 302
8.1.3.4 Changing the Azimuth of the Antenna Using the Mouse.......................................................... 302
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8.1.3.5 Changing the Position of the Transmitter Relative to the Site...................................................302
8.1.4 Display Hints for Base Stations.......................................................................................................303
8.1.5 Creating a Dual-Band UMTS Network............................................................................................303
8.1.6 Creating a Repeater........................................................................................................................303
8.1.6.1 Creating and Modifying Repeater Equipment ...........................................................................304
8.1.6.2 Placing a Repeater on the Map Using the Mouse.....................................................................304
8.1.6.3 Creating Several Repeaters......................................................................................................304
8.1.6.4 Defining the Properties of a Repeater.......................................................................................305
8.1.6.5 Hints for Updating Repeater Parameters ..................................................................................306
8.1.7 Creating a Remote Antenna............................................................................................................306
8.1.7.1 Placing a Remote Antenna on the Map Using the Mouse.........................................................306
8.1.7.2 Creating Several Remote Antennas..........................................................................................307
8.1.7.3 Defining the Properties of a Remote Antenna...........................................................................307
8.1.7.4 Hints for Updating Remote Antenna Parameters......................................................................308
8.1.8 Setting the Working Area of an Atoll Document..............................................................................308
8.1.9 Studying a Single Base Station.......................................................................................................308
8.1.9.1 Making a Point Analysis to Study the Profile.............................................................................308
8.1.9.2 Studying Signal Level Coverage...............................................................................................311
8.1.10 Studying Base Stations...................................................................................................................313
8.1.10.1 Path Loss Matrices....................................................................................................................313
8.1.10.2 The Calculation Process ...........................................................................................................315
8.1.10.3 Creating a Computation Zone...................................................................................................315
8.1.10.4 Setting Transmitters or Cells as Active .....................................................................................315
8.1.10.5 Signal Level Coverage Predictions ...........................................................................................316
8.1.10.6 Analysing a Coverage Prediction..............................................................................................320
8.1.10.7 UMTS-Specific Studies .............................................................................................................327
8.1.10.8 HSDPA Coverage Prediction ....................................................................................................339
8.1.10.9 HSUPA Coverage Prediction ....................................................................................................340
8.1.10.10 Printing and Exporting Coverage Prediction Results ................................................................341
8.1.11 Planning Neighbours.......................................................................................................................343
8.1.11.1 Defining Exceptional Pairs ........................................................................................................343
8.1.11.2 Allocating Neighbours Automatically.........................................................................................344
8.1.11.3 Checking Automatic Allocation Results.....................................................................................347
8.1.11.4 Importing Neighbours................................................................................................................348
8.1.11.5 Allocating and Deleting Neighbours per Cell.............................................................................348
8.1.11.6 Checking the Consistency of the Neighbour Allocation Plan ....................................................350
8.1.11.7 Exporting Neighbours................................................................................................................351
8.1.12 Planning Scrambling Codes............................................................................................................351
8.1.12.1 Defining the Scrambling Code Format......................................................................................352
8.1.12.2 Creating Scrambling Code Domains and Groups .....................................................................352
8.1.12.3 Defining Exceptional Pairs for Scrambling Code Allocation......................................................353
8.1.12.4 Allocating Scrambling Codes ....................................................................................................353
8.1.12.5 Checking the Consistency of the Scrambling Code Plan..........................................................355
8.1.12.6 Displaying the Allocation of Scrambling Codes.........................................................................355
8.2 Studying Network Capacity....................................................................................................357
8.2.1 Defining Multi-service Traffic Data..................................................................................................357
8.2.2 Creating a Traffic Map.....................................................................................................................358
8.2.2.1 Live Traffic Data From the OMC ...............................................................................................358
8.2.2.2 Marketing-based Traffic Data....................................................................................................359
8.2.2.3 Population-based Traffic Data...................................................................................................363
8.2.2.4 Converting 2G Network Traffic..................................................................................................364
8.2.2.5 Exporting Cumulated Traffic......................................................................................................364
8.2.3 Calculating and Displaying Traffic Simulations...............................................................................364
8.2.3.1 The Power Control Simulation Algorithm..................................................................................364
8.2.3.2 Creating Simulations .................................................................................................................367
8.2.3.3 Displaying the Traffic Distribution on the Map...........................................................................369
8.2.3.4 Displaying the User Active Set on the Map...............................................................................371
8.2.3.5 Displaying the Results of a Single Simulation...........................................................................371
8.2.3.6 Displaying the Average Results of a Group of Simulations.......................................................376
8.2.3.7 Updating Cell Values With Simulation Results..........................................................................378
8.2.3.8 Adding New Simulations to an Atoll Document.........................................................................379
8.2.3.9 Estimating a Traffic Increase.....................................................................................................380
8.2.4 Analysing the Results of a Simulation.............................................................................................380
8.2.4.1 Making an AS Analysis of Simulation Results...........................................................................381
8.2.4.2 Making Coverage Predictions Using Simulation Results ..........................................................381
8.3 Optimising and Verifying Network Capacity...................................................................382
8.3.1 Importing a Test Mobile Data Path..................................................................................................382
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8.3.2 Network Verification ....................................................................................................................... 385
8.3.2.1 Filtering Incompatible Points Along Test Mobile Data Paths.................................................... 385
8.3.2.2 Comparing Measurements with Predictions ............................................................................. 386
8.3.2.3 Extracting a Field From a Test Mobile Path for a Transmitter.................................................. 387
8.3.2.4 Analysing Data Variations Along the Path................................................................................ 388
8.3.3 Printing and Exporting the Test Mobile Data Window.................................................................... 389
8.4 Advanced Configuration.......................................................................................................... 390
8.4.1 Defining Inter-Carrier Interference.................................................................................................. 390
8.4.2 Defining Frequency Bands............................................................................................................. 390
8.4.3 The Global Transmitter Parameters............................................................................................... 390
8.4.3.1 The Options on the Global Parameters Tab............................................................................. 391
8.4.3.2 Modifying Global Transmitter Parameters ................................................................................ 391
8.4.4 Radio Bearers ................................................................................................................................ 392
8.4.4.1 Defining R99 Radio Bearers..................................................................................................... 392
8.4.4.2 Defining HSDPA Radio Bearers ............................................................................................... 393
8.4.4.3 Defining HSUPA Radio Bearers ............................................................................................... 393
8.4.5 Site Equipment............................................................................................................................... 393
8.4.5.1 Creating Site Equipment........................................................................................................... 393
8.4.5.2 Defining Channel Element Consumption per UMTS Site Equipment and R99 Radio Bearer .. 394
8.4.6 Receiver Equipment....................................................................................................................... 394
8.4.6.1 Setting Receiver Height............................................................................................................ 394
8.4.6.2 Creating or Modifying Reception Equipment............................................................................ 395
8.4.6.3 HSDPA UE Categories............................................................................................................. 396
8.4.6.4 HSUPA UE Categories............................................................................................................. 396
8.4.7 Conditions for Entering the Active Set............................................................................................ 396
8.4.8 Modelling Shadowing..................................................................................................................... 397
8.4.8.1 Displaying the Shadowing Margins and Macro-diversity Gain per Clutter Class...................... 397
9 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Project Management....................................................... 401
9.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Projects: Overview..................................................................... 401
9.2 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Projects: Concepts..................................................................... 401
9.3 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Projects Protocol......................................................................... 402
9.4 Managing cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Radio Data.............................................................. 402
9.4.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Site equipment........................................................................................... 403
9.4.1.1 Creating cdmaOne/CDMA2000 site equipment........................................................................ 403
9.4.1.2 Managing cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Site Equipment .................................................................... 403
9.4.1.3 Managing Channel Element Consumption per cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Site Equipment ........... 404
9.4.1.4 Assigning cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Site Equipment to Sites........................................................ 404
9.4.1.5 Setting the Number of Available Channel Elements on the Site (cdmaOne/CDMA2000)........ 405
9.4.2 Transmitter cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Specific Parameters................................................................ 405
9.4.2.1 Defining the Transmitter cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Global Parameters ........................................ 405
9.4.3 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cells ........................................................................................................... 406
9.4.3.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cells: Definition..................................................................................... 406
9.4.3.2 Creating a cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cell...................................................................................... 406
9.4.3.3 Managing cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cell Activity.......................................................................... 407
9.4.3.4 Naming cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cells Automatically.................................................................. 407
9.4.3.5 Managing cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cell Properties ..................................................................... 407
9.4.3.6 Power Parameters in cdmaOne/CDMA2000............................................................................ 408
9.4.3.7 Active Set Parameters in cdmaOne/CDMA2000...................................................................... 408
9.4.3.8 Displaying cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cell Properties on the Map................................................. 408
9.4.4 Defining Inter-Carrier Interference.................................................................................................. 409
9.5 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Traffic Management.................................................................. 409
9.5.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Multi-service Traffic Data ........................................................................... 410
9.5.1.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Services................................................................................................ 410
9.5.1.2 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Mobility Types....................................................................................... 412
9.5.1.3 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Terminal Equipment ............................................................................. 414
9.5.1.4 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 User Profiles......................................................................................... 416
9.5.1.5 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Environments........................................................................................ 418
9.5.2 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Multi-service Traffic Cartography............................................................... 420
9.5.2.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Environment Traffic Maps..................................................................... 420
9.5.2.2 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 User Profile Traffic Maps...................................................................... 423
9.5.2.3 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Live Traffic Maps per Sector................................................................. 425
9.5.2.4 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Traffic Density Maps............................................................................. 427
9.5.2.5 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cumulated Traffic................................................................................. 430
9.6 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulations.................................................................................... 430
9.6.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Process .................................................................................... 430
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9.6.1.1 cdmaOne Power Control Algorithm...........................................................................................431
9.6.1.2 CDMA2000 1xRTT Power Control Algorithm............................................................................431
9.6.1.3 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Power and Rate Control Simulation Algorithm......................................433
9.6.1.4 Resource Management in cdmaOne/CDMA2000 1xRTT Simulations......................................434
9.6.1.5 Resource Management in CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Simulations..................................................434
9.6.2 Managing cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulations.................................................................................435
9.6.2.1 Creating cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulations.............................................................................435
9.6.2.2 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Inputs...................................................................................435
9.6.2.3 Managing cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Properties ...........................................................436
9.6.2.4 Replaying a cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation .........................................................................437
9.6.2.5 Generator Initialisation - Replay Differences (cdmaOne/CDMA2000) ......................................437
9.6.2.6 Averaging cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulations ..........................................................................438
9.6.2.7 Adding a Simulation to an Existing Group of cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulations.....................438
9.6.3 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Results Summary......................................................................438
9.6.3.1 Displaying cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Statistics ............................................................438
9.6.3.2 Displaying Input Parameters of an Existing cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation.........................439
9.6.3.3 Summarising Results per site (cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Projects)...............................................440
9.6.3.4 Summarising Results per cell (cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Projects) ...............................................440
9.6.3.5 Committing Simulated Loads to Cells (cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Projects)...................................441
9.6.3.6 Summarising Results per Mobile (cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Projects)..........................................442
9.6.3.7 Displaying Shadowing Values of a cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation......................................443
9.6.3.8 Displaying cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Results on the Map............................................443
9.6.3.9 Exporting cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Results ................................................................444
9.6.4 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Outputs......................................................................................444
9.6.4.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Outputs on Sites..................................................................444
9.6.4.2 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Outputs on Cells..................................................................445
9.6.4.3 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Average Simulation Outputs on Cells ...................................................445
9.6.4.4 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Outputs on Cell Components ..............................................445
9.6.4.5 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Outputs on Mobiles .............................................................446
9.6.4.6 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulation Outputs on Mobile Components..........................................447
9.7 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Prediction Studies.......................................................................448
9.7.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Point Analysis .............................................................................................449
9.7.2 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Coverage Studies .......................................................................................450
9.7.2.1 List of Available cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Coverage Studies .......................................................450
9.7.2.2 Managing cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Coverage Studies.................................................................452
9.8 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Resources Allocation................................................................456
9.8.1 cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Neighbours..................................................................................................456
9.8.1.1 Allocating cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cell Neighbours Manually.....................................................456
9.8.1.2 Defining cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Exceptional Pairs of Neighbours.............................................457
9.8.1.3 Displaying cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Exceptional Pairs of Neighbours on the Map ......................457
9.8.1.4 Allocating cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cell Neighbours Automatically..............................................458
9.8.1.5 Displaying Current cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Neighbour List ........................................................461
9.8.1.6 Modifying the Allocated cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Neighbours......................................................461
9.8.1.7 Displaying cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Neighbours and their Characteristics on the Map ...............462
9.8.1.8 Adding or Removing cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Neighbours and Exceptional Pairs on the Map ...464
9.8.1.9 Performing an Audit of the Current cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Neighbourhood Plan......................465
9.8.2 PN Offsets.......................................................................................................................................466
9.8.2.1 Creating PN Offsets Domains and Groups ...............................................................................466
9.8.2.2 Assigning a PN Offset Domain to a Cell....................................................................................467
9.8.2.3 Defining Exceptional Pairs for PN Offset Allocation..................................................................467
9.8.2.4 Allocating PN Offsets to cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cells Automatically.........................................467
9.8.2.5 Allocating PN Offsets to cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cells Manually................................................468
9.8.2.6 Checking the Consistency of the PN Offset Plan......................................................................468
9.8.2.7 Displaying the Reuse of PN Offsets on the Map.......................................................................469
9.8.2.8 Displaying the PN Offset Distribution........................................................................................469
9.8.2.9 Displaying the PN Offset Interference Zones............................................................................469
10 TD-SCDMA Networks.............................................................................................................473
10.1 Planning and Optimising TD-SCDMA Base Stations................................................473
10.1.1 Creating a TD-SCDMA Base Station..............................................................................................473
10.1.1.1 Definition of a Base Station.......................................................................................................473
10.1.1.2 Creating or Modifying a Base Station Element..........................................................................479
10.1.1.3 Placing a New Base Station Using a Station Template.............................................................480
10.1.1.4 Managing Station Templates.....................................................................................................481
10.1.2 Creating a Group of Base Stations .................................................................................................484
10.1.3 Modifying Sites and Transmitters Directly on the Map....................................................................485
10.1.3.1 Opening the Properties Dialogue for an Object on the Map......................................................485
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10.1.3.2 Moving a Site Using the Mouse................................................................................................ 485
10.1.3.3 Moving a Site to a Higher Location........................................................................................... 485
10.1.3.4 Changing the Azimuth of the Antenna Using the Mouse.......................................................... 485
10.1.3.5 Changing the Position of the Transmitter Relative to the Site.................................................. 486
10.1.4 Display Hints for Base Stations...................................................................................................... 486
10.1.5 Creating a Dual-Band TD-SCDMA Network................................................................................... 487
10.1.6 Creating a Repeater....................................................................................................................... 487
10.1.6.1 Creating and Modifying Repeater Equipment........................................................................... 487
10.1.6.2 Placing a Repeater on the Map Using the Mouse.................................................................... 488
10.1.6.3 Creating Several Repeaters ..................................................................................................... 488
10.1.6.4 Defining the Properties of a Repeater ...................................................................................... 488
10.1.6.5 Hints for Updating Repeater Parameters.................................................................................. 490
10.1.7 Creating a Remote Antenna........................................................................................................... 490
10.1.7.1 Placing a Remote Antenna on the Map Using the Mouse........................................................ 490
10.1.7.2 Creating Several Remote Antennas ......................................................................................... 490
10.1.7.3 Defining the Properties of a Remote Antenna.......................................................................... 491
10.1.7.4 Hints for Updating Remote Antenna Parameters ..................................................................... 491
10.1.8 Setting the Working Area of an Atoll Document............................................................................. 492
10.1.9 Studying a Single Base Station...................................................................................................... 492
10.1.9.1 Making a Point Analysis to Study the Profile............................................................................ 492
10.1.9.2 Studying Signal Level Coverage............................................................................................... 495
10.1.10 Studying Base Stations .................................................................................................................. 497
10.1.10.1 Path Loss Matrices ................................................................................................................... 497
10.1.10.2 The Calculation Process........................................................................................................... 499
10.1.10.3 Creating a Computation Zone................................................................................................... 499
10.1.10.4 Setting Transmitters or Cells as Active..................................................................................... 499
10.1.10.5 Signal Level Coverage Predictions........................................................................................... 500
10.1.10.6 Analysing a Coverage Prediction.............................................................................................. 507
10.1.10.7 Signal Quality Coverage Predictions ........................................................................................ 514
10.1.10.8 HSDPA Coverage Prediction.................................................................................................... 530
10.1.10.9 Printing and Exporting Coverage Prediction Results................................................................ 531
10.1.11 Planning Frequencies..................................................................................................................... 533
10.1.11.1 Setting Up N-Frequency Mode................................................................................................. 534
10.1.11.2 Allocating Frequencies Automatically....................................................................................... 534
10.1.11.3 Checking Automatic Allocation Results .................................................................................... 534
10.1.11.4 Allocating Carrier Types per Transmitter.................................................................................. 535
10.1.11.5 Checking the Consistency of the Frequency Allocation Plan................................................... 535
10.1.12 Planning Neighbours...................................................................................................................... 535
10.1.12.1 Defining Exceptional Pairs........................................................................................................ 536
10.1.12.2 Allocating Neighbours Automatically........................................................................................ 536
10.1.12.3 Checking Automatic Allocation Results .................................................................................... 539
10.1.12.4 Importing Neighbours ............................................................................................................... 540
10.1.12.5 Allocating and Deleting Neighbours per Cell ............................................................................ 541
10.1.12.6 Checking the Consistency of the Neighbour Allocation Plan.................................................... 542
10.1.12.7 Exporting Neighbours ............................................................................................................... 543
10.1.13 Planning Scrambling Codes........................................................................................................... 543
10.1.13.1 Defining the Scrambling Code Format...................................................................................... 544
10.1.13.2 Creating Scrambling Code Domains and Groups..................................................................... 544
10.1.13.3 Defining Exceptional Pairs for Scrambling Code Allocation..................................................... 545
10.1.13.4 Allocating Scrambling Codes.................................................................................................... 545
10.1.13.5 Checking the Consistency of the Scrambling Code Plan......................................................... 547
10.1.13.6 Displaying the Allocation of Scrambling Codes ........................................................................ 547
10.2 Studying Network Capacity................................................................................................... 550
10.2.1 TD-SCDMA Network Capacity....................................................................................................... 551
10.2.1.1 Calculating Available Network Capacity................................................................................... 551
10.2.1.2 Calculating Required Network Capacity................................................................................... 552
10.2.2 Defining Multi-service Traffic Data ................................................................................................. 554
10.2.3 Creating a Traffic Map.................................................................................................................... 555
10.2.3.1 Live Traffic Data From the OMC............................................................................................... 555
10.2.3.2 Marketing-Based Traffic Data................................................................................................... 556
10.2.3.3 Population-Based Traffic Data.................................................................................................. 560
10.2.3.4 Converting 2G Network Traffic ................................................................................................. 561
10.2.3.5 Exporting Cumulated Traffic..................................................................................................... 561
10.2.4 Calculating and Displaying Traffic Simulations .............................................................................. 561
10.2.4.1 The Monte Carlo Simulation Algorithm..................................................................................... 562
10.2.4.2 Creating Simulations................................................................................................................. 563
10.2.4.3 Displaying the Traffic Distribution on the Map.......................................................................... 564
10.2.4.4 Displaying the User Best Server on the Map............................................................................ 566
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Atoll User Manual
10.2.4.5 Displaying the Results of a Single Simulation...........................................................................566
10.2.4.6 Displaying the Average Results of a Group of Simulations.......................................................568
10.2.4.7 Updating Cell and Timeslot Values With Simulation Results ....................................................569
10.2.4.8 Adding New Simulations to an Atoll Document.........................................................................569
10.2.4.9 Estimating a Traffic Increase.....................................................................................................571
10.2.5 Analysing the Results of a Simulation.............................................................................................571
10.2.5.1 Making Coverage Predictions Using Simulation Results ..........................................................571
10.3 Optimising and Verifying Network Capacity...................................................................572
10.3.1 Importing a Test Mobile Data Path..................................................................................................572
10.3.2 Network Verification........................................................................................................................574
10.3.2.1 Filtering Incompatible Points Along Test Mobile Data Paths.....................................................574
10.3.2.2 Comparing Measurements with Predictions..............................................................................575
10.3.2.3 Extracting a Field From a Test Mobile Path for a Transmitter...................................................577
10.3.2.4 Analysing Data Variations Along the Path.................................................................................577
10.3.3 Printing and Exporting the Test Mobile Data Window.....................................................................578
10.4 Advanced Configuration...........................................................................................................579
10.4.1 Defining Inter-Carrier Interference..................................................................................................579
10.4.2 Defining Frequency Bands..............................................................................................................579
10.4.3 The Global Transmitter Parameters................................................................................................580
10.4.3.1 The Options on the Global Parameters Tab..............................................................................580
10.4.3.2 Modifying Global Transmitter Parameters.................................................................................581
10.4.4 Smart Antenna Modelling................................................................................................................581
10.4.4.1 Types of Smart Antenna Modelling...........................................................................................581
10.4.4.2 Smart Antenna Equipment........................................................................................................584
10.4.5 Radio Bearers.................................................................................................................................585
10.4.5.1 Defining HSDPA Radio Bearers................................................................................................585
10.4.6 Site Equipment................................................................................................................................586
10.4.6.1 Creating Site Equipment ...........................................................................................................586
10.4.7 Reception Equipment......................................................................................................................586
10.4.7.1 Setting Receiver Height.............................................................................................................586
10.4.7.2 Creating or Modifying Reception Equipment.............................................................................586
10.4.7.3 HSDPA User Equipment Categories.........................................................................................587
10.4.8 Modelling Shadowing......................................................................................................................587
10.4.8.1 Displaying the Shadowing Margins ...........................................................................................588
10.4.9 Maximum System Range................................................................................................................588
11 WiMAX BWA Networks..........................................................................................................593
11.1 Planning and Optimising WiMAX Base Stations .........................................................593
11.1.1 Creating a WiMAX Base Station.....................................................................................................594
11.1.1.1 Definition of a Base Station.......................................................................................................594
11.1.1.2 Creating or Modifying a Base Station Element..........................................................................597
11.1.1.3 Placing a New Base Station Using a Station Template.............................................................598
11.1.1.4 Managing Station Templates.....................................................................................................599
11.1.2 Creating a Group of Base Stations .................................................................................................602
11.1.3 Modifying Sites and Transmitters Directly on the Map....................................................................602
11.1.3.1 Opening the Properties Dialogue for an Object on the Map......................................................603
11.1.3.2 Moving a Site Using the Mouse.................................................................................................603
11.1.3.3 Moving a Site to a Higher Location...........................................................................................603
11.1.3.4 Changing the Azimuth of the Antenna Using the Mouse...........................................................603
11.1.3.5 Changing the Position of the Transmitter Relative to the Site...................................................604
11.1.4 Display Hints for Base Stations.......................................................................................................604
11.1.5 Creating a Multi-Band WiMAX Network..........................................................................................605
11.1.6 Setting the Working Area of an Atoll Document..............................................................................605
11.1.7 Studying a Single Base Station.......................................................................................................605
11.1.7.1 Making a Point Analysis to Study the Profile.............................................................................606
11.1.7.2 Studying Signal Level Coverage...............................................................................................608
11.1.8 Studying Base Stations...................................................................................................................611
11.1.8.1 Path Loss Matrices....................................................................................................................611
11.1.8.2 The Calculation Process ...........................................................................................................613
11.1.8.3 Creating a Computation Zone...................................................................................................613
11.1.8.4 Setting Transmitters as Active...................................................................................................613
11.1.8.5 Signal Level Coverage Predictions ...........................................................................................614
11.1.8.6 Analysing a Coverage Prediction..............................................................................................618
11.1.8.7 WiMAX-Specific Coverage Predictions .....................................................................................626
11.1.8.8 Printing and Exporting Coverage Prediction Results ................................................................635
11.1.9 Planning Neighbours.......................................................................................................................637
11.1.9.1 Allocating and Deleting Neighbours per Cell.............................................................................637
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Table of Contents
11.1.9.2 Importing Neighbours ............................................................................................................... 639
11.1.9.3 Checking Neighbour Allocation................................................................................................. 639
11.1.9.4 Exporting Neighbours ............................................................................................................... 640
11.2 Studying Network Capacity................................................................................................... 641
11.2.1 Defining Multi-service Traffic Data ................................................................................................. 641
11.2.2 Creating a Traffic Map.................................................................................................................... 641
11.2.2.1 Live Traffic Data From the OMC............................................................................................... 642
11.2.2.2 Marketing-Based Traffic Data................................................................................................... 643
11.2.2.3 Population-Based Traffic Data.................................................................................................. 647
11.2.2.4 Converting 2G Network Traffic ................................................................................................. 648
11.2.2.5 Exporting Cumulated Traffic..................................................................................................... 648
11.2.3 Exporting a Traffic Map.................................................................................................................. 648
11.2.4 Subscriber Database...................................................................................................................... 648
11.2.4.1 Creating a Subscriber List ........................................................................................................ 649
11.2.4.2 Performing Calculations on Subscriber lists ............................................................................. 652
11.2.5 Calculating and Displaying Traffic Simulations .............................................................................. 653
11.2.5.1 WiMAX Traffic Simulation Algorithm......................................................................................... 653
11.2.5.2 Creating Simulations................................................................................................................. 655
11.2.5.3 Displaying the Traffic Distribution on the Map.......................................................................... 656
11.2.5.4 Displaying the Results of a Single Simulation.......................................................................... 658
11.2.5.5 Updating Cell Load Values With Simulation Results ................................................................ 659
11.2.5.6 Estimating a Traffic Increase.................................................................................................... 660
11.3 Advanced Configuration.......................................................................................................... 660
11.3.1 Glossary of WiMAX Terms............................................................................................................. 660
11.3.2 Defining Frequency Bands............................................................................................................. 661
11.3.3 The Global Transmitter Parameters............................................................................................... 661
11.3.3.1 The Options on the Global Parameters Tab............................................................................. 661
11.3.3.2 Modifying Global Transmitter Parameters ................................................................................ 662
11.3.4 Defining Frame Configurations....................................................................................................... 663
11.3.5 Defining WiMAX Radio Bearers ..................................................................................................... 664
11.3.6 Defining WiMAX Quality Indicators ................................................................................................ 664
11.3.7 Defining WiMAX Reception Equipment.......................................................................................... 665
11.3.8 Defining Adaptive Antenna Equipment........................................................................................... 667
11.3.9 Modelling Shadowing..................................................................................................................... 668
11.3.9.1 Displaying the Shadowing Margins per Clutter Class............................................................... 668
11.4 Tips and Tricks............................................................................................................................. 669
12 Microwave Link Project Management....................................................................... 673
12.1 Microwave Link Project Management: Overview........................................................ 673
12.2 Microwave Links Projects Protocol.................................................................................... 673
12.3 Global Microwave Link Parameters................................................................................... 674
12.3.1 Managing Microwave Links Frequency Bands............................................................................... 674
12.3.2 Managing Microwave Links Frequency Sub-Bands ....................................................................... 675
12.4 Microwave Links Classes and Performance Objectives......................................... 675
12.4.1 Managing Microwave Links Classes .............................................................................................. 675
12.4.2 Microwave Links Performance Objectives ..................................................................................... 675
12.4.2.1 Microwave Links Quality Objectives ......................................................................................... 676
12.4.2.2 Microwave Links Availability Objectives ................................................................................... 677
12.5 Managing Microwave Link Equipment............................................................................. 677
12.5.1 Microwave Manufacturers Table.................................................................................................... 677
12.5.2 Microwave Antennas...................................................................................................................... 677
12.5.2.1 Creating Microwave Antennas.................................................................................................. 678
12.5.2.2 Importing Microwave Antennas ................................................................................................ 679
12.5.2.3 Managing Microwave Antenna Properties................................................................................ 679
12.5.2.4 Copying Microwave Antenna Patterns to the Clipboard........................................................... 681
12.5.2.5 Printing Microwave Antenna Patterns....................................................................................... 681
12.5.2.6 Smoothing Microwave Antenna Vertical Patterns..................................................................... 681
12.5.3 Microwave Equipment.................................................................................................................... 682
12.5.3.1 Managing Microwave Transceiver Equipment.......................................................................... 682
12.5.3.2 Managing Microwave Waveguides and Cables........................................................................ 687
12.5.3.3 Assigning Radio Equipment to Microwave Links...................................................................... 688
12.5.4 Microwave Antenna/Equipment Compatibility................................................................................ 689
12.5.4.1 Microwave Antenna/Equipment Compatibilities Table.............................................................. 689
12.5.4.2 Assistant for Compatibility Definition........................................................................................ 689
12.6 Managing Microwave Links................................................................................................... 690
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12.6.1 Microwave Links..............................................................................................................................690
12.6.1.1 Analysing Microwave Sites........................................................................................................690
12.6.1.2 Microwave Link Properties ........................................................................................................693
12.6.1.3 Microwave Links Templates......................................................................................................696
12.6.2 Microwave Passive Repeaters........................................................................................................698
12.6.2.1 Creating a Microwave Passive Repeater ..................................................................................699
12.6.2.2 Managing Microwave Passive Repeater Properties..................................................................699
12.6.2.3 Inserting Microwave Passive Repeaters in Microwave Links....................................................700
12.6.3 Multi-hop Links................................................................................................................................700
12.6.3.1 Creating a Multi-hop Link ..........................................................................................................701
12.6.3.2 Managing Multi-hop Link Properties..........................................................................................701
12.6.3.3 Managing Multi-hop Links and Microwave Links Mapping Globally..........................................702
12.6.3.4 Graphically Adding a Microwave Link to a Multi-hop Link.........................................................703
12.6.3.5 Deleting a Multi-hop Link...........................................................................................................703
12.6.4 Point-to-Multipoint Links..................................................................................................................703
12.6.4.1 Creating a Point-to-Multipoint Link............................................................................................703
12.6.4.2 Point-to-Multipoint Link Properties ............................................................................................704
12.6.4.3 Mapping of Microwave Links to Point-to-Multipoint Links Globally............................................705
12.6.4.4 Adding a Microwave Link to a Point-to-Multipoint Link..............................................................705
12.6.4.5 Graphically Adding a Microwave Link to a Point-to-Multipoint Link...........................................706
12.6.4.6 Deleting a Microwave Link from a Point-to-Multipoint Link........................................................706
12.6.4.7 Deleting a Point-to-Multipoint Link.............................................................................................706
12.6.4.8 Adjusting the Antenna of the Point-to-Multipoint Hub................................................................707
12.6.4.9 Graphically Adjusting the Antenna of the Point-to-Multipoint Hub.............................................707
12.7 Managing Microwave Links Specific Geo Data............................................................707
12.7.1 Working with Rain Maps .................................................................................................................707
12.7.2 Importing a Rain Map......................................................................................................................707
12.7.3 Managing Rain Map Properties.......................................................................................................708
12.7.4 Displaying Rain Statistics................................................................................................................708
12.7.5 ITU Maps.........................................................................................................................................709
12.7.5.1 ITU Vapour Density on Earth ....................................................................................................709
12.7.5.2 ITU Atmospheric Refraction: February......................................................................................709
12.7.5.3 ITU Atmospheric Refraction: May .............................................................................................710
12.7.5.4 ITU Atmospheric Refraction: August.........................................................................................710
12.7.5.5 ITU Atmospheric Refraction: November....................................................................................711
12.7.5.6 ITU Rain Zones: America..........................................................................................................712
12.7.5.7 ITU Rain Zones: Europe and Africa ..........................................................................................713
12.7.5.8 ITU Rain Zones: Asia................................................................................................................714
12.8 Microwave Link Analysis .........................................................................................................714
12.8.1 Propagation Model and Global Calculation Parameters .................................................................714
12.8.1.1 Propagation Model ....................................................................................................................714
12.8.1.2 Global Calculation Parameters..................................................................................................714
12.8.2 Restricting the Number of Sites and Microwave Links Studied.......................................................715
12.8.2.1 Setting a Computation Zone......................................................................................................716
12.8.2.2 Setting a Focus Zone................................................................................................................716
12.8.3 Microwave Link Profile Analysis......................................................................................................716
12.8.3.1 Viewing a Microwave Link Profile..............................................................................................717
12.8.3.2 Viewing Microwave Link Clearance...........................................................................................717
12.8.3.3 Managing Microwave Link Profile Display Options ...................................................................718
12.8.3.4 Zooming In on the Profile..........................................................................................................719
12.8.3.5 Printing a Microwave Link Profile..............................................................................................719
12.8.3.6 Modifying Microwave Link Profile Values..................................................................................719
12.8.3.7 Optimising Microwave Link Antenna Heights............................................................................720
12.8.3.8 Studying Reflections Along Microwave Link Profile ..................................................................721
12.8.3.9 Studying Space Diversity Effects on Microwave Links..............................................................722
12.8.4 Microwave Link Reliability Analysis.................................................................................................722
12.8.4.1 Analysing Microwave Link Performance Objectives..................................................................723
12.8.4.2 End-to-End Reliability Level ......................................................................................................726
12.8.5 Interference Analysis and Frequency Planning...............................................................................726
12.8.5.1 Interference Analysis.................................................................................................................726
12.8.5.2 Frequency Planning..................................................................................................................730
13 Co-planning Features..............................................................................................................735
13.1 Starting a Co-planning Project..............................................................................................735
13.2 GSM-UMTS Co-planning Process......................................................................................735
13.2.1 Displaying Both Networks in the Same Atoll Document..................................................................736
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Table of Contents
13.2.2 Creating a UMTS Sector From a GSM Sector ............................................................................... 736
13.2.2.1 Synchronising Shared Common Physical Parameters............................................................. 737
13.2.3 Comparing GSM-UMTS Coverage Predictions.............................................................................. 738
13.2.4 Performing Inter-Technology Neighbour Allocation........................................................................ 739
13.2.4.1 Setting Inter-Technology Exceptional Pairs.............................................................................. 740
13.2.4.2 Displaying Inter-Technology Exceptional Pairs on the Map..................................................... 740
13.2.4.3 Allocating Inter-Technology Neighbours Manually................................................................... 742
13.2.4.4 Allocating Inter-Technology Neighbours Automatically............................................................ 742
13.2.4.5 Displaying Inter-Technology Neighbours on the Map............................................................... 743
13.3 Tips and Tricks............................................................................................................................. 745
13.3.1 Minimising Memory Consumption.................................................................................................. 745
Index .................................................................................................................................................................. 747
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Atoll User Manual
CHAPTER 1
THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
1 The Working Environment
The Atoll working environment provides a comprehensive and integrated set of tools and features that allow you to create
and define your radio-planning project in a single application. You can save the entire project as a single file, or you can
link your project to external files.
Atoll uses standard Windows interface elements, with the ability to have several document windows open at the same
time, support for drag-and-drop functionality, context menus, and support for standard Windows shortcuts, for example,
for cutting and pasting. Atoll also gives you the ability to undo recent changes to your document. Atoll offers the standard
Windows Print functionality, with added functionality allowing you to print either the entire map window, parts of it, or only
certain objects. Atoll also provides other tools, such as a search tool to locate either a site, a point on the map, or a vector.
The Explorer window plays a central role in Atoll. The Explorer window contains most of the objects in a document
arranged in folders.
Using the Explorer window, you can manage all objects in the Atoll document: sites, transmitters, calculations, etc., as
well as geographic data such as the Digital Terrain Model (DTM), clutter classes, and traffic maps. You can, for example,
define various studies or configure the parameters or display of data objects.
The content of the folders in the Explorer window can be displayed in tables, allowing you to manage large amounts of
data. You can sort and filter the data in a table, or change how the data is displayed. You can also use the table feature
to enter large amounts of information by cutting and pasting the information from any Windows spreadsheet into the table.
The map is the working area for your document and Atoll provides many features for working with the map. You can
change the view by moving or zooming in or out and you can choose which objects are displayed and how they are
displayed. You can also export the current display definition, or configuration, to use it in other documents.
This chapter explains the following topics:
"The Atoll Windows" on page 23
"The Explorer Window" on page 25
"Working With Objects" on page 27
"Printing in Atoll" on page 33
"Working with Maps" on page 37
"Working with Data Tables" on page 41
"Grouping, Sorting, and Filtering Data" on page 50
"Tips and Tricks" on page 63.
1.1 The Atoll Windows
This section provides you with a quick introduction to the Atolls two types of windows:
Document windows: Document windows contain the map as well document-specific data tables and reports.
They are located in the workspace area of the Atoll working environment.
Docking windows: Docking windows, such as the Explorer window, display the content of the active document.
The Atoll user interface, with examples of document windows and docking windows, is shown in Figure 1.1 on page 24.
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Atoll User Manual
Figure 1.1: Atoll user interface
1.1.1 Working with Document Windows
When you have one Atoll document open, you can have several document windows open at the same time. You can
resize, maximise, and minimise document windows as you can in any Windows-based application.
As well, you can tile document windows, in order to display all of them at the same time, or cascade them, in order to
display the title bar of each document window.
To tile document windows:
Select Window > Tile.
To cascade document windows:
Select Window > Cascade.
1.1.2 Working with Docking Windows
The docking windows, such as the Explorer window, display the content of the active document. They are not part of the
individual Atoll document, but part of the working environment and, when you switch to a different document, the docking
windows will display the content of the active document.
You can change how and whether a docking window will be displayed. You can also choose to remove a docking window
from its position and float it over the Atoll working environment.
To display a docking window:
On the View menu, select the name of the window.
To close a docking window:
Click the Hide button ( ) in the corner of the window. Depending on the position of the docking window, this
button can be in the upper-left or upper-right corner.
You can change how much room a docking window takes if it shares a docking area with other docking windows by maxim-
ising or minimising the docking window.
To maximise a window in its docking area:
Click the Maximise button ( ) near the corner of the window. Depending on the position of the docking window,
this button can be in the upper-left or upper-right corner.
To minimise a window in its docking area:
Click the Minimise button ( ) near the corner of the window. Depending on the position of the docking window,
this button can be in the upper-left or upper-right corner.
You can leave a docking window in its docking area, or you can have it float over the working environment, allowing you
to maximise the amount of area for document windows or other docking windows.
Docked docking window
(Explorer window)
Floating docking window
(Panoramic window)
Docked docking window (Point Analysis
window)
Toolbar
Document window (map)
Workspace
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
To float a docking window:
Double-click the docking window title bar. The docking window leaves the docking area and floats over the working
environment.
To dock a docking window:
To return the window to its previous docked location, double-click the docking window title bar.
Or
Click the title bar of the docking window and drag the window to a different docking area.
1.2 The Explorer Window
The Explorer window is a docking window that plays a central role in Atoll. The Explorer window contains the data and
objects of a document, arranged in folders. Each object and folder has a context-specific menu that you can access by
right-clicking. Items can be modified at the folder level, with changes affecting all items in the folder, or items can be
accessed and edited individually. As well, most folder contents can also be accessed in a table, allowing you to easily
manage large amounts of information. For information on working with tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on page 41.
In this section, the following are described:
"Working with the Explorer Window Tabs" on page 25
"Navigating in the Explorer Window" on page 26
"Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 26
"Working with Layers Using the Explorer" on page 26.
1.2.1 Working with the Explorer Window Tabs
The Explorer window has three tabs:
The Data tab: The Data tab allows you to manage radio data and calculations. Depending on the modules
installed with Atoll, the Data tab has the following folders:
- Sites
- Antennas
- Transmitters
- Predictions
- UMTS Parameters, cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Parameters, or GSM/GPRS Parameters
- UMTS Simulations or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulations
- Traffic analysis (GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects only)
- Hexagonal design
- Microwave links
- CW Measurements and Test mobile data
The Geo tab: The Geo tab allows you to manage geographic data. The number of folders depends on the
number and types of geographical data types (vector data, scanned images, etc.) you import or create:
- Clutter classes
- Clutter heights
- Digital Terrain Model
- Population data
- Any generic geo data map
- Traffic (GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA, UMTS HSPA, cdmaOne/CDMA2000)
The Modules tab: The Modules tab allows you to manage the propagation models and additional modules. It
contains:
- A Propagation Models folder with the following propagation models:
- Longley-Rice
- Okumura-Hata
- Costa-Hata
- Standard Propagation Model
- ITU 526-5
- ITU 370-7 (Vienna 93)
- WLL
- Microwave Propagation Model
- The AFP models available in your Atoll installation.
Note: You can move the docking window by clicking the title bar and dragging it. To prevent the
window from docking as you move it, press CTRL as you drag the docking window.
Note: The window positions for docking windows are not associated with the current document;
they remain the same no matter which document you open.
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- Any additional module created using the API.
1.2.2 Navigating in the Explorer Window
The Explorer window has three tabs; each tab has objects and folders containing objects.
To move from one tab to another:
Click the tab at the top of the Explorer window.
A folder on a tab can be opened to allow you to view its contents. Each folder containing at least one object has an Expand
( ) or Contract button ( ) to the left of its name.
To expand a folder to display its contents:
Click the Expand button ( ) to the left of its name.
1.2.3 Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer
You can use the Explorer to display or hide objects on the map. This allows you to hide one type of object so that another
type of object is more plainly visible. For example, you could hide all predictions but one, so that the results of one predic-
tion are more clearly displayed.
To hide an object on the map:
1. Select the tab of the Explorer window that contains that object.
2. Clear the check box ( ) immediately to the left of the object name. The check box appears cleared ( ) and the
object is no longer visible on the map.
1.2.4 Working with Layers Using the Explorer
In Atoll, the map is made of objects arranged in layers. The layers on the top (as arranged on the Data and Geo tabs) are
the most visible on the screen and in print. The visibility of the lower layers depends on which layers are above and visible
(see "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 26) and on the transparency of these layers
(see "Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types" on page 30).
To move a layer up or down:
1. Select the tab of the Explorer window that contains that object.
2. Click and drag the object to its new position. As you drag the object, a horizontal black line indicates where the
object will remain when you release the mouse button (see Figure 1.2).
Figure 1.2: Moving a layer
Note: Hiding an object affects only its visibility in the map window; it will still be taken into consid-
eration during calculations.
Note: You can hide the contents of an entire folder by clearing the check box to the left of the
folder name. When the check box of a folder appears greyed ( ), it indicates that the
folder contains both visible and hidden objects.
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
1.3 Working With Objects
In Atoll, the items found in the Explorer window and displayed on the map are referred to as objects. Most objects in Atoll
belong to an object type. For example, one particular transmitter is an object of the type transmitter.
This section explains the following ways of working with objects:
"Using the Object Context Menu" on page 27
"Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
1.3.1 Using the Object Context Menu
In Atoll, an objects context menu gives you access to commands specific to that object as well as to commands that are
common to most objects. In this section, the following context menu commands common to all objects types are explained:
Rename: "Renaming an Object" on page 27.
Delete: "Deleting an Object" on page 27.
Properties: "Displaying the Properties of an Object" on page 27.
1.3.1.1 Renaming an Object
You can change the name of an object in Atoll.
To rename an object:
1. Right-click the object either in the Explorer window or on the map. The context menu appears.
2. Select Rename from the context menu.
3. Enter the new name and press ENTER to change the name.
1.3.1.2 Deleting an Object
You can delete objects from either the Explorer window or from the map.
To delete an object:
1. Right-click the object either in the Explorer window or on the map. The context menu appears.
2. Select Delete from the context menu. The selected object is deleted.
1.3.1.3 Displaying the Properties of an Object
You can see the properties of an object in the Properties dialogue.
To open the Properties dialogue of an object:
1. Right-click the object either in the Explorer window or on the map. The context menu appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
Switching Between Property Dialogues
You can switch between the Properties dialogues of items (transmitters, antennas, sites, services, user profiles, etc.) in
the same folder or subfolder in the Explorer window by using the browse buttons ( ) in the lower-left
corner of each Properties dialogue:
: jump to the first item in the list
: jump to the previous item in the list
: jump to the next item in the list
: jump to the last item in the list
If you have made any changes to the properties of an item, Atoll prompts you to confirm these changes before switching
to the next Properties dialogue.
You can use this feature, for example, to access the properties of co-site transmitters without closing and reopening the
Properties dialogue. Switching is performed within the lowest subfolder in the hierarchy. For example:
Note: Before you print a map, you should pay attention to the arrangement of the layers. For more
information, see "Printing Recommendations" on page 34.
Note: In Atoll, objects such as sites or transmitters are named with default prefixes. Individual
objects are distinguished from each other by the number added automatically to the default
prefix. You can change the default prefix for sites, transmitters, and cells by editing the
atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
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If transmitters are grouped by site, you can switch only within one site (co-site transmitters).
If transmitters are grouped by a flag, you can switch only within this group.
If transmitters are grouped by activity and by a flag, you can switch only within transmitters having the same activity
and the same flag.
The browse buttons are not available:
When creating a new item.
When opening the an items Properties dialogue by double-clicking its record in a table.
For repeater properties.
For propagation model properties.
The Display tab of the Properties dialogue is explained in the following section.
1.3.2 Display Properties of Objects
In Atoll, most objects, such as sites or transmitters, belong to an object type. How an individual object appears on the map
depends on the settings on the Display tab of the object types Properties dialogue. The Display tab is similar for all object
types whose appearance can be configured. Options that are inapplicable for a particular object type are unavailable on
the Display tab of its Properties dialogue (see Figure 1.3).
In this section, the display options are explained, followed by a few examples of how you can use them while working on
your Atoll document (see "Examples of Using the Display Properties of Objects" on page 32).
1.3.2.1 Defining the Display Properties of Objects
Figure 1.3: The Display tab for Sites
When you access the Properties dialogue of an individual object, the Display tab will only show the options applicable to
an individual object (see Figure 1.4).
Figure 1.4: The Display tab for an individual site
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To define the display properties of an object type:
1. Right-click the object type folder in the Explorer window. The context menu appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
3. Select the Display tab. Depending on the object type, the following options are available:
- "Defining the Display Type" on page 29
- "Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types" on page 30
- "Defining the Visibility Scale" on page 30
- "Defining the Object Type Label" on page 30
- "Defining the Object Type Tip Text" on page 31
- "Adding an Object Type to the Legend" on page 31
4. Set the display parameters.
5. Click OK.
Defining the Display Type
Depending on the object selected, you can choose from the following display types: unique, discrete values, value inter-
vals, or automatic.
To change the display type:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
2. Select the display type from the Display Type list:
- Unique: defines the same symbol for all objects of this type. By defining a unique symbol for an object type,
objects of different types, for example, sites or transmitters, are immediately identifiable.
i. To modify the appearance of the symbol, click the symbol in the table below. The Symbol Style dialogue
appears.
ii. Modify the symbol as desired.
iii. Click OK to close the Symbol Style dialogue.
- Discrete values: defines the display of each object according to the value of a selected field. This display type
can be used to distinguish objects of the same type by one characteristic. For example, you could use this
display type to distinguish transmitter by antenna type, or to distinguish inactive from active sites.
i. Select the name of the Field by which you want to display the objects.
ii. You can click to access the Actions menu. For information on the commands available, see
"Using the Actions Button" on page 30.
iii. To modify the appearance of a symbol, click the symbol in the table below. The Symbol Style dialogue
appears.
iv. Modify the symbol as desired.
v. Click OK to close the Symbol Style dialogue.
- Value intervals: defines the display of each object according to set ranges of the value of a selected field.
This display type can be used, for example, to distinguish population density, signal strength, or the altitude
of sites.
i. Select the name of the Field by which you want to display the objects.
ii. Define the ranges directly in the table below. For an example, see Figure 1.6 on page 31.
iii. You can click to access the Actions menu. For information on the commands available, see
"Using the Actions Button" on page 30.
iv. To modify the appearance of a symbol, click the symbol in the table. The Symbol Style dialogue appears.
v. Modify the symbol as desired.
vi. Click OK to close the Symbol Style dialogue.
- Automatic: only available for transmitters; Atoll automatically assigns a colour to each transmitter, ensuring
that each transmitter has a different colour than the transmitters surrounding it.
i. Click the symbol in the table below. The Symbol Style dialogue appears.
ii. Modify the symbol as desired.
iii. Click OK to close the Symbol Style dialogue.
Note: When you create a new map object, for example, a new site or a new transmitter, you must
click the Refresh button ( ) for Atoll to assign a colour to newly created object according
to the set display type.
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Using the Actions Button
The button on the Display tab of the Properties dialogue allows you to modify the display type as defined in
"Defining the Display Type" on page 29.
To access the Actions menu:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
2. Click the button. The Actions menu gives you access to the following commands:
- Select all: Atoll selects all the values in the table.
- Delete: Atoll removes selected value from the table.
- Insert before: When the selected display type is value intervals, Atoll inserts a new threshold in the table
before the threshold selected in the table.
- Insert after: When the selected display type is value intervals, Atoll inserts a new threshold in the table after
the threshold selected in the table.
- Properties: Atoll opens the Display dialogue where you may change the colour and style.
- Shading: Atoll opens the Shading dialogue. When "Value Intervals" is the selected display type, you select
Shading to define the number of value intervals and configure their colour. Enter the upper and lower limits
of the value in the First Break and Last Break boxes respectively, and enter a value in the Interval box.
Define the colour shading by choosing a Start Colour and an End Colour. The value intervals will be deter-
mined by the set values and coloured by a shade going from the set start colour to the set end colour.
When "Discrete Values" is the selected display type, you select Shading to choose a Start Colour and an
End Colour.
Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types
You can change the transparency of some objects, such as predictions, and some object types, such as clutter classes,
to allow objects on lower layers to be visible on the map.
To change the transparency:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
2. Move the Transparency slider to the right to make the object or object type more transparent or to the left to make
it less transparent.
Defining the Visibility Scale
You can define a visibility range for object types. An object is visible only if the scale, as displayed on the zoom toolbar, is
within this range. This can be used to, for example, prevent the map from being cluttered with symbols when you are at a
certain scale.
Visibility ranges are taken into account for screen display, and for printing and previewing printing. They do not affect which
objects are considered during calculations.
To define an object visibility range:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
2. Enter a Visibility Scale minimum in the between 1: text box.
3. Enter a Visibility Scale maximum in the and 1: text box.
Defining the Object Type Label
For most object types, such as sites and transmitters, you can display information about each object in the form of a label
that is displayed with the object. You can display information from every field in that object types data table, including from
fields that you add.
To define a label for an object type:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
2. Click the Label box. A list appears.
3. Select the check box next to name of each field whose value you want to appear in the label (see Figure 1.5).
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Figure 1.5: Defining a label
Defining the Object Type Tip Text
For most object types, such as sites and transmitters, you can display information about each object in the form of a tool
tip that is only visible when you move the pointer over the object. You can display information from every field in that object
types data table, including from fields that you add.
To define tip text for an object type:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
2. Click the Tip Text box. A list appears.
3. Select the check box next to name of each field whose value you want to appear in the label.
Once you have defined the tool tips, you must activate the tool tip function before they appear.
To activate the tool tip function:
Click the Display Tips button ( ) on the toolbar. Tool tips will now appear when the pointer is over the object.
Adding an Object Type to the Legend
You can display the information defined by the display type (see "Defining the Display Type" on page 29) in your Atoll
documents legend. Only visible objects appear in the Legend window. For information on displaying or hiding objects,
see "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 26.
In Figure 1.6, on the Display tab of a signal level prediction, the intervals defined are:
Signal level >=-65red
-65 >Signal level >=-105shading from red to blue (9 intervals)
Signal level <-105not shown in the coverage.
The entries in the Legend column will appear in the Legend window.
Figure 1.6: Defined thresholds as they will appear in the Legend
Note: For most object types, you can also display object information in the form of a tool tip that is
only visible when you move the pointer over the object. This option has the advantage of
not filling the map window with text. For more information on tool tips, see "Defining the
Object Type Tip Text" on page 31.
Note: For most object types, you can also display object information in the form of a label that is
displayed with the object. This option has the advantage of keep object-related information
permanently visible. For more information on tool tips, see "Defining the Object Type Label"
on page 30.
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With value intervals, you can enter information in the Legend column to be displayed on the legend. If there is no infor-
mation entered in this column, the maximum and minimum values are displayed instead.
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
2. Check the Add to legend box. The defined display will appear on the legend.
To display the Legend window:
Select View > Legend. The Legend window appears.
1.3.2.2 Examples of Using the Display Properties of Objects
Automatic Display Type - Server Coverage Studies
When doing a best server study, Atoll calculates, for each bin on the map, which server is best received. If the selected
display type for transmitters is "Automatic," Atoll colours each bin on the map according to the colour of the transmitter
that is best received on that bin. In this way, you can identify immediately which transmitter is best received by each bin.
The following two figures show the results of the same best server area and handover margin study.
In Figure 1.7, the transmitter display type is "Discrete Values," with the site name as the chosen value. The difference in
colour is insufficient to make clear which transmitter is best received on each bin. In Figure 1.8, the transmitter display type
is "Automatic." Because Atoll ensures that each transmitter has a different colour than the transmitters surrounding it, the
study results are also immediately visible.
To display the results of a server coverage study with the transmitters set to the Automatic display type:
1. Right-click the Transmitters folder in the Explorer window. The context menu appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
3. Select the Display tab.
4. Select "Automatic" as the Display Type.
5. Click OK.
6. Click the Refresh button ( ) to update the display of the study results.
Shading - Signal Level Study
Atoll displays the results of a signal level study as value intervals. On the map, these value intervals appear as differences
of shading. You can use the Shading command to define the appearance of these value intervals to make the results
easier to read or more relevant to your needs. For example, you can change the range of data displayed, the interval
between each break, or you can change the colours to make the intervals more visible.
In this example, Figure 1.9 shows the results of the best signal level plot from -60 dBm to -105 dBm. However, if you are
more interested in reception from -80 dBm to -105 dBm, you can change the shading to display only those values. The
result is visible in Figure 1.10.
Figure 1.7: Value interval display type Figure 1.8: Automatic display type
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To change how the results of a signal level study are displayed:
1. Expand the Predictions folder in the Explorer window and right-click the signal level study. The context menu
appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
3. Select the Display tab.
4. Click Actions to display the menu and select Shading. The Shading dialogue appears.
5. Change the value of the First Break to "-80". Leave the value of the Last Break at "-105."
6. Click OK to close the Shading dialogue.
7. Click OK to close the Properties dialogue and apply your changes.
1.4 Printing in Atoll
In Atoll, you can print any part of your document, including maps, data tables, document reports, and antenna patterns.
This section explains the following:
"Printing Data Tables and Reports" on page 33
"Printing a Map" on page 33
"Printing a Docking Window" on page 36
"Printing Antenna Patterns" on page 36.
1.4.1 Printing Data Tables and Reports
Data tables and reports are both presented in tabular format in Atoll and can, therefore, both be printed in the same way.
If you wish to see how the table will appear once printed, see "Previewing Your Printing" on page 36.
To print a table:
1. Open the table.
2. If you want to print an area of the table, select it by clicking in one corner of the area and dragging diagonally to
the opposite corner.
3. Select File > Print.
4. If you want to print only a selected area, choose Selected in the Print dialogue.
5. Click OK to print.
1.4.2 Printing a Map
You can print a map in Atoll and create a paper copy of studies, predictions, etc. Atoll offers several options allowing you
to customise and optimise the printed map. Atoll supports printing to a variety of paper sizes, including A4 and A0.
Before you print a map, you have the following options:
You can print the entire map, or you can define an area of the map to be printed in one of the following ways:
- Selecting the print area (see "Defining the Printing Zone" on page 34).
- Creating a focus zone (see "Drawing a Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone" on page 129).
You can accept the default layout or you can modify the print layout (see "Defining the Print Layout" on page 35).
You can see how the map will appear once printed (see "Previewing Your Printing" on page 36).
Figure 1.9: Shading from -60 dBm to -105 dBm Figure 1.10: Shading from -80 dBm to -105 dBm
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To print a map:
1. Select the document window containing the map.
2. You now have the following options before printing the map:
- You can select a print area ("Defining the Printing Zone" on page 34) or create a focus zone ("Drawing a Com-
putation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone" on page 129).
- You can modify the print layout ("Defining the Print Layout" on page 35).
- You can see how the map will appear once printed (see "Previewing Your Printing" on page 36).
3. Select File > Print.
4. Click OK.
1.4.2.1 Printing Recommendations
The appearance of the map is determined by the arrangement and properties of the objects the map contains. Objects in
Atoll are arranged in layers. The layers on the top (as arranged on the Data and Geo tabs) are the most visible on the
screen and in print. The visibility of the lower layers depends on which layers are above it and on the transparency of these
layers (for information on transparency, see "Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types" on page 30).
Before printing a map, it is recommended to organise the layers from top to bottom as follows, when a document contains
surface layers (raster maps or polygonal vector maps), lines (vectors such as roads, or airport), and points (measure-
ments, etc.):
Points (vectors)
Roads and Lines (vectors)
Surface polygons (vectors)
Multi-format maps - population, rain, generic, and traffic maps (vector or raster)
Clutter class maps (transparent raster maps)
Images, DTM, or clutter height maps (Non transparent maps)
Sites and Transmitters must be above all the other layers. For this reason, visible objects on the Data tab, for example,
sites, transmitters, and predictions, are displayed above objects on the Geo tab. For performance reasons, however, it is
strongly recommended to put vector layers, such as roads, over predictions. This will ensure that these vector layers are
visible when you print the map.
To put vector layers from the Geo tab over predictions:
1. In the Explorer window, click the Geo tab.
2. Right-click the vector layer you wish to move to the Data tab. The context menu appears.
3. Select Transfer to Data from the context menu.
4. Click the Data tab.
5. Drag the vector layer to a position above Predictions but below Sites, Antennas, and Transmitters.
1.4.2.2 Defining the Printing Zone
You can define an area to be printed.
To create a printing zone:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Zones folder.
3. Right-click the Printing Zone folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Draw from the context menu.
5. Draw the printing zone:
a. Click the point on the map that will be one corner of the rectangle that will define the printing zone.
b. Drag to the opposite corner of the rectangle that will define the printing zone. When you release the mouse,
the printing zone will be created from the rectangle defined by the two corners.
The printing zone is displayed as a rectangle with a light green border (see Figure 1.11).
Important: Printing graphics is a memory-intensive operation and can make heavy demands on your
printer. Before printing for the first time, you should review the "Printing Recommendations"
on page 34 to avoid any memory-related problems.
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
Figure 1.11: Printing zone
You can also create a printing zone with one of the following methods available from the context menu of the Zones folder:
Fit to Map Window: You can create a printing zone the current size of the map window by selecting Fit to Map
Window from the context menu.
Importing a polygon: You can import a polygon to be used as the printing zone by selecting Import from the
context menu.
1.4.2.3 Defining the Print Layout
You can use the Page Setup dialogue to define how your map will appear when you print it. On the Page Setup dialogue,
you can:
Set the scale of the map.
Choose to print the rulers with the map.
Choose to print the area outside the focus zone.
Choose to print the legend.
Add a title, comment, or a logo.
Select paper size and source, as well as the page orientation and the margins.
To define the appearance of your map:
1. Select File > Page Setup. The Page Setup dialogue appears.
2. Set the scale of the map:
- Select Scale and entering a value in the text box. The selected area of the map will be printed in the selected
scale.
or
- Select Fit to Page. The selected area of the map will be scaled to fit the page.
When you select Fit to Page it is not possible to know the exact scale that the map will be printed in.
3. Select the Print Rulers check box if you wish to print the map with the rulers.
4. If you are printing a focus zone and do not wish to print the part of the map outside of the focus zone, select the
Delete Area Outside Focus Zone check box.
5. If you wish to print the map legend, select the position of the legend from the Legend list. If you do not want to
print the map legend, select None from the Legend list.
6. To add a logo:
a. Select the Add a Logo check box.
b. Click Logo. The Logo dialogue appears.
c. Click File. The Open dialogue appears.
d. Select the your graphic in BMP format and click Open.
Note: Visibility scales defined for objects are taken into account when printing. Objects will appear
only if the printing scale is within their respective visibility range. For more information on
visibility scales, see "Defining the Visibility Scale" on page 30.
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e. Select the correct Width and Height (in pixels).
f. Click OK.
7. To add a comment:
a. Click Comment. The Comment dialogue appears.
b. Enter the comment and click Font if you wish to change the appearance of the comment.
c. Click OK. The comment will appear centred underneath the map.
8. To add a title:
a. Click Title. The Title dialogue appears.
b. Enter the title and click Font if you wish to change the appearance of the title.
c. Click OK. The title will appear centred above the map.
9. Under Paper, select:
- The paper Size
- The Source of the paper.
10. Under Orientation, select either Portrait or Landscape.
11. Under Margins, set the left, right, top, and bottom margins.
12. Click OK.
1.4.3 Previewing Your Printing
If you are printing maps or data tables or reports, you can preview your printing.
To preview your printing:
1. Select the map or table you want to print.
2. Select File > Print Preview. The Print Preview dialogue appears.
3. In the Print Preview dialogue, you can:
- Choose Print to open the Print dialogue.
- Choose Zoom In or Zoom Out.
- Choose Next Page to display the following page or Prove Page to display the previous page.
- Choose Two Page to display two pages side by side, or One Page.
1.4.4 Printing a Docking Window
You can print the content of many docking windows using the context menu; the Print command on the File menu can be
used only to print the contents of a document window, as explained in "Printing a Map" on page 33. The docking windows
whose contents you can print are:
Legend Window (for more information on this tool, see "Adding an Object Type to the Legend" on page 31)
Point Analysis Tool
CW Measurement Analysis Tool (for more information on this tool, see "Using the CW Measurement Window"
on page 515)
Test Mobile Data Analysis Tool (for more information on this tool, see "Using the Test Mobile Data Window" on
page 525)
Microwave Link Analysis (for more information on this tool, see "Microwave Link Analysis" on page 714)
To print the content of a docking window:
1. Open the docking window you want to print.
- If you want to print a Point Analysis window, click the tab of the study you wish to print.
2. Right-click the window you wish to print.
3. Select Print from the context menu. The Print dialogue appears.
4. Click OK to print.
1.4.5 Printing Antenna Patterns

You can print the horizontal or vertical pattern of an antenna.
To print an antenna pattern:
1. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window.
2. Open the Antennas table:
Note: Only BMP graphics can be used as logos. If your logo is in a different format, you must first
convert it using a graphics programme to the BMP format.
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
- To open the RF Antennas table:
i. Right-click the Antennas folder.
ii. Select Open Table from the context menu.
- To open the microwave Antennas table:
i. Click the Expand button ( ) to the left of the Microwave Radio Links folder.
ii. Right-click the Links folder and select Antennas > Open Table from the context menu.
3. Right-click the antenna whose pattern you want to print.
4. Select Record Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Select the Horizontal Pattern tab or the Vertical Pattern tab.
6. Right-click the antenna pattern and select Linear or Logarithmic from the context menu.
7. Right-click the antenna pattern and select Print from the context menu.
1.5 Working with Maps
Atoll has the following functions to help you work with maps:
"Changing the Map Scale" on page 37
"Moving the Map in the Document Window" on page 38
"Using the Panoramic Window" on page 38
"Displaying Rulers Around the Map" on page 39
"Displaying the Map Legend" on page 39
"Centring the Map Window on an Object" on page 38
"Measuring Distances on the Map" on page 39
"Exporting a Map" on page 40
"Copying a Map to Another Application" on page 40.
"Map Window Pointers" on page 40.
1.5.1 Changing the Map Scale
You can change the scale of the map by zooming in or out, by zooming in on a specific area of the map, or by choosing a
scale.
Atoll also allows you to define a zoom range outside of which certain objects are not displayed (see "Defining the Visibility
Scale" on page 30).
1.5.1.1 Zooming In and Out
Atoll offers several tools for zooming in and out on the map. When you zoom in or out on the map, you do so based on
the position of the cursor on the map.
To zoom in on the map:
1. Click the Zoom icon ( ) on the Zoom toolbar (or press CTRL+Q).
2. Click the map where you want to zoom in.
To zoom out on the map:
1. Click the Zoom icon ( ) on the Zoom toolbar (or press CTRL+Q).
2. Right-click the map where you want to zoom out.
1.5.1.2 Zooming In on a Specific Area
To zoom in on a specific area of the map:
1. Click the Zoom Area icon ( ) on the Zoom toolbar (or press CTRL+W).
2. Click in the map on one of the four corners of the area you want to select.
3. Drag to the opposite corner. When you release the mouse button, Atoll zooms in on the selected area.
Note: You can also zoom in by pressing CTRL+A, by selecting Zoom In from the View menu, or
by holding down the CTRL key and rotating the mouse wheel button forward.
Note: You can also zoom out by pressing CTRL+R, by selecting Zoom Out from the View menu,
or holding down the CTRL key and rotating the mouse wheel button backward.
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1.5.1.3 Choosing a Scale
To choose a scale:
1. Click the arrow next to the scale box ( ) on the Zoom toolbar.
2. Select the scale from the list.
If the scale value you want is not in the list:
1. Click in the scale box ( ) on the Zoom toolbar.
2. Enter the desired scale.
3. Press ENTER. Atoll zooms the map to the entered scale.
1.5.1.4 Changing Between Previous ZoomLevels
Atoll saves the last five zoom levels, allowing you to move quickly between previous zoom levels and zoomed areas.
To move between zoom levels:
Click the Previous Zoom button ( ) to return to a zoom level you have already used.
Once you have returned to a previous zoom level, click the Next Zoom button ( ) to return to the latest zoom
level.
1.5.2 Moving the Map in the Document Window
You can move the map in the document window using the mouse.
To move the map in the document window:
1. Click the Move Map Window button ( ) on the Zoom toolbar.
2. Move the pointer over the map and drag the map in the desired direction.
1.5.3 Using the Panoramic Window
The Panoramic window displays the entire map with all of the imported geographic data. A dark rectangle indicates what
part of the geographic data is presently displayed in a document window, helping you situate the displayed area in relation
to the entire map.
You can use the Panoramic window to:
Zoom in on a specific area of the map
Resize the displayed map area
Move around the map.
To zoom in on a specific area of the map:
1. Click in the Panoramic window on one of the four corners of the area you want to zoom in on.
2. Drag to the opposite corner. When you release the mouse button, Atoll zooms in on the selected area.
To resize the displayed map area:
1. Click in the Panoramic window on a corner or border of the zoom area (i.e., the dark rectangle).
2. Drag the border to its new position.
To move around the map:
1. Click in the Panoramic window in the zoom area (i.e., the dark rectangle).
2. Drag the rectangle to its new position.
1.5.4 Centring the Map Window on an Object
You can centre the map on any selected object, for example, a transmitter, a site, or a focus/computation/hot spot zone.
When centring the map window on an object the current scale is kept.
You can select the object in the map window or in the Explorer window.
To the map window on a selected object:
1. Right-click the object in the map window or in the Explorer window.
2. Select Centre in the Map Window from the context menu.
Tip: If you want to quickly find an object, such as a site, on the map, you can select it in the
Explorer window and then select the Centre in the Map Window command.
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1.5.5 Measuring Distances on the Map
You can measure distances on the map by using the Distance Measurement tool. The Distance Measurement tool also
gives you the azimuth of a straight line between two points. You can also use the Distance Measurement tool to measure
distance along a line with several points. Atoll will then give you the distance between each point (as you measure), the
azimuth of each segment between two points, and the total distance.
To measure a distance on the map between two points:
1. Click the Distance Measurement button ( ) on the toolbar.
2. Click the first point on the map once.
As you move the pointer away from the first point, Atoll marks the initial position and connects it to the pointer with
a line.
3. Place the pointer over the second point on the map. The status bar displays the following (see Figure 1.12):
- The distance between the two points
- The azimuth between the two points.
To measure the total distance on the map on a line over a series of points:
1. Click the Distance Measurement button ( ) on the toolbar.
2. Click the first point on the map once.
As you move the pointer away from the first point, Atoll marks the initial position and connects it to the pointer with
a line.
3. Click once on the map at each point on the line between the first point and the final point, where you will have to
change direction on the line.
4. When you reach the last point on the line, the status bar displays the following (see Figure 1.12):
- The total distance between the first point and the last point
- The distance between the second-last point and the last point
- The azimuth between the last two points.
Figure 1.12: Measurement data in the status bar
1.5.6 Displaying Rulers Around the Map
You can display rulers around the map in the document window.
To display rulers:
1. Select Tools > Options.
2. In the Options dialogue, click the Coordinates tab.
3. Under Display rulers, select where you want the rulers to be displayed in the map window.
4. Click OK.
1.5.7 Displaying the Map Legend
You can display a map legend. The legend will contain the information on the object types that you have added to it. For
information on adding object types to the legend, see "Adding an Object Type to the Legend" on page 31.
To display the legend:
Select View > Legend.
Total distance between
first and last point
Azimuth between second-
last and last point
Distance between second-
last and last point
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1.5.8 Exporting a Map
You can export a map as a graphic image.
To export a map as a graphic image:
1. Click the Select an area button ( ) in the zoom toolbar.
2. Define the area to be exported:
a. Click in the map on one of the four corners of the area you want to select.
b. Drag to the opposite corner.
3. Select File > Export Image. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. In the Save as dialogue, select a destination folder, enter a File name, and select a file type from the Save as
type list.
The following file formats are supported: TIF, BIL, BMP, and ArcView Grid (TXT). If you wish to use the exported
file as a digital terrain model, you should select the TIF, BIL, or TXT format.
5. Click Save. The Exported Image Size dialogue appears.
6. You can define the size of the exported image in one of two ways:
- Scale: If you wish to define the size by scale, select Scale, enter a scale in the text box and a Resolution. If
you wish to export the image with rulers, select Include Rulers.
- Pixel Size: If you wish to define the size by pixel size, select Pixel Size, and enter a pixel size in the text box.
7. Click OK.
1.5.9 Copying a Map to Another Application
You can copy a selected area of the map into a document created using another application.
To copy a selected area of the map into a document created using another application:
1. Click the Select an area button ( ) in the zoom toolbar.
2. Click in the map on one of the four corners of the area you want to select.
3. Drag to the opposite corner.
4. Select Edit > Copy Image. The Copy Image dialogue appears.
5. Define the resolution of the image in one of the following ways:
- Select Use Screen Resolution
- Select Use Custom Resolution and enter a resolution in metres.
6. Click OK.
7. Open the application into which you want to paste the image.
8. In the new application, select Edit > Paste Special.
9. In the Paste special dialogue, select Bitmap from the list box.
10. Click OK. The area of the map is pasted as an image into the new document.
1.5.10 Map Window Pointers
In Atoll, the pointer appears in different forms according to its function. Each pointer is described below:
Important: If you wish to use the exported file as a digital terrain model, you must define the size of the
exported image by pixel size. Atoll then creates a geo-reference file for the exported image.
Appearance Description Meaning
Selection arrow
The zone selection pointer indicates that, on the map, you can define a zone to
print or copy and, in the Panoramic window, you can define the zone to be
displayed on the map. To define a zone, click and drag diagonally.
Polygon
drawing pointer
The polygon drawing pointer indicates you can draw a zone to filter either sites
or transmitters, to draw computation/focus/hot spot/filtering zones, or to draw
vector or raster polygons on the map. To draw a polygon, click once to start,
and each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the
polygon. Close the polygon by clicking twice.
Hand The hand pointer indicates you can move the visible part of the displayed map.
Zoom tool
The zoom pointer indicates you can click to zoom in and right-click to zoom out
at the location of the mouse pointer
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
1.6 Working with Data Tables
Atoll stores object data (sites, transmitters, repeaters, antennas, UMTS, or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Cells, UMTS or
cdmaOne/CDMA2000 parameters, microwave links, etc.) in the form of tables, containing all their parameters and char-
acteristics. The data contained in prediction reports are also stored in the form of tables.
You can add columns to the data table and you can delete certain columns. When you create a new column, you can
create a default value for a field you create. You can also create a list of options (for text fields) from which the user can
choose when filling in the field.
You can filter, sort, and group the data contained in these tables, export the data or import data into the Atoll data tables.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Opening a Data Table" on page 42
"Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields" on page 42
"Editing the Content of a Table" on page 43
"Opening an Objects Record Properties Dialogue from a Table" on page 44
Zoom area
The zoom area pointer indicates you can zoom in on an area of the by clicking
and dragging to define the area.
New transmitter
The transmitter pointer indicates you can place a transmitter on the map where
you click. You can place more than one station by pressing CTRL as you click
on the map.
Point analysis
The point analysis pointer indicates that you have selected the Point Analysis
tool and have not yet chosen the first point.
Point placed
(Receiver)
The point placed pointer indicates the position of the receiver on the map that
is used for the point-to-point analysis. The results are displayed in the
Measurements or Point Analysis window.
Pencil
The pencil pointer indicates you can create a polygonal clutter zone, by clicking
once to start the polygon, once to create each corner, and by double-clicking to
close the polygon.
Deletion
The deletion pointer indicates that you can delete a newly created polygonal
clutter zone by clicking its border.
Position
indicator
The position indicator pointer indicates you can select the border of a polygon.
Right-clicking the polygon border opens a context menu allowing you to add a
point, delete the polygon, or centre the map on the polygon.
Select/create
points
The select/create points pointer indicates you can modify the polygon in the
map window. You can add a new point and modify the polygon contour by
clicking on one of the edges and dragging. You can move an existing point by
clicking and dragging an existing point. You can right-click to open a context
menu to delete a point, delete the polygon, or centre the map on the polygon.
Placing a CW
measurement
point
The first CW measurement point pointer indicates you can click a point on the
map to create the first point of a CW measurement path.
Placing points
in a CW
measurement
path
The next CW measurement point pointer indicates the first CW measurement
point has been set and you can now click other points on the map. Double-click
to end the CW measurement path.
Microwave link
start
End
The microwave link pointer indicates you can click a point on the map to create
the first point of a microwave link. Once you have created the first point, the
microwave link pointer changes and the next click ends the link.
Multi-hop or
point-to-
multipoint
microwave link
The multihop and multipoint pointer indicates you can click once to create the
first point of a multi-hop link or the hub of a point-to-multipoint link. In the case
of a multihop link, each subsequent click creates another point in the link. In
the case of a point-to-multipoint, each subsequent link creates anew point,
connected to the hub by a link.
Rotate hub
antenna of
point-to-
multipoint link
The rotate hub antenna pointer indicates you can click the hub antenna and
drag it to a new position to change the azimuth of the hub antenna.
Measurements
on the map
The measurement pointer indicates you can click on the map to set the start
point of your measurement. As you move the pointer, the distance between the
first point and the pointer is displayed in the status bar.
Terrain section
The terrain section pointer indicates that you can create a terrain section by
clicking once on the map to create the first point and once more to create the
second point. The terrain profile between the two points is displayed in the
Point Analysis window and stored under Terrain Sections in the Geo tab.
Appearance Description Meaning
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"Defining the Table Format" on page 45
"Copying and Pasting in Tables" on page 47
"Exporting Tables to External Files" on page 48
"Importing Tables from External Files" on page 49.
1.6.1 Opening a Data Table
To open a data table:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the data folder of which you want to display the data table.
3. Select Open Table from the context menu.
1.6.2 Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields
The data for each object type is stored in the form of a data table. Every data table in Atoll is created with a default set of
columns, each corresponding to a field. In this section, the following functions are explained:
"Accessing the Table Tab of an Object Types Properties dialogue" on page 42
"Adding a Field to an Object Types Data Table" on page 42
"Deleting a Field from an Object Types Data Table" on page 43
1.6.2.1 Accessing the Table Tab of an Object Types Properties dialogue
An object types data table is defined on the Table tab of its Properties dialogue.
To access the table tab of an object types Properties dialogue:
1. In the Explorer window, select the tab containing the object type.
2. Right-click the object type folder. A context menu appears
3. Select Properties. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Table tab. The Table tab displays for each type of data (see Figure 1.13):
- The Name of the field in the database (Name).
- The Name of the field in the ATL file (Legend).
- The Type of the field.
- The maximum Size of the field.
- The Default value of the field.
- The Group to which the field belongs. When opening an Atoll document from a database, you can select a
group of custom fields to be loaded from the database, instead of loading all custom fields.
Figure 1.13: The Table tab
1.6.2.2 Adding a Field to an Object Types Data Table
You can add a custom field to any object types data table.
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To add a custom field to an object types data table:
1. Access the Table tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Accessing the Table Tab of an Object Types
Properties dialogue" on page 42.
2. Click Add. The Field Definition dialogue appears (see Figure 1.14).
3. The Field Definition dialogue has the following text boxes:
- Name: Enter the Name for the field that will appear in the database
- Group: If desired, you can define a Group that this custom field will belong to. When you open an Atoll doc-
ument from a database, you can then select a specific group of custom fields to be loaded from the database,
instead of loading all custom fields.
- Legend: Enter the name for the field that will appear in the Atoll document.
- Type: Select a type for the field (text, short integer, long integer, single, double, true/false, date/time, or cur-
rency)
- Size: The Size field is only available if you have selected "text" as the Type. Enter a size in characters.
- Default Value: If you want, enter a default value that will appear each time you create a new record of this
object type.
- Choice List: The Choice List field is only available if you have selected "text" as the Type. You can create
a choice list by entering the list items in the Choice List text box, separating each list item with a hard return.
4. Click OK to return to the Properties dialogue.
Figure 1.14: The Field Definition dialogue
1.6.2.3 Deleting a Field froman Object Types Data Table
You can delete custom fields from an object types data table. Custom fields are the fields that the user adds to an object
types data table, as explained in "Adding a Field to an Object Types Data Table" on page 42.
To delete a custom field from an object types data table:
1. Access the Table tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Accessing the Table Tab of an Object Types
Properties dialogue" on page 42.
2. Select the custom field that you want to delete.
3. Click Delete. The field is deleted from the object types data table.
1.6.3 Editing the Content of a Table
To edit the contents of a table:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the data folder of which you want to display the data table.
3. Select Open Table from the context menu.
Caution: All data stored in the field will be lost when you delete the field itself. Make sure that you
are not deleting important information.
Tip: Some fields can not be deleted. If you select a field on the Table tab and the Delete button
remains unavailable, the selected field is not a custom field and can not be deleted.
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4. Edit the content of the table by entering the value directly in the field (see Figure 1.15). Your changes are auto-
matically saved.
Figure 1.15: Editing data in the transmitters data tables
Figure 1.16: Choosing data in the transmitters data tables
1.6.4 Opening an Objects Record Properties Dialogue froma
Table
You can open the Record Properties dialogue of an object, for example, a site, antenna, transmitter, or cell, from its data
table:
To open the Record Properties dialogue of an object:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Right-click the record whose properties you want to see.
3. Select Record Properties from the context menu.
Tip: If a list of options has been defined for a field, you can select a value from the list (see
Figure 1.16) or enter a new value.
Note: You can also open the Record Properties dialogue by double-clicking the record. To avoid
editing the record when you double-click, double-click the left margin of the record instead
of the record itself.
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
1.6.5 Defining the Table Format
Atoll lets you format the data tables so that the data presented is more legible or better presented. You can change the
format of the data table by:
"Formatting the Column Headers" on page 45
"Formatting Table Columns" on page 45
"Changing Column Width or Row Height" on page 45
"Displaying or Hiding a Column" on page 46
"Freezing or Unfreezing a Column" on page 46
"Moving Columns" on page 47
Formatting the Column Headers
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Select Format > Header Format. The Format dialogue appears.
3. The Format dialogue has the following tabs:
- Font: You can select the Font, Outline (the font style), font Size, Effects, and Text Colour.
- Colour: You can select the background colour (Interior) of the column headers, by selecting a Foreground
colour, a Background colour, and a pattern from the list box. You can also select a 3D Effect for the header.
- Borders: You can select the Border, the Type, and the Colour for each column header.
- Alignment: You can select both the Horizontal and Vertical alignment of the column header text.
4. Click OK.
Formatting Table Columns
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Select Format > Column Format. The Format dialogue appears.
3. The Format dialogue has the following tabs:
- Font: You can select the Font, Outline (the font style), font Size, Effects, and Text Colour.
- Colour: You can select the background colour (Interior) of the column headers, by selecting a Foreground
colour, a Background colour, and a pattern from the list box. You can also select a 3D Effect for the header.
- Borders: You can select the Border, the Type, and the Colour for each column header.
- Alignment: You can select both the Horizontal and Vertical alignment of the column header text.
4. Click OK.
Changing Column Width or Row Height
You can change the column width and row height in a data table. When you change the column width, you change the
width only for the selected column. When you change the row height, however, you change the row height for every row
in the table.
To change the column width:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Click the border separating two column headers and drag to change the column width (see Figure 1.17).
To change the row height:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Click the border separating two rows and drag to change the row height (see Figure 1.18).
Figure 1.17: Changing column width
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Figure 1.18: Changing row height
Displaying or Hiding a Column
You can choose which columns in data tables to display or hide.
To display or hide a column:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Select Format > Display Columns. The Columns to Be Displayed dialogue appears (see Figure 1.19).
3. To display a column, select its check box.
4. To hide a column, clear its check box.
5. Click Close.
Figure 1.19: The Columns to Be Displayed dialogue
Freezing or Unfreezing a Column
In Atoll, you can freeze one or more columns of a data table so that they always remain visible as you scroll horizontally
through the table. For example, while scrolling through the Sites table, you might want to have the Name column always
visible. You can keep this column, or any other column visible, by freezing it.
To freeze a column:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Select the header of the column you want to freeze. Click and drag over several headers to select more than one
column to freeze.
3. Right-click the selected header or headers and select Freeze columns from the context men.
Tip: You can also hide a column by right-clicking on its header and selecting Hide Columns
from the context menu. You can hide more than one column by pressing CTRL while
selecting the columns and then selecting Hide Columns from the context menu.
Note: You can also right-click the data table and select the Display Columns or Hide Columns
command from the context menu.
Note: You can only freeze adjacent columns.
Note: You can not freeze a column in a report table.
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
To unfreeze columns:
Select Format > Unfreeze columns.
Moving Columns
In Atoll, you can change the column order so that you can group similar columns or present data in a determined order.
To move a column:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Select the header of the column you want to move. Click and drag over several headers to select more than one
column to move.
3. Click again on the selected column and drag to the desired area. As you drag the column, the position the column
will occupy is indicated by a red line (see Figure 1.20)
Figure 1.20: Moving columns
1.6.6 Copying and Pasting in Tables
In Atoll, you can copy and paste data in tables using the Copy (CTRL+C), Cut (CTRL+X), and Paste (CTRL+V)
commands on the Edit menu. You can also paste the same data into several cells, using Fill Up or Fill Down.
To paste the same data into several cells:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Click on the cell with the data you wish to copy and drag to select the cells into which you wish to copy the data
(see Figure 1.21).
Figure 1.21: Selecting the cells
3. Copy into the selected cells:
- To copy the contents of the top cell of the selection into the other cells, select Edit > Fill > Down (see
Figure 1.22).
Note: You can only move several columns at the same time when they are adjacent.
Note: It may be necessary to click Refresh for your changes to appear.
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Figure 1.22: Copying the contents of the top cell
- To copy the contents of the bottom cell of the selection into the other cells, select Edit > Fill > Up (see
Figure 1.23).
Figure 1.23: Copying the contents of the bottom cell
1.6.7 Exporting Tables to External Files
You can export entire Atoll data tables, or selected columns to ASCII text files (in text, TXT, and Comma Separated Value,
CSV, formats).
To export a table:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Right-click the table. The context menu appears.
3. Select Export from the context menu. The Export dialogue appears. You can see how the exported table will
appear in the Preview window (see Figure 1.24).
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
Figure 1.24: Exporting a data table
4. Select the Header check box if you want to export the names of the columns with the data.
5. Select a Decimal Symbol from the list.
6. Select a Field Separator from the list.
7. Define which fields (displayed as columns in the table) you want to export:
a. To select a field to be exported, select the field in the Available Fields box and click to move it
to the Exported Fields box. All fields in the Exported Fields box will be exported.
b. To remove a field from the list of Exported Fields, select the field in the Exported Fields box and click
to remove it.
c. To change the order of the fields, select a field and click or to move it up or down in the list. The fields
at the top of the Exported Fields appear at the left of the exported table.
8. Click Export. The Save As dialogue appears.
For information on importing data into a data table, see "Importing Tables from External Files" on page 49.
1.6.8 Importing Tables fromExternal Files
You can import data in the form of ASCII text files (in TXT and CSV formats) into Atoll data tables.
To import a table:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Right-click the table. The context menu appears.
3. Select Import from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
4. Select the ASCII text file you want to open and click Open. The Import dialogue appears (see Figure 1.25).
5. Enter the number of the first line of data in the 1st Data Line box.
6. Select a Decimal Symbol from the list.
7. Select a Field Separator from the list.
8. Select the Update Records check box if you want to replace the data of records already existing in the table.
Note: You can save the choices you have made in the Export dialogue as a configuration file by
clicking the Save button at the top of the dialogue and entering a name for the file in the
Save As dialogue that appears. The next time you export a data table, you can click Load
in the Export dialogue to open your configuration file with the same settings you used this
time.
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9. Under Field Mapping, there are two header rows:
- Source: The column headers from the text file you are importing.
- Destination: The column headers from the Atoll data table.
Align the content of the source file with the content of the destination file by clicking the column header in the Desti-
nation row and selecting the corresponding column from the Atoll data file (see Figure 1.25). Select <Ignore> for
source file columns that you do not want to import.
10. Click Import. The contents are imported in the current Atoll data table.
Figure 1.25: Importing information into a data table
For information on exporting the information in a data table into a text file, see "Exporting Tables to External Files" on
page 48.
1.7 Grouping, Sorting, and Filtering Data
In Atoll you can organise data in several different ways, allowing you to select only certain data and then, for example,
modify only selected data, or run calculations on the selected data. Atoll allows you to group, sort, or filter data quickly by
one criterion, or by several.
After you have defined how you will group, sort, or filter data, you can save this information as a folder configuration.
In this section the following will be explained:
"Grouping Data Objects" on page 51
"Sorting Data" on page 53
Note: Atoll compares the values in the left-most column of the data to be imported with the values
in the same column of the data table to see if records already exist. The values of these
records are replaced when the Update Records check box is selected. If the Update
Records check box is not selected, these records are not imported.
Tip: You can change the width of the columns to make the contents easier to work with. See
"Changing Column Width or Row Height" on page 45.
Note: You can save the choices you have made in the Import dialogue as a configuration file by
clicking the Save button at the top of the dialogue and entering a name for the file in the
Save As dialogue that appears. The next time you export a data table, you can click Load
in the Import dialogue to open your configuration file with the same settings you used this
time.
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
"Filtering Data" on page 54
"Folder Configurations" on page 60
"Creating and Comparing Subfolders" on page 62
1.7.1 Grouping Data Objects
You can group objects according to a selected property on the Data tab of the Explorer window. The objects to be grouped
can be in a data folder or in a subfolder (see "Creating and Comparing Subfolders" on page 62). Grouping objects in the
Explorer window is similar to sorting data in the data table because it puts all records with the selected property together.
Once you have grouped data objects, you can access their Properties dialogue from the context menu to edit properties
on all grouped objects. You can save the grouping parameters as a folder configuration. For information, see "Folder
Configurations" on page 60.
This section explains:
"Grouping Data Objects by a Selected Property" on page 51.
"Advanced Grouping" on page 51.
For examples of grouping data objects, see "Examples of Grouping" on page 52.
1.7.1.1 Grouping Data Objects by a Selected Property
You can group data objects by a selected property, using the Group by command on the context menu.
To group data objects by a selected property:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click on the folder or subfolder whose objects you want to group.
3. Select from the Group by submenu of the context menu the property by which you want to group the objects. The
objects in the folder are grouped by that property.
To undo the grouping:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click on the folder or subfolder whose objects you have grouped.
3. From the context menu, select from the Group by > None.
See "Examples of Grouping" on page 52.
1.7.1.2 Advanced Grouping
You can group data objects by one or more properties, using the Group by button on the Properties dialogue.
To group data objects by one or more properties:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click on the folder or subfolder whose objects you have grouped.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the General tab of the Properties dialogue.
5. Click . The Group dialogue appears (see Figure 1.26).
Figure 1.26: The Group dialogue
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6. Select the fields by which you want to group the objects:
a. To select a field to be used to group the objects, select the field in the Available Fields box and click
to move it to the Group these fields in this order box.
b. To remove a field from the list of Group these fields in this order, select the field in the Group these fields
in this order box and click to remove it.
c. To change the order of the fields, select a field and click or to move it up or down in the list. The objects
will be grouped in the order of the fields in the Group these fields in this order box, from top to bottom.
7. Click OK to close the Group dialogue and click OK to close the Properties dialogue and group the objects.
To undo the grouping:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click on the folder or subfolder whose objects you have grouped.
3. From the context menu, select from the Group by > None.
1.7.1.3 Examples of Grouping
In this example, there is an Atoll document with a large number of sites and, therefore, transmitters. While it is easy to
see on the map which transmitters are part of which site, in the Explorer window, you can only see a very long list of trans-
mitters under the Transmitter folder.
By right-clicking the Transmitter folder and selecting Group by > Site (Figure 1.27), you can group the transmitters by the
site they are located on.
Figure 1.27: Grouping transmitters by site
The result of grouping can be seen in Figure 1.28.
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
Figure 1.28: Transmitters grouped by site
1.7.2 Sorting Data
In Atoll, you can sort the document data either in the data tables or using the Sort function of Properties dialogue. You
can sort the data in ascending (A to Z, 1 to 10) or descending (Z to A, 10 to 1) order.
You can sort the data by either one or by several columns. When you sort data by several columns, Atoll sorts the records
by the first column and then, within each group of identical values in the first column, Atoll then sorts the records by the
second column, and so on.
Once you have sorted data objects, you can save the settings as a folder configuration. For information, see "Folder
Configurations" on page 60.
This section explains the following:
"Sorting Data in Tables" on page 53
"Advanced Sorting" on page 54
1.7.2.1 Sorting Data in Tables
When sorting data in tables, you can sort by one column or by several columns.
Sorting by One Column
To sort data in a table by one column:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
1. Select the header of the table column that will be your sort reference. The entire column is selected.
2. Right-click the column header. The context menu appears.
3. From the context menu, select how you wish to sort:
- Sort Ascending: sort the data table records from the lowest value in the reference column to the highest
value.
- Sort Descending: sort the data table records from the highest value in the reference column to the lowest
value.
Sorting by Several Columns
You can only sort in a table by adjacent columns. If you want to sort by columns that are not adjacent, you can move the
columns first as explained in "Moving Columns" on page 47.
To sort data in a table by several columns:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Click the header of the first column and drag over the adjacent columns that will be your sort references. The entire
column is selected.
3. Right-click the column headers. The context menu appears.
Tip: If you want to sort data by several columns without moving the columns, you can use the
Sort function on the Properties dialogue. For information, see "Advanced Sorting" on
page 54.
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4. From the context menu, select how you wish to sort:
- Sort Ascending: sort the data table records from the lowest value in the first reference column to the highest
value.
- Sort Descending: sort the data table records from the highest value in the first reference column to the lowest
value.
1.7.2.2 Advanced Sorting
You can sort data by several criteria using the Sort function of the Properties dialogue.
To sort data using the Sort function of the Properties dialogue:
1. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder whose data you want to sort. The context menu appears
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the General tab in the Properties dialogue.
5. Click . The Sort dialogue appears (see Figure 1.29).
6. For the first column you want to sort on:
a. Select the column name from the Sort by list.
b. Choose whether you want to sort in ascending or descending order.
7. For each other column you want to sort on:
a. Select the column name from the And by list.
b. Choose whether you want to sort in ascending or descending order.
8. Click OK.
Figure 1.29: The Sort dialogue
1.7.3 Filtering Data
In Atoll, you can filter data according to one or several criteria. You can filter data to be able to work with a subset of data,
or to facilitate working with large documents by reducing the amount of records displayed.
The filtered data objects are the data objects that remain after you have applied your filter criteria.
You can save the filtering parameters as a folder configuration. For information, see "Folder Configurations" on page 60.
This section explains the following:
"Filtering in Data Tables by Selection" on page 54
"Advanced Data Filtering" on page 55
"Restoring All Records" on page 56
"Advanced Filtering: Examples" on page 57.
1.7.3.1 Filtering in Data Tables by Selection
You can filter a data table by selecting one or more values. Once you have selected one or more values, you can choose
to view only records that have the same value or only records that do not have that value.
To filter a data table on one or more fields:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Select the value to filter on. To select more than one value, press CTRL as you click the other values.
3. Select one of the following from the Records menu:
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- Filter by Selection: All records with the selected value or values are displayed. You can now modify these
records or make calculations on them as you would normally do with the entire data table (see Figure 1.30 on
page 55).
- Filter Excluding Selection: All records without the selected value or values are displayed. You can now
modify these records or make calculations on them as you would normally do with the entire data table (see
Figure 1.31 on page 55).
Figure 1.30: Filtering by selection (Antenna AO9209)
Figure 1.31: Filtering excluding selection (Antenna AO9209)
1.7.3.2 Advanced Data Filtering
You can use advanced data filtering to combine several criteria in different fields to create complex filters.
To create an advanced filter:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 42.
2. Select Records > Advanced Filter. The Filter dialogue appears.
3. Click the Filter tab:
a. Select a Field from the list.
b. Under Values to Include, you will find all the values represented in the selected field. Select the check boxes
next to the values you want to include in the filter. Click Clear All to clear all check boxes.
4. Click the Advanced tab:
a. In the Column row, select the name of the column to be filtered on from the list. Select as many columns as
you want (see Figure 1.32).
Tip: You can also access the Filter dialogue by clicking the Filter button of the Properties dia-
logue.
Note: Making selections on the Filter tab of the Filter dialogue is the equivalent of filtering by
selection as explained in "Filtering in Data Tables by Selection" on page 54.
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Figure 1.32: The Filter dialogue - Advanced tab
b. Underneath each column name, enter the criteria on which the column will be filtered as explained in the fol-
lowing table:
5. Click OK to filter the data according to the criteria you have defined.
Combinations of filters are first made horizontally, then vertically.
See "Advanced Filtering: Examples" on page 57.
1.7.3.3 Restoring All Records
After you have applied filter criteria to records, you may want to cancel the filter criteria and display all the records again.
To restore all records:
Select Records > Show All Records.
Formula Data are kept in the table only if
=X value equal to X (X may be a number or characters)
<>X value not equal to X (X may be a number or characters)
<X numerical value is less than X
>X numerical value is greater than X
<=X numerical value is less than or equal to X
>=X numerical value is greater than or equal to X
*X* text objects which contain X
*X text objects end with X
X* text objects which start with X
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1.7.3.4 Advanced Filtering: Examples
In this section, you will find a few examples of advanced filtering.
1.7.3.4.1 Advanced Filtering: Example1
In this example, there is an Atoll document with antennas from two manufacturers and with different characteristics.
Figure 1.33: Initial table
The objective of this example is to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a beamwidth between
50 and 100. To do this, the following filter syntax is entered in the Advanced tab of the Filter dialogue (for information on
the Advanced tab, see "Advanced Data Filtering" on page 55):
The first criterion, as shown in Figure 1.34, is all antennas made by a manufacturer with a name beginning with a
"K" ("=K*"). While you could write in the entire name ("=Kathrein"), it is not necessary because there is only one
manufacturer with a "K."
The second criterion is all antennas with a beamwidth under 100.
The third criterion is all antennas with a beamwidth over 50.
The combination of these criteria is all antennas from manufacturers with a name beginning with "K" and with a beamwidth
under 100 but over 50.
The result of this advanced filter can be seen in the second pane of Figure 1.34.
Figure 1.34: Advanced filtering
1.7.3.4.2 Advanced Filtering: Example2
In this example, the document is the same as in "Advanced Filtering: Example 1" on page 57. The objective of this example
is the same as well: to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a beamwidth between 50 and 100.
The filter syntax is entered in the Advanced tab of the Filter dialogue (for information on the Advanced tab, see "Advanced
Data Filtering" on page 55), in this case, however, the entered filter syntax contains errors:
As shown in Figure 1.35, the first criterion is all antennas made by a manufacturer with a name beginning with a
"K" ("=K*").
The second criterion is all antennas with a beamwidth under 100 and over 50.
The result of this advanced filter can be seen in the second pane of Figure 1.34.
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Figure 1.35: Errors in filtering
As previously stated, the objective of this example was to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with
a beamwidth between 50 and 100. However, because the second criterion (beamwidth under 100 and over 50) is
malformed, with ">50" placed under "<100", it functioned as an OR condition and not as an AND condition. The resulting
filter searched for all antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a beamwidth under 100, or all antennas over 50; all anten-
nas are displayed.
1.7.3.4.3 Advanced Filtering: Example3
In this example, the document is the same as in "Advanced Filtering: Example 1" on page 57. The objective of this example
is the same as well: to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a beamwidth between 50 and 100.
The filter syntax is entered in the Advanced tab of the Filter dialogue (for information on the Advanced tab, see "Advanced
Data Filtering" on page 55), in this case, however, the entered filter syntax contains errors:
As shown in Figure 1.36, the first criterion is all antennas made by a manufacturer with a name beginning with a
"K" ("=K*").
The second criterion is all antennas with a beamwidth under 100 and over 50.
The result of this advanced filter can be seen in the second pane of Figure 1.34.
Figure 1.36: Errors in filtering
As previously stated, the objective of this example was to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with
a beamwidth between 50 and 100. However, because the second criterion is malformed, the filter only generates an error
message and no antennas are filtered out.
1.7.4 User Configurations
In Atoll, you can export many types of settings you have made in a user configuration and then import the settings in
another document. If you are working in a multiple-user environment with a central database, the information stored in a
user configuration, such as, geographic data or automatic neighbour allocation parameters, is not stored in the database.
You can create a user configuration file, however, to ensure that all users in a large radio-planning project use the same
settings.
The file extension of the user configuration file is CFG. If only the geographic data set or computation and focus zones are
being exported in the user configuration file, Atoll gives the file the extension "GEO." Because the file is in XML (eXtensible
Markup Language), you can open and edit it with any XML-capable text editor.
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When you create a user configuration file, you can export the following information:
Geographic data set: The complete path of imported geographic maps, map display settings (such as, the visi-
bility scale, transparency, tips text, etc.), clutter description (code, name, height, standard deviations, indoor loss,
orthogonality factor, the percentage of pilot finger of each clutter class, default standard deviations, and indoor
loss) and raster or user profile traffic map description. Vector maps must have the same coordinate system as the
raster maps.
Computation and Focus Zones: The computation and focus zone in the current document.
Folder configurations: Sorting, grouping and filtering settings (those saved by the user and the current settings,
even if not saved), the filtering zone, and the display settings of radio data folders (including measurement display
settings).
Automatic Neighbour Allocation Parameters: The input parameters of the automatic neighbour allocation.
Automatic Scrambling Code Allocation Parameters: The parameters of the automatic scrambling code alloca-
tion (this option applies to UMTS documents only).
Prediction List: The general information (name, comments, group, and sorting and filtering settings), prediction
coverage conditions, and display settings of coverage predictions that have been created.
AFP Configuration: Calculation options selected when starting an AFP session as well as calculation parameters
used for interference histograms (this option applies to GSM documents only).
Automatic PN Offset Allocation Parameters: The parameters of the automatic PN offset allocation. (this option
applies to cdmaOne/CDMA2000 documents only).
Microwave Link Parameters: The settings of microwave links.
Macros: The complete path of any macros. Because a macro is linked to an Atoll session, and not to a specific
Atoll document, you can export the macros in a user configuration even if you do not have an Atoll document
open.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Exporting a User Configuration" on page 59
"Importing a User Configuration" on page 59.
1.7.4.1 Exporting a User Configuration
You create a user configuration by exporting the selected settings to an external file.
To export a user configuration:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Export. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 1.37).
Figure 1.37: Exporting a user configuration
2. Select the check boxes of the information you want to export as part of the user configuration.
3. Click OK. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name for the user configuration file and click Save. The folder configuration has been saved.
1.7.4.2 Importing a User Configuration
You can import a user configuration that you or another user has created, as explained in "Exporting a User Configuration"
on page 59, it into your current Atoll document.
To import a user configuration:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the user configuration file with the data you want to import.
3. Click Open. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 1.38).
Important: If you export the geographic data set in a user configuration file, the coordinate system of
any vector geographic data must be the same as that of the raster geographic data.
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Figure 1.38: Importing a user configuration
4. Select the check boxes of the information you want to import.
5. Click OK. The user configuration is imported.
1.7.5 Folder Configurations
In Atoll, the parameters defining how data contained in a folder are grouped, sorted, or filtered are referred to as a folder
configuration. You can define folder configurations and save them, allowing you to consistently apply the same grouping,
filtering, or sorting criteria.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Creating a Folder Configuration" on page 60
"Applying a Saved Folder Configuration" on page 61
"Reapplying the Current Folder Configuration" on page 61
"Exporting a Folder Configuration" on page 61
"Importing a Folder Configuration" on page 61
"Deleting a Folder Configuration" on page 61.
1.7.5.1 Creating a Folder Configuration
In Atoll, you can save the parameters defining how data contained in a folder are grouped, filtered, or sorted as a folder
configuration.
To create a configuration:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder whose settings you want to save.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the General tab in the Properties dialogue.
5. If you have not yet done so, set the following parameters as desired:
- Group by (see "Grouping Data Objects" on page 51)
- Sort (see "Sorting Data" on page 53)
- Filter (see "Filtering Data" on page 54).
6. Under Configuration, click Save.
7. Enter the name of the configuration in the Save Configuration dialogue.
8. Click OK to save the configuration and click OK to close the Properties dialogue.
The saved folder configuration is only available for the current folder and can be reapplied to the folder by selecting it from
the Configurations submenu on the folders context menu.
Note: For transmitters, there is a default folder configuration called Same as Sites Folder. You
can apply this configuration to arrange the transmitters in the Transmitters folder with the
same parameters as those defined for sites.
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1.7.5.2 Applying a Saved Folder Configuration
You can apply a configuration that has been created and saved for the present folder.
To apply a saved folder configuration:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder to which you want to apply a configuration. The context menu appears.
3. On the Configurations submenu, select the name of the configuration you want to apply. The folder configuration
is applied to the current folder.
1.7.5.3 Reapplying the Current Folder Configuration
If you have grouped, filtered, or sorted a data folder, you have created and applied a folder configuration. If you then add
or modify data, the properties of these may not match the folder configuration you previously made on the data folder. In
this case, you can reapply the same filter or sort settings to the new or modified data.
To reapply the folder configuration:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder whose folder configuration you want to reapply.
3. Select Apply Current Configuration from the context menu. The previously configured folder configuration is
reapplied to the data.
1.7.5.4 Exporting a Folder Configuration
When you create a folder configuration, you save it to the current ATL document. However, you can export it as part of a
user configuration to an external file, so that it can be used in other documents.
To export a folder configuration:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Export. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 1.37 on
page 59).
2. Select the Folder Configuration check box.
If you want to export other configurations at the same time, select those check boxes as well.
3. Click OK. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name for the CFG file and click Save. The folder configuration has been saved.
1.7.5.5 Importing a Folder Configuration
Once you have exported a folder configuration as explained in "Exporting a Folder Configuration" on page 61, you can
import it into your current document.
To import a folder configuration:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the CFG file with the folder configuration you want to import.
3. Click Open. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 1.38 on page 60).
4. Select the Folder Configuration check box.
If you want to import other configurations at the same time, select those check boxes as well.
5. Click OK. The folder configuration is imported.
1.7.5.6 Deleting a Folder Configuration
You can delete a folder configuration from the Atoll document when you no longer need it.
To delete a folder configuration:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder with the folder configuration you want to delete.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the General tab in the Properties dialogue.
5. Under Configuration, select the name of the configuration from the list.
6. Click Delete. The folder configuration is deleted.
Caution: When you delete a folder configuration, Atoll will not ask for confirmation; it is deleted
immediately.
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1.7.6 Creating and Comparing Subfolders
You can compare the effects of different grouping, sorting, or filtering settings by creating subfolders of object folders in
the Data tab and applying different settings to each subfolder. Each subfolder contains a copy of the data in the object
folder in which it was created.
To create a subfolder of a folder:
1. In the Data tab of the Explorer window, right-click the folder you want to create a subfolder of.
2. Select Create a Subfolder from the context menu. A subfolder is created containing a copy of the original folder
content.
You can now perform the following actions on the subfolder:
Grouping (see "Grouping Data Objects" on page 51)
Sorting (see "Sorting Data" on page 53)
Filtering (see "Filtering Data" on page 54).
Once you have performed the actions on each subfolder, you can compare the differences, by displaying in turn each
subfolder, with its grouping, sorting, or filtering settings, on the map. For more information on display properties, see
"Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
To compare subfolders:
1. In the Data tab of the Explorer window, clear the check boxes to the left of each subfolder. The data objects are
not displayed on the map.
2. Select the check box of one of the subfolders, leaving the check boxes of the other subfolders cleared. The data
objects of the selected subfolder, with its associated grouping, sorting, or filtering settings, are displayed on the
map.
3. Clear this check box and select the check box of a different subfolder. How the objects are displayed on the map
will change, depending on the different grouping, sorting, or filtering settings of the selected subfolder.
You can remove subfolders by deleting them. When you delete a subfolder, the data contained are not deleted. When you
delete the last subfolder, the data reappear under the initial folder.
To delete a subfolder:
Right-click the subfolder to be deleted and select Delete from the context menu.
1.7.7 Filtering Data Using a Polygon
In Atoll, you can simplify your calculations by using a polygon on the map to limit the amount of data considered in calcu-
lations. By limiting the number of sites, you can reduce the time and cost of calculations and make visualisation of data
objects on the map clearer. You can select a pre-existing computation or focus zone as a polygon filter or you can draw a
new polygon.
The data objects filtered by the polygon are reflected on the map and in the data tables. When you have applied a polygon
filter, you can perform the following actions on the filtered data:
Grouping (see "Grouping Data Objects" on page 51)
Sorting (see "Sorting Data" on page 53)
Filtering (see "Filtering Data" on page 54).
In this section, the following are explained:
"Selecting a Polygon as a Polygon Filter" on page 63
"Selecting a Computation or Focus Zone as a Polygon Filter" on page 63
"Drawing a Polygon Filter" on page 63
"Removing the Polygon Filter" on page 63.
Tip: If you have created several subfolders, you can rename each one to give it a more descrip-
tive name. For information on renaming an object, see "Renaming an Object" on page 27.
Tip: If, after deleting the last subfolder, the data do not reappear under the initial folder, you can
refresh the display by right-clicking the folder and selecting Group by > None from the
context menu.
Note: This section offers an introduction to using polygons to filter data. For more information on
using polygons in Atoll, for example, for information on editing polygons, see "Computing in
Polygonal Areas" on page 127.
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1.7.7.1 Selecting a Polygon as a Polygon Filter
You can use an existing vector polygon as a polygon filter:
To select an existing vector polygon as a polygon filter:
1. On the map, right-click the polygon on which you want to filter. The context menu appears.
2. Select Use as Filtering Polygon from the context menu. The data objects outside of the selected zone are filtered
out.
1.7.7.2 Selecting a Computation or Focus Zone as a Polygon Filter
If you already have a computation or focus zone (for information on computation or focus zones, see "Computation, Focus
and Hot Spot Zones: Overview" on page 127), you can select it as a polygon filter.
To select a computation or focus zone as a filtering zone:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Sites folder.
3. From the context menu, select one of the following:
- Filter inside a polygon > Computation Zone
- Filter inside a polygon > Focus Zone
The data objects outside of the selected zone are filtered out.
1.7.7.3 Drawing a Polygon Filter
If there is no computation or focus zone, or if the existing zones do not match the area you want to filter on, you can draw
a polygon filter.
To draw a filtering zone:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to the left of Zones folder to expand the folder.
3. Right-click the Filtering Zone folder.
4. From the context menu, select Draw. The pointer changes to the polygon drawing pointer ( ).
5. Click on the map to start drawing the filter polygon. Click each time you change the angle on the border defining
the outside of the polygon.
6. Close the polygon by clicking twice. The data objects outside of the selected zone are filtered out.
1.7.7.4 Removing the Polygon Filter
When you no longer need the polygon filter, you can remove the filter and redisplay all data objects.
To remove the polygon filter:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to the left of Zones folder to expand the folder.
3. Right-click the Filtering Zone folder.
4. From the context menu, select Delete Zone. The polygon filter is removed and all document data are now dis-
played.
1.8 Tips and Tricks
In this section, you will learn a few shortcuts and tricks to help you work more efficiently with Atoll.
1.8.1 Undoing and Redoing
You can undo or redo most actions in Atoll, up to a maximum of 10 actions. If you perform an action that can not be
undone, for example, a simulation, the Undo and Redo histories are erased.
For example, you can undo or redo:
Most modifications in the workspace: such as creating, deleting, and moving a site, a station or a group of sta-
tions, modifying the antenna azimuth, moving a transmitter, or deleting a transmitter,
Tip: If you drew the polygon filter as explained in "Drawing a Polygon Filter" on page 63, you
can also delete it by right-clicking on its border and selecting Delete from the context
menu.
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Tasks performed in the Explorer: such as creating and deleting objects (sites, transmitters, repeaters or remote
antennas, antennas, links, groups of hexagons, measurement paths, prediction studies, maps, propagation
models, etc.).
Tasks performed in tables: such as adding or deleting records, pasting in tables.
To undo an action:
Select Edit > Undo.
To redo an action that you have undone:
Select Edit > Redo.
1.8.2 Refreshing Maps and Folders
Under certain circumstances, for example, when you add data that is inconsistent with an applied filter, the data displayed
on the map or in the Explorer window, may not be actual. You can refresh the display to get Atoll to reload the data and
reapply the current configurations to folders.
To refresh the display of the Explorer window and the map:
Click the Refresh button ( ) on the toolbar or press F5.
1.8.3 Searching for Objects on the Map
Atoll provides several tools for finding data objects on the map. You can search for some objects (sites, transmitters,
repeaters, or links) by their name, using the Find toolbar. By using the Location Finder, you can search for a site, a trans-
mitter, a repeater, a microwave link, or a vector by any text field. You can also use the Location Finder to search for a
point on the map by its x and y coordinates.
This section explains:
"Searching for a Map Object by Its Name" on page 64
"Searching for a Map Object using Any Text Property" on page 64
"Searching for a Point on the Map" on page 65.
1.8.3.1 Searching for a Map Object by Its Name
You can use the Find toolbar to search for the following map objects by name:
sites
transmitters
repeaters
links.
To search for a map object by name using the Find toolbar:
1. Select View > Find Toolbar to display the Find toolbar.
2. From the Find list, choose the map object you are searching for:
- Site
- Transmitter
- Repeater
- Link
3. Enter the name of the object in the Named box. You can use an asterisk as a wild card in the following ways:
- *X* names which contain X
- X* names which start with X
- *X names which end with X
4. Press ENTER. Atoll selects the object and centres it in the map window.
1.8.3.2 Searching for a Map Object using Any Text Property
You can use the Location Finder to search for the following map object using any text (i.e., non-numeric) property:
sites
transmitters
repeaters
links
vectors.
Note: You can change the Find toolbar to a floating window by double-clicking it.
Note: You can also search for a map object by its name by using the Location Finder. For infor-
mation, see "Searching for a Map Object using Any Text Property" on page 64.
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To search for a map object by a text property using the Location Finder:
1. Click the Location Finder button ( ) on the toolbar. The Location Finder dialogue appears.
2. From the Find list, choose the map object you are searching for:
- Site
- Transmitter
- Repeater
- Link
- Vector
3. If you wish to search all the sites in the search, including sites that are presently filtered out, select the Include all
the sites in the search (filtered or not) check box.
4. Under Criteria, select a Field to be searched and enter the value of the field. You can use an asterisk as a wild
card in the following ways:
- *X* text objects which contain X
- X* text objects which start with X
5. Click OK. Atoll selects the site and centres it in the map window.
1.8.3.3 Searching for a Point on the Map
You can search for a point by entering its x and y coordinates in the Location Finder.
To search on the map for a point using the Location Finder:
1. Click the Location Finder button ( ) on the toolbar. The Location Finder dialogue appears.
2. From the Find list, choose Point.
3. Enter the x and y coordinates of the point, using the same units as defined under Display on the Coordinates tab
of the Options dialogue (see "Defining the Display Coordinate System" on page 27).
4. Click OK. Atoll marks the point ( ) and centres it in the map window.
1.8.4 Using the Status Bar to Get Information
Atoll displays the following information, if available, about the current position of the mouse pointer in right side of the
status bar (see Figure 1.39):
the current X-Y coordinates (according to the defined display coordinate system)
the altitude (as defined in the DTM)
the clutter class (as defined in the clutter classes properties)
the clutter height (as defined in the clutter height file, or in the clutter classes).
Figure 1.39: Information displayed in the status bar
1.8.5 Using Icons fromthe Toolbar
You can access many commands in Atoll by clicking its icon on the toolbar. Some of them are also linked to shortcut keys
(see "Using Shortcuts in Atoll" on page 67).
The different icons located in the toolbar are listed below:
In the Standard toolbar
Open the Project Templates dialogue (CTRL+N)
Open the Open dialogue (CTRL+O)
Save the current document (CTRL+S)
Cut the selected data (CTRL+X)
Note: To remove the point icon ( ), select it and then select Delete from the context menu.
X-Y coordinates Clutter class Altitude
(from DTM)
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Copy the selected data (CTRL+C)
Paste the content of the clipboard (CTRL+V)
Print the current window (table or map) (CTRL+P)
Open the About Atoll dialogue
In the Radio toolbar
Create a new station based on the currently selected model
Create a new group of hexagons based on the currently selected station template ( indicates that no hexa-
gon radius is defined)
Station model currently selected
Create a new repeater or remote antenna for the currently selected transmitter
Graphically manage neighbours for the selected transmitter
Open the Point Analysis window
Calculate only invalid matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations (F7)
Force the calculation of all matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations (CTRL+F7)
Stop the calculation of all matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations
In the Map toolbar
Select area
Refresh display of map and folders (F5)
Disable zooming and panning tools.
Move the map window (CTRL+D)
Map scale currently used
Previous/Next view (zoom and location)
Zoom in on the map and centre on the cursor location (CTRL+A) and zoom out on the map and centre on the
cursor location (CTRL+R)
Define a zoom area on the map (CTRL+W)
Turn on tool tips
Measure distances on the map
Location finder
Display a point-to-point profile
In the Microwave link toolbar
Create a new microwave link.
Create a new multi-hop microwave link.
Create a new point-to-multipoint microwave link.
Currently selected microwave link model
Activate the microwave link profile analysis window
Show or hide victim and interferer links
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Chapter 1: The Working Environment
Show or hide site parities
Stop the calculations in progress
In the Search toolbar
Centre site in the map window.
In the Vector Edition toolbar
Create a new vector layer (in either the Geo or the Data tab)
Select the vector layer to edit
Draw a new polygon
Draw a new line
Draw points
Merge several vector polygons
Cut out areas in polygons
Create new polygon from overlapping areas
Split one polygon along the drawn lines.
1.8.6 Using Shortcuts in Atoll
Atoll provides many shortcuts that enable you to access commonly used tools and commands more quickly.
The shortcuts available are listed below (some of the same commands can be accessed using a toolbar icon; see "Using
Icons from the Toolbar" on page 65):
Using the CTRL key:
- CTRL+A:
- In tables: Select all records
- In the map window: Zoom in on the map (toolbar: select and click)
- CTRL+C: Copy the selected data (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+D:
- In tables: Copy the first cell of a selection down into all selected cells
- In the map window: Move the map window (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+F: Open the Find dialogue in a table
- CTRL+N: Open the Project Templates dialogue (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+O: Open the Open dialogue (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+P: Print the current window (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+Q: Select Zoom In/Out tool (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+R: Zoom out on the map (toolbar: select and right-click on the map)
- CTRL+S: Save the current active document (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+U: Copy the last cell of a selection up into all selected cells
- CTRL+V: Paste the content of the clipboard (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+W: Define a zoom area on the map (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+X: Cut the selected data (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+Y: Redo the previous undone modification
Note: When you place the cursor over an icon, a tool tip appears, giving a short description.
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- CTRL+Z: Undo the last modification
Using the Function Keys
- F3: Select the Find Site tool.
- F5: Refresh display of map and folders (toolbar: select )
- F7: Calculate only invalid matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations (toolbar: select )
- CTRL+F7: Force the calculation of all matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations (toolbar: select
)
Tip: Menus and commands can be also accessed by pressing the ALT key and typing the under-
lined letter in the menu or command name.
CHAPTER 2
STARTING AN ATOLL PROJ ECT
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Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project
2 Starting an Atoll Project
When you want to start a new project, you base it on a template that has the data and folder structure necessary for the
technology you are using. Once you have started your new Atoll project, you can modify the network parameters to meet
your particular needs. Several templates are supplied with Atoll: GPS GPRS EGPRS, CDMA200 1xRTT 1xEV-DO, IS-95
cdmaOne, microwave radio links, UMTS HSPA, and WiMAX. The actual templates supplied depend on the modules
included with your Atoll installation. You can also create your own templates by opening an existing template and saving
it as a new template, once you have made the changes necessary to meet your own needs.
When you open an existing project, you can select it from the File menu, if it is one of the last projects you have worked
on, or you can open it from the Open dialogue. Because Atoll can work with linked geographic data files, it may happen
that one of the linked files was moved or renamed since the last time you worked on that project. Atoll enables you to find
the file and repair the link.
In this chapter, the following are explained:
"Before Starting a Radio-Planning Project" on page 71
"Creating an Atoll Document" on page 71.
2.1 Before Starting a Radio-Planning Project
For every radio-planning project you must assemble the information necessary:
Radio equipment: sites, transmitters, antennas, repeaters, and other equipment. For more information on radio
equipment, see the technology-specific chapters.
Radio data: frequency bands, technology-specific parameters, coordinate systems, etc. For more information on
radio data, see the technology-specific chapters.
Geographic data: clutter classes, clutter heights, DTM, population maps, etc. For more information on geographic
data, see Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project.
Once the necessary data have been assembled, you can create the Atoll document.
2.2 Creating an Atoll Document
Whatever the radio technology you will be modelling, you create an Atoll documents in one of two days:
From a template: You can create a new Atoll document from a template. Atoll is delivered with a template for
each technology you will be planning for. For information on creating a document from a template, see "Creating
a New Atoll Document From a Template" on page 71.
You can also create your own template by basing it on an existing document that you have already customised
with, for example, certain geo data or antennas.
From a database: When you create a new Atoll document from a database, the database you connect to has
been created with the technology and data you need. Working with a database allows several users to share the
same data while at the same time managing data consistency. The exact procedure for creating a new Atoll doc-
ument from a database differs, depending on the database containing the data. Atoll can work with several
common databases. For information on starting a document from a database, see "Creating a New Atoll Document
From a Database" on page 76.
2.2.1 Creating a New Atoll Document Froma Template
You can create a new Atoll document from a template. Atoll has a template for each technology you will be planning for.
Each template provides data and a data structure suitable for the technology. For example, the tabs in the transmitter
Properties dialogue as well as the radio parameters available differ according to the project. As well, the objects that are
available are appropriate for the technology. For example, UMTS cells are only available in UMTS documents and TRX
are only available GSM-TDMA documents.
Once you have selected the appropriate template for your radio planning project, you configure the basic parameters of
the Atoll document (see "Defining a New Atoll Document" on page 73).
In this section, the following are explained:
"Templates Available" on page 71
"Creating a New Atoll Document From a Template" on page 72
"Defining a New Atoll Document" on page 73
2.2.1.1 Templates Available
Depending on your configuration of Atoll, the following templates are available:
GSM/GPRS/EGPRS: This template can be used to model second generation (2G) mobile telecommunications
using TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology. This template can be used to model the following tech-
nologies:
- GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication): GSM is a 2G technology based on TDMA.
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- GPRS (General Packet Radio Service): GPRS is a packet-switched technology that enables data applica-
tions on GSM networks. It is considered a 2.5G technology.
- EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution): EDGE is an advancement for GSM/GPRS networks that tri-
ples data rates. Because it is based on existing GSM technology, it allows for a smooth upgrade for GSM oper-
ators, giving them capabilities approaching those of a 3G network, while remaining with the existing 2G
system.
- EGPRS (GPRS operating over EDGE): EGPRS is GPRS, but operating over EDGE for enhanced data rates.
CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO: This template can be used to model third generation (3G) mobile telecommunica-
tions based on CDMA2000 technology. CDMA2000 is an evolution of CDMA, or code division multiple access.
This template can be used to model the following technologies:
- 1xRTT (1 Radio Transmission Technology): 1xRTT is sometimes considered not as 3G but as 2.5G in
terms of mobile telecommunications. It offers increased voice capacity as compared to 2G technologies, but
not as much as pure 3G solutions.
- 1xEV-DO (1x Evolution - Data Only): 1xEV-DO is an evolution of CDMA2000 that provides data transfer
rates of over 10 times those of 1xRTT. It is considered a 3G solution and addresses, as its name suggests,
data only.
IS-95 cdmaOne: This template can be used to model second generation (2G) mobile telecommunications based
on code division multiple access technology. IS-95 is an industry standard while cdmaOne is a proprietary imple-
mentation of this standard.
Microwave Radio Links: Atoll allows you to model microwave radio links, as part of a complete mobile telecom-
munications network, from any technology template. However, this template is provided to enable you to create a
project of only microwave radio links.
UMTS HSPA: UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) and HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet
Access) and HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access), collectively referred to as HSPA, are third generation
(3G) mobile telecommunication systems based on WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) tech-
nology. Although WCDMA is similar in implementation to CDMA, the two technologies are incompatible. UMTS
and HSPA are usually implemented in place and over GSM networks.
WiMAX: Atoll WiMAX is a state-of-the-art WiMAX and Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) network planning tool
developed in cooperation with WiMAX equipment suppliers. Atoll WiMAX currently supports the IEEE 802.16d
standard, and has been designed to support the evolving IEEE 802.16e standard in a future release
2.2.1.2 Creating a NewAtoll Document Froma Template
To create a new document from a template:
1. Select File > New. The Project Templates dialogue appears.
2. Select the template on which you want to base your document and click OK. Atoll creates a new document based
on the template selected.
Figure 2.1 shows a new Atoll document based on the UMTS HSPA template. The Data tab of the Explorer window now
has a folder structure suitable for a UMTS radio-planning project, with, among other UMTS-specific elements, folders for
UMTS parameters and UMTS simulations. The Antennas folder is expanded to show the UMTS-compatible antennas
suggested by Atoll. These can be modified or replaced. Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3 show the contents of the Geo and
Modules tabs of the new document, respectively.
Figure 2.1: New Atoll document based on a template
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Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project
When you create an Atoll document from a template, the document is not connected to a database.
To verify whether the document is connected to a database:
Select File > Database > Connection Properties. The dialogue in displayed in Figure 2.4 appears.
Figure 2.4: An Atoll document based on a template is not connected to a database
2.2.1.3 Defining a NewAtoll Document
Once you have created a new Atoll document as explained in "Creating a New Atoll Document From a Template" on
page 72, you configure the basic parameters of the Atoll document. You can accept the default values for some param-
eters, such as basic measurement units, but you must set projection and display coordinate systems.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Projection and Display Coordinate Systems" on page 73
"Setting a Coordinate System" on page 74
"Setting Measurement Units" on page 75
2.2.1.3.1 Projection and Display Coordinate Systems
In Atoll, you define the two coordinate systems for each Atoll document: the projection coordinate system and the display
coordinate system. By default, the same coordinate system is used for both.
A projection is a method for producing all or part of a round body on a flat sheet. This projection cannot be done without
distortion, thus the cartographer must choose the characteristic (distance, direction, scale, area or shape) which is to be
shown appropriately at the expense of the other characteristics, or he must compromise on several characteristics
1
. The
projected zones are referenced using cartographic coordinates (meter, yard, etc.).
Two projection systems are widely used:
The Lambert Conformal-Conic projection: a portion of the earth is mathematically projected on a cone concep-
tually secant at one or two standard parallels. This projection type is useful for representing countries or regions
that lay primarily east to west.
The Universal Transverse Mercator projection (UTM): a portion of the earth is mathematically projected on a
cylinder tangent to a meridian (which is transverse or crosswise to the equator). This projection type is useful for
mapping large areas that are oriented north-south.
A geographic system is not a projection, but a representation of a location on the earth's surface from geographic coordi-
nates (degree-minute-second or grade) giving the latitude and longitude in relation to the origin meridian (Paris for NTF
system and Greenwich for ED50 system). The locations in the geographic system can be converted into other projections.
Atoll has databases including more than 980 international coordinate system references, a database based on the Euro-
pean Petroleum Survey Group and another one regrouping only France's coordinate systems. Atoll distinguishes the
cartographic coordinate systems for projection and either cartographic or geographic coordinate systems for display.
Figure 2.2: New Atoll document Geo tab Figure 2.3: New Atoll document Modules tab
1. Snyder, J ohn. P., Map Projections Used by the US Geological Survey, 2nd Edition, United States Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C., 313 pages, 1982.
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The maps displayed in the workspace are referenced with the same projection system as the imported geographic data
files; thus, the projection system depends on the imported geographic file. By choosing a specific display system, you can
see (using the rulers or status bars) the location of sites on the map in a coordinate system different from the projection
coordinate system. You can also position on the map sites referenced in the display system: the coordinates are automat-
ically converted from the projection system to the display system and the site is displayed on the map.
In Figure 2.5, the French Riviera geographic data file has been imported. The map shows the French Riviera projected
using the cartographic NTF (Paris)/France II tendue system (coordinates in metres). On the other hand, site coordinates
are stated in the geographic WGS 72 system (coordinates in degrees-minutes-seconds).
Figure 2.5: NTF (Paris)/France II tendue system used with WGS 72 system
2.2.1.3.2 Setting a Coordinate System
Because you are working with maps, you must set a coordinate system for your Atoll document. By default, projection and
display coordinate systems are the same, but you can choose a different display coordinate system if you wish.
To define the coordinate system:
1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialogue appears.
2. On the Coordinates tab, click the Browse button ( ) to the right of the Projection field. The Coordinate Sys-
tems dialogue appears.
3. In the Coordinate Systems dialogue, select a catalogue from the Find in list. For the projection system, only car-
tographic systems (identified by the symbol) are available.
4. Select a coordinate system from the list.
5. Click OK. The selected coordinate system appears in the Projection field and, by default, in the Display field as
well.
6. If you wish to set a different coordinate system for the display, click the Browse button ( ) to the right of the
Display field and repeat step 3. to step 5. For the display system, both cartographic systems (identified by the
symbol) and geographic systems (identified by the symbol) are available.
2.2.1.3.3 Selecting the Degree Display Format
Atoll can display longitude and latitude in four different formats. For example:
265629.9N
26d56m29.9sN
26.93914N
+26.93914
To change the degree display format:
1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialogue appears.
2. On the Coordinates tab, select the format from the Degree Format list.
3. Click OK.
Notes: All imported raster geographic files must be use the same cartographic system. If not, you
must convert them to a single cartographic system.
Tip: If you frequently use a particular coordinate system you can add it to a catalogue of favour-
ites by clicking Add to Favourites.
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Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project
2.2.1.3.4 Setting Measurement Units
When you create a new Atoll document, Atoll sets certain measurement units for reception, transmission, distance,
height, and offset to internal defaults. You can accept these default measurement units, or you can change them using the
Options dialogue.
To set the measurement units:
1. Select Tools > Options. The Options dialogue appears.
2. On the Units tab, select the desired unit for the following measurements:
- Reception
- Transmission
- Distance
- Height and offset
3. Click OK.
2.2.2 Working in a Multi-User Environment
A multi-user environment is one where a number of users, or groups of users, work simultaneously on given parts of a
single, large (may be nation-wide) network. Different user groups may be working on regional or smaller sections of the
network. This section describes the different components of multi-user environments and outlines their purpose.
When you create a new Atoll document from a database, Atoll loads the data to which you have rights from database into
your new document and then disconnects it from the database. The connection to the reference database is reactivated
only when necessary, thus ensuring access to the database by other users.
When you work on a document created from a database, you are working on data that you are sharing with other users.
Consequently, there are issues related to sharing data that do not arise when you are working on a stand-alone document.
For example, when you archive your changes to the database, the changes you have made may occasionally interfere
with changes other users have made and you will need to resolve this conflict.
In this section, the following are explained:
"The Atoll Multi-User Environment" on page 75
"Creating a New Atoll Document From a Database" on page 76
"Working With a Document on a Database" on page 77
"Refreshing an Atoll Document From the Database" on page 78
"Archiving the Modifications of an Atoll Document in the Database" on page 79.
2.2.2.1 The Atoll Multi-User Environment
An Atoll multi-user environment consists of the following elements, connected over a network:
A central Atoll project: The central Atoll project can only be accessed, modified, and updated by the Atoll
administrator. Through this central Atoll project, the Atoll administrator can manage all the data shared by all the
individual Atoll users or groups of users.
Shared data: Shared data are initially set up by the administrator using the central Atoll project and are then
accessed, modified, worked on, and updated by the Atoll users and the administrator. The shared data are mainly
of the following three types:
- The central database: The central database stores all the radio data of all the Atoll user documents. It is
initiated through the central Atoll project by the administrator, and is then subdivided into sections on which
users or groups of users can work simultaneously. Once the database is in place, users can modify their
projects, refresh their projects from the data stored in the database, and archive their modifications in the data-
base. The use of a database means that potential data conflicts due to modifications from other users, modi-
fied or deleted records, for example, can be detected and resolved.
- Shared geographic data: Shared geographic data files are usually stored on a common file server with a fast
access connection. Since geographic data files are usually large, they are usually linked to an Atoll file, i.e.,
they are stored externally, so as to minimise the size of the Atoll file. Users who modify geographic data
locally, for example, editing edit clutter or traffic in their respective projects, usually store these modifications
locally, since these modifications rarely have an impact on other users.
- Path loss matrices: The path loss matrices are computed through the central Atoll project by the adminis-
trator and can be updated only by the administrator. Each user can read these path loss data but cannot
modify them. If users modify their Atoll documents in such a way that the path loss data becomes invalid for
their document, any path loss matrices computed by these users are stored locally, either embedded in the
ATL file or link to an external file. The shared path loss data are not modified.
Shared path loss matrices are updated when the calculation administrator performs an update, taking into ac-
count the modifications made by other users which have been stored and updated in the central database.
Shared path loss matrices enable a number of users to work with a centralised path loss matrices folder, con-
taining path loss matrices corresponding to the central Atoll project.
User Documents: Individual user documents are initialised by the administrator but are later worked upon and
managed by each user. User documents are Atoll files which are connected to the central database, load only the
Note: The degree format options apply only to the geographic coordinate systems.
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required part of the geographic data (as defined by the CFG file, for example), and have access to the shared path
loss matrices folder.
Figure 2.6: Components of Multi-user Environments
2.2.2.2 Creating a NewAtoll Document Froma Database
When you create a new document from a database, you must connect to the database. Once connected, Atoll loads the
database into a new Atoll document. Then the connected is interrupted. A new connection with the database will be
created only when necessary, in order to allow other users access to the database.
The exact procedure of connecting with the database differs from one database to another. Atoll can work with the follow-
ing databases:
Microsoft Access
Microsoft SQL Server
Oracle
Sybase
Microsoft Data Link files
The following sections give examples of connecting to two different databases:
"Connecting to an MS Access Database" on page 76
"Connecting to an Oracle Database" on page 77.
An example of a new Atoll document created from a database is shown in:
"Working With a Document on a Database" on page 77
2.2.2.2.1 Connecting to an MS Access Database
To create a new document from an MS Access database:
1. Select File > Open from a Database. The Open from a Database dialogue appears.
2. In the Files of type list, select "Microsoft Access" as the type of database:
3. Select the name of the database and click OK. The data in the MS Access database is loaded into Atoll as a new
document.
Note: For information on creating and maintaining the database, see the Administrator Manual.
Note: If you already have a document open in Atoll, you must select File > Database > Open
from a Database.
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Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project
2.2.2.2.2 Connecting to an Oracle Database
To create a new document from an Oracle database:
1. Select File > Open from a Database. The Open from a Database dialogue appears.
2. In the Files of type list, select "Oracle" as the type of database:
3. In the dialogue that appears, enter your User Name, Password, and Server (as defined in the tnsnames.ora file).
Figure 2.7: Connecting to an Oracle database
4. Click OK. The data in the Oracle database is loaded into Atoll as a new document.
2.2.2.3 Working With a Document on a Database
Figure 2.1 shows a new Atoll document based created from a database. The Data tab of the Explorer window now has
a folder structure suitable for a UMTS radio-planning project. The Sites folder is expanded to show that a document
created from a database can have additional data, such as sites, unlike a document created from a template. These can
be modified or replaced. Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3 show the contents of the Geo and Modules tabs of the new document,
respectively.
Figure 2.8: New Atoll document opened from a database
Note: If you already have a document open in Atoll, you must select File > Database > Open
from a Database.
Note: Additional dialogues may open asking you to choose which project in the database to load
or which site list to load.
Note: The new document may open with no site displayed in the map window. This is because
the north-west point of the project is by default the axis origin. You can recentre the docu-
ment on the data displayed in the Data tab by expanding the Sites folder, right-clicking on
any site, and selecting Centre in the map window from the context menu.
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When you create an Atoll document from a database, you can view the characteristics of the database connection.
To view the characteristics of the database connection:
1. Select File > Database > Connection Properties. The Database Connection dialogue appears (see
Figure 2.4).
2. You can now:
- Disconnect your document from the database.
- Modify your connection to the database.
Figure 2.11: The Connection
2.2.2.4 Refreshing an Atoll Document Fromthe Database
As you are working on your document, other users who have access to the database may have modified some of the data.
You can ensure that you have the most recent data in your document by refreshing the information from the database.
How frequently you refresh the document depends on how frequently the database is updated. If the database is updated
frequently, you should refresh your document frequently as well, in order to continue working with the most up-to-date data.
To refresh an Atoll document from the database:
1. Select File > Database > Refresh.
2. In the dialogue that appears, you can choose one of the following:
- Archive your changes in the database: This option allows you to archive your changes to the server instead
of refreshing your document from the server.
- Refresh only data which have not been modified: This option allows you to refresh from the database only
those items that have not modified; all others will remain as they are.
- Cancel your changes and reload database: This option allows you to cancel any changes you have made
and start over from the point of the last archive to the database.
3. Click OK.
Figure 2.9: New Atoll document Geo tab Figure 2.10: New Atoll document Modules tab
Caution: If you disconnect your document from the database, it will be become a stand-alone docu-
ment and you will not be able to reconnect it to the database.
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Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project
2.2.2.5 Archiving the Modifications of an Atoll Document in the Database
When you are working on an Atoll document that is attached to a database, you should from time to time archive the modi-
fications you have made to the data on the database. How frequently you should archive your document depends on
several factors: the amount and size of changes you make, the number of other users using the database who may benefit
from your modifications, etc. What you can archive depends on the user rights the database administrator has given to
you. For example, you may have read access to the antennas table, allowing you to create a new Atoll document with the
given antennas. However, because only the administrator can modify the properties of the antennas, you will not be able
to archive any changes you make to the antennas without write access to the table.
The Atoll archiving process is flexible. You can choose to archive all your modifications or only the site-related modifica-
tions. As well, when you are archiving, Atoll shows you all modifications that will be archived and, if you wish, you can
choose to archive only some of them or even to undo modifications you have made locally. Occasionally, other users many
have modified some of the same data and, when you archive your changes, Atoll will inform you of the possible conflicts
and help you resolve them.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Archiving All Modifications in the Database" on page 79
"Archiving Only Site-Related Data in the Database" on page 79
"Resolving Data Conflicts" on page 80.
2.2.2.5.1 Archiving All Modifications in the Database
To archive all your modifications in the database:
1. Select File > Database > Archive. The Archive dialogue appears (see Figure 2.12).
2. In the Archive dialogue, you can do the following:
- Click Run All to archive all your changes to the database.
- Select one item under Pending Changes and click Run to archive the selected modification to the database
- Select one item under Pending Changes and click Differences to view the differences between the local item
and the item on the database.
- Select one item under Pending Changes and click Undo to refresh the modification with the original data from
the database.
Figure 2.12: The Archive dialogue
3. If some of the data has been modified on the database since you last refreshed, Atoll stops the archiving process
and asks you to resolve the conflict. For information on managing conflicts, see "Resolving Data Conflicts" on
page 80.
4. When you are finished archiving, click Close.
2.2.2.5.2 Archiving Only Site-Related Data in the Database
Atoll allows you to archive only site-related data if you wish. Which data is archived depends on the radio technology you
are working with. For example, in a UMTS HSPA radio planning project, the site-related data are: sites, transmitters, cells,
and neighbours.
Notes:
If you chose Refresh only data which have not been modified or Cancel your changes and
reload database, Atoll proceeds without asking for confirmation.
If you chose Archive your changes in the database, the Archive dialogue appears. For infor-
mation on using the Archive dialogue, see "Archiving the Modifications of an Atoll Document in
the Database" on page 79.
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To archive only the site-related data in the database:
1. Select File > Database > Archive. The Archive dialogue appears.
2. In the Archive dialogue, you can do the following:
- Click Run All to archive all your changes to the database.
- Select one item under Pending Changes and click Run to archive the selected modification to the database
- Select one item under Pending Changes and click Differences to view the differences between the local item
and the item on the database.
- Select one item under Pending Changes and click Undo to refresh the modification with the original data from
the database.
3. If some of the data has been modified on the database since you last refreshed, Atoll stops the archiving process
and asks you to resolve the conflict. For information on managing conflicts, see "Resolving Data Conflicts" on
page 80.
4. When you are finished archiving, click Close.
2.2.2.5.3 Resolving Data Conflicts
Atoll enables several users to use the same database by allowing user to load the data and then freeing the database for
other users. However, this also creates the possibility of two users modifying the same data. When the second user
attempts to archive his changes, Atoll warns him that the data has been changed since he last refreshed the data and that
there is a conflict.
Atoll allows you to resolve data conflicts. When Atoll finds a conflict, it displays the warning shown in Figure 2.13.
Figure 2.13: Conflict warning
You have three options:
Abort: If you click Abort, the archiving process stops and you can attempt to resolve the conflict before restarting
the archiving process.
Ignore: If you click Ignore, the item causing the conflict will not be archived; all other modifications will be archived
and you can resolve the conflict after the archiving process has ended. However, if other conflicts are found, Atoll
will warn you with the Database Transfer Error dialogue again.
Ignore All: If you click Ignore All, the item causing the conflict will not be archived and Atoll will not inform you if
there are other conflicts; all other modifications will be archived and you can resolve any conflicts after the
archiving process has ended.
Whether you abort the archive process to resolve the conflict immediately. or wait until the end of the archive process, the
procedure to resolve the conflict is the same.
To resolve a conflict:
1. In the Pending Changes pane of the Archive dialogue, select the conflict you want to resolve and click Resolve.
There are two different types of data conflicts:
- On a modified record: You are in the process of archiving your modifications on the database and another
user has modified the same data since you last archived or refreshed your data. A conflict is caused only by
differences in the same field of the same record between the database and the current Atoll document.
The Conflict in Changes dialogue appears, with the fields in conflict highlighted (see Figure 2.14). In the
Conflict in Changes dialogue, you can see the value of the field in the database in the Database values col-
umn, as well as the value of the same field in your document in the Current values column.
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Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project
Figure 2.14: The Conflict in Changes dialogue
- If you want to overwrite the database value with the value of the same field in your document, select the
check box next to the highlighted change and click Archive. Your modification will be written to the data-
base, overwriting the value there.
- If you want to accept the value of the field in the database, clear the check box next to the highlighted
change and click Archive. Your modification will be lost and the value in the database will remain un-
changed.
- On a deleted record: You are in the process of archiving your modifications on the database and another
user has deleted a record since you last archived or refreshed your data. For information, see "Resolving Data
Conflicts" on page 80.
Atoll displays a message explaining that the record you are trying to update has been deleted from the data-
base (see Figure 2.15). Select one of the following:
Figure 2.15: Conflict on a deleted record
- Yes: Select Yes to store your modifications on the database, thereby recreated the deleted record.
- No: Select No to abandon your modifications to this record and delete this record from your document.
- Cancel: Select Cancel to cancel.
2. Click Close to close the Archive dialogue.
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CHAPTER 3
MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA
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Chapter 3: Managing Geographic Data
3 Managing Geographic Data
Several different geographic data types are used in an Atoll document. For example: the Digital Terrain Model (DTM),
clutter classes, clutter heights, scanned images, population maps, and traffic data maps are types of the geographic data
that you can import or create. Some data types, such as clutter classes, can be used to give more realistic calculations.
Other types such as scanned images, are used to create a more realistic display of the region under study.
You can import a wide variety of both vector and raster-format geo data files. When you import a geo data file into Atoll,
you can decide in which folder it goes. The Geo tab of the Atoll Explorer window has folders for the commonly used data
types. Therefore, choosing a folder is choosing what the file will be used for. You can also create your own data type by
importing a file and defining what data is to be used.
Once you have imported a file into the Atoll document, you can edit the data, define how the data will be displayed, and
how geo data is displayed. Atoll also allows you to manage multiple files for a single data type, deciding the priority of data
files with different information or different resolutions. You can also display geo data over items on the Data tab, either by
transferring them to the Data tab, or by importing them directly to the Data tab.
You can also create and edit geographic data. You can add a vector layer to certain data types to which you can add
contours, lines, or points, create new geographic data, or modify existing data. You can also create raster-based
geographic data such as traffic maps or clutter classes.
You can export most geo data objects (for example, DTM, clutter classes, clutter heights, raster polygons, or vector layers)
for use in other Atoll documents or in other applications. Atoll also allows you to save changes you make to geo data
objects back to the original files. This way you can update the original files and, through the process of saving them, recom-
pact the file.
This chapter explains the following topics:
"Geographic Data Types" on page 85
"Supported Geographic Data Formats" on page 86
"Importing Geo Data Files" on page 87
"Clutter Classes" on page 92
"Clutter Heights" on page 95
"Digital Terrain Models" on page 92
"Contours, Lines, and Points" on page 95
"Scanned Images" on page 96
"Population Maps" on page 97
"Rain Maps" on page 98
"Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 99
"Setting the Priority of Geo Data" on page 102
"Editing Geographic Data" on page 105
"Saving Geographic Data" on page 112.
3.1 Geographic Data Types
An Atoll document can contain several different geographic data types. Atoll supports a wide range of file formats for
geographic data files. The different geographic data types play different roles in the Atoll document:
Geographic data used in propagation calculation:
- Digital terrain model
- Clutter classes
- Clutter heights
Geographic data used in dimensioning:
- Traffic maps
Geographic data used in statistics:
- Population maps
- Custom maps
Geographic data used for display purposes:
- Scanned maps
- Contours, lines, and points representing, for example, roads, railways, or regions.
In this section, the following data types are described:
"Digital Terrain Model" on page 86
"Clutter Classes" on page 86
"Clutter Heights" on page 86
"Contours, Lines, and Points" on page 86
"Scanned Images" on page 86
"Population Maps" on page 86
"Rain Maps" on page 86
"Traffic Data Maps" on page 86
"Custom Data Maps" on page 86.
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Digital Terrain Model
The DTM describes the elevation of the ground over sea level. You can display the DTM in different ways: by single value,
discrete values, or by value intervals (see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28).
The DTM is automatically taken into account by the propagation model during computations.
Clutter Classes
The clutter class geo data file describes land cover or land use. Clutter classes are taken into account by the propagation
model during computations.
Each pixel in a clutter class file contains a code (from a maximum of 256 possible classes) which corresponds to a clutter
class, or in other words to a certain type of ground use or cover. The height per class can be defined as part of the clutter
class, however, the height will be defined as an average height for each clutter class. For information on defining the height
per clutter class, see "Defining Clutter Class Properties" on page 93. Clutter heights can also be defined by a separate
clutter heights file (see "Clutter Heights" on page 86). A clutter height map can represent height much more accurately
because it allows a different height to be assigned for each pixel of the map.
Clutter Heights
Clutter height maps describe the altitude of clutter over the DTM with one altitude defined per pixel. Clutter height maps
can offer more precise information than defining an altitude per clutter class because, in a clutter height file, it is possible
to have different heights within a single clutter class.
When clutter altitude is defined both in clutter classes and in a clutter height map, clutter altitude is taken from the clutter
height map.
You can display the clutter height map in different ways: by single value, discrete values, or by value intervals (see "Display
Properties of Objects" on page 28).
Contours, Lines, and Points
Atoll supports contours, lines, and points to represent polygons such as regions, or lines such as roads or coastlines, or
points. They are used for display only and have no effect on computations. Contours can also be used to create filtering
polygons or computation or focus zones.
Scanned Images
Scanned images are geographic data files which represent the actual physical surroundings, for example, road maps or
satellite images. They are used to provide a precise background for other objects or for less precise maps and are used
only for display; they have no effect on calculations.
Population Maps
Population maps contain information on population density or on the total number of inhabitants. Population maps can be
used in prediction reports in order to display, for example, the absolute and relative numbers of the population covered.
Population maps have no effect on prediction and simulation results.
Rain Maps
Rain maps are vector files containing information on rain intensity (i.e., the total amount per defined period). Rain maps
are used in microwave link documents to calculate radio wave attenuation.
Traffic Data Maps
Traffic data maps contain information on capacity and service use per geographic area. Traffic data maps are used for
network capacity analyses.
Custom Data Maps
You can import many different types of files for, for example, revenue, rainfall, or socio-demographic data. You could use
the imported data in prediction reports. For example, you could display the predicted revenue for defined coverage.
These imported data have no effect on prediction and simulation results.
3.2 Supported Geographic Data Formats
Atoll supports the following geographic data formats:
DTM files in the following formats: TIF (8 or 16-bit), BIL (8 or 16-bit), IST (8 or 16-bit), Planet, BMP (8-bit), GRD/
GRC Vertical Mapper (8 or 16-bit), and Erdas Imagine (8 or 16-bit)
Note: The only propagation models that can take clutter heights into account in calculations are
the Standard Propagation Model and WLL model.
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Chapter 3: Managing Geographic Data
Clutter height files in the following formats: TIF (8 or 16-bit), BIL (8 or 16-bit), IST (8 or 16-bit), Planet, BMP (8-bit),,
GRC Vertical Mapper (8 or 16-bit), and Erdas Imagine (8 or 16-bit)
Clutter class and traffic files in the following formats: TIF (8-bit), BIL (8-bit), IST (8-bit), BMP (8-bit), Planet, GRC
Vertical Mapper (8-bit), and Erdas Imagine (8-bit)
Vector data files in the following formats: AGD, DFX, Planet, SHP, MIF, and TAB.
Vector traffic files in the following formats: AGD, DFX, Planet, SHP, MIF, and TAB.
Scanned image files in the following formats: TIF (1 to 24-bit), BIL (1 to 24-bit), IST (1 to 24-bit), BMP (1 to 24-bit),
Planet, Erdas Imagine (1 to 24-bit), GRC Vertical Mapper (1 to 24-bit), and ECW (8 or 24-bit)
Population files in the following formats: TIF (16-bit), BIL (16-bit), IST (16-bit), Planet, BMP (16-bit), Erdas Imagine
(16-bit), GRD/GRC Vertical Mapper (16-bit), AGD, DXF, SHP, MIF, and TAB.
Rain files in the following formats: AGD, DXF, SHP, MIF, and TAB.
Other data in the following formats: TIF (16-bit), BIL (16-bit), IST (16-bit), Planet, BMP (16-bit), Erdas Imagine
(16-bit), GRD/GRC Vertical Mapper (16-bit), AGD, DXF, SHP, MIF, and TAB.
3.3 Importing Geo Data Files
You can import the geographic data you need into the current Atoll document. As explained in "Supported Geographic
Data Formats" on page 86, Atoll supports a variety of both raster and vector file formats. When you import a new geo data
file, Atoll recognises the file format and suggests the appropriate folder on the Geo tab of the Explorer window. You can
embed geo data files in the Atoll document while you are importing them or afterwards (see "Embedding Geographic
Data" on page 91).
You can share the paths of imported maps and display settings with other users by using Atolls user configuration files.
For information on exporting the paths of your documents files or to import the path from another document using user
configuration files, see "Geographic Data Sets" on page 103.
This section explains the following:
"Importing a Raster-format Geo Data File" on page 87
"Importing a Vector-format Geo Data File" on page 88
"Importing MSI PlanetGeo Data" on page 89
"Grouping Geo Data Files in Folders" on page 90
"Embedding Geographic Data" on page 91.
3.3.1 Importing a Raster-format Geo Data File
All raster geo data files must be represented in the same projection coordinate system as the Atoll document itself.
To import a geographic data file in a raster format:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the geo data file and click Open. The File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1).
Depending on the type of geo data file you are importing, choose one of the following options:
- DTM: Select Altitudes (DTM) from the Data Type list.
- Clutter Classes: Select Clutter Classes from the Data Type list.
- Clutter Heights: Select Clutter Heights from the Data Type list.
- Scanned Images: Select Image or Scan from the Data Type list.
- Population:
i. Select Population from the Data Type list. The Use as list becomes available.
ii. Select from the Use as list whether the imported data are to be interpreted as a Density or a Value.
- Custom Geo Data: See "Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 99.
- Traffic Data Maps: Select Traffic Density from the Data Type list.
3. By default, the imported file is linked to the Atoll document. To embed the data file in the Atoll document, select
the Embed in Document check box. For information on embedding files, see "Embedding Geographic Data" on
page 91.
Caution: All raster maps imported must have the same projection coordinate system.
Note: The instructions in this section do not apply to custom geo data maps. For information on
importing or creating an custom geo data map, see "Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 99.
Tip: You can use the drag-and-drop feature to import geo data files into a document. The format
is automatically recognized and Atoll presents you with the appropriate dialogue.
Note: If the Vector Import dialogue appears, go to "Importing a Vector-format Geo Data File" on
page 88.
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4. Click Import. The geo data file is imported and listed in the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
Figure 3.1: Importing a clutter class file
3.3.2 Importing a Vector-format Geo Data File
When you import geo data files in vector format, their geographic system can be converted to the system used by the Atoll
document.
To import a vector-format geographic data file:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the geo data file and click Open. The Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).
Depending on the type of geo data file you are importing, choose one of the following options:
- Vector Data:
- Select Geo from the Import to list.
- Population:
i. Select Population from the Import to list.
ii. Under Fields to be imported, select from the first list which field is to be imported and from the second
list whether the imported field is a Density or a Value (see Figure 3.2 and Figure 3.3).
Figure 3.2: Population density (number of inhabitants/km)
Figure 3.3: Population values (number of inhabitants per item polygon/road, etc.)
- Rain:
i. Select Rain from the Import to list.
ii. Under Fields to be imported, select from the first list which field is to be imported and select Value from
the second list.
- Custom Geo Data:
- See "Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 99.
Note: If the File Import dialogue appears, go to "Importing a Raster-format Geo Data File" on
page 87.
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- Traffic Data Maps: Select Traffic from the Import to list.
3. By default, the imported file is linked to the Atoll document. To embed the data file in the Atoll document, select
the Embed in Document check box. For information on embedding files, see "Embedding Geographic Data" on
page 91.
4. Click Import. The geo data file is imported and listed in the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
Figure 3.4: Vector Import dialogue
3.3.3 Importing MSI PlanetGeo Data
MSI Planetgeo data are contained in a series of files described in index files. The index file is in ASCII text format and
contains the information necessary to identify and properly interpret each geo data file. When you import MSI Planetgeo
data, you can import each type of geo data separately, by importing the corresponding index file, or you can import several
MSI Planetgeo data files at the same time, by importing several index files.
This section explains the following:
"Importing One MSI PlanetGeo Data Type" on page 89
"Importing a MSI PlanetGeo Database" on page 90.
3.3.3.1 Importing One MSI PlanetGeo Data Type
When you want to import a certain type of MSI Planetgeo data, such as a DTM or clutter heights, you import the index
file containing the information necessary to import the set of files containing the geo data.
To import one type of MSI Planetgeo data:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the index file you want to import and click Open. The Data Type dialogue appears (see Figure 3.5).
Figure 3.5: Importing an MSI Planetindex file
3. Select the type of geo data you are importing and select the Embed check box if you want to embed the data in
the current Atoll document.
Note: You can import ellipses and arcs from MapInfo files (MIF and TAB). Rectangles are inter-
preted as polygons.
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4. Click OK to import the geo data into the current Atoll document.
3.3.3.2 Importing a MSI PlanetGeo Database
You can import all available MSI Planetgeo data at the same time by importing all index files.
To import the MSI Planetgeo database:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select "Planetdatabase" from the Files of Type list. The Planet Data to Be Imported dialogue appears (see
Figure 3.5).
Figure 3.6: Importing an MSI Planetdatabase
3. For each type of data that you want to import:
a. Select the corresponding check box
b. If you want to embed the data, select the Embed check box.
c. To locate the MSI Planetindex file, click . The Open dialogue appears.
d. Select the MSI Planetindex file and click Open. The path and name of the file appears in the corresponding
field of the Planet Data to Be Imported dialogue.
4. When you have selected all the types of data you want to import, click OK. The data is imported into the current
Atoll document.
3.3.4 Grouping Geo Data Files in Folders
By default, when you import scanned images and contours, lines, and points, they appear directly on the Geo tab. Other
data files, such as clutter classes, are listed together in a single Clutter Classes folder. You can, however, group scanned
images and contours, lines, and points into folders as well.
Once grouped, these geo data files can be displayed or hidden and moved more easily. They retain, however, their own
individual display settings; the display settings cannot be managed at the folder level.
You create the folder when you import the first geo data file that will be imported into it. When you import the next geo data
file, either raster or vector, you can import it directly into the new folder.
To create a new geo data folder when importing:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the geo data file and click Open. If the file to be imported is a raster file, the File Import dialogue appears
(see Figure 3.1). If the file to be imported is a vector file, the Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).
3. From the Data Type list (on the File Import dialogue) or the Import To list (on the Vector Import dialogue), select
New folder in Geo. The New Folder dialogue appears.
Note: If you want to import your file to the Data tab, you can select New folder in Data.
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Chapter 3: Managing Geographic Data
4. Enter a name for the folder in Folder Name box and click OK.
5. Click Import. Your file is imported into the newly created folder.
You can now import other geo data files into this folder by selecting it from the Data Type list (on the File Import dialogue)
or the Import To list (on the Vector Import dialogue) when you import.
3.3.5 Embedding Geographic Data
By default, when you import a geo data file, Atoll creates a link to the file. You can, however, choose to embed the geo
data file in your Atoll document, either when you import it or later. When Atoll is linked to a geo data file, the geo data file
remains separate and modifying or saving the Atoll document has no effect on the geo data file. When the geo data file
is embedded in the Atoll document, it is saved as part of the document.
Both linking and embedding present advantages and disadvantages. For more information, see the Administation Manual.
To embed a geo data file in the current Atoll document while you are importing:
Select the Embed in Document check box on the File Import or Vector Import dialogue box.
To embed a geo data file that is already linked to the current Atoll document:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the file you want to embed in the current document.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Click the General tab of the Properties dialogue.
5. Click Embed.
6. Click OK. The geo data file is now embedded in the current Atoll document.
3.3.6 Repairing a Broken Link to a Geo Data File
By default, when you import a geo data file, Atoll creates a link to the file; the geo data file remains separate and modifying
or saving the Atoll document has no effect on the geo data file. If, however, the geo data file is moved, the link will be
broken. The next time you open an Atoll document with the linked geo data file, Atoll cannot find the file and displays the
error message shown in Figure 3.7.
Figure 3.7: Missing shortcut
To find the file yourself:
When the Missing Shortcut dialogue (see Figure 3.7) appears, click the Browse button to locate the geo data file.
Atoll automatically searches for the missing file as well. It searches for the nearest match , based on size, date, and type.
When it finds a possible match, it informs you with a message (see Figure 3.8).
If the file corresponds to the source file:
Click Yes. The link will be corrected to point to the indicated file.
Note: You can transfer geo data that has been imported from the Geo tab to the Data tab, or vice
versa. Right-click the data in the Explorer window and select Transfer to Data or Transfer
to Geo.
Important: If you are using distributed calculations, you must link your geo data files. Distributed calcu-
lations can not work with embedded geo data files. For information, see the Administrator
Guide.
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Figure 3.8: Problem with shortcut
You can also repair the link to the geo data file from within the Atoll document.
To repair a broken link from within the Atoll document:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
- If the geo data file is in a folder, such as the Clutter Classes, Traffic, or DTM folder, click to expand the
folder.
2. Right-click on the geo data file you want to relink. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. On the General tab of the Properties dialogue, click the Find button.
5. Browse to the geo data file, select it and click OK.
3.4 Digital Terrain Models
The Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a geographic data file representing the elevation of the ground over sea level.
To manage the properties of the DTM:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Digital Terrain Model folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Display tab to define the display properties for the DTM.
- For information on Display tab settings, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
5. Move the Relief slider towards Flat, if you want to display very few little relief or towards x6 if you want to empha-
sise the differences in altitude.
6. Click OK to close the Properties dialogue.
3.5 Clutter Classes
The clutter class geo data file describes land cover or land use.
Each pixel of a clutter class file contains a code (from a maximum of 256 possible classes) which corresponds to a clutter
class, or in other words to a certain type of ground use or cover. The height per class can be defined as part of the clutter
class, however this height is only an average per class. A clutter height map can represent height much more accurately
because it allows a different height to be assigned for each bin of the map. For information on clutter height maps, see
"Clutter Heights" on page 95.
This section explains the following:
"Assigning Names to Clutter Classes" on page 92
"Defining Clutter Class Properties" on page 93
"Adding a Clutter Class" on page 94
"Refreshing the List of Clutter Classes" on page 94
"Displaying Total Surface Area per Clutter Class" on page 94.
3.5.1 Assigning Names to Clutter Classes
The clutter class file identifies each clutter class with a code. To make it easier to work with clutter classes, you can assign
a descriptive name to each clutter class name. When a clutter class has a descriptive name, it is the name that appears
in tool tips and reports.
When you import a clutter class file in BIL, TIF, or IMP format, Atoll can automatically assign names to clutter classes if
the clutter class file has a corresponding MNU file. The MNU file contains a list with the clutter class codes and their corre-
sponding names. For more information on the MNU file format and on creating an MNU file, see the Technical Reference
Guide.
To assign names to clutter classes:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
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3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Click the Description tab of the Properties dialogue.
5. In the Name column, enter descriptive text for each class identified in the Code column.
3.5.2 Defining Clutter Class Properties
The parameters are applied in relation to the location of the receiver being studied and the clutter class of the receiver
location. These parameters can be set on the Properties dialogue:
To define clutter class properties:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Click the Description tab of the Properties dialogue.
5. Enter a Name and average Height (m) for each code.
6. If desired, you can enter a value for each of the following fields applicable to the current document:
- For all Atoll documents:
- Model Standard Deviation (dB): to compute shadowing losses on the path loss, as related to a user-
defined cell edge coverage probability.
- Indoor Loss (dB): to be applied to the path loss and used in coverage predictions, point analysis or in
UMTS HSPA or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 simulations.
- For GSM/GPRS/EGPRS documents:
- C/I Standard Deviation (dB): to compute shadowing losses on the C/I values, as related to a user-defined
cell edge coverage probability.
- For UMTS HSPA or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 documents:
- Ec/Io Standard Deviation (dB): to compute shadowing losses on the Ec/Io values, as related to a user-
defined cell edge coverage probability.
- Eb/Nt Standard Deviation DL (dB): to compute shadowing losses on the Eb/Nt values, as related to a
user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
- Eb/Nt Standard Deviation UL (dB): to compute shadowing losses on the Eb/Nt values, as related to a
user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
- % Pilot Finger: to be used in the Ec/Io calculations. This factor represents the percentage of energy
received by the mobile pilot finger. Mobile user equipment has one searcher finger for pilot. The searcher
finger selects one path and only energy from this path is considered as signal; energy from other multip-
aths is considered as interference. For example, if 70% of the total energy is in one path and 30% of the
energy is in other multipaths, then the signal energy is reduced to 70% of total energy).
- Orthogonality Factor: to be used to evaluate DL Eb/Nt. This parameter indicates the remaining orthog-
onality at the receiver; it can be modelled by a value between 0, indicating no remaining orthogonality
because of multi-path, and 1 indicating perfect orthogonality.
7. Click the Default Values tab. Enter default values for each field. For information about each field, see the descrip-
tions in the previous step.
The values entered on the Default Values tab are used if no clutter map is available. Even if there is a clutter
classes map, you can select the Use default values only check box on the Default Values tab to make Atoll use
the values specified in this tab instead of the values defined per clutter class.
8. Click the Display tab to define the display properties for clutter classes. In addition to the Display tab options
described in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28, each clutter class display type has a visibility check box.
By selecting or clearing the visibility check box, you can display or hide clutter class display types individually.
9. Click OK.
Important: If the Height field is left blank, propagation models which use the height information of clut-
ter classes will assume a clutter height of "0" if there is no clutter height map.
Important: If the Orthogonality Factor field is left blank, the default orthogonality factor from the Glo-
bal Transmitters tab of the Transmitters Properties dialogue is used.
Note: Selecting white as the colour for a clutter class value or value interval will cause that clutter
class value or value interval to be displayed as transparent.
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3.5.3 Adding a Clutter Class
You can add a new clutter class to your document.
To add a new clutter class to the your document:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the Description tab from the Properties dialogue.
5. In the blank row marked with at the bottom of the table, enter an unused number from 1 to 255 in the Code
column.
6. Fill in the remainder of the fields as described in step 5. and step 6. of "Defining Clutter Class Properties" on
page 93.
7. Click OK.
You can now use the new clutter class when modifying the clutter class map. For information on modifying the clutter class
map, see "Creating a Clutter Polygon" on page 105.
3.5.4 Refreshing the List of Clutter Classes
Under certain circumstances, it can happen that the list of clutter classes on the Description tab of the clutter classes Prop-
erties dialogue contains unused clutter classes. For example, if you have imported two clutter class files and then deleted
one of them, the list of clutter classes will still contain the clutter classes of the deleted file, even if they are not used in the
remaining file. Whenever you want to ensure that the list of clutter classes is accurate and current, you can refresh the list.
To refresh the list of the clutter classes:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the Description tab from the Properties dialogue.
5. Click Refresh. Atoll removes the unused clutter classes from the list.
6. Click OK.
3.5.5 Displaying Total Surface Area per Clutter Class
You can display the total surface area covered by each clutter class in the document. Atoll displays the surface area
covered by each clutter class in the focus zone if there is one, in the computation zone if there is no focus zone and, if
there is no focus or computation zone, Atoll displays the total surface area covered by each clutter class in the entire docu-
ment. This information is also available in prediction reports (see ).
To display the surface area covered by each clutter class:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Statistics from the context menu.
The Statistics dialogue appears, displaying the surface area (Si in km) of each clutter class (i) and its percentage
(% of i) in the computation zone or focus zone, if one exists.
Tip: You can copy the description table into a new Atoll document after importing the clutter
classes file. To copy the description table, select the entire table by clicking the cell in the
upper-left corner of the table and press CTRL+C. On the Description tab of the clutter
classes Properties dialogue in the new Atoll document, press CTRL+V to paste the val-
ues in the table.
% of I
S
i
S
k
k

-------------- 100 =
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3.6 Clutter Heights
Clutter height maps describe the altitude of clutter over the DTM. Clutter height files allow for a higher degree of accuracy
because they allow more than one height per clutter class. In a clutter height file, a height is given for each point on the
map. If you define clutter height as a property of clutter classes, the height is given as an average per clutter class.
When a clutter height file is available, Atoll uses its clutter height information for calculations using certain propagation
models (the Standard Propagation Model and WLL model), for display (in tool tips and in the status line), and for CW meas-
urements and test mobile data paths. If no clutter height file exists, Atoll uses the average clutter height per clutter class
as defined in the clutter classes properties (see "Defining Clutter Class Properties" on page 93).
To manage the properties of clutter heights:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Heights folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Display tab to define the display properties for clutter heights.
- For information on Display tab settings, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
5. Click OK to close the Properties dialogue.
The clutter height of the current pointer position as given in the clutter height file or in the clutter classes is displayed in the
status bar.
3.7 Contours, Lines, and Points
In Atoll, you can import or create vector objects such as contours, lines, and points. The imported or created vectors are
used primarily for display purposes, but polygons can be used as filters, or computation or focus zones. Vector files can
also be used for cdmaOne/CDMA2000 or UMTS HSPA traffic maps, or for population maps. They can also be used as
part of an custom geo data map (see "Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 99).
In an Atoll document, vector objects such as contours, lines, and points are arranged in vector layers. When you import
a vector file, with, for example, roads, Atoll adds the file as a new vector layer containing all the vector objects in the file.
The vector object data can be managed in the vector layer table. For information on working with data tables, see "Working
with Data Tables" on page 41.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Managing the Display of a Vector Layer" on page 95
"Managing the Properties of the Vector Layer" on page 95
"Moving a Vector Layer to the Data Tab" on page 96.
3.7.1 Managing the Display of a Vector Layer
Imported geographic vector files can have different attributes depending on their file formats. Atoll can use additional infor-
mation related to vectors as display parameters. In addition, Atoll can read three-dimensional vector data.
To manage the display of a vector layer:
1. Click the Data or Geo tab in the Explorer window on which the vector layer is located.
2. Right-click the vector layer. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Select the Display tab of the Properties dialogue. For information on using the display tab, see "Display Properties
of Objects" on page 28.
3.7.2 Managing the Properties of the Vector Layer
The properties of the objects on the vector layer can be managed in two ways: either from a table containing all vectors
and their attributes or from the Properties dialogue.
Vector Layer Table
All the vector objects of a vector layer and their attributes are listed in the vector table.
Note: You can manage the display of an individual vector object by right-clicking the vector object
in the vector layer folder and selecting Properties from the context menu.
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To open the vector layer table:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu
appears.
2. Select Open Table from the context menu. The vector table appears.
You can edit the contents of this table using the commands from the context menu or from the Edit, Format, and Records
menus. For more information on editing tables in Atoll, see "Working with Data Tables" on page 41.
Vector Layer Properties Dialogue
The vector layer Properties dialogue has three tabs: a General tab, a Table tab, and a Display tab.
To open the Properties dialogue of a vector layer:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu
appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu.
3. Click the General tab. The following options are available:
- Name: The name of the vector layer. You can rename the vector layer using this field.
- Source File: The complete path of the vector layer file if the file is linked to the Atoll document; otherwise the
file is described as embedded.
- Find: Click the Find button to redefine the path when the files location has changed.
- Embed: Click the Embed button to embed a linked vector layer file in the Atoll document.
- Coordinate System: When a vector layer is linked, the coordinate system used is the files, as specified when
the file was imported. When the a vector layer is embedded, the coordinate system used is documents, as
specified when the file was embedded.
- Change: Click the Change button to change the coordinate system of the vector layer.
- Sort: Click the Sort button to sort the data contained in the vector layer. For information on sorting, see
"Advanced Sorting" on page 54.
- Filter: Click the Filter button to filter the data contained in the vector layer. For information on filtering, see
"Advanced Data Filtering" on page 55.
4. Click the Table tab. You can use the Table tab to manage the vector layer table content. For information on the
Table tab, see "Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields" on page 42.
5. Click the Display tab. You can use the Display tab to manage the vector layer display. For information on the Table
tab, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
3.7.3 Moving a Vector Layer to the Data Tab
In Atoll, all objects on the Data tab, such as transmitters, antennas, and predictions, are displayed over all objects on the
Geo tab. You may wish, however, to ensure that certain geo data, for example, major geographical features, roads, etc.,
remain visible in the map window. You can do this by transferring the geo data from the Geo tab to the Data tab and placing
it above data such as predictions.
To transfer a vector layer to the Data tab of the Explorer window:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the vector layer you want to transfer. The context menu appears.
3. Select Transfer to Data tab from the context menu. The vector layer is transferred to the Data tab.
You can transfer the vector layer back to the Geo tab by right-clicking it in the Data tab and selecting Transfer to the Geo
tab from the context menu. For more information about display priority in Atoll, see "Setting the Priority of Geo Data" on
page 102.
3.8 Scanned Images
Scanned images are geographic data files which represent the actual physical surroundings, for example, road maps or
satellite images. They are used to provide a precise background for other objects or for less precise maps.They have no
effect on calculations.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Importing Several Scanned Images" on page 96
"Defining the Display Properties of Scanned Images" on page 97.
3.8.1 Importing Several Scanned Images
You can import scanned images into the current Atoll document one at a time, as explained in "Importing Geo Data Files"
on page 87, or you can import a group of images by importing an index file listing the individual image files. The index file
is a text file with the information for each image file on a separate line.
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Each line contains the following information, with the information separated by a space:
File name: The name of the file, with its path relative to the current location of the index file.
XMIN: The beginning X coordinate of the file.
XMAX: The end X coordinate, calculated as XMIN +(number of horizontal bins x bin width).
YMIN: The beginning Y coordinate of the file.
YMAX: The end Y coordinate, calculated as YMIN +(number of horizontal bins x bin width).
0: The zero character ends the sequence.
To import an index
1. Select File > Import.
2. Select the index file and click Open. The File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1).
3. Select Image or Scan from the Data Type list.
4. Click Import. The image files imported and listed in the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
3.8.2 Defining the Display Properties of Scanned Images
Because imported images cannot be modified, they have fewer display parameters than other object types.
To define the display properties of a scanned image:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window
2. Right-click the scanned image. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears (see Figure 3.9).
4. Select the Display tab and set the following options:
- Colour: Select either Automatic, Shades of gray, or Watermark from the list.
- Transparent Colour: Select White from the list if you wish parts of the scanned image that are coloured white
to be transparent, allowing objects in lower layers to be visible.
- Lightness: Move the slider to lighten or darken the scanned image.
- Contrast: Move the slider to adjust the contrast.
- Visibility Scale: Enter a visibility scale minimum in the between 1: text box and maximum in the and 1: text
box. When the displayed or printed scale is outside this range, the scanned image is not displayed.
5. Click OK.
Figure 3.9: Scanned image Properties dialogue
3.9 Population Maps
Population maps contain information on population density or on the total number of inhabitants.
Population maps can be used in prediction reports in order to display, for example, the absolute and relative numbers of
the population covered.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Managing the Display of Population Data" on page 98
"Displaying Population Statistics" on page 98.
ni ce1. t i f 984660 995380 1860900 1872280 0
ni ce2. t i f 996240 1004900 1860980 1870700 0
XMIN XMAX YMAX YMIN 0 File name
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3.9.1 Managing the Display of Population Data
You can manage the display of population data.
To manage the display of population data:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Population folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Select the Display tab of the Properties dialogue. For information on using the display tab, see "Display Properties
of Objects" on page 28.
3.9.2 Displaying Population Statistics
You can display the relative and absolute distribution of population, according to the defined value intervals in the display
properties (for information on defining value intervals, see "Defining the Display Type" on page 29), as well as the total
population. Atoll displays the statistics for the focus zone if there is one, for the computation zone if there is no focus zone
and, if there is no focus or computation zone, Atoll displays the statistics for the entire document.
To display the population distribution statistics:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Population folder.
3. Select Statistics from the context menu. The Statistics window appears with the distributions of each value
interval defined in the display properties.
3.10 Rain Maps
Rain maps contain information on rain intensity, i.e., the total amount of rain per defined period. Rain maps are used in
microwave link documents to calculate radio wave attenuation.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Managing Rain Map Properties" on page 98
"Displaying Rain Statistics" on page 99.
3.10.1 Managing Rain Map Properties
To manage the properties of a rain map:
1. Right-click the Rain folder on the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Select Properties from the context menu.
3. The following tabs are available:
- Data Mapping: The Data Mapping tab enables you to select which value from each imported vector file is part
of the rain map. The imported vector files are listed in the Name column, with the relevant data selected in the
Field column. You can change this value by selecting another value from the Field list.
- Display: The Display tab enables you to define how the rain map appears in the map window. Value interval
is the only available display type.
For information on using the display tab, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
4. Click to expand the Rain folder.
5. Right-click any rain data in the Rain folder.
6. Select Properties from the context menu.
7. The Table tab is available. The Table tab enables you to manage the contents of the class table presented on the
Description tab. For information on working with the Table tab, see "Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table
Fields" on page 42.
Note: Statistics are displayed only for visible data. See "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map
Using the Explorer" on page 26.
Important: Rain maps indicate rain intensity (the amount of rain falling per hour), i.e., a value, and not
a density. Therefore, the Density check box on the Data Mapping tab must remain cleared.
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3.10.2 Displaying Rain Statistics
You can display the relative and absolute distribution of each value interval according to the defined value intervals in the
display properties (for information on defining value intervals, see "Defining the Display Type" on page 29) of a rain map.
Atoll displays the statistics for the focus zone if there is one, for the computation zone if there is no focus zone and, if there
is no focus or computation zone, Atoll displays the statistics for the entire document.
To display the statistics of an custom geo data map:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Rain folder.
3. Select Statistics from the context menu. The Statistics window appears with the distributions of each value
interval.
3.11 CustomGeo Data Maps
You can import maps other than the default maps that Atoll uses. For example, you can import files for the revenue, rain-
fall, or socio-demographic data. Depending on the type of information displayed, you could use it in prediction reports. For
example, you could display the predicted revenue for defined coverage.
These maps can be raster files of 8, 16, or 32 bits per pixel or vector-format files that you have either imported or created
using the vector edition tool "Editing Contours, Lines, and Points" on page 106.
You create an custom data map by:
1. Importing an custom geo data file and creating the custom data map folder.
2. Importing other custom geo data files into the newly created custom data map folder, if more than one file will be
used for this custom geo data map.
These imported data can be used in reports.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Creating a Custom Geo Data Map" on page 99
"Adding a File to a Custom Geo Data Map" on page 100
"Managing the Properties of a Custom Geo Data Map" on page 101
"Displaying Statistics on Custom Geo Data" on page 101
"Integrable Versus Non Integrable Data" on page 101.
3.11.1 Creating a CustomGeo Data Map
The first step in creating a custom geo data map is importing the first file and creating the custom data map folder.
To create an custom geo data map:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the first geo data file that will be a part of the custom data map and click Open.
- If the selected file is a raster file, the File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1).
- If the selected file is a vector file, the Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).
3. Click the Advanced button. The New Type dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).
4. Enter a Name for the custom geo data map. Atoll creates a folder with this name on the Geo tab and all other files
of the new custom geo data map will go in here.
5. Under Supported Input Formats, select the check boxes corresponding to the formats of both the present file
and all other files that will constitute the new custom geo data map:
- 8-bit Raster
- 16-bit Raster
- 32-bit Raster
- Vector.
6. Under Supported Input Formats, select the check box corresponding to the type of value of the present file and
all other files that will constitute the new custom geo data map:
- Classes (8 bits): to create a map of value classes (such as clutter classes) with classes from 0 to 255.
- Short Integer (16 bits): to create a map with whole values.
- Long Integer (32 bits): to create a map with whole values.
- Float (32 bits): to create a map with decimal values.
Note: Statistics are displayed only for visible data. See "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map
Using the Explorer" on page 26.
Important: If you do not select all the formats you need now, you will not be able to add a format later.
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- Double (64 bits): to create a map with decimal values.
7. Select the Integrable check box if you want to be able to use imported data as a surface density value and show
cumulative custom geo data in prediction reports.
8. Click OK.
9. If the imported file is a raster file, the File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1 on page 88); if the imported
file is a vector file, the Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4 on page 89):
- File Import dialogue: From the Use as list, select whether the new data is to be used a Density or as a Value.
- Vector Import dialogue: Under Fields to be imported, select from the first list which field is to be imported
and from the second list whether the imported field is a Density or a Value (see Figure 3.2 on page 88 and
Figure 3.3 on page 88).
10. .Click Import. A new folder is created on the Geo tab of the Explorer window containing the geo data file you
imported.
Figure 3.10: The New Type dialogue
3.11.2 Adding a File to a CustomGeo Data Map
Once you have created the custom geo data map by importing the first file, you can add more files that will be part of the
custom map.
To add a file to an custom geo data map:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the geo data file that you want to add to the custom data map and click Open.
- If the selected file is a raster file, the File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1).
i. From the File Type list, select the name of the custom geo data map.
ii. From the Use as list, select whether the new data is to be used a Density or as a Value.
- If the selected file is a vector file, the Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).
i. From the Import To list, select the name of the custom geo data map.
ii. Under Fields to be imported, select from the first list which field is to be imported and from the second
list whether the imported field is a Density or a Value (see Figure 3.2 on page 88 and Figure 3.3 on
page 88).
Important:
To use imported data as a surface density value, you must select the Integrable check box.
You can not change the integrable setting once you have created your custom geo data map.
Important: If the file you first import when you create your custom geo data map is an 8-bit raster map,
the Use as and Fields to be imported boxes will not be available for any file that is
imported into your new custom geo data map. The values in 8-bit maps are codes and not
values such as densities.
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3. Click Import. The file is added to the custom geo data file on the Geo tab of the Explorer window containing the
geo data file you imported.
3.11.3 Managing the Properties of a CustomGeo Data Map
To manage the properties of an custom geo data map:
1. Right-click the custom geo data map on the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Select Properties from the context menu:
3. Depending on the imported file types, the following tabs are available:
- Description: The Description table lists the classes of all 8-bit raster files contained in the custom geo data
map. You must enter a different value for each class.
- Table: The Table tab enables you to manage the contents of the class table presented on the Description tab.
For information on working with the Table tab, see "Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields" on
page 42.
- Data Mapping: The Data Mapping tab enables you to select which value from each imported vector file is part
of the custom geo data map. The imported vector files are listed in the Name column, with the relevant data
selected in the Field column. You can change this value by selecting another value from the Field list. If the
custom geo data map is marked as integrable (see "Integrable Versus Non Integrable Data" on page 101),
there is also a Density check box. If the value in the Field column is to be considered as a density, select the
Density check box.
- Display: The Display tab enables you to define how the custom geo data map appears in the map window.
Discrete value and value interval are the available display types.
In the Field list, display by value is not permitted if the custom geo data map has:
- different raster maps with different resolutions
- both line and polygon vectors
- both raster and vector maps.
In the Field list, display by density is not permitted if the custom geo data map consists of vector points or lines.
For information on using the display tab, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.
3.11.4 Displaying Statistics on CustomGeo Data
You can display the relative and absolute distribution of each value interval (for information on defining value intervals, see
"Defining the Display Type" on page 29) of an custom geo data map. Atoll displays the statistics for the focus zone if there
is one, for the computation zone if there is no focus zone and, if there is no focus or computation zone, Atoll displays the
statistics for the entire document.
To display the statistics of an custom geo data map:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the custom geo data map.
3. Select Statistics from the context menu. The Statistics window appears with the distributions of each value
interval.
3.11.5 Integrable Versus Non Integrable Data
Integrable data can be summed over the coverage area defined by the item in a prediction report (for example, by trans-
mitter or threshold). The data can be value data (revenue, number of customers, etc.) or density data (revenue/km,
number of customer/km, etc.). For example, if the integrable data comes from a revenue map, a prediction report would
indicate:
The percentage of coverage for each revenue class for the entire focus zone, and for each single coverage area
(transmitter, threshold, etc.),
The revenue of the focus zone and of each single coverage area,
The percentage of the revenue map covered for the entire focus zone and for each single coverage area.
Data is considered as non-integrable if the data given is per pixel or polygon and cannot be summed over areas, for exam-
ple, socio-demographic classes, rain zones, etc.
Important:
If the file you first imported when you created your custom geo data map was an 8-bit raster map,
the Use as and Fields to be imported boxes will not be available for any file that is imported
into your new custom geo data map.
To use imported data as a surface density value, you must select the Integrable check box.
Note: Statistics are displayed only for visible data. See "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map
Using the Explorer" on page 26.
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In the example of a rain zone map, a prediction report would indicate:
The coverage of each rain zone class for the entire focus zone and for each single coverage area (transmitter,
threshold, etc.)
3.12 Setting the Priority of Geo Data
Atoll lists the imported DTM, clutter class or traffic objects in their respective folders and creates a separate folder for each
imported vector data file and scanned image. Each object is placed on a separate layer. Thus, there are as many layers
as imported objects. The layers are arranged from top to bottom in the map window as they appear on the Geo tab of the
Explorer window.
It is important to remember that all objects on the Data tab, such as transmitters, antennas, and predictions, are displayed
over all objects on the Geo tab.
3.12.1 Setting the Display Priority of Geo Data
There are several factors that influence the visibility of geo data:
The display check box: The check box immediately to the left of the object name in the Geo tab controls whether
or not the object is displayed on the map. If the check box is selected ( ), the object is displayed; if the check
box is cleared ( ), the object is not displayed. If the check box, is selected but shaded ( ), not all objects in the
folder are displayed. For more information, see "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on
page 26.
The order of the layers: The layer at the top of the Geo tab is on top of all other layers in the map window. Data
on layers below is only visible where there is no data on the top layer or if you adjust the transparency of the objects
on the top layer. You can use drag and drop to change the order of layers by dragging a layer on the Geo tab of
the Explorer window towards the top or the bottom of the tab.
The transparency of objects: You can change the transparency of some objects, such as predictions, and some
object types, such as clutter classes, to allow objects on lower layers to be visible on the map. For more informa-
tion, see "Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types" on page 30.
The visibility range of objects: You can define a visibility range for object types. An object is visible only in the
map window if the scale, as displayed on the zoom toolbar, is within this range. For more information, see "Defining
the Visibility Scale" on page 30.
In Figure 3.11, vector data (including the linear vectors HIGHWAYS, COASTLINE, RIVERLAKE, MAJ ORROADS,
MAJ ORSTREETS, RAILWAYS and AIRPORT), clutter classes, DTM and scanned image have been imported and a
UMTS environment traffic map has been edited inside the computation zone. In the map window, the linear objects
(ROADS, RIVERLAKE, etc.) are visible both inside and outside the computation zone. The clutter class layer is visible in
the area where there is no traffic data (outside the computation zone). On the other hand, the DTM layer which is beneath
the clutter class layer and the scanned map which is beneath the DTM layer, are not visible.
Note: All objects on the Data tab, such as transmitters, antennas, and predictions, are displayed
over all objects on the Geo tab. Vector geo data, however, can be transferred to the Data
tab, where they can be placed over data such as predictions. In this way, you can ensure
that certain vector geo data, for example, major geographical features, roads, etc., remain
visible in the map window For more information, see "Moving a Vector Layer to the Data
Tab" on page 96.
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Figure 3.11: Displaying Geo data layers
3.12.2 Setting the Priority of Geo Data in Calculations
The priority of geo data in calculations is determined in much the same way as it is for display.
When you do calculations in Atoll, the data taken into account in each folder (Clutter Classes, DTM, etc.) is the data from
the top down. In other words, Atoll takes the object on top and objects below only where there is no data in higher levels;
what is used is what is seen.
Object folders, for example, the DTM, clutter classes, clutter heights, and traffic density folders, can contain more than one
data object. These objects can represent different areas of the map or the same parts of the map with the same or different
resolutions. Therefore for each folder, you should place the objects with the best data at the top. These are normally the
objects which cover the least area but have the highest resolution. For example, when calculating coverage in an urban
area, you might have two clutter class files: one with a higher resolution for the downtown core, where the density of users
is higher, and one with a lower resolution but covering the entire area. In this case, by placing the clutter class file for the
downtown core over the file with the lower resolution, Atoll can base its calculations for the downtown core on the clutter
class file with the higher resolution, using the second file for all other calculations.
Population maps and custom geo data maps, both of which can be used in prediction reports follow the same rules of
calculation priority.
3.13 Displaying Information About Geo Data
You can display information about a geo data map by using tooltips. For information on how to display information in tool-
tips, see "Defining the Object Type Tip Text" on page 31.
To display information about the geo data in a tool tip:
Hold the pointer over the geo data until the tool tip appears. The surface area is only given for closed polygons.
3.14 Geographic Data Sets
In Atoll, once you have imported geographic data and defined their parameters, you can save much of this information in
a user configuration file. Then, another user, working on a similar Atoll document, can import the configuration file contain-
ing the paths to the imported geographic data and many of the defined parameters.
Note: The visibility in the context of calculations must not be confused with the display check box
( ). Even if the display check box of an object is cleared ( ), so that the object is not dis-
played on the map, it will still be taken into consideration for calculations. The only cases
where clearing the display check box means that the data will not be used are for popula-
tion data in reports, and for custom geo data maps.
Note: Tool tips only appear when the Display Tips button ( ) on the toolbar has been selected.
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When you export the geographic data set, you export:
the paths of imported geographic maps
map display settings (visibility scale, transparency, tips text, etc.)
clutter description (code, name, height, standard deviations, indoor loss, orthogonality factor, percentage pilot
finger of each clutter class, default standard deviations, and indoor loss)
raster or user profile traffic map description.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Exporting a Geo Data Set" on page 104
"Importing a Geo Data Set" on page 104.
3.14.1 Exporting a Geo Data Set
When you export a geo data set in a user configuration file, the information listed in "Geographic Data Sets" on page 103
is saved into an external file.
To export a geo data set in a user configuration file:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Export. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 3.12).
2. In the User Configuration dialogue, select the Geographic Data Set check box.
Figure 3.12: The User Configuration dialogue
3. Click OK, The Save As dialogue appears.
4. In the Save As dialogue, browse to the folder where you want to save the file and enter a File name.
5. Click OK.
3.14.2 Importing a Geo Data Set
When you import a user configuration file containing a geo data set, the information listed in "Geographic Data Sets" on
page 103 is imported into your current Atoll document.
To import a user configuration file containing a geo data set:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Browse to the user configuration file, select it and click Open.
3. The User Configuration dialogue appears.
When you import a user configuration file including a geographic data set, Atoll checks if there are already
geographic data in the current Atoll document. If so, the option Reset existing geo data appears with other
options in the User Configuration dialogue.
4. In the User Configuration dialogue, select the check boxes of the items you want to import.
5. If you already have geographic data in your current Atoll document and would like to replace it with any imported
data, select the Reset existing geo data check box.
If you do not want to replace existing geo data with imported data, clear the Reset existing geo data check box.
6. Click OK.
Note: You can export and import other types of information with user configuration files as well.
For information, see the Administrator Manual.
Important: Vectors must be in the same coordinate system as the raster maps.
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3.15 Editing Geographic Data
In Atoll, you can edit geo data that you have imported or you can create geo data by, for example, adding a vector layer
to the Population folder and then adding polygons.
The following types of geographic data can be edited:
Clutter classes
Contours, lines, and points
Population maps (if they are in vector format, i.e., Erdas Imagine (16-bit), AGD, DXF, SHP, MIF, or TAB format)
Rain maps
Traffic data maps
Custom data maps.
3.15.1 Editing Clutter Class Maps
Clutter class maps and certain traffic maps are raster maps. You can edit these maps by creating or modifying polygons.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Creating a Clutter Polygon" on page 105
"Editing Clutter Polygons" on page 106
"Displaying the Coordinates of Clutter Polygons" on page 106.
"Deleting Clutter Polygons" on page 106
3.15.1.1 Creating a Clutter Polygon
In Atoll, you can modify imported clutter class maps or create your own maps by adding data in the form of polygons. You
can later edit and export the polygons you have created. All modifications you make to clutter class maps are taken into
account by propagation model calculations.
To create a polygon:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Edit from the context menu. The Editor toolbar appears with a clutter or traffic list, a polygon drawing tool
, a polygon deletion tool , and a Close button (see Figure 3.13).
Figure 3.13: Editor toolbar
4. From the list, select the clutter class for the polygon you want to create.
5. Click the polygon drawing button ( ). The pointer changes to a pencil ( ).
6. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the polygon.
7. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the polygon.
8. Double-click to close the polygon.
Note: You can automatically start Atoll with a user configuration file by naming the file "atoll.cfg"
and placing it in the same folder as the Atoll executable. You can also edit the Windows
shortcut to Atoll and add "-cfg <.cfg_file>" where is the complete path to the user configura-
tion file.
Note: Clutter classes are defined on the Descriptions tab of the clutter classes Properties dia-
logue.
Note: You can copy the exact coordinates of a closed polygon by right-clicking it on the map and
selecting Properties from the context menu.
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3.15.1.2 Editing Clutter Polygons
You can edit clutter polygons by moving existing points of the polygon or by adding or deleting points.
To edit clutter polygons:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Edit from the context menu. The Editor toolbar appears (see Figure 3.13).
4. Select the polygon. You can now edit the clutter polygon by:
- Moving a point:
i. Position the pointer over the point you want to move. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Drag the point to its new position.
- Adding a point:
i. Position the pointer over the polygon border where you want to add a point. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Right-click and select Insert Point from the context menu. A point is added to the border at the position
of the pointer.
- Deleting a point:
i. Position the pointer over the point you want to delete. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Right-click and select Delete Point from the context menu. The point is deleted.
3.15.1.3 Displaying the Coordinates of Clutter Polygons
To display the coordinates of the points defining the polygon area:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Edit from the context menu. The Editor toolbar appears (see Figure 3.13).
4. Right-click the polygon and select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears with the
coordinates of the points defining the polygon and the total area.
3.15.1.4 Deleting Clutter Polygons
You can delete clutter polygons.
To delete a clutter polygon:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Edit from the context menu. The Editor toolbar appears (see Figure 3.13).
4. Click the polygon deletion tool ( ). The pointer changes ( ).
5. Click the polygon you want to delete. The polygon is deleted.
3.15.2 Editing Contours, Lines, and Points
Contours, lines, and points are made up of individual vector objects. You can modify and create these geo data maps by
adding a vector layer and then adding vector objects to this layer.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Creating a Vector Layer for Contours, Lines, and Points" on page 106
"Creating Contours, Lines, and Points" on page 107
"Editing Contours, Lines, and Points" on page 107
"Managing the Properties of the Vector Layer" on page 95.
3.15.2.1 Creating a Vector Layer for Contours, Lines, and Points
You can add a new vector layer to the Geo tab. A vector layer can contain contours, lines, and points.
To create a vector layer on the Geo tab:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. If the Vector Edition toolbar is not visible, select View > Vector Edition Toolbar.
Note: You can select and copy the coordinates displayed in the Properties dialogue of the
polygon.
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3. Click the New Vector Layer button ( ) on the Vector Edition toolbar. Atoll creates a folder called Vectors on
the Geo tab of the Explorer window. The new Vectors folder can be seen in the list of vector layers:
.
3.15.2.2 Creating Contours, Lines, and Points
By adding contours, lines, and points to a vector layer, created as described in "Creating a Vector Layer for Contours,
Lines, and Points" on page 106, you can add information to a geographic data type.
To create a vector object:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu
appears.
2. Select Edit from the context menu. The vector tools on the Vector Edition toolbar are activated.
If the Vector Edition toolbar is not visible, select View > Vector Edition Toolbar.
3. Click one of the following buttons on the Vector Edition toolbar:
- New Polygon:
i. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour.
ii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
iii. Double-click to close the contour.
- New Line:
i. Click once on the map where you want to begin the line.
ii. Click each time you change angles on the line.
iii. Double-click to end the line.
- New Point: Click once on the map where you want to place the point.
4. Press ESC to deselect the currently selected button on the Vector Edition toolbar.
3.15.2.3 Editing Contours, Lines, and Points
You can edit contours, lines, and points in several ways. Before you can edit a contour, line, or point, you must first put
the vector layer in editing mode.
To put the vector layer in editing mode:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu
appears.
2. Select Edit from the context menu. The vector tools on the Vector Edition toolbar are activated.
You can now edit a object in the vector layer as explained in the following sections:
"Editing the Points of Contours and Lines" on page 107
"Editing Contours Using the Toolbar" on page 108
"Editing Contours, Lines, and Points Using the Context Menu" on page 109.
Editing the Points of Contours and Lines
To edit a point of a contour, line, or point:
1. Put the vector layer containing the contour, line, or point in editing mode as explained in "Editing Contours, Lines,
and Points" on page 107.
2. Select the contour, line, or point. You can now edit by:
- Moving a point:
i. Position the pointer over the point you want to move. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Drag the point to its new position.
Tip: You can also activate the vector tools by selecting the vector layer to edit from the Vector
Edition toolbar list. Because Atoll names all new vector layers "Vectors" by default, it
might be difficult to know which Vectors folder you are selecting. By renaming each vectors
folder, you can ensure that you select the correct folder. For information on renaming
objects, see "Renaming an Object" on page 27.
Tip: You can also activate the vector tools by selecting the vector layer to edit from the Vector
Edition toolbar list.
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- Adding a point to a contour or a line:
i. Position the pointer over the contour border or line where you want to add a point. The pointer changes
( ).
ii. Right-click and select Insert Point from the context menu. A point is added to the contour border or line
at the position of the pointer.
- Deleting a point from a contour or a line:
i. Position the pointer over the point you want to delete. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Right-click and select Delete Point from the context menu. The point is deleted.
Editing a Point
To edit a point:
1. Put the vector layer containing the point in editing mode as explained in "Editing Contours, Lines, and Points" on
page 107.
2. Select the point. You can now edit by:
- Moving:
i. Click the point you want to move. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Drag the point to its new position.
- Deleting a point:
i. Click the point you want to delete. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Right-click and select Delete from the context menu. The point is deleted.
Editing Contours Using the Toolbar
In Atoll, you can create complex contours by using the tools on the Vector Edition toolbar.
To edit a vector object using the icons on the Vector Edition toolbar:
1. Put the vector layer containing the contour in editing mode as explained in "Editing Contours, Lines, and Points"
on page 107.
2. Click the contour to edit. The Vector Edition toolbar has the following buttons:
- : To combine several contours:
i. In the Vector Edition toolbar, click the Combine button ( ).
ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the new contour.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
iv. Double-click to close the contour.
v. Draw more contours if desired. Atoll creates a group of polygons of the selected and new contours. If con-
tours overlap, Atoll merges them.
- : To delete part of the selected contour:
i. In the Vector Edition toolbar, click the Delete button ( ).
ii. Draw the area you want to delete from the selected contour by clicking once on the map where you want
to begin drawing the area to delete.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the area.
iv. Double-click to close the area. Atoll deletes the area from the selected contour.
- : To create a contour out of the overlapping area of two contours:
i. In the Vector Edition toolbar, click the Intersection button ( ).
ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour that will overlap the selected one.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
iv. Double-click to close the contour. Atoll creates a new contour of the overlapping area of the two contours
and deletes the parts of the contours that do not overlap.
- : To split the selected contour into several contours:
i. In the Vector Edition toolbar, click the Split button ( ).
ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour that will split the selected one.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
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iv. Double-click to close the contour. Atoll separates the area covered by the contour from the selected con-
tour and creates a new contour.
Editing Contours, Lines, and Points Using the Context Menu
When you are editing contours, lines, and points, you can access certain commands using the context menu.
To edit a vector object using the context menu:
1. Click the vector object you want to edit.
2. Right-click the vector object to display the context menu and select one of the following:
- Delete: Select Delete to remove the selected contour, line, or point from the map.
- Convert to Line: Select Convert to Line to convert the selected contour to a line.
- Convert to Polygon: Select Convert to Polygon to convert the selected line to a contour.
- Open Line: Select Open Line to remove the segment between the last and the first point.
- Close Line: Select Close Line to add a segment between the last and the first point of the line.
- Insert Point: Select Insert Point to add a point to the border of the contour at the position of the pointer.
- Move:
i. Select Move from the context menu to move the contour, line, or point on the map.
ii. Move the contour, line, or point.
iii. Click to place the contour, line, or point.
- Quit edition: Select Quit Edition to exit editing mode.
- Properties: Select Properties to open the Properties dialogue of the selected contour, line, or point. The
Properties dialogue has two tabs:
- General: The General tab gives the name of the vector Layer, the Surface of the object, and any Prop-
erties of the contour, line, or point.
- Geometry: This tab gives the coordinates of each point that defines the position and shape of the contour,
line, or point.
3.15.3 Editing Population, Rain, or CustomData Maps
Some geographic data maps, for example, population maps, custom data, and rain maps. are made up of individual vector
objects. You can modify and create these geo data maps by adding a vector layer and then adding vector objects
(contours, lines, and points) to this layer.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Creating a Vector Layer and Vector Objects" on page 109
"Editing Contours on the Vector Layer" on page 110.
3.15.3.1 Creating a Vector Layer and Vector Objects
To create a vector layer and vector objects:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the geo data object, the Population, the Rain, or the Custom Data folder, to which you want to add a
vector layer.
3. Select Add Vector Layer from the context menu. A new data object called "Vectors" is created in the selected
geo data object folder.
4. Right-click the new vector layer. The context menu appears.
5. Select Edit from the context menu. The vector tools on the Vector Edition toolbar are activated.
6. Click the New Polygon button ( ) on the Vector Edition toolbar:
a. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour.
b. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
c. Double-click to close the contour.
d. Right-click on the new polygon and select Properties from the context menu.
e. Enter a value:
Note: Only the commands relevant to the selected contour, line, or point are displayed in the con-
text menu.
Tip: You can also activate the vector tools by selecting the vector layer to edit from the Vector
Edition toolbar list. Because Atoll names all new vector layers "Vectors" by default, it
might be difficult to know which Vectors folder you are selecting. By renaming each vectors
folder, you can ensure that you select the correct folder. For information on renaming
objects, see "Renaming an Object" on page 27.
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- Population: Enter a value in the Population field to indicate the number of inhabitants or the population
density.
- Rain: Enter a value in the Rain field to indicate the intensity of rainfall for the polygon.
- Custom Data Map: The value you enter will depend on the type of custom data map you created.
7. Press ESC to deselect the New Polygon button ( ) on the Vector Edition toolbar.
8. For Atoll to consider the new vector layer as part of the data map, you must map the vector layer. Right-click the
Population, the Rain, or the Custom Data folder. The context menu appears.
9. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
10. Click the Data Mapping tab. For each of the following types of geo data:
- Population Map:
i. In the Field column, "Population" is selected by default.
ii. If the vector layer contains a population density, select the check box in the Density column. If the vector
layer indicates the number of inhabitants, and not the population density, clear the check box in the
Density column.
- Rain Map:
i. In the Field column, "Rain" is selected by default.
ii. Clear the check box in the Density column. The value in rain maps indicates the intensity of rain; the value
is not a density.
- Custom Data Map: The data you map will depend on the type of custom data map you created.
3.15.3.2 Editing Contours on the Vector Layer
You can edit contours in several ways. Before you can edit a contour, you must put the vector layer in editing mode.
To put the vector layer into editing mode:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu
appears.
2. Select Edit from the context menu. The vector tools on the Vector Edition toolbar are activated.
You can now edit a object in the vector layer as explained in the following sections:
"Editing the Points of Contours" on page 110
"Editing Contours Using the Toolbar" on page 108
"Editing Contours Using the Context Menu" on page 111.
Editing the Points of Contours
To edit a point of a contour:
1. Put the vector layer containing the contour in editing mode as explained in "Editing Contours on the Vector Layer"
on page 110.
2. Select the contour. You can now edit by:
- Moving a point:
i. Position the pointer over the point you want to move. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Drag the point to its new position.
- Adding a point to a contour:
i. Position the pointer over the contour border where you want to add a point. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Right-click and select Insert Point from the context menu. A point is added to the contour border at the
position of the pointer.
- Deleting a point from a contour:
i. Position the pointer over the point you want to delete. The pointer changes ( ).
ii. Right-click and select Delete Point from the context menu. The point is deleted.
Tip: You can also activate the vector tools by selecting the vector layer to edit from the Vector
Edition toolbar list.
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Editing Contours Using the Toolbar
In Atoll, you can create complex contours by using the tools on the Vector Edition toolbar.
To edit a vector object using the icons on the Vector Edition toolbar:
1. Put the vector layer containing the contour in editing mode as explained in "Editing Contours on the Vector Layer"
on page 110.
2. Click the contour to edit. The Vector Edition toolbar has the following buttons:
- : To combine several contours:
i. In the Vector Edition toolbar, click the Combine button ( ).
ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the new contour.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
iv. Double-click to close the contour.
v. Draw more contours if desired. Atoll creates a group of polygons of the selected and new contours. If con-
tours overlap, Atoll merges them.
- : To delete part of the selected contour:
i. In the Vector Edition toolbar, click the Delete button ( ).
ii. Draw the area you want to delete from the selected contour by clicking once on the map where you want
to begin drawing the area to delete.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the area.
iv. Double-click to close the area. Atoll deletes the area from the selected contour.
- : To create a contour out of the overlapping area of two contours:
i. In the Vector Edition toolbar, click the Intersection button ( ).
ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour that will overlap the selected one.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
iv. Double-click to close the contour. Atoll creates a new contour of the overlapping area of the two contours
and deletes the parts of the contours that do not overlap.
- : To split the selected contour into several contours:
i. In the Vector Edition toolbar, click the Split button ( ).
ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour that will split the selected one.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
iv. Double-click to close the contour. Atoll separates the area covered by the contour from the selected con-
tour and creates a new contour.
Editing Contours Using the Context Menu
When you are editing contours, you can access certain commands using the context menu.
To edit a vector object using the context menu:
1. Click the vector object you want to edit.
2. Right-click the vector object to display the context menu and select one of the following:
- Delete: Select Delete to remove the selected contour from the map.
- Insert Point: Select Insert Point to add a point to the border of the contour at the position of the pointer.
- Move:
i. Select Move from the context menu to move the contour, line, or point on the map.
ii. Move the contour, line, or point.
iii. Click to place the contour, line, or point.
- Quit edition: Select Quit Edition to exit editing mode.
- Properties: Select Properties to open the Properties dialogue of the selected contour. The Properties dia-
logue has two tabs:
- General: The General tab gives the name of the vector Layer, the Surface of the object, and any Prop-
erties of the contour.
- Geometry: This tab gives the coordinates of each point that defines the position and shape of the contour.
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3.16 Saving Geographic Data
Atoll allows you to save your geographic data files separately from saving the Atoll document. Atoll supports a variety of
both raster and vector file formats (for more information, see "Supported Geographic Data Formats" on page 86). Saving
a geographic file separately from saving the Atoll document enables you to:
Save modifications you have made to an external file: If you have made modifications to geo data, you can
export them to a new external file.
Update the source file with modifications you have made: If you have made modifications to a geo data type
in Atoll, you can save these changes to the source file.
Combine several files into one file: If you have several smaller files in one folder of the Geo tab, you can save
them as one file.
Export an embedded file to be used in another Atoll document or in another application: You can save a
file to an external file, in the same format or in another one.
Create a new file from part of a larger one: You can select part of certain geo data types and then save the
selected part as a new file.
This section explains the following:
"Saving Modifications to an External File" on page 112
"Updating the Source File" on page 114
"Combining Several Files into One File" on page 114
"Exporting an Embedded File" on page 114
"Creating a New File From a Larger File" on page 115
3.16.1 Saving Modifications to an External File
In Atoll, you can save your modifications to an external file.
This section explains the following:
"Exporting an Edited Clutter Class Map in a Raster-Format File" on page 112
"Exporting an Edited Vector Layer in Vector-Format File" on page 113.
3.16.1.1 Exporting an Edited Clutter Class Map in a Raster-Format File
You can export clutter class modifications in a raster-format file, either in the same format as used in the current Atoll
document, or in a different raster format. You can also choose to export the entire clutter class geo data, the part containing
the computation zone, or just your modifications to the geo data.
When you have made modifications to a raster-format geo data file, exporting either the entire geo data or just your modi-
fications allows you to save those modifications to an external file.
To export clutter class modifications in a raster-format file:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. In the Save As dialogue, browse to the folder where you want to save the file, enter a name for the file, and select
the file format from the Save as type list. You can select from one of the following file formats:
- BMP: When you select bitmap format, Atoll automatically creates the corresponding BPW file containing the
georeference information.
- TXT: The ArcView text format is intended only for export; no corresponding geo-reference file is created.
- TIF: When you select tagged image file format, Atoll automatically creates the corresponding TFW file con-
taining the georeference information.
- BIL: When you select the BIL format, Atoll automatically creates the corresponding HDR file containing the
georeference information.
- GRC or GRD: Files with the extension GRC or GRD are Vertical Mapper files.
5. Click Save. The Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.14).
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Figure 3.14: Export dialogue
6. Under Region, select one of the following:
- The Entire Project Area: This option allows you to export the entire clutter class geo data file, including any
modifications you have made to the geo data. The exported geo data file will replace the geo data file in the
current Atoll document.
- Only Pending Changes: This option allows you to export a rectangle containing any modifications you have
made to the clutter classes. The exported geo data file will be added as a new object to the Clutter Classes
geo data folder.
- The Computation Zone: This option allows you to export the clutter class geo data contained by a rectangle
encompassing the computation zone. The exported geo data file will be added as a new object to the selected
geo data folder.
7. Define a Resolution in Metres. The resolution must be an integer and the minimum resolution allowed is 1. The
suggested resolution value is defined by the following criteria:
- If one object has been modified, the suggested resolution is the resolution of the modified object.
- If several objects have been modified, the suggested resolution is the highest resolution of the modified
objects.
- If there is no initial clutter class object, the resolution will equal the highest resolution of the DTM maps.
- If the Atoll document in which you created the clutter class file has no DTM, no other clutter class geo data
file, or traffic objects, the suggested resolution is 100 m.
8. Click OK. The selected data is saved in an external file.
3.16.1.2 Exporting an Edited Vector Layer in Vector-Format File
You can export an edited vector layer as a vector format file. A vector layer can contain contours, lines, and points. Along
with vector layers you have added to the Geo tab, the following maps can be exported as vector format files:
Vector-format population maps
Vector-format rain maps
Vector-format custom maps.
Once you save a vector layer, the exported file replaces the vector layer as a linked file. You can embed the file afterwards
(see "Embedding Geographic Data" on page 91).
To export a vector layer:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu
appears.
2. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
3. In the Save As dialogue, browse to the folder where you want to save the file, enter a name for the file, and select
the file format from the Save as type list. You can select from one of the following file formats:
- AGD: The Atoll Geographic Data format is an Atoll-specific format. As a format created for Atoll, Atoll can
read AGD files faster than the other supported vector formats.
- SHP: The ArcView vector format should be used for vector layers containing only polygons; it cannot save
vectors made of lines or points. If you have a vector layer with vector lines or points, use either the AGD, the
MIF or the TAB format.
- MIF and TAB: MapInfo formats.
4. Click Save in the Save As dialogue. The Vector Export dialogue appears, displaying the current coordinate
system and allowing you to change the coordinate system by clicking Change.
5. Click Export. The vector layer is saved in the format and with the name you specified and the exported file
replaces the vector layer in the current document as a linked file.
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3.16.2 Updating the Source File
While working on an Atoll document, you may make changes to geo data. If the geo data file is embedded in the Atoll
document, Atoll saves the changes automatically when you save the document. If the geo data file is linked, Atoll prompts
you to save the changes when you close the document.
To update the source file of a linked geo data file:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder containing geo data file whose source file you want to update. The context menu appears.
3. Select Save from the context menu. The linked file is updated.
3.16.3 Combining Several Files into One File
In certain circumstances, for example, after importing an MSI Planetindex file, you may have several geo data files of
the same type. You can combine these separate files to create one single file. The files will be combined according to their
order from the top down in the folder on the Geo tab of the Explorer window. If the files overlap on the map, the combined
file will show the file on the top.
You can create a one file from a section of the following geo data types:
Digital terrain model
Clutter classes
Clutter heights
Scanned maps
To combine individual files into a new file:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder of the geo data files you want to combine into one file. The context menu appears.
3. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name and select a file type from the Save as type list.
5. Click OK. The Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.15).
6. Under Region, select The Entire Project Area. This option allows you to save the entire area covered by the geo
data files, including any modifications you have made to the geo data.
7. Define a Resolution in Metres. The resolution must be an integer and the minimum resolution allowed is 1. The
suggested resolution value is the highest resolution of all objects.
8. Click OK. The selected data is saved as a new file.
3.16.4 Exporting an Embedded File
You can export an embedded geo data file to be used in a different Atoll document, or in a different application. When you
export an embedded file, Atoll replaces the embedded file in the current Atoll document with the newly exported file.
To export an embedded geo data file:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder of the embedded geo data file you want to export. The context menu appears.
3. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name and select a file type from the Save as type list.
5. Click OK.
If the geo data file is a vector file, the Vector Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.15).
Caution: You will not be warned that you are replacing the current file. Therefore, ensure that you
want to replace the current file before proceding to the following step. If you do not want to
replace the current file, you can save your changes to an external file ("Exporting an Edited
Vector Layer in Vector-Format File" on page 113).
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Chapter 3: Managing Geographic Data
Figure 3.15: The Vector Export dialogue
a. The Vector Export dialogue displays the coordinate system of the file. To change the coordinate system used
for the exported file, click Change. The Coordinate Systems dialogue appears. For information on the Co-
ordinate Systems dialogue, see "Setting a Coordinate System" on page 74.
b. Click Export. The geo data file is exported with the selected coordinate system.
If the geo data file is a raster file, the Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.15).
Figure 3.16: Export dialogue
a. Under Region, select one of the following:
- The Entire Project Area: This option allows you to export the entire raster-format geo data file, including
any modifications you have made to the geo data. The exported file will replace the embedded file in the
Geo data tab.
- Only Pending Changes: This option allows you to export a rectangle containing any modifications you
have made to the geo data. The exported file will be added as an object in the geo data folder.
- The Computation Zone: This option allows you to export the geo data contained by a rectangle encom-
passing the computation zone. The exported file will be added as an object in the geo data folder.
b. Define a Resolution in Metres. The resolution must be an integer and the minimum resolution allowed is 1.
c. Click OK. The selected data is saved in an external file.
3.16.5 Creating a New File Froma Larger File
You can create a new file from a section of a larger file. You can use this new file in the same Atoll document, or in a new
Atoll document. To create a new file, you must first define the area by creating a computation zone.
You can create a new file from a section of the following geo data types:
Digital terrain model
Clutter classes
Clutter heights
Scanned maps
Population
Rain
To create a new file from a section of a larger file:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder of the embedded geo data file you want to export. The context menu appears.
3. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name and select a file type from the Save as type list.
5. Click OK. The Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.15).
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6. Under Region, select The Computation Zone. This option allows you to export the geo data contained by a rec-
tangle encompassing the computation zone. The exported geo data file will be added as a new object to the
selected geo data folder.
7. Define a Resolution in Metres. The resolution must be an integer and the minimum resolution allowed is 1.
8. Click OK. The selected data is saved as a new file.
CHAPTER 4
ANTENNAS AND EQUIPMENT
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Chapter 4: Antennas and Equipment
4 Antennas and Equipment
In Atoll, the equipment used to create a network is modelled, along with the characteristics which have a bearing on
network performance.
This chapter explains working with antennas as well as equipment such as tower-mounted amplifiers, feeder cables, base
transceiver station equipment:
"Working With Antennas" on page 119
"Working With Equipment" on page 123.
4.1 Working With Antennas
Atoll offers you many ways to work with antennas. To create a new antenna, you can import the data necessary from
external sources, such as from a spreadsheet or from a Planet-format file. Once you have created an antenna, you can
improve signal level prediction by smoothing the high-attenuation points of the vertical pattern.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Creating an Antenna" on page 119
"Importing Planet-Format Antennas" on page 120
"Importing 3-D Antenna Patterns" on page 121
"Smoothing a Vertical Antenna Pattern" on page 122.
4.1.1 Creating an Antenna
Each Atoll project template has antennas specific to the technology supported by the template. As well, Atoll allows you
to create antennas and set the parameters such as manufacturer, gain, horizontal pattern, and vertical pattern.
To create an antenna:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click on the Antennas folder. The context menu opens.
3. Select New from the context menu. A properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the General tab. You can enter information in the following fields:
- Name: Atoll automatically enters a default name for each new antenna. You can modify the name Atoll enters
if you wish.
- Manufacturer: The name of the antenna manufacturer.
- Gain: The antennas isotropic gain.
- Pattern Electrical Tilt: The antennas electrical tilt. This field is for information only; for an antennas electrical
tilt to be taken into consideration in calculations, it must be integrated into the horizontal and vertical patterns.
Atoll automatically calculates the pattern electrical tilt if the Pattern Electrical Tilt field is left blank or has a
value of "0."
- Comments: Any additional information on the antenna.
5. Click the Horizontal Pattern tab. The Horizontal Pattern tab has a table describing the horizontal antenna pattern
in terms of the attenuation in dB (Att.) per degree (Angle) and a graphical representation of the pattern. If you
have the horizontal pattern in a spreadsheet or text document, you can copy the data directly into the table:
a. Switch to the document containing the horizontal pattern.
b. Select the columns containing the angles and attenuation values of the horizontal pattern.
c. Copy the selected data.
Tip: When you create a new antenna, you can copy the horizontal and vertical antenna patterns
from a spreadsheet or word processor.
Note: If you use the same antenna several times but with a different electrical tilt, you must create
a new antenna with corresponding patterns for each electrical tilt.
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Figure 4.1: Copying horizontal pattern values
d. Switch to Atoll.
e. Click the upper-left cell of the horizontal pattern.
f. Press CTRL+V to paste the data in the table.
- If there are some blank rows in your data sheet, Atoll will interpolate the values in order to obtain a com-
plete and realistic pattern.
- When performing a calculation along an angle for which no data is available, Atoll calculates a linear inter-
polation from the existing pattern values.
g. Click Apply to display the pattern.
6. Click the Vertical Pattern tab. The Vertical Pattern tab has a table describing the vertical antenna pattern in terms
of the attenuation in dB (Att.) per degree (Angle) and a graphical representation of the pattern. If you have the
vertical pattern in a spreadsheet or text document, you can copy the data directly into the table as described in
step 5.
7. Click the Other Properties tab. You can enter information in the following fields:
- Beamwidth: In a plane containing the direction of the maximum lobe of the antenna pattern, the angle
between the two directions in which the radiated power is one-half the maximum value of the lobe. Translated
in terms of dB, half power corresponds to -3 dB. In this window, you may enter this angle in degrees.
- FMin: The minimum frequency that the antenna is capable of emitting.
- FMax: The maximum frequency that the antenna is capable of emitting.
8. Click OK.
4.1.2 Importing Planet-Format Antennas
In Atoll, you can import Planet-format antennas by importing an index file listing the individual antenna files to be imported.
Standard Atoll fields are directly imported. Other fields are imported for information only and are accessible on the Other
Properties tab of the Antenna Properties dialogue.
If you are working with a database, you will have to create the fields in the table below in the database before you import
the Planet-format antennas:
For more information on working with databases, see The Administrator Manual.
To import Planet-format antennas:
1. Select the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Antennas folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Import from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
4. Select "Planet 2D Antenna Files(index)" from the Files of type list.
5. Select the index file you want to import and click Open. The antennas are imported.
Field Definition
FREQUENCY The design frequency of the antenna
H_WIDTH The azimuth beamwidth
V_WIDTH The elevation beamwidth
FRONT_TO_BACK
The ratio of forward antenna gain at 0 and 180 degree
elevation
TILT
Indicates whether the antenna is to be electrically or
mechanically tilted
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Chapter 4: Antennas and Equipment
4.1.3 Importing 3-D Antenna Patterns
You can import three-dimensional antenna patterns in the form of text files. The three-dimensional antenna patterns you
import are saved in the Antennas table.
During calculations, Atoll interpolates the data of antennas for which only horizontal and vertical cross-sections are avail-
able to create a three-dimensional pattern. When you import a three-dimensional antenna pattern, even though only hori-
zontal and vertical sections of the antenna pattern are displayed, Atoll conserves all the information and can use it directly;
Atoll does not therefore need to interpolate to recreate the three-dimensional antenna pattern.
The text file must have the following format:
Header: The text file may contain a header with additional information. When you import the antenna pattern you
can indicate where the header ends and where the antenna pattern itself begins.
Antenna description: Three separate values are necessary to describe the three-dimensional antenna pattern.
The columns containing the values can be in any order:
- Azimuth: The range of values allowable is from 0 to 360, with the smallest allowable increment being 1.
- Tilt angle: The range of values allowable is from -90 to 90, or from 0 to 180, with the smallest allowable
increment being 1.
- Attenuation: The attenuation (in dB).
To import three-dimensional antenna pattern files:
1. Select the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Antennas folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Import from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
4. Select the file to import.
5. Click Open. The Setup dialogue appears (see Figure 4.2).
Figure 4.2: Importing a 3-D antenna pattern
6. If you already have an import configuration defining the data structure of the imported file, you can select it from
the Configuration list. If you do not have an import configuration, continue with step 7.
a. Under Configuration, select an import configuration from the Configuration list.
b. Continue with step 10.
7. Under Name, you can define a name for the imported antenna pattern. This name will appear in the Antennas
folder on the Data tab. If no name is defined, Atoll will use the file name as the name of the antenna:
- If the name of the antenna is in the file, check the Value read in the file check box and enter a Keyword
identifying the name value in the file.
- If you want to enter a name for the antenna, clear the Value read in the file check box and enter a name.
8. Under Gain, you can define the antenna gain. If no gain is defined, Atoll will assume that the gain is "0."
- If the gain of the antenna is in the file, check the Value read in the file check box and enter a Keyword iden-
tifying the gain value in the file.
- If you want to enter a gain for the antenna, clear the Value read in the file check box and enter a gain value.
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9. Under Diagram, you define the structure of the antenna pattern file. As you modify the parameters, the results are
displayed in the table.
- 1st Pattern: Select the first row of the file containing data on the antenna pattern.
- File Tilt Range: Select the tilt range in the file. The tilt range can be measured from top to bottom or from
bottom to top and from 0 to 180 or from -90 to 90.
- Field Separator: Select the character that is used in the file to separate fields (" ", "<tab>", ";")
- Decimal Symbol: Select the decimal symbol.
10. In the table under Diagram, click the title in each column in the table and select the data type: Azimuth, Tilt,
Attenuation, or <Ignore>. As you modify the parameters, the results are displayed in the table.
11. Click Import. The antenna patterns are imported into the current Atoll document.
4.1.4 Smoothing a Vertical Antenna Pattern
Empirical propagation models, such as the Standard Propagation Model (SPM), require antenna pattern smoothing in the
vertical plane to better simulate the effects of reflection and diffraction, which, therefore, improves signal level prediction.
To smooth the vertical pattern of an antenna pattern:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Antennas folder.
3. Right-click the antenna whose vertical pattern you want to smooth. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu.
5. Select the Vertical Pattern tab.
6. Right-click the graphical representation of the pattern. The context menu appears.
7. Select Smooth from the context menu. The Smoothing Parameters dialogue appears.
8. Enter the following parameters and click OK to smooth the vertical pattern:
- Max Angle: Enter the maximum angle. Smoothing will be applied to the section of the vertical pattern between
0 and the maximum angle (clock-wise).
- Peak-to-Peak Deviation: Enter the attenuation values to which smoothing will be applied. Atoll will smooth
all attenuation values greater than or equal to the peak-to-peak deviation with the defined correction factor.
- Correction: Enter the correction factor by which the attenuation values will be smoothed.
9. Click OK.
4.2 Printing an Antenna Pattern
You can print the horizontal or vertical pattern of an antenna.
To print an antenna pattern:
1. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window.
2. Open the Antennas table:
- To open the RF Antennas table:
i. Right-click the Antennas folder.
ii. Select Open Table from the context menu.
- To open the microwave Antennas table:
i. Click the Expand button ( ) to the left of the Microwave Radio Links folder.
ii. Right-click the Links folder and select Antennas > Open Table from the context menu.
3. Right-click the antenna whose pattern you want to print.
4. Select Record Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Select the Horizontal Pattern tab or the Vertical Pattern tab.
6. Right-click the antenna pattern and select Linear or Logarithmic from the context menu.
Note: You can save the choices you have made in the Setup dialogue as a configuration file by
clicking the Save button at the top of the dialogue and entering a name for the configura-
tion. The next time you import a three-dimensional antenna pattern file, you can select the
same settings from the Configuration File list.
Important: You should make a copy of the antenna before smoothing its vertical pattern. You can make
a copy of the antenna by opening the Antennas table and copying and pasting the antenna
data into a new row. For information on data tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on
page 41.
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Chapter 4: Antennas and Equipment
7. Right-click the antenna pattern and select Print from the context menu.
4.3 Working With Equipment
Atoll can model the components of base station. You can define these components and modify their properties in their
respective tables. Atoll uses these properties to calculate the downlink and uplink losses and BTS noise figure of the trans-
mitter in UMTS, cdmaOne/CDMA2000, or WiMAX. In GSM, Atoll calculates the downlink losses only. These parameters
can be automatically calculated by Atoll from the properties of the components or they can defined by the user.
Base station subsystems consist of the following components:
Tower-mounted amplifier: Tower-mounted amplifiers (TMAs, also referred to as masthead amplifiers) are used
to reduce the composite noise figure of the base station. TMAs are connected between the antenna and the feeder
cable. To define a TMA, see "Defining a TMA" on page 123.
Feeder cables: Feeder cables connect the TMA to the antenna. To define feeder cables, see "Defining Feeder
Cables" on page 123.
Base transceiver station (BTS): To define a BTS, see "Defining a BTS" on page 123.
4.3.1 Defining a TMA
The tower-mounted amplifier (TMA) is used to reduce the composite noise figure of the base station. Once you have
defined a TMA, you can assign it to individual transmitters.
To create a tower-mounted amplifier:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Equipment > TMA Equipment from the context menu. The TMA Equipment table appears.
4. In the table, create one TMA per row. For information on using data tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on
page 41. For each TMA, enter:
- Name: Enter a name for the TMA. This name will appear in other dialogues when you select a TMA.
- Noise Figure (dB): Enter a noise figure for the TMA.
- Reception Gain (dB): Enter a reception (uplink) gain for the TMA. This must be a positive value.
- Transmission Losses (dB): Enter transmission (downlink) losses for the TMA. This must be a positive value.
4.3.2 Defining Feeder Cables
Feeder cables connect the TMA to the antenna. Once you have defined feeder cables, you can assign them to individual
transmitters.
To create feeder cables:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Equipment > Feeder Equipment from the context menu. The Feeder Equipment table appears.
4. In the table, create one feeder equipment per row. For information on data tables, see "Working with Data Tables"
on page 41. For each feeder equipment, enter:
- Name: Enter a name for the feeder cable. This name will appear in other dialogues when you select a feeder
cable.
- Loss per Length: Enter the loss per meter of cable. This must be a positive value.
- Connector Reception Loss: Enter the connector reception loss. This must be a positive value.
- Connector Transmission Loss: Enter the connector transmission loss. This must be a positive value.
4.3.3 Defining a BTS
The BTS is modelled for UMTS, cdmaOne/CDMA2000, and WiMAX. It is not used in GSM.
Once you have defined a BTS, it can be assigned to individual transmitters.
To create a base transceiver station:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Equipment > BTS Equipment from the context menu. The BTS Equipment table appears.
4. In the table, create one BTS per row. For information on data tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on page 41.
For each BTS, enter:
- Name: Enter a name for the BTS. This name will appear in other dialogues when you select a BTS.
- Noise Figure (dB): Enter the noise figure for the BTS.
- Rho Factor (%): Enter the Rho factor, as a percentage. The Rho factor enables Atoll to take into account
self-interference produced by the BTS. Because equipment is not perfect, an input signal will experience some
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distortion, consequently the output signal will be not be identical. This factor defines how much distortion the
system generates. Entering 100% means the system is perfect (there is no distortion) and the output signal
will be 100% identical to the input signal. On the other hand, if you specify a value different from 100%, Atoll
will consider that the transmitted signal is not 100% signal and that it contains a small percentage of interfer-
ence generated by the equipment ("self-interference"). Atoll uses this parameter to evaluate the signal-to-
noise ratio in the downlink.
4.3.4 Updating the Values for Total Losses and the BTS Noise
Figure for Transmitters
Once equipment is defined and assigned to a transmitter, Atoll can evaluate downlink and uplink total losses and the total
noise figure.
Atoll uses the entry of the BTS as the reference point when evaluating total losses and the total noise figure. The BTS
noise figure used by Atoll is the one specified in the BTS properties. Transmitter reception losses include feeder reception
losses, connector reception losses, miscellaneous reception losses, antenna diversity gain, TMA benefit gain (as calcu-
lated using the Friis equation), and an additional loss modelling the noise rise generated from repeaters (if any). Trans-
mitter transmission losses include feeder transmission losses, connector transmission losses, miscellaneous transmission
losses, and TMA transmission losses. For more information on the total noise figure and on transmitter reception and
transmission losses, see the Technical Reference Guide.
You can assign equipment to a transmitter:
Using the Equipment Specifications dialogue, available by clicking the Equipment button on the Transmitter tab
of the transmitters Properties dialogue, or
Using the Transmitters table, available by right-clicking the Transmitters folder on the Data tab of the Explorer
window and selecting Open Table from the context menu.
When you assign equipment to a transmitter using the Equipment Specifications dialogue, Atoll updates the real values
when you click OK and close the dialogue. When you assign equipment to a transmitter using the Transmitters table,
Atoll does not update the real values automatically.
To update the real values (total losses and the BTS noise figure) with the computed values of all transmitters:
1. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Equipment > Recalculate Losses and Noise Figure from the context menu.
To update the real values (total losses and the BTS noise figure) with the computed values of a group of transmitters:
1. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select from the Group by submenu of the context menu the property by which you want to group the transmitters.
The objects in the folder are grouped by that property.
4. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Transmitters folder.
5. Right-click the group of transmitters whose real values you want to update. The context menu appears.
6. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Transmitters table appears with the transmitters from the
selected group.
7. In the Transmitters table, select the values you want to update in the following columns and press DEL:
- Transmission Loss (dB)
- Reception Loss (dB)
- BTS Noise Figure (dB)
Atoll automatically recalculates and updates these values.
CHAPTER 5
MANAGING COMPUTATIONS IN ATOLL
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
5 Managing Computations in Atoll
5.1 Computations in Atoll: Overview
Once the network has been built, Atoll allows you to create general studies. To make this easier, Atoll provides calculation
features such as multithreading and distributed computing. Moreover, the several processes can be displayed either in an
event viewer window or in a log file.
Atoll provides also the possibility to limit the calculation loading and time by introducing polygonal zones. These help you
to restrict the computation to a certain set of transmitters, and to clip related computations, coverages and other outputs.
This is made by using two type of polygonal zones: the computation zone, the focus zone and a set of hot spot areas. The
first one is the one on which are made the computations, the second and third ones on which the statistical outputs are
made.
Depending on the project type on which you are working on, you may choose between the different propagation models
available in Atoll. Selecting the most appropriate one, you may even decide to attribute different ones to the different trans-
mitters composing the network.
Predictions may be featured in two ways:
by using the point analysis tool in order to predict, at any point of the current map, the reception profile between a
reference transmitter (in real time) and the value of the several signal levels of the surrounding transmitters at a
given point (using existing path loss matrices).
by computing different types of standard coverage predictions: coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level
and overlapping zones. Many customisation features on coverage studies are available in order to make their anal-
ysis easier.
All of these are easily manageable. Furthermore, Atoll allows you to export coverage and path loss results with a view to
use them elsewhere in another application.
5.2 Computing in Polygonal Areas
5.2.1 Computation, Focus and Hot Spot Zones: Overview
The computation, focus and hot spot zones are user-definable polygons based on the map cutting. Drawing these poly-
gons zones allows the user to define shorter calculation areas and zones of interest to improve calculation times and to
permit a more precise analysis of computation results.
The computation zone has several functions:
Geographically determining the transmitters involved in computations. The transmitters with at least one calcula-
tion radius (main and/or secondary, at the transmitter or repeater/remote antenna level) intersecting the rectangle
containing the computation zone will be taken into account in computations.
Determining the validity of path loss matrices (i.e., Increasing the computation zone size makes the path loss
results invalid),
Clipping traffic maps (e.g., during Monte-Carlo simulations, mobiles are dropped within the computation zone).,
Clipping all the coverage areas.
In other words, path loss matrices are computed within the rectangle around the computation zone and coverage plots are
displayed within the computation zone itself.
The focus zone:
Clips all reports and statistics,
Clips the graphic display with lighter colours around the polygon (and optionally when printing),
Can be done of several contours. In this case, statistics are globally given for the multi-contour area.
The hot spot zones:
Clip prediction reports,
Are defined by several contours. Each contour is a hot spot zone, and prediction statistics are given both for the
focus zone (if existing) and each hot spot zone.
In other words, computation zone is the area where Atoll computes path loss matrices, coverage studies, Monte-Carlo
and power control simulations etc. while the focus and the hot spot zones are the areas considered to generate reports
and results. These features provide a practical way of analysing smaller areas once a global zone has been fully calcu-
lated. Furthermore, they enable you to analyse simulation results and coverage without border effect.
Notes
For CDMA technology projects (UMTS and cdmaOne/CDMA2000), Atoll provides also an active
set analysis based on a particular scenario (given terminal, mobility and terminal) for an existing
simulation at a given point.
Other specific studies like interference studies (GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects) or handover,
service availability, etc. (UMTS and cdmaOne/CDMA2000) are also possible.
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Like other polygonal objects (e.g., clutter or traffic), computation, focus and hot spot zones are easy to manage in Atoll.
Hence, these zones can be created either by drawing, or importing from an external files. Several drawing tools are avail-
able, e.g., resizing, adding points to the zones, removing points, etc. Moreover, these can be saved in external files. Infor-
mation on these zones are also very easy to reach (size and coordinates).
5.2.2 Computation, Focus and Hot Spot Zones: Effects
Computation, focus and hot spot zones help you to reduce calculation area and calculation times. They are applied on
several items listed below.
Clutter Classes or Traffic Statistics
Clutter classes, traffic, UMTS, cdmaOne/CDMA2000 environment statistics refer to the focus zone if there is one. Only
areas inside the focus zone are taken into account. Hot spot zones have no impact on these items.
Clutter Classes
Atoll calculates the surface of each clutter class contained in the focus zone and its percentage.
Traffic
Statistics are available only in case of traffic raster maps (traffic maps based on environments). Atoll works out surface of
each traffic class (environment) contained in the focus zone. For each of them, it provides surface of each clutter class
covered by the traffic class and its percentage.
UMTS and cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Environments Statistics
For each user profile described in the environment, Atoll calculates density of users and the number of users on a clutter
class. The density of users remains the same. On the other hand, the number of users is related to the focus zone.
Path Loss Matrices
Atoll works out a path loss matrix for each active and filtered transmitter (or related repeater/remote antenna) which at
least a calculation radius intersects a rectangle containing the computation zone. The matrix corresponds to the intersec-
tion area between the calculation radius and the rectangle containing the computation zone.
Coverage Studies
Calculation and Display
Coverage calculations are created by taking into account the computation zone. Atoll checks coverage conditions on the
areas inside the computation zone. Therefore only bins contained in the computation zone will be covered.
Tip information on coverage is related to the computation zone. The focus zone has no effect on tip contents.
Statistics on UMTS and cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Studies
To be taken into account, the focus zone must be defined before accessing study statistics. It is not necessary to define it
before computing coverage. When accessing the Statistics tab (in the study Properties window), Atoll considers only
covered areas inside the focus zone. For each threshold value defined in the Display tab, it works out the covered surface
and its percentage. These data are evaluated for each environment class, when using maps based environments as traffic
cartography.
Notes
You may perform propagation calculations without geographic data (free space propagation).
Nevertheless, it is necessary to define a computation zone
If there is no computation zone defined, Atoll computes for the entire extent of the geographical
data available.
The computation, focus and hotspot zone polygons can contain holes. The holes within polyg-
onal areas are differentiated from overlaying polygons by the order of the coordinates of their
vertices. The coordinates of the vertices of polygonal areas are in clockwise order, whereas the
coordinates of the vertices of holes within polygonal areas are in counter-clockwise order.
Note: If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.
Note: If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
Study Reports
To be taken into account, the focus zone must be defined before accessing reports. Reports are dynamically updated to
take into account the focus zone without requiring a coverage re-calculation. Atoll considers only covered surfaces inside
the focus zone. Therefore, in case of coverage by transmitter, only transmitters which coverage intersects the focus zone
can be considered in the report.
To be taken into account, hot spot zones must be defined before accessing reports. Reports are dynamically updated to
take into account hot spot zones without requiring a coverage re-calculation. Atoll considers only covered surfaces inside
each single hot spot. Therefore, in case of coverage by transmitter, only transmitters which coverage intersects one or
several hot spot can be considered in the report. The report is given for each single hot spot zone.
UMTS and cdmaOne/CDMA2000 Simulations
Calculation
Atoll drops mobiles on the traffic area contained in the computation zone. During power control, Atoll considers all the
active and filtered transmitters which the calculation radius intersects rectangle containing the computation zone.
Simulation Reports
To be taken into account, the focus zone must be defined before checking simulation results (UMTS, cdmaOne/
CDMA2000). It is not necessary to define it before calculating simulation. When accessing the results of the simulation,
only sites, transmitters and mobiles located inside the focus zone are considered. The global output statistics are based
on these mobiles.
Display
All the mobiles even those outside the focus zone are represented on the map. Atoll provides information for any of them,
in tips and by clicking on them.
Printing
You may print either the whole selected area or only the area inside the focus zone when selecting the Print only the focus
zone area option [File: Page setup command].
5.2.3 Drawing a Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone
To draw a computation or a focus zone:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window
2. Expand the Zones folder by clicking on the button,
Either
a. Right-click on the zone you want to draw in order to get the context menu,
b. Select the Draw command from the open scrolling list,
Or
a. Click the zone you want to draw,
b. In the Vector edition toolbar, click on the New polygon icon to create polygons,
3. Select the Draw command from the Tools: computation (or focus) zone menu in the menu toolbar,
4. Position the pointer (polygonal selection arrow) on the map,
5. Press the mouse left button (a first point is created),
6. Slide the pointer on the map and press the mouse left button to create another point,
7. Carry out the two last steps until you draw the polygonal area you want,
Note: If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.
Notes
If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone. The computation zone is not used as filter.
Therefore, all the transmitters with a calculation area, even those located outside the computa-
tion zone, and all the created mobiles are analysed in the simulation results.
If the focus and computation zones are the same, only sites and transmitters located inside the
focus zone are dealt with in the simulation results.
Note: If the focus zone is not defined, Atoll will consider the computation zone instead of focus
zone.
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8. Double click to close off the polygonal area.
The selected computation zone is delimited by a red line. The focus zone is delimited by a green line and the background
is lighter. Hot spot zones are delimited by a black line.
5.2.4 Creating a Computation or Focus Zone FromPolygons
You can create a computation (or focus) zone from any polygon contained in a vector object (created or imported).
To do so:
1. Right-click on the polygon you want to become the computation (or focus) zone to open the associated context
menu,
2. Select the Use as computation (or focus) zone command from the available scrolling menu.
5.2.5 Importing the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zones Froma
File
As many other geo data objects, Atoll allows you to import the computation, focus and hot spot zones from a file with either
an Autocad (.dxf), Arcview (.shp), MapInfo (.Mif), Agd or PlaNETformat. For computation and focus zones, the imported
item takes the place of an already existing one. in case of an imported hot spot zone, this one is added to the existing
one(s).
To import a computation, focus, or hot spot zone file:
Either,
a. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window
b. Expand the Zones folder by clicking on the button,
c. Right-click on the zone you want to import in order to get the context menu,
d. Select the Import command from the open scrolling list,
Or,
- Select the Import... command from the File menu in the menu toolbar,
1. Specify the directory where the file to be imported is located, the file name and the file type in the open dialogue,
2. Press the OPEN button to validate,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Select the computation, focus or hot spots zone option from the Import to scrolling menu,
5. If necessary, precise the coordinate system associated with the file being currently imported,
6. Click the Import button to finish the procedure.
Notes
If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.
The computation or focus zone may consist of several polygons. Draw a first polygon or select
the existing zone on the map, then select the Combine icon ( ) of the Vector Edition toolbar
and draw another polygon.
On the same way, the computation or focus zone may be holed. Draw a polygon or select the
existing zone on the map, then select the Delete icon ( ) of the Vector Edition toolbar and
draw the part you want to remove from the polygon.
Contrary to computation and focus zones, a hot spot zone is a polygon with a unique contour.
So, it is possible to create several hot spot zones by drawing several polygons.
Hot Spot zones are automatically named automatically with incremental numbers. They can be
renamed manually by the user.
It is possible to resize the computation, focus and hot spot zones to fit the current visible area in
the workspace. This provides a simple way of drawing a computation or focus zone; you can just
adjust the zoom level as you like and select Automatically fit to Display command from the
Computation zone/Focus zone context menu.
Note: The computation or focus zone may consist of several polygons. Therefore, if you have
multi-polygons (set of linked polygons) in your vector layer, you may use them as described
above to create multi-focus or computation zones.
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
5.2.6 Exporting the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone to a File
In Atoll, it is possible to export the computation, focus or hot spot zones in order to make them available in other applica-
tions/projects. This can be made in the Arcview (.shp), MapInfo (.Mif) or Agd formats.
To export the current computation, focus or hot spot zones to a file:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window
2. Expand the Zones folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the zone you want to export in order to get the context menu,
4. Select the Save as command from the open scrolling list,
5. Specify the path, the name and the format of the file to be exported,
6. Press the button to validate,
7. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
8. If necessary, precise the coordinate system associated with the file being currently exported,
9. Click the Export button to finish the procedure.
5.2.7 Deleting the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone
To delete the computation, focus or a hot spot zone:
Either,
a. Click on the red (or green or black) line which limits the computation (or focus or hot spot) zone. The pointer
becomes position indicator ( ),
b. Right-click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
c. Select the Delete zone command from the open scrolling menu,
Or,
a. In the Geo tab, Right-click on the zone you want to delete in order to get the context menu,
b. Select the Delete zone command from the open scrolling list.
5.2.8 Resizing the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone
To resize the contour of the computation, the focus or a hot spot zone:
1. Click on the red (or green or black) line which limits the computation (or focus or hot spot) zone. The pointer
becomes position indicator ( ),
2. Press and hold the mouse left button,
3. Drag the pointer until its target location,
4. Release the mouse button.
5.2.9 Moving a Point of the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone
To move an existing point of the contour of the computation, the focus or a hot spot zone:
1. Click on the point of the contour you want to move. The pointer becomes position indicator ( ),
2. Press and hold the mouse left button,
3. Drag the pointer until the target location,
4. Release the mouse button.
Notes
The drag and drop feature is available from any file explorer application to Atoll to import the
computation, focus and hot spot zones.
Contrary to computation and focus zones, a hot spot zone is a polygon with a unique contour.
So, it is possible to create several hot spot zones by importing either several files or a file con-
taining several polygons.
Hot Spot zones are automatically named automatically with incremental numbers. They can be
renamed manually by the user.
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5.2.10 Adding a Point in the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Zone
To add a point to the contour of the computation, the focus or a hot spot zone:
1. Click on the location of the contour you want to add a point. The pointer becomes position indicator ( ),
2. Right-click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the Insert point command from the open scrolling menu.
5.2.11 Removing a Point fromthe Computation, Focus or Hot Spot
Zone
To remove a point from the contour of the computation, the focus or a hot spot zone:
1. Click on the point from the contour you want to delete. The pointer becomes position indicator ( ),
2. Right-click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the Delete point command from the open scrolling menu.
5.2.12 Displaying the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot size
Atoll allows the user to read various information about any object through the tips. Thus, it is possible to display infor-
mation (here: area size) on the current computation, focus and hot spot zones. This can be made by the use the tips
button , or the properties window of the computation, focus and hot spot zones.
To do so:
Either
- Rest the pointer on the red (or green or black) line which limits the computation (or focus or hot spot) zone,
except on the main points making up the zone contour until the information appears.
Or,
a. Right-click on the computation, focus and hot spot zone border in order to select it,
b. Click on the properties... menu.
The properties window displays the size of the computation, focus or hot spot zone.
5.2.13 Displaying the Computation, Focus or Hot Spot Coordinates
To display the coordinates of points composing the computation, the focus or a hot spot zone:
Either,
a. Click on the red (or green or black) line which limits the computation (or focus or hot spot) zone. The pointer
becomes position indicator ( ),
b. Right-click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
c. Select the Properties command from the open scrolling menu,
d. The coordinates (in the defined display system) of the point composing the computation, focus or hot spot
zone are then displayed in a table window,
Or,
- In the Geo tab, Right-click on the computation or focus zone and select the Properties command from
the open scrolling list,
Advice: To draw an appropriate computation, focus or hot spot zone, you can copy a list of point coordinates from a
spreadsheet and paste it in the computation zone properties window. The format of the data contained in the table is the
following: X_coordinate TAB Y_coordinate on each line. Inside this interface, TAB and Return commands are available by
using simultaneously the Ctrl key and the appropriate key. Coordinates are displayed as defined previously.
5.3 Propagation Models
By computing losses along transmitter-receiver paths, propagation models permit to predict the received signal level at
a given point and take into account:
the Radio data,
the Geo data like DTM and/or clutter classes, according to the model.
Note: Information about surface will appear only if the tips button is on.
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
The mechanisms involved in electromagnetic propagation are:
Free space propagation,
Reflections,
Diffraction,
Scattering.
All these mechanisms can be more or less taken into account by propagation models depending on their complexity. Atoll
provides, by default, some model based on empirical approaches. For any type of project, you must find the best suited
one. Nevertheless, Atoll allows you to manage any project with several propagation models. These can be assigned either
globally or at the transmitter level. Each transmitter may have a main propagation model (high resolution and short calcu-
lation radius) and a secondary one, with a lower resolution, and an extended calculation radius.
Some propagation models (Okumura-Hata, Cost-Hata, ITU529-3) are based on a "model type" principle. On the base of
the formulae they offer, you can use these models to develop customized models by duplicating the existing base model
(Okumura-Hata, Cost-Hata, ITU 529-3).
The Okumura-Hata, Cost-Hata, Longley-Rice, Standard propagation model, ITU 529-3 and WLL models available in Atoll
are based on formulae whose parameters can be set. Okumura-Hata, Cost-Hata and ITU 529-3 in particular are based on
one formula for each clutter class. The Standard Propagation Model can be seen as an advanced Hata-based model. The
ITU 526-5 and ITU 370-7 (Vienna 93) models are deterministic and therefore their parameters cannot be set.
Like other Atoll objects, propagation models can be easily managed.
5.3.1 Propagation Models: General Information
5.3.1.1 Selecting Propagation Models
Because you can assign a propagation model in several places, it is possible for the propagation model you select in one
place to take priority over the propagation model you have already assigned. "Propagation Model Priority" on page 135
explains which assigned propagation model has priority under which circumstances.
Atoll uses the propagation model to compute losses along the transmitter-receiver path. The computed path loss matrices
are used for coverage predictions and point analysis predictions. Atoll enables you to assign both a main propagation
model, with a shorter radius
1
and a higher resolution, and an extended propagation model, with a longer radius and a lower
resolution. By using a calculation radius, Atoll limits the scope of calculations to a defined area. By using two matrices,
Atoll allows you to calculate high resolution path loss matrices closer to the transmitter, while reducing calculation time by
using an extended matrix with a lower resolution.
If you do not define a calculation radius for the main propagation model and if you do not assign an extended propagation
model, Atoll considers the prediction minimum threshold to define the calculation radius for each transmitter. However,
this can lead to lengthy calculation times.
Additionally, when you define an extended matrix, Atoll will calculate the extended matrix only if you define all three
parameters: propagation model, calculation radius, and resolution.
5.3.1.2 Assigning a Propagation Model to All Transmitters
In Atoll, you can choose a propagation model per transmitter or globally.
To define a main and extended propagation model for all transmitters:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Propagation tab.
5. Under Main Matrix:
- Select a Propagation Model
- Enter a Radius and Resolution.
Note: When performing consecutive calculations with different thresholds:
If no calculation radius has been defined, Atoll recalculates the complete coverage for each pre-
diction.
If a relatively large calculation radius has been defined, Atoll "stores in memory" the calculations
for the defined area and only calculates the difference between the two predictions.
Important: For any Hata-based motel, it is optionally possible to limit the path loss by the computed
free space loss for each single pixel.
1. The "radius" is the half of the width of the matrix around the transmitter.
Note: In addition, it is possible to differentiate resolution of path loss matrices from plot resolution.
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6. If desired, under Extended Matrix:
- Select a Propagation Model
- Enter a Radius and Resolution.
7. Click OK. The selected propagation models will be used for all transmitters.
5.3.1.3 Assigning a Propagation Model to One Transmitter
If you have added a single transmitter, you can assign it a propagation model. You can also assign a propagation model
to a single transmitter after you have assigned a main and extended propagation model globally or to a group of transmit-
ters.
When you assign a main and extended propagation model to a single transmitter, it overrides any changes made globally.
To define a main and extended propagation model for all transmitters:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Transmitters folder.
3. Right-click the transmitter to which you want to assign a main and extended propagation model. The context menu
appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Propagation tab.
6. Under Main Matrix:
- Select a Propagation Model
- Enter a Radius and Resolution.
7. If desired, under Extended Matrix:
- Select a Propagation Model
- Enter a Radius and Resolution.
8. Click OK. The selected propagation models will be used for the selected transmitter.
5.3.1.4 Assigning a Default Propagation Model for Coverage Predictions
You can assign a default propagation model for coverage predictions. This propagation model is used as for all transmit-
ters whose main propagation model is "(Default model)."
To assign a default propagation model for coverage predictions:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Propagation tab.
5. Select a Default Propagation Model from the list.
6. Enter a Default Resolution.
7. Click OK. The selected propagation model will be used for coverage predictions for all transmitters whose main
propagation model is "(Default model)."
Note: Setting a different main or extended matrix on an individual transmitter as explained in
"Assigning a Propagation Model to One Transmitter" on page 134 will override this entry.
Notes
The calculation radius limits the scope of the calculations to the radius that has been defined.
The calculation radius prevents the system from calculating over too long distances (e.g., in an
urban area). In the case of very large environments, the calculation radius allows you to improve
the calculation time. If no main calculation radius has been defined (and no secondary propaga-
tion model), Atoll takes into account automatically the prediction minimum threshold to define
the calculation radius for each transmitter. Nevertheless, this could drive to long calculation times
Since it is a matrix (or 2 in case of extended calculation radius) which is computed for each trans-
mitter, the calculation radius represents the half side length of the potential matrix located around
the considered transmitter.
Atoll computes an extended matrix only if the three parameters, propagation model, calculation
radius and resolution, are specified. Therefore, an extended matrix will not be worked out if its
resolution is null.
Atoll computes at the same time the main and extended matrices of a transmitter with a global
management. Therefore, it will recalculate both matrices even if only one is invalid.
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5.3.2 Propagation Model Priority
As explained in "Selecting Propagation Models" on page 133, you can assign a propagation model globally to all transmit-
ters, to a group of transmitters, or to a single transmitter. Additionally, you can assign a default propagation model for
coverage predictions. Because you can assign a propagation model in several different ways, it is important to understand
which propagation model Atoll will use:
1. If you have assigned a propagation model to a single transmitter, as explained in "Assigning a Propagation Model
to One Transmitter" on page 134, or to a group of transmitters, as explained in "Assigning a Propagation Model to
a Group of Transmitters" on page 126, this is the propagation model that will be used.
The propagation model assigned to an individual transmitter or to a group of transmitters will always have prece-
dence over any other assigned propagation model.
2. If you have assigned a propagation model globally to all transmitters, as explained in "Assigning a Propagation
Model to All Transmitters" on page 133, this is the propagation model that will be used for all transmitters, except
for those to which you have assigned a propagation model either individually or as part of a group.
If, after assigning a propagation model to an individual transmitter or to a group of transmitters, you assign a prop-
agation model globally, you will override the propagation models that you had assigned to individual transmitters
or to a group of transmitters.
3. If you have assigned a default propagation model for coverage predictions, as described in "Assigning a Default
Propagation Model for Coverage Predictions" on page 134, this is the propagation model that will be used for all
transmitters whose main propagation model is "(Default model)." If a transmitter has any other propagation model
chosen as the main propagation model, that is the propagation model that will be used.
5.3.2.1 Displaying General Information about the Propagation Model
Under Atoll, the user interface is homogeneous for the different available propagation models. In the General tab, you
may enter the model name, add some descriptions and check the model signature. The model signature is used for validity
purposes. A unique model signature is assigned to each propagation model and its settings. When modifying model
parameters, the associated model signature is changed. This enables Atoll to detect potential path loss matrix invalidity.
Because of this, two identical propagation models in different projects do not have the same model signature.
5.3.2.2 Choosing the Appropriate Propagation Model
The different propagation models are more or less suited depending on the type of project, radio and geographic data in
use in the ATL current project. A summarized description is given in the following table.
Important: When you assign a propagation model globally, you override any selection you might have
made to an individual transmitter or to a group of transmitters.
Note: Model signature corresponds to the MODEL_ID field you can find in PAR files when exter-
nalising path loss matrices. Nevertheless, the real name of the used propagation model is
also explicitly written in PAR files (TX_MODEL_NAME field).
Model
Frequency
Band
Take into Account Required Settings Recommended Use
Longley-Rice
(theoretical)
~40 MHz
- Terrain profile
- Reflection
- Calibration
- Flat areas
- Very low frequencies
ITU 370-7
Vienna 93
100 - 400
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Percentage time while real
field >calculated field
- Long distances
(d>10km)
- Low frequencies
ITU 526-5
(theoretical)
30 - 10000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Diffraction (3 knife-
edge Deygout
method)
Fixed receivers
WLL
30 - 10000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Deterministic clutter
- Diffraction (3 knife-
edge Deygout
method)
- Free space loss
- Receiver height and clearance
per clutter
Fixed receivers
>Microwave links
>WiMAX
Okumura-Hata
150 - 1000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at
the receiver)
- 1 formula per clutter
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Optionally limited by the free
space loss
- Urban loss +correction a(Hr)
1 <d <20 km
>GSM 900
>cdmaOne/CDMA2000
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5.3.2.3 Managing Propagation Model Folders
In the Modules tab, propagation models are organized in folders. That way, these items are easy to manage like other
objects. Hence it is easily possible to delete, duplicate, copy and rename each of them.
To access the different managing properties of any propagation model, Right-click on the model you want to manage to
open the related context menu. Then choose among the several available commands: delete, duplicate, copy, rename.
All newly created propagation models will then be available in the propagation model selection boxes (Prediction or Trans-
mitter properties).
The copy function can be useful to copy and paste a specifically tuned model in an atl project to another one (considering
the name does not already exist).
5.3.3 Propagation Models Available in Atoll
5.3.3.1 The Standard Propagation Model
The Standard Propagation Model is a propagation model based on the Hata formulas and is suited for coverage predic-
tions in the 150 to 3500 MHz band over long distances (from one to 20 km). It is best suited to GSM 900/1800, UMTS, and
cdmaOne and CDMA2000 radio technologies. The Standard Propagation Model takes the terrain profile and diffraction
into account and uses both clutter classes and effective antenna height to calculate propagation.
The Standard Propagation Model can be used for any technology. It is based on the following formula:
where:
Cost-Hata
1500 - 2000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at
the receiver)
- 1 formula per clutter
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Optionally limited by the free
space loss
- Urban loss +correction a(Hr)
1 <d <20 km
>GSM 1800
>UMTS
ITU 529-3
300 - 1500
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at
the receiver)
- 1 formula per clutter
- Effective antenna
height
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Optionally limited by the free
space loss
- Urban loss +correction a(Hr)
- Corrective formula on the
distance (d>20 km)
1 <d <100 km
>GSM 900
>cdmaOne/CDMA2000
Standard
Propagation
Model
150 3500
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter
- Effective antenna
height (several
methods of
determination for the
transmitter effective
antenna height)
- K1, ..., K6 (single formula)
- LOS or NLOS differentiation- -
With diffraction weight
- Optionally limited by the free
space loss
- Loss per clutter with clutter
weighting
- Receiver clearance
1 <d <20 km
>GSM 900
>GSM 1800
>UMTS
>cdmaOne/CDMA2000
>WiMAX
(Automatic calibration
available)
Erceg-
Greenstein
(SUI) Model
1900 6000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at
the receiver)
- A formula per clutter
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Optionally limited by the free
space loss
- Base station height and
receiver height correction
factors a(Hb) and a(Hr)
100 m <d <8 km
>WiMAX
Model
Frequency
Band
Take into Account Required Settings Recommended Use
PR received power (dBm)
PTx transmitted power (EIRP) (dBm)
K1 constant offset (dB)
K2 multiplying factor for log(d)
d distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m)
K3 multiplying factor for log(HTxeff)

effective height of the transmitter antenna (m)


K4 multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. K4 has to be a positive number
Diffraction losses due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB)
K5 multiplying factor for log(HTxeff)log(d)
K6 multiplying factor for HRxeff

mobile antenna height (m)


Kclutter multiplying factor for f(clutter)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

+ + +
+ + + +
=
LOS hill clutter Rx Tx
Tx
Tx R
K clutter f K H K H d K
n Diffractio K H K d K K
P P
eff eff
eff
, 6 5
4 3 2 1
log log
log log
eff
Tx
H
eff
Rx
H
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
These parameters can be defined on the tabs (General, Parameters, and Clutter) of the Standard Propagation Model
Properties dialogue. You can also calibrate the Standard Propagation Model using a wizard.
For any Hata-based propagation model, you can limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Recommendations for Working with the Standard Propagation Model" on page 137
"Calculating Diffraction With the SPM" on page 137
"Sample Values for SPM Formulas" on page 137
"Correction Factor for Hilly Regions" on page 138
"Calculating f(clutter) with the Standard Propagation Model" on page 138
"Sample Values for Losses Per Clutter Class (SPM)" on page 139
"Defining the Parameters of the Standard Propagation Model" on page 139
"Using the SPM Automatic Calibration Wizard" on page 142.
5.3.3.1.1 Recommendations for Working with the Standard Propagation Model
It is important to remember that clutter information can be taken into consideration in both diffraction loss and f(clutter). To
avoid taking clutter information into account twice, you should chose one of the following:
If you specify losses per clutter class, do not consider clutter heights in diffraction loss over the transmitter-receiver
profile. This approach is recommended if the clutter height information is statistical.
If you consider clutter heights, do not define any loss per clutter class. In this case, f(clutter) will be equal to "0;"
losses due to clutter will only be taken into consideration if you consider clutter heights in diffraction loss. This
approach is recommended if the clutter height information is semi-deterministic or deterministic.
If the clutter height information is an average height defined for each clutter class, you must specify a receiver clearance
per clutter class. Both ground altitude and clutter height are considered along the whole transmitter-receiver profile except
over a specific distance around the receiver (clearance), in which Atoll bases its calculations only on the DTM. The clear-
ance information is used to model streets because it is assumed that the receiver is in the street.
Clearance definition is not necessary when height information is from a clutter height file. In this case, the clutter height
information is accurate enough to be used without additional information such as clearance; Atoll calculates the path loss
if the receiver is in the street (if the receiver height is higher than the clutter height). If the receiver height is lower than the
clutter height, the receiver is assumed to be inside a building. In this case, the path loss is undefined.
The following are suggestions for defining the height of fixed receivers:
You can model the receiver as always being above the clutter, by selecting "1 - Yes" for the Receiver on Top of
Clutter option on the Clutter tab of the Standard Propagation Model Properties dialogue. The receiver height
will then be sum of the clutter height and the receiver height. This option can be used to model receivers on top
of buildings, for example.
You can define a specific receiver height for each clutter class in the Rx Height column on the Clutter tab of the
Standard Propagation Model Properties dialogue. Or, you can select "(default)" for the receiver height. When
creating a coverage prediction, Atoll will then read the receiver height on the Receiver tab of the Properties dia-
logue for the Predictions folder.
5.3.3.1.2 Calculating Diffraction With the SPM
You can set the parameters used to calculate diffraction losses on the Parameters and Clutter tabs of the Standard Prop-
agation Model Properties dialogue.
On the Parameters tab, you can define the calculation method used for diffraction and the K4 factor. The methods available
are:
Deygout
Epstein-Peterson
Deygout with correction
Millington
For detailed information on each method, see the Technical Reference Guide. The methods for calculating diffraction are
based on the general method for one or more obstacles described in the ITU 526-5 recommendations. The calculations
take the curvature of the earth into account. Along the transmitter-receiver profile, you can choose to take both the ground
altitude and the clutter height into account, or the ground altitude only. If you choose to take clutter height into account,
Atoll uses the clutter height information in the clutter heights file if. Otherwise, it uses average clutter height specified for
each clutter class in the clutter classes.
5.3.3.1.3 Sample Values for SPMFormulas
The following table gives some possible values for the constants used in the Standard Propagation Model formulas.
f(clutter) average of weighted losses due to clutter
K(hill, LOS) corrective factor for hilly regions (=0 in case of NLOS)
Min. Typical Max.
K1 Variable Variable Variable
K2 20 44.9 70
K3 -20 5.83 20
K4 0 0.5 0.8
K5 -10 -6.55 0
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The value of K1 depends on the radio frequency, in other words, on the radio technology. The following table gives some
possible values for K1.
Since K1 is a constant, its value is strongly dependant on the values given to losses per clutter class.
5.3.3.1.4 Correction Factor for Hilly Regions
An optional correction factor for hilly regions, K
hill, LOS
is available on the Parameters tab of the Standard Propagation
Model Properties dialogue. It corrects path loss for hilly regions when transmitter and receiver are in LOS. K
hill, LOS
is
determined in three steps. The influence area, R, and the regression line are assumed to be available.
1. For every profile point within the influence area, Atoll calculates the height deviation between the original terrain
profile (with correction for the curvature of the earth) and the regression line. Then, it sorts points according to the
deviation and draws two lines (parallel to the regression line), one which is exceeded by 10% of the profile points
and the other one by 90%.
2. Atoll evaluates the terrain roughness, h; which is the distance between the two lines.
3. Atoll calculates K
hill, LOS
as follows:

If ,
Else
If ,
Else
i
Rx
is the point index at the receiver.
5.3.3.1.5 Calculating f(clutter) with the Standard Propagation Model
The average of weighted losses due to clutter, f(clutter), is defined as follows:
where
L: loss due to clutter.
w: weight.
n: number of points taken into account over the profile.
The losses due to clutter are calculated for the maximum distance from the receiver, defined as Max Distance on the
Parameters tab of the Standard Propagation Model Properties dialogue. On the Clutter tab, each clutter class is
assigned losses. The weighting function enables Atoll to give a weight to each point. The different weighting methods are
explained in the following table.
The losses due to clutter are evaluated over a maximum distance from receiver, Max distance. Each clutter class is
assigned specific loss, Loss per clutter class. Enter the appropriate values in cells just left to the clutter classes ones.
The weighting function enables to give a weight to each point.
K6 -1 0 0
Project Type Frequency (MHz) K1
GSM 900 935 12.5
GSM 1800 1805 22
GSM 1900 1930 23
UMTS 2110 23.8
1xRTT 1900 23
Min. Typical Max.
K K K
hf h LOS hill
+ =
,
m h 20 0 <
0 =
K
h
( ) ( ) 746 . 6 log 29 . 15 log 73 . 7
2
+ = h h
K
h
m h 10 0 <
( ) ( )
i
regr
H H K
Rx Rx Rx hf
+ =
0
1924 . 0 2
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
h
i
regr
H H
h h
K
Rx Rx Rx
hf

+
+ =
0 2
21 . 11 log 75 . 14 log 616 . 1 2
( )

=
=
n
i
i i
w L clutter f
1
Weighting Function Formula
Uniform weighting function:
n
w
i
1
=
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
5.3.3.1.6 Sample Values for Losses Per Clutter Class (SPM)
The following table gives typical values for losses (in dB) per clutter class are:
These values must be entered only when using statistical clutter class maps.
5.3.3.1.7 Defining the Parameters of the Standard Propagation Model
You can define the parameters of the Standard Propagation Model using the Standard Propagation Model Properties
dialogue.
To define the calculations parameters of the Standard Propagation Model Properties dialogue:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Standard Propagation Model. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab (see Figure 5.1).
Logarithmic weighting function:
Exponential weighting function:
Triangular weighting function:

where di is the distance between the receiver and the point i.
Weighting Function Formula

+
=
n
j
j
i
i
D
d
D
d
w
1
1 log
1 log

=
n
j
D
d
D
d
i
j
i
e
e
w
1
1
1

=
=
n
j
j
i
i
d
d
w
1
'
i i
d D d =
Note: The losses per clutter class can be calculated using the Automatic Calibration Wizard.
For information on the Automatic Calibration Wizard, see "Using the SPM Automatic Cal-
ibration Wizard" on page 142.
Clutter Class Losses (dB)
Dense urban from 4 to 5
Woodland from 2 to 3
Urban 0
Suburban from -5 to -3
Industrial from -5 to -3
Open in urban from -6 to -4
Open from -12 to -10
Water from -14 to -12
Note: The Standard Propagation Model is based on Hata formulas, which are valid for an urban
environment. The values above are consistent with an urban environment because losses
of 0 dB are indicated for an urban clutter class, with positive values for more dense clutter
classes and negative values for less dense clutter classes.
Note: Default values have been assigned to the multiplying factors. The default values corre-
spond to the rural (quasi-open) Okumura-Hata formula valid for a frequency of 935 MHz.
The values for K values can be calculated using the Automatic Calibration Wizard. For
information on the Automatic Calibration Wizard, see "Using the SPM Automatic Calibra-
tion Wizard" on page 142.
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Figure 5.1: Standard Propagation Model - Parameters tab
Under Near Transmitter, you can set the following parameters:
- Maximum Distance: Set the maximum distance for a receiver to be considered near the transmitter. If the
distance between the receiver and the transmitter is greater than the set distance, the receiver is considered
far from the transmitter.
- K1 - los and K2 - los: Enter the K1 and K2 values that will be used for calculations when the receiver is in the
transmitter line of sight.
- K1 - nlos and K2 - nlos: Enter the K1 and K2 values that will be used for calculations when the receiver is not
in the transmitter line of sight.
Under Far from Transmitter, the values you set will be used for all receivers whose distance from the transmitter
is greater than the distance specified in Maximum Distance under Near Transmitter. You can set the following
parameters:
- K1 - los and K2 - los: Enter the K1 and K2 values that will be used for calculations when the receiver is in the
transmitter line of sight.
- K1 - nlos and K2 - nlos: Enter the K1 and K2 values that will be used for calculations when the receiver is not
in the transmitter line of sight.
Under Effective Antenna Height, you can set the following parameters:
- Method: Select the method that will be used to calculate H
Txeff
, the effective antenna height.
- Distance min. and Distance max.: The Distance min. and Distance max. are set to 3,000 m and 15,000 m
(according to ITU recommendations) for frequencies under 500 MHz and to 0 m and 15,000 m (according to
ITU recommendations) for high frequency mobile communications. These values are only used for the "Abs
Spot Ht" and the "Enhanced Slope at Receiver" methods. For more information on how these values are used,
see the Technical Reference Guide.
- K3: Enter the K3 value that will be used to calculate the effective antenna height.
Under Diffraction, you can set the following parameters:
- Method: Select the method that will be used to calculate diffraction.
- K4: Enter the K4 value that will be used to calculate diffraction.
Under Other Parameters, you can set the following parameters:
- K5: Enter the K5 value.
- K6: Enter the K6 value.
- Kclutter: Enter the Kclutter value.
Notes: You can use the Automatic Calibration Wizard to select the best method for calculating
the effective Tx antenna height. For information on the Automatic Calibration Wizard, see
"Using the SPM Automatic Calibration Wizard" on page 142.
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
- Hilly Terrain Correction Factor: Select "1 - Yes" to take the Hilly Terrain Correction Factor into account.
Otherwise, select "0 - No".
- Limitation to Free Space Loss: As with all Hata-based propagation models, by default, the calculated path
loss is limited to the calculated free space loss. Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to limit the
path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
- Profiles: Select the method to be used to extract the profile. If you select "1 - Radial," Atoll establishes a pro-
file between each transmitter and each point located on its calculation perimeter (as defined by the calculation
radius) and then uses the nearest profile to make a prediction on a point inside the calculation perimeter. This
process is referred to radial optimisation. If you select "2 - Systematic," Atoll systematically determines a pro-
file between each transmitter and each point in its calculation area. This method requires a significantly longer
calculation time, therefore, you should choose "1 - Radial" if you want a shorter calculation time.
- Grid Calculation: Select "0 - Centred" if you want Atoll to perform the calculations at the centre or select
"1 - Bottom left" if you want Atoll to perform the calculations at the lower left of each grid.
6. Click the Clutter tab (see Figure 5.2).
Figure 5.2: Standard Propagation Model - Clutter tab
Under Clutter Taken into Account, you can set the following parameters under Heights:
- Use Clutter Heights in Diffraction: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the clutter heights to be taken into account
when calculating diffraction.
- Receiver on Top of Clutter: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the receiver to be considered to be located on top
of clutter. This option can be used where fixed receivers are located on top of buildings.
Under Clutter Taken into Account, you can set the following parameters under Range:
- Maximum Distance: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the clutter heights to be taken into account when calculating
diffraction.
- Weighting Function: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the receiver to be considered to be located on top of clutter.
This option can be used where fixed receivers are located on top of buildings.
Under Parameters Per Clutter Class, you can set the following parameters for each clutter class:
- Losses: Set the maximum distance for a receiver to be considered near the transmitter. If the distance
between the receiver and the transmitter is greater than the set distance, the receiver is considered far from
the transmitter. For sample values for losses, see "Sample Values for Losses Per Clutter Class (SPM)" on
page 139.
- Clearance: Enter, if desired, a clearance around each receiver for each clutter class. The clearance informa-
tion is used to model streets because it is assumed that the receiver is in the street.
- Rx Height: Enter, if desired, a specific receiver height for each clutter class. Or, you can select "(default)" for
the receiver height. When creating a coverage prediction, Atoll will then read the receiver height on the
Receiver tab of the Properties dialogue for the Predictions folder.
7. Click OK.
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5.3.3.1.8 Using the SPMAutomatic Calibration Wizard
If you have any continuous wave measurements for your current Atoll document, you can use the data to calibrate the
Standard Propagation Model with the Automatic Calibration Wizard. You can use the Automatic Calibration Wizard
to determine:
The method for calculating the effective transmitter antenna height.
The method for calculating diffraction
The values for K
The losses per clutter class.
Before using the Automatic Calibration Wizard, you can review the statistics comparing the CW measurements with pre-
dictions, giving the percentage of samples per clutter class, the average, and the standard deviation. You can also filter
out inconsistent points from the CW measurements before using the data to automatically calibrate the Standard Propa-
gation Model.
The accuracy of the calibration of the Standard Propagation Model and its results (standard deviation and root mean
square) depend strongly on the CW measurement samples you use. Once the Standard Propagation Model has been cal-
ibrated it should be able to match the values of CW measurements over a large area and not just the values of the CW
measurements that were used to calibrate the Standard Propagation Model.
To calibrate the Standard Propagation model using the Automatic Calibration Wizard:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Standard Propagation Model. The context menu appears.
4. Select Automatic Calibration from the context menu. The Automatic Calibration Wizard appears (Figure 5.3).
Figure 5.3: SPM Calibration Wizard - first step
5. Select the check boxes corresponding to the CW measurement path or paths that you want to use for calibration.
Any filters that you have applied to the measurement paths will be taken into account.
6. Click Next.
Figure 5.4: SPM Calibration Wizard - second step
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
7. Select the check boxes corresponding to the parameters you want to calibrate.
8. To define an allowed range for the parameter, select the parameter and click Define Range. When calibrating the
parameter, Atoll will select a value with the defined range.
9. Click Next. Atoll calibrates the selected parameters
Figure 5.5: SPM Calibration Wizard - third step
Each parameter is displayed with the value before and after calibration (see Figure 5.6).
Figure 5.6: SPM Calibration Wizard - third step
10. Click Commit to update the Standard Propagation Model calibration with the values to the After column.
Note on the Clutter Loss Calibration
If you want to calibrate the losses per clutter class (Kclutter <>0), when pressing the Identify (Clutter row
selected), a warning message opens asking you to force the Max distance (Clutter tab) to 0 (if Max
distance<>0).
Currently, Atoll uses the following process on these constants:
1st step: Atoll groups measurement points according to the clutter class on which they are
located,
2nd step: Atoll then calculates the mean error for each point in each group with the maximum
distance set to "0" (in other words, the clutter loss is applied only on the reception pixel),
3rd step: For each group, the mean error is then automatically shifted to 0 by adjusting the cor-
responding loss. For example, if the mean error is 5 dB on a specific clutter class, and if the initial
loss for this clutter class is 2dB, then the calibrated loss is 7 dB.
Therefore, the global mean error on all the measurement points is "0."
Important: Remember that the Automatic Calibration Wizard uses mathematical approach to calibra-
tion. Before committing the results, ensure that they are relevant in a real radio-planning
environment. See "Sample Values for SPM Formulas" on page 137.
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5.3.3.2 The Okumura-Hata Propagation Model
The Okumura-Hata model is suited for coverage predictions in the 150 to 1000 MHz band over long distances (from one
to 20 km). It is best suited to GSM 900, IS95 and 1xRTT radio technologies. The Okumura-Hata propagation model takes
the terrain profile, diffraction, and reflection into account to calculate propagation.
Hata models in general are well adapted to the urban environment. You can define several corrective formulas and asso-
ciate a formula with each clutter class to adapt the Hata model to a wide variety of environments. You can also define a
default formula to be used when no land use data is available.
For any Hata-based propagation model, you can limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Defining General Settings (Okumura-Hata)" on page 144
"Defining a Default Environment Formula (Okumura-Hata)" on page 144
"Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Okumura-Hata)" on page 144
"Assigning Environment Formulas to Clutter Types (Okumura-Hata)" on page 145
5.3.3.2.1 Defining General Settings (Okumura-Hata)
The Okumura-Hata propagation model can take into account losses due to diffraction, using a 1-knife-edge Deygout
method and can limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
To set general parameters on the Okumura-Hata propagation model:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Okumura-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab. You can modify the following settings:
- Add diffraction loss: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to add losses due to diffraction.
- Limitation to free space loss: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to limit the path loss cal-
culated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
6. Click OK.
5.3.3.2.2 Defining a Default Environment Formula (Okumura-Hata)
You can use the Okumura-Hata propagation model even if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document by defin-
ing a default formula.
To select the default environment formula:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Okumura-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Under Formulas related to clutter classes, select a Default formula.
For information on modifying the selected formula, see "Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Okumura-
Hata)" on page 144.
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.2.3 Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Okumura-Hata)
You can create or modify the environment formulas used by the Okumura-Hata propagation model.
To create or modify an environment formula:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Okumura-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Click the Formulas button. The Formulas dialogue appears. You can do the following:
- Add: To create a new formula, click the Add button and modify the parameters of the formula.
- Delete: To delete a formula, select the formula and click the Delete button.
- Modify: To modify an existing formula, select the formula and modify the parameters.
7. Click OK to save your changes close the Formulas dialogue.
8. Click OK.
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
5.3.3.2.4 Assigning Environment Formulas to Clutter Types (Okumura-Hata)
By assigning an environment formula to each clutter class, the Okumura-Hata propagation model can use the assigned
formula for each pixel of the clutter class when calculating.
To assign an environment formula to clutter classes:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Okumura-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. For each clutter class under Formulas related to clutter classes, select a formula from the list.
Atoll uses the default environment formula for calculations on any clutter class to which you have not assigned
an environment formula.
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.3 The Cost-Hata Propagation Model
The Cost-Hata model is suited for coverage predictions in the 1500 to 2000 MHz band over long distances (from one to
20 km). It is best suited to DCS 1800 and UMTS radio technologies. The Cost-Hata propagation model takes the terrain
profile, diffraction, and reflection into account to calculate propagation.
Hata models in general are well adapted to the urban environment. You can define several corrective formulas and asso-
ciate a formula with each clutter class to adapt the Hata model to a wide variety of environments. You can also define a
default formula to be used when no land use data is available.
For any Hata-based propagation model, you can limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Defining General Settings (Cost-Hata)" on page 145
"Defining an Environment Default Formula (Cost-Hata)" on page 145
"Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Cost-Hata)" on page 146
"Assigning Environment Formulas to Clutter Types (Cost-Hata)" on page 146
5.3.3.3.1 Defining General Settings (Cost-Hata)
The Cost-Hata propagation model can take into account losses due to diffraction, using a 1-knife-edge Deygout method
and can limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
To set general parameters on the Cost-Hata propagation model:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Cost-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab. You can modify the following settings:
- Add diffraction loss: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to add losses due to diffraction.
- Limitation to free space loss: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to limit the path loss cal-
culated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
6. Click OK.
5.3.3.3.2 Defining an Environment Default Formula (Cost-Hata)
You can use the Cost-Hata propagation model even if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document by defining
a default formula.
To select the default environment formula:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Cost-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Under Formulas related to clutter classes, select a Default formula.
For information on modifying the selected formula, see "Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Cost-Hata)"
on page 146.
7. Click OK.
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5.3.3.3.3 Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Cost-Hata)
You can create or modify the environment formulas used by the Cost-Hata propagation model.
To create or modify an environment formula:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Cost-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Click the Formulas button. The Formulas dialogue appears. You can do the following:
- Add: To create a new formula, click the Add button and modify the parameters of the formula.
- Delete: To delete a formula, select the formula and click the Delete button.
- Modify: To modify an existing formula, select the formula and modify the parameters.
7. Click OK to save your changes close the Formulas dialogue.
8. Click OK.
5.3.3.3.4 Assigning Environment Formulas to Clutter Types (Cost-Hata)
By assigning an environment formula to each clutter class, the Cost-Hata propagation model can use the assigned formula
for each pixel of the clutter class when calculating.
To assign an environment formula to clutter classes:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Cost-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. For each clutter class under Formulas related to clutter classes, select a formula from the list.
Atoll uses the default environment formula for calculations on any clutter class to which you have not assigned
an environment formula.
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.4 The ITU 529-3 Propagation Model
The ITU 529-3 model is suited for coverage predictions in the 300 to 1500 MHz band over long distances (from one to
100 km). It is best suited to GSM 900 and IS95/cdmaOne radio technologies. The ITU 529-3 propagation model takes the
terrain profile, diffraction, and reflection into account to calculate propagation.
Hata models in general are well adapted to the urban environment. You can define several corrective formulas and asso-
ciate a formula with each clutter class to adapt the Hata model to a wide variety of environments. You can also define a
default formula to be used when no land use data is available. In addition, for long distances 20km<d<100 km), the model
uses automatically a corrective formula as defined in the recommendation.
For any Hata-based propagation model, you can limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Defining General Settings (ITU 529-3)" on page 146
"Defining an Environment Default Formula (ITU 529-3)" on page 147
"Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (ITU 529-3)" on page 147
"Assigning Environment Formulas to Clutter Types (ITU 529-3)" on page 147.
5.3.3.4.1 Defining General Settings (ITU 529-3)
The ITU 529-3 propagation model can take into account losses due to diffraction, using a 1-knife-edge Deygout method
and can limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
To set general parameters on the Cost-Hata propagation model:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU529. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab. You can modify the following settings:
- Add diffraction loss: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to add losses due to diffraction.
- Limitation to free space loss: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to limit the path loss cal-
culated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
6. Click OK.
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5.3.3.4.2 Defining an Environment Default Formula (ITU 529-3)
You can use the ITU 529-3 propagation model even if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document by defining
a default formula.
To select the default environment formula:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU529. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Under Formulas related to clutter classes, select a Default formula.
For information on modifying the selected formula, see "Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (ITU 529-3)"
on page 147.
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.4.3 Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (ITU 529-3)
You can create or modify the environment formulas used by the ITU 529-3 propagation model.
To create or modify an environment formula:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU529. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Click the Formulas button. The Formulas dialogue appears. You can do the following:
- Add: To create a new formula, click the Add button and modify the parameters of the formula.
- Delete: To delete a formula, select the formula and click the Delete button.
- Modify: To modify an existing formula, select the formula and modify the parameters.
7. Click OK to save your changes close the Formulas dialogue.
8. Click OK.
5.3.3.4.4 Assigning Environment Formulas to Clutter Types (ITU 529-3)
By assigning an environment formula to each clutter class, the ITU 529-3 propagation model can use the assigned formula
for each pixel of the clutter class when calculating.
To assign an environment formula to clutter classes:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU529. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. For each clutter class under Formulas related to clutter classes, select a formula from the list.
Atoll uses the default environment formula for calculations on any clutter class to which you have not assigned
an environment formula.
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.5 The ITU 370-7 Propagation Model (Vienna 93)
The ITU 370-7 model is based on the recommendations of the Vienna 1993 international conference on telecommunica-
tions network coordination. This model is suited for coverage predictions in the 100 to 400 MHz band over long distances
(over 10 km), such as in broadcast studies. It uses the terrain profile to calculate propagation.
The only parameter you can define with the ITU 370-7 (Vienna 93) model parameter setting is the percentage of time
during which the real field is higher than the signal level calculated by the model (1%, 10%, or 50% of the time). The value
50% is usually used for coverage predictions, whereas 1% is usually used for interference studies.
To set the percentage of time during which the real field is higher than the signal level:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU370. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
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5. Click the Parameters tab.
6. Under Calculate exceeded signal during, select one of the following:
- 50% of the time
- 10% of the time
- 1% of the time
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.6 The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) Propagation Model
The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model is suited for coverage predictions in the 1900 and 6000 MHz range over
distances between 100 m and 8 km. The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model is suited for WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d
and 802.16e). It takes the terrain profile, diffraction, and reflection into account to calculate propagation.
The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model is well adapted for suburban environment. You can define several correc-
tive formulas and associate a formula with each clutter class to adapt the model to a wide range of environments. You can
also define a default formula to be used when no land use data is available. You can also set a default formula which is
used when no clutter data is available.
You can also limit the path loss to the computed free space loss for each single pixel.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Defining General Settings (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))" on page 148
"Defining a Default Environment Formula (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))" on page 148
"Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))" on page 148
"Assigning Environment Formulas to Clutter Types (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))" on page 149
5.3.3.6.1 Defining General Settings (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))
The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model can take into account losses due to diffraction, using a 1-knife-edge
Deygout method and can limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
To set general parameters on the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Erceg-Greenstein (SUI). The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Click the Parameters tab. You can modify the following settings:
- Add diffraction loss: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to add losses due to diffraction.
- Limitation to free space loss: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to limit the path loss cal-
culated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.6.2 Defining a Default Environment Formula (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))
You can use the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model even if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document
by defining a default formula.
To select the default environment formula:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Erceg-Greenstein (SUI). The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Under Formulas related to clutter classes, select a Default formula.
For information on modifying the selected formula, see "Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Erceg-
Greenstein (SUI))" on page 148.
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.6.3 Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))
You can create or modify the environment formulas used by the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model.
Note: When using the ITU 370-7 model, do not define the cell edge coverage probability in the
coverage prediction properties with a value other than 50%, or cell edge coverage probabil-
ity will be considered twice.
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To create or modify an environment formula:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Erceg-Greenstein (SUI). The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Click the Formulas button. The Formulas dialogue appears. You can do the following:
- Add: To create a new formula, click the Add button and modify the parameters of the formula.
- Delete: To delete a formula, select the formula and click the Delete button.
- Modify: To modify an existing formula, select the formula and modify the parameters.
7. Click OK to save your changes close the Formulas dialogue.
8. Click OK.
5.3.3.6.4 Assigning Environment Formulas to Clutter Types (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))
By assigning an environment formula to each clutter class, the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model can use the
assigned formula for each pixel of the clutter class when calculating.
To assign an environment formula to clutter classes:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Erceg-Greenstein (SUI). The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. For each clutter class under Formulas related to clutter classes, select a formula from the list.
Atoll uses the default environment formula for calculations on any clutter class to which you have not assigned
an environment formula.
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.7 The WLL (Wireless Local Loop) Propagation Model
The WLL propagation model is designed for radio local loop applications in the 30-10,000 MHz band. The model is derived
from the ITU 526-5 model.
Along the Tx-Rx profile, both ground altitude and clutter height are considered to calculate diffraction losses. Atoll takes
clutter height information in clutter heights file if available in the ATL document. Otherwise, it considers average clutter
height specified for each clutter class in the clutter classes file description. If the ATL document does not contain any clutter
height file and no average height per clutter class is specified, Atoll will consider ground altitude only.
The WLL propagation model allows you to set the following parameters:
Free space loss: You can modify the parameters of the formula used to calculate path loss in free space.
Line of sight only: If the Line of sight only option is selected, Atoll checks for each pixel if the receiver is in the
transmitter line of sight. The receiver is considered to be in the transmitter line of sight if 100% of the Fresnel half-
ellipsoid is clear, in other words, if no obstacle is on the transmitter-receiver profile. If the Line of sight only option
is not selected, Atoll computes the path loss for each pixel, using the formula defined in the dialogue.
Transmitter clearance: You can set a clearance around each transmitter. This clearance can be used, for
example, to model streets in areas where the clutter class file does not show enough detail. It will be taken into
consideration when calculating diffraction.
Receiver clearance: You can set a clearance around each receiver. You can set a default clearance, that will be
used for each clutter class, or you can set a clearance per clutter class. This clearance will be taken into consid-
eration when calculating diffraction.
Receiver height: You can set a receiver height per clutter class. Because the WLL propagation model is designed
for networks with immobile receivers, the receivers are often on top of buildings. This option allows you to specify
a height which will be added to the clutter class.
To set the parameters on the WLL propagation model:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click WLL. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab. You can set the following parameters:
- Free space loss: You can modify the parameters of the formula used to calculate path loss in free space.
- Transmitter clearance: You can set the clearance around the transmitter. The default value is 20 m.
- Receiver default clearance: You can set the default clearance around the receiver. This default clearance
will be used for each clutter class where the receiver clearance is not specified. The default value is 20 m.
- Receiver height per clutter class: You can set a height for the receiver for each clutter class.
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6. Click OK.
5.3.3.7.1 The ITU 526-5 Propagation Model
The ITU 526-5 model is suitable for coverage predictions in the 30 to 10,000 MHz band with fixed receivers. It uses the
terrain profile and a diffraction mechanism (3 knife-edge Deygout method) to calculate path loss.
According to the ITU 526-5 recommendations:
If there are no obstacles, propagation takes place in free space;
If there is an obstacle, attenuation will be taken into account.
If there is an obstacle, an attenuation will be caused on contact with the relief with diffraction on the main peak (represented
by a red line in the Profile tab of the point analysis window). The main peak taken into account is the one that intersects
the most with the Fresnel ellipsoid. Any attenuation that occurs is then calculated between the station and the main peak
and between the main peak and the receiver. The result may then show up to two new attenuation peaks in addition to the
main peak. The various peaks are identified by red lines. The attenuation generated by all the peaks is displayed above
the main peak.
To set the parameters on the ITU 526-5 propagation model:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU526. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab.
6. If desired, select the Apply to empirical correction check box and enter a formula that will be to the Deygout
method.
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.8 The Microwave Propagation Model
The Microwave Propagation Model is a propagation model based on the Hata formulas. It takes the terrain profile and
diffraction into account and uses both clutter classes and effective antenna height to calculate path loss.
The Microwave Propagation Model is based on the following formula:
where:
These parameters can be defined on the tabs (General, Parameters, and Clutter) of the Microwave Propagation Model
Properties dialogue.
For any Hata-based propagation model, you can limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
In this section, the following are explained:
"Recommendations for Working with the Standard Propagation Model" on page 137
"Calculating Diffraction With the SPM" on page 137
"Sample Values for SPM Formulas" on page 137
"Correction Factor for Hilly Regions" on page 138
"Calculating f(clutter) with the Standard Propagation Model" on page 138
"Sample Values for Losses Per Clutter Class (SPM)" on page 139
"Defining the Parameters of the Standard Propagation Model" on page 139
"Using the SPM Automatic Calibration Wizard" on page 142.
Caution: The database type must fit to the selected prediction type on the Prediction tab.
P
R
Received power (dBm)
P
Tx
Transmitted power (EIRP) (dBm)
K
1
Constant offset (dB)
K
2
Multiplying factor for log(d)
d Distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m)
K
3
Multiplying factor for log(HTxeff)

Effective height of the transmitter antenna (m)


K
4
Multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. K4 has to be a positive number
Diffraction Losses due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB)
K
clutter
Multiplying factor for f(clutter)
f(clutter) average of weighted losses due to clutter
)) ( ) log( ) log( (
4 3 2 1
clutter f K n Diffractio K H K d K K P P
clutter Tx Tx R
eff
+ + + + =
eff
Tx
H
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5.3.3.8.1 Recommendations for Working with the Microwave Propagation Model
It is important to remember that clutter information can be taken into consideration in both diffraction loss and f(clutter). To
avoid taking clutter information into account twice, you should chose one of the following:
If you specify losses per clutter class, do not consider clutter heights in diffraction loss over the transmitter-receiver
profile. This approach is recommended if the clutter height information is statistical.
If you consider clutter heights, do not define any loss per clutter class. In this case, f(clutter) will be equal to "0;"
losses due to clutter will only be taken into consideration if you consider clutter heights in diffraction loss. This
approach is recommended if the clutter height information is semi-deterministic or deterministic.
If the clutter height information is an average height defined for each clutter class, you must specify a receiver clearance
per clutter class. Both ground altitude and clutter height are considered along the whole transmitter-receiver profile except
over a specific distance around the receiver (clearance), in which Atoll bases its calculations only on the DTM. The clear-
ance information is used to model streets because it is assumed that the receiver is in the street.
Clearance definition is not necessary when height information is from a clutter height file. In this case, the clutter height
information is accurate enough to be used without additional information such as clearance; Atoll calculates the path loss
if the receiver is in the street (if the receiver height is higher than the clutter height). If the receiver height is lower than the
clutter height, the receiver is assumed to be inside a building. In this case, the path loss is undefined.
5.3.3.8.2 Calculating Diffraction With the Microwave Propagation Model
You can set the parameters used to calculate diffraction losses on the Parameters and Clutter tabs of the Microwave
Propagation Model Properties dialogue.
On the Parameters tab, you can define the K4 factor and the calculation method used for diffraction. The methods available
are:
Deygout
Epstein-Peterson
Deygout with correction
Millington
ITU 452-11
For detailed information on each method, see the Technical Reference Guide. The methods for calculating diffraction are
based on the general method for one or more obstacles described in the ITU 526-5 recommendations. The calculations
take the curvature of the earth into account. Along the transmitter-receiver profile, you can choose to take both the ground
altitude and the clutter height into account, or the ground altitude only. If you choose to take clutter height into account,
Atoll uses the clutter height information in the clutter heights file if. Otherwise, it uses average clutter height specified for
each clutter class in the clutter classes.
In order to define the diffraction profile precisely, you must define a clearance for each clutter class on the Clutter tab of
the Microwave Propagation Model Properties dialogue.
5.3.3.8.3 Sample Values for Microwave Propagation Model Formulas
The following table gives the default values for the constants used in the Microwave Propagation Model formulas.
Since K1 is a constant, its value is strongly dependant on the values given to losses per clutter class.
5.3.3.8.4 Defining the Parameters of the Microwave Propagation Model
You can define the parameters of the Microwave Propagation Model using the Microwave Propagation Model Proper-
ties dialogue.
To define the calculation parameters of the Microwave Propagation Model Properties dialogue:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Microwave Propagation Model. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab (see Figure 5.7).
Default Values
K1 32.4
K2 20
K3 20
K4 1
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Figure 5.7: Microwave Propagation Model Properties - Parameters tab
Under Heights, you can set the following parameter:
- Consider Heights in Diffraction: Select "1 - Yes" to have Atoll take clutter height information into account
when calculating diffraction. Otherwise, select "0 - No".
Under LOS Attenuation, you can set the following parameters:
- K1, K2, and K3: Enter the K1, K2, and K3 values that will be used to calculate LOS attenuation.
Under Diffraction, you can set the following parameters:
- Method: Select the method that will be used to calculate diffraction.
- K4: Enter the K4 value that will be used to calculate diffraction.
Under Tropospheric Scatter, you can set the following parameters:
- Method: Select the method that will be used to calculate tropospheric scattering:
- No attenuation: No attenuation will be calculated.
- ITU-R P617-1: Attenuation will be calculated according to the ITU-R P617-1 recommendations for 50%,
90%, or 99.99% of the time.
- ITU-R P452: Attenuation will be calculated according to the ITU-R P452 recommendations.
- Simplified Method: Attenuation will be estimated using an Atoll-specific equation.
- N0: Enter the value for N0, which is the surface refractivity of the centre of the path.
- Ktropo: Enter the value for the weight factor. Atoll multiplies the loss given by the selected method to calcu-
late the tropospheric scatter loss.
Under Other Parameters, you can set the following parameter:
- Kclutter: Enter the Kclutter value.
6. Click the Clutter tab (see Figure 5.8).
Figure 5.8: Microwave Propagation Model Properties - Clutter tab
Under Clutter Consideration, you can set the following parameters:
- Clearance per Clutter Class: Enter a clearance around each receiver for each clutter class.
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- Clutter Categories: Select a clutter category for each clutter class. Clutter categories are ITU-standardised
clutter classes. The following are the available clutter categories.
- Rural open
- Pastures, grassland
- Low crop fields
- High crop fields
- Park land
- Tree covered
- Irregularly spaced sparse trees
- Orchards
- Deciduous trees (irregularly spaced)
- Deciduous trees (regularly spaced)
- Coniferous trees (irregularly spaced)
- Coniferous trees (regularly spaced)
- Mixed tree forest
- Tropical rain forest
7. Click OK.
5.3.3.9 The Longley-Rice Propagation Model
Longley-Rice is a theoretical model suited for coverage predictions in the 40-MHz band in flat areas. The Longley-Rice
propagation model uses the terrain profile to calculate propagation. However, the Longley-Rice model parameters can be
set in the form of a calibration involving the distance and an additional loss value.
To set the parameters on the Longley-Rice propagation model:
1. Click the Modules tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Longley-Rice. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab.
6. Under Add to propagation loss, enter the formula that will be used to calculate additional losses (in constant
terrain , a value of "0" means a signal decreasing in a linear fashion as a function of distance). dkm is the distance
in kilometres from the transmitter,
7. Click OK.
5.4 Tuning Reception Parameters
5.4.1 Setting the Receiver Properties
In Atoll, the calculation of signal levels at any point, for point analysis or coverage purpose, is linked with the definition of
a receiver. Depending on the considered project type, different properties might be set.
To set receiver properties:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Either,
a. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the context menu,
b. Choose the Properties option from the context menu.
Or
- Double click on the Predictions folder
2. Click on the Receiver tab from the open window,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about receiver fields,
4. Enter its height and, for GSM/GPRS/EDGE studies, associated antenna, losses, and the adjacent channel pro-
tection level.
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For UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 studies, the point analysis tool is used for a particular scenario. Depending on the type
of mobility, service or terminal (or Radio configuration in cdmaOne/CDMA2000) chosen, radio parameters are not the
same for the receiver. Consequently, to manage receiver parameters used in the point analysis, you must set the charac-
teristics of each used UMTS parameters (type of service, mobility, terminal) or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 (type of service,
Radio Configurations) in the corresponding properties dialogue.
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, Atoll has also an option which limits the representation for coverages around stations, in
order to consider synchronisation problems. This feature is a graphic representation for coverages and is not taken into
account in calculations.
To define the global maximum range value limiting the coverage display (GSM/GPRS/EDGE studies only) around
stations:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Either,
a. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the context menu,
b. Choose the Properties option from the context menu.
Or
- Double click on the Predictions folder
2. Click on the System tab (if available) from the open window,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the current window,
4. Set maximum range value,
5. Click OK or Apply to validate.
5.4.2 Computing Shadowing Margins
Propagation models are mathematical tools used for the prediction of losses along a path with the better accuracy possi-
ble. In reality, if we were to stay on a same location or a same clutter class measuring a signal level, we would observe
some variations of results due to slow fading/shadowing, i.e., surrounding environment. We would observe that real results
are spread on a gaussian curve, around an average value, and with a specific standard deviation. If we consider the model
correctly calibrated, its result should check to this average value. So, in that case, we assume that the model gives a result
which is at least correct in an average case, that is to say, in 50% of the measured cases. 50% means that 50% of the
measurements will be better that the predicted value, the other values, being worst.
This can be taken into account by considering a model standard deviation at the receiver (where you compute a signal
level). Either the model standard deviation is clutter class dependent (one value specified for each clutter class) if a clutter
class map is available, or Atoll considers a default value (no clutter class map available, or default value forced). The
model standard deviation, linked to a required cell edge coverage probability on results (point analysis or coverages) lead
to additional losses or gain called shadowing margin. This is a margin from a result given by propagation model (in dB) for
which the probability of error is 50%. It indicates that, on the real field, results will have at least the value computed by
Atoll with the defined cell edge coverage probability (this means maybe better but not worst).
For example, let's consider the model (correctly calibrated) gives a loss that should lead to a signal level of -70 dBm. The
user wants a probability level of 85%. Let's imagine Atoll provides a shadowing margin of 7 dB for the considered location.
All of this lead to the fact that the real signal will be equal or better than -77 dBm in 85% of cases.
Of course, if you have defined a model standard deviation per clutter class, the same probability level provides the same
shadowing margin to all the receivers located on the same clutter type. On the other hand, different probability levels will
impose different values of shadowing margins even if considering the same clutter type.
Notes
In some cases (fixed receivers), it may be useful to define a specific height per clutter class. This
can be made directly from the properties of some propagation models (e.g., WLL or SPM).
In the Standard Propagation Model, you can choose to systematically locate the receiver above
the clutters.
By default, the antenna is set to an omni one with a 0 dB gain,
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, its is possible to set the adjacent channel protection level. This
parameter is used in interference computations in order to simulate the signal level offset due to
an adjacent channel contribution on the considered channel. For example, if the value is set to
18 dB (default value), this means that the signal level coming from an adjacent channel will be
decreased by 18 dB on the total noise computation on the considered channel.
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, it is also possible to consider the thermal noise (defined at -121
dBm) and to define a receiver noise figure that will be optionally used to calculate interferences
at the receiver in interference or specific GPRS/EGPRS studies (coding schemes or throughput
coverage).
Note: It is also possible to fix min. and max ranges for any single transmitter. This can be set from
the considered transmitter properties. If the max range is defined at this level, the global
value is not considered.
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In addition to the model standard deviation defined per clutter class and which is applied to the path loss, it is possible to
define, for each clutter class:
For GSM/GPRS/EGPRS projects
- A C/I standard deviation (in dB) in order to compute shadowing losses (related to a user-defined cell edge coverage prob-
ability) on the C/I values
For WCDMA/UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 projects
- A Ec/Io standard deviation (in dB) in order to compute shadowing losses (related to a user-defined cell edge coverage
probability) on the Ec/Io values,
- UL and DL Eb/Nt standard deviations (in dB) in order to compute shadowing losses (related to a user-defined cell edge
coverage probability) on the Eb/Nt values,
To display the computed shadowing margins as a function of probability level:
To display the computed shadowing margins per clutter class as a function of cell edge coverage probability:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Choose the Shadowing margins... option from the scrolling menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
5. Set the cell edge coverage probability,
6. Click the button to start computation,
7. Click OK to close the dialogue.
5.4.3 Using Cell Edge Coverage Probability in Predictions
Atoll models the probability of error on the predicted path loss; errors on calculations depend on the transmitter-receiver
path and the receiver position. They are due to some obstacles, which are not taken into account by the propagation model
(in case geographic data are not up-to-date or appropriate enough, or when there are point obstacles). Some paths will
suffer increased loss, while other will be less obstructed and have an increased signal strength. This phenomenon is called
shadowing or slow fading; variation occurs over distances comparable to the width of obstacles (buildings, hills, etc.) along
the path. It is crucial to account for this in order to predict the reliability of coverage provided by any mobile cellular system.
From a user-defined model (or Ec/Io, Eb/Nt, C/I) standard deviation (either depending on the clutter class where the
receiver is located, or a default value) and a probability level, Atoll evaluates a shadowing margin and adds it to the path
loss (or Ec/Io, Eb/Nt, C/I) predicted by the model. All coverage studies integrate the possibility to enter a probability level
(in their property dialogue).
Notes
Atoll provides a shadowing margin for each clutter class when a clutter class map is available in
the ATL document. Otherwise, it displays one default shadowing margin computed from the
default model standard deviation (Clutter classes folder property dialogue)
When the cell edge coverage probability is different from 50%, shadowing margins values are
different from zero.
In UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 projects, uplink and downlink macro-diversity gains (2 links
and 3 links) can be also given in this window by selecting the appropriate standard deviation.
- The model (or Eb/Nt DL) standard deviation deals for the path loss (or Eb/Nt),
- Ec/Io (or Eb/Nt UL) standard deviations can be selected to display the Ec/Io (or Eb/Nt UL)
shadowing loss, Ec/Io DL (or Eb/Nt UL) macro-diversity gain. DL macro-diversity gains are
calculated by considering the fixed cell edge coverage probability, the Ec/Io standard devia-
tion at the receiver, the Ec/Io difference between the best server and the second one and the
Ec/Io difference between the second best server and the third one (these two values may be
specified in the dialogue). UL macro-diversity gains are calculated by considering the fixed
cell edge coverage probability, the Eb/Nt UL standard deviation at the receiver, the uplink
Eb/Nt difference between the best server and the second one and the uplink Eb/Nt difference
between the second best server and the third one (these two values may be specified in the
dialogue).
When the cell edge coverage probability is 50%, macro-diversity gains (2 and 3 links) taken into
account for coverage studies and point analysis are either the one calculated in this window if
the option Shadowing taken into account option is selected, or else the default global value
(defined in the Transmitter global parameters).
In UMTS and cdmaOne/CDMA2000 simulations, these losses are evaluated by computing
random shadowing errors and are added to the model path loss.
Formulas used to compute shadowing margin, macro-diversity gains (2 and 3 links) are detailed
in the Technical reference guide.
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When calculating coverage with a x% probability level, Atoll displays the areas where the measured field exceeds the
predicted signal during x% of time. When increasing the probability level, the predicted signal deviates from average and
hence, the shadowing margin raises.
5.5 Coverage Studies
A coverage is a set of covered pixels. The coverage is a result of path loss matrix computations depending on the choice
of propagation models, calculation areas and computation and coverage resolutions. Coverage areas defined by coverage
conditions in order to select the transmitters that must be taken into account for the study. Then, according to this selection,
any pixel will be covered as depending on the display type chosen, either by transmitter, by signal level, by overlapping
zones in the standard case (for all projects). So, a coverage is a graphic representation of points for which a coverage
condition is satisfied.
Depending on the type of project considered, some specific studies (treated in their specific parts) are also available:
Interference studies in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects
Specific GPRS/EDGE studies dealing with coding schemes or rates colouring,
Specific UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 studies based either on simulations or user-defined traffic loads.
Like for many other Atoll objects, the management of coverage studies is both easy and powerful. The generic Atoll
display dialogue (including legend, label et tip management) is used and allows you to display your study on several
attributes related to transmitters. Furthermore, some organization features (filter, sort and groups) are also available on
the displayed result.
Many features help in the management of coverage in Atoll. Indeed, it is possible to lock/unlock either complete studies
or individual matrices, to display, print or export exhaustive coverage reports, to export matrices or coverage zones, to
check the validity of current results regarding to the current radio configurations, and other tools always with a view to make
handy coverage studies in Atoll.
It is also possible to calculate path loss matrices independently from any coverage study.
5.5.1 Coverage Prediction: General Settings
5.5.1.1 Setting Calculation Areas
In Atoll, calculation areas are defined at the transmitter level. Atoll is able to calculate two path loss matrices per trans-
mitter, a first matrix over a near radius computed with a high resolution and a propagation model, and a second matrix
over a far radius computed with a low resolution and another propagation model.
In addition, the calculation areas of each transmitter occur only within the computation zone.
To define calculation area(s) simultaneously to all transmitters:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
4. Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
5. In the main matrix part, enter a calculation radius (with a propagation model and a resolution used to compute
the main path loss matrix),
6. Optionally, in the extended matrix part, enter a calculation radius (with a propagation model and a resolution
used to compute the extended path loss matrix),
7. Click OK to validate.
Notes
In case of a correctly calibrated propagation model, typical model standard deviations should be
around 6 dB to 9 dB.
We remind you that model calibration and its result (standard deviation) strongly depend on the
CW measurement samples you use. A calibrated model must restore the behaviour of CW meas-
urements depending on their configuration on a large scale, not totally check to a few number of
CW measurements. The calibrated model has to give correct results for every new CW meas-
urement point performed in the same geographical zone, without having been calibrated on
these CW measurements.
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE interference computation, Shadowing margins (depending on the entered
probability level and the C/I standard deviation at the receiver) are applied only to signal level
values.
In UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 interference computation, Shadowing margins (depending on
the entered probability level and the Ec/Io - or Eb/Nt - standard deviation at the receiver) are
applied only to Ec (or Eb) values.
Note: When using the ITU 370 model, take care not to define probability level, the probability level
being already included as a parameter.
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To define calculation area(s) to one transmitter at a time:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Transmitters folder by clicking on the button,
Either:
a. Right-click on the transmitter to which you want to define a specific calculation area,
b. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Or
- Double click on the transmitter to which you want to assign a specific calculation area,
3. Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
4. In the main matrix part, enter a calculation radius (with a propagation model and a resolution used to compute
the main path loss matrix),
5. Optionally, in the extended matrix part, enter a calculation radius (with a propagation model and a resolution
used to compute the extended path loss matrix),
6. Click OK to validate.
You can also define these parameters in the Transmitters table.
5.5.1.2 Setting Calculation Resolutions
In Atoll, it is possible to calculate two path loss matrices per transmitter, a first matrix over a near radius computed with a
high resolution and a propagation model, and a second matrix over a far radius computed with a low resolution and another
propagation model. The resolution of matrices is not a global parameter since it can be managed for each transmitter
depending on its location.
In addition, it is possible to differentiate resolution of path loss matrices from plot resolution. Prediction plot resolution can
be actually defined on a per study basis. Thus, you can calculate several coverage studies with different resolutions with-
out invalidating and recalculating path loss matrices.
To define calculation resolution(s) simultaneously to all transmitters:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
4. Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
5. In the main matrix part, enter a calculation resolution (with a propagation model and a calculation radius used
to compute the main path loss matrix),
6. Optionally, in the extended matrix part, enter a calculation resolution (with a propagation model and a resolu-
tion used to compute the extended path loss matrix),
7. Click OK to validate.
Notes
The calculation radius limits the scope of the calculations to the radius that has been defined.
The calculation radius prevents the system from calculating over too long distances (e.g., in an
urban area). In the case of very large environments, the calculation radius allows you to improve
the calculation time. If no main calculation radius has been defined (and no secondary propaga-
tion model), Atoll takes into account automatically the prediction minimum threshold to define
the calculation radius for each transmitter. Nevertheless, this could drive to long calculation times
Since it is a matrix (or 2 in case of extended calculation radius) which is computed for each trans-
mitter, the calculation radius represents the half side length of the potential matrix located around
the considered transmitter.
Atoll computes an extended matrix only if the three parameters, propagation model, calculation
radius and resolution, are specified. Therefore, an extended matrix will not be worked out if its
resolution is null.
Atoll computes at the same time the main and extended matrices of a transmitter with a global
management. Therefore, it will recalculate both matrices even if only one is invalid.
The main calculation radius (and the related propagation model) can be also set at the station
template level.
When modifying a computation zone (e.g., reduction of the area) in which some predictions
studies have already been made, it is strongly recommended to run again predictions in order to
ensure validity of results with current computation zone.
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To define calculation resolution(s) to one transmitter at a time:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Transmitters folder by clicking on the button,
Either:
a. Right-click on the transmitter to which you want to define a specific calculation resolution,
b. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Or
- Double click on the transmitter to which you want to assign a specific calculation resolution,
3. Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
4. In the main matrix part, enter a calculation resolution (with a propagation model and a calculation radius used
to compute the main path loss matrix),
5. Optionally, in the extended matrix part, enter a calculation resolution (with a propagation model and a calcu-
lation radius used to compute the extended path loss matrix),
6. Click OK to validate.
You can also define these parameters in the Transmitters table.
In addition to the default propagation model, a default grid resolution can be specified in the property dialogue of the
Predictions folder.
Atoll takes into account the default grid resolution when no value or zero is defined for the main resolution in the transmitter
properties. In this case, the main path loss matrix of the transmitter will be worked out with the default grid resolution.
To define a default calculation resolution:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
4. Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
5. Enter the default calculation resolution,
6. Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the current dialogue,
7. Click OK to validate.
5.5.1.3 Creating Coverage Calculations
Whatever the project type is, all existing predictions are listed in the Predictions folder (Data tab). When starting a new
project, no prediction is available.
To create any prediction:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Click in the scrolling menu on New...,
4. Choose from the list a prediction template in the open window,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the associated prediction window,
6. Set prediction parameters,
7. Click OK to validate your choice.
At this step, no calculation is made. The prediction with the parameters is just ready to be run.
Notes
The calculation radius limits the scope of the calculations to the radius that has been defined.
The calculation radius prevents the system from calculating over too long distances (e.g., in an
urban area). In the case of very large environments, the calculation radius allows you to improve
the calculation time. If no main calculation radius has been defined (and no secondary propaga-
tion model), Atoll takes into account automatically the prediction minimum threshold to define
the calculation radius for each transmitter. Nevertheless, this could drive to long calculation times
Atoll computes an extended matrix only if the three parameters, propagation model, calculation
radius and resolution, are specified. Therefore, an extended matrix will not be worked out if its
resolution is null.
Atoll computes at the same time the main and extended matrices of a transmitter with a global
management. Therefore, it will recalculate both matrices even if only one is invalid.
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5.5.1.4 Creating Coverage Studies per Transmitter Group
In Atoll, it is possible to automatically create prediction studies restricted to a given transmitter or transmitter group.
To create a coverage study by transmitter or by transmitter group:
Either,
a. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it
c. Right-click on the transmitter/transmitter subfolder you want to manage,
Or,
- Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
1. Choose the Predictions... option from the context menu,
2. Choose a prediction study in the open window and press OK,
3. Click on the Calculate button to run calculations. The created study is listed in the Predictions folder.
5.5.1.5 Accessing Coverage Prediction Properties
Coverage predictions are manageable identically as point analysis prediction. Firstly, because propagation models may
be specified either in the Predictions folder or in the Transmitters folder, you must be very careful to its priority order. The
main propagation model defined with transmitters is taken first before the one defined with Predictions (See Selecting and
managing propagation models). Then take care about the fact that reception is modelled as if it was made using a specific
receiver and its associated parameters.
Predictions are organised as the other Atoll objects, i.e., in a folder form. The Predictions folder is the parent item for all
the performed coverage predictions. So, it is possible to access the properties either of the Predictions folder or of any
prediction.
To access predictions global properties:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
either
a. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
or
- Double click on the Predictions folder
2. Click either the Predictions, Receiver or the System tab (if available),
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in each dialogue,
4. Set predictions global parameters,
5. Click OK to validate your choice.
Notes
User interface of each prediction study Properties is standardised. For any common study, the
Properties window consists in three tabs:
- The General tab where you may rename the study, define the coverage resolution, add some
comments, define group, sort and filter criteria, on the coverage display only (not on the
results),
- The Condition tab where you can specify the study parameters,
- The Display tab to define coverage display settings.
Like propagation models, any existing coverage study can be duplicated using the Duplicate
command of its related context menu (Right-click). The new prediction study keeps the same
coverage and display settings than the original ones.
Coverage prediction studies can also be cloned, using the Clone command in the context menu.
A clone of any coverage prediction study not only keeps the same coverage and display settings
as the original, but also copies the calculated coverage prediction plot, which can be directly dis-
played on the map.
Notes
The general tab of the prediction dialogue can be also used to restrict the results display identi-
cally,
Coverages per transmitter or group of transmitters work like when filtering transmitters in cov-
erage studies, i.e., the filter is made on display only, and not on computations.
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To access the properties of any single existing prediction:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Predictions folder by clicking on the button,
Either
a. Right-click on the prediction study of which you want to access properties,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
- Double click on the prediction study of which you want to access properties,
3. Click on the available tabs to display the different windows,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in each window,
5. Check or adjust prediction parameters,
6. Click OK to validate your choice.
5.5.1.6 Setting Coverage Resolutions
In the property dialogue of each prediction study (General tab), it is possible to specify the plot resolution. Prediction plots
are generated from multi-resolution path loss matrices. Nevertheless, the plot resolution is independent from matrix reso-
lutions and can be defined on a per study basis.
Therefore, in Atoll, you can:
Change the plot resolution without making multi-resolution path loss matrices invalid. This enables you to save
calculation and recalculation times.
Display prediction plots with a resolution different from path loss matrix resolutions.
5.5.1.7 Organising Result Outputs of a Coverage Study
In Atoll, it is possible to filter the results of a coverage study by excluding some zones involved in the initial result. These
filters only deals with display. Of course, during calculation, Atoll takes into account all the active and filtered transmit-
ters (at the transmitter folder level) to calculate the prediction and displays only coverage related to this transmitter.
Practical example: the network consists in 4 stations (Tx0, Tx1, Tx2 and Tx3).
Coverage by transmitter study: with best server, no margin and filter on Tx0.
Atoll displays the areas where the signal level from Tx0 is higher than the specified threshold and Tx0 is the best server.
Interfered areas study: any calculation option and filter on Tx0.
Tx1, Tx2 and Tx3 are possible interferers; they are taken into account in calculations. The covered areas are the areas
where Tx0 is interfered by one of these items.
To make a filter on any study, open its associated properties, and use the standard filter tools by clicking the
button.
5.5.1.8 Defining the Coverage Conditions
In Atoll, all the common coverage studies use the same dialogue made of 3 tabs (General, Condition, Display). The condi-
tion tab of any coverage study property dialogue allows you to filter the active transmitters (with calculation area) that will
be part of the computation.
So, in this tab, you must specify (using the What's this help to get information about available fields in the condition tab
window):
The study criterion you want Atoll to calculate: you can choose to evaluate the signal level at the receiver (Signal
level), the path loss (Path loss) or the total losses (Total losses), as in point analysis,
Minimum and maximum thresholds: a bin of the map will be covered only if the calculated criterion for each con-
sidered transmitter on the bin is between minimum and maximum thresholds.
Servers you want to study from the evaluation of their service area. You may choose to keep, on each pixel All
the servers, the one with the Highest signal level or the one with the Second highest signal level, as far as they
check the other conditions (e.g., minimum reception threshold)
A margin in case of a best signal study.
Notes
Filters defined in the Transmitters folder and filters inside a polygon have priority over the pre-
diction filters. Transmitters, which do not check these filter criteria, are considered as inactive in
predictions.
In the General tab, Group and Sort features enable you to organise study result in the Explorer.
You can group or sort a study according to any transmitter attribute. These commands are
always available except when selecting display of best signal level, best server path loss, best
server total losses or number of servers.
It is also possible to set the plot resolution in the General tab of any coverage study.
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- In case of all the servers are considered (All), the coverage area of Txi is the zone where:
- In case of best signal level (Best signal level) and a margin, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
and
where
M is the specified margin (dB).
Best function: considers the highest value.
- In case of second best signal level and a margin, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:
and
where
M is the specified margin (dB).
2nd Best function: considers the second highest value.
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, some specific server conditions related with the potential use of HCS layers are available
for the service area determination.
It is possible to consider or not indoor coverage by checking/unchecking the related box. Indoor losses are defined per
clutter class. Considering a reception pixel of a specific clutter class, this loss is added to the total path loss regarding to
the defined value (in dB).
The last parameters to define in the Condition tab, whatever the project type is, are:
If you want to take into account shadowing and in this case the study cell edge coverage probability. Entering 60%
as cell edge coverage probability means that the measured criterion exceeds the predicted one, 60% of the time.
The selection of an item defining power in transmitters (TRX types in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, carrier in UMTS
or cdmaOne/CDMA2000).
5.5.1.9 Managing Prediction Display
Like for the other Atoll objects classified under folders, prediction results can be either displayed (by checking the box
just left to each prediction) or not (by unchecking the box just left to each prediction) on the map. You may even display
all the calculated predictions by checking the box just left to the Predictions folder (See Managing object visibility). Cover-
ages are organised as layers. The layer order can be modified in order to make some of them displayed on the top.
Notes
If the margin equals 0 dB (best signal level and no margin), Atoll will consider bins where the
signal level received from Txi is the highest one.
If the margin is set to 2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
either the highest one or 2dB lower than the highest one.
If the margin is set to -2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
2dB higher than the signal levels from transmitters, which are 2nd best servers.
Notes
If the margin equals 0 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is the
second highest one.
If the margin is set to 2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
either the second highest one or 2dB lower than the second highest one.
If the margin is set to -2 dB, Atoll will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is
2dB higher than the signal levels from transmitters, which are 3rd best servers.
Note: This tab deals with the determination of covering transmitter only. The way they cover the
bin is managed in the Display tab.
( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum

<
Losses Total L P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec
( ) ( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum <

Losses Total L
ic
P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec
( ) ( ) ( ) M ic P Best ic P
Txj
rec
i j
Txi
rec


( ) ( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum <

Losses Total L
ic
P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec
( ) ( ) ( ) M ic P Best ic P
Txj
rec
i j
nd Txi
rec


2
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Concerning the coverage itself, Atoll uses the generic display dialogue in order to make easy and complete its manage-
ment. So, when creating a prediction study, once the filter on the transmitters to take into account in computations and
coverage (and interference) condition are set (condition tab), the display tab allows you to colour the defined zones
depending on selected attributes (using the What's this help to get information about available fields in the display tab
window). Attributes can be chosen in order to realize either common studies (coverage by transmitter, by signal level, over-
lapping zones), or specific studies (e.g., interference studies in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, handover status, pilot pollu-
tion, etc., in UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 projects), or studies depending on any other attribute (attributes of sites,
antennas, transmitters and cells in UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 projects).
These attributes can be, for example:
Signal level (in dBm, dBV, dBV/m): On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, Atoll calculates signal
level received from the transmitter. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if signal level exceeds (=) entered min-
imum thresholds (bin colour depends on signal level). Coverage consists in several independent layers for which
you may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers as transmitter coverage areas. Each layer
shows the different signal levels available in the transmitter coverage area.
Best signal level (in dBm, dBV, dBV/m): On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, Atoll calculates
signal levels received from transmitters, which coverage areas overlap the studied one, and chooses the highest
value. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if the signal level exceeds (=) entered thresholds (the bin colour
depends on the signal level). Coverage consists in several independent layers for which you may manage visibility
in the workspace. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the
signal level from the best server exceeds a defined minimum threshold.
Path loss (dB): On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, Atoll calculates path loss from the transmitter. A
bin of a coverage area is coloured if path loss exceeds (=) entered minimum thresholds (bin colour depends on
path loss). Coverage consists in several independent layers for which you may manage visibility in the workspace.
There are as many layers as coverage areas. Each layer shows the different path loss levels in the transmitter
coverage area.
Total losses (dB): On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, Atoll calculates total losses from the trans-
mitter. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if total losses exceed (=) entered minimum thresholds (bin colour
depends on total losses). Coverage consists in several independent layers for which you may manage visibility in
the workspace. There are as many layers as coverage areas. Each layer shows the different total losses levels in
the coverage area.
Best server path loss (dB): On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, Atoll calculates signal levels
received from transmitters, which coverage areas overlap the studied one, determines the best transmitter and
evaluates path loss from the best transmitter. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if the path loss exceeds (=)
entered thresholds (bin colour depends on path loss). Coverage consists in several independent layers for which
you may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corre-
sponds to an area where the path loss from the best server exceeds a defined minimum threshold.
Best server total losses (dB): On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, Atoll calculates signal levels
received from transmitters, which coverage areas overlap the studied one, determines the best transmitter and
evaluates total losses from the best transmitter. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if the total losses exceed (=)
entered thresholds (bin colour depends on total losses). Coverage consists in several independent layers for
which you may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer
corresponds to an area where the total losses from the best server exceed a defined minimum threshold.
Number of servers: Atoll evaluates how many coverage areas cover a bin in order to determine the number of
servers. The bin colour depends on the number of servers. Coverage consists in several independent layers for
which you may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer
corresponds to an area where the number of servers exceeds (=) a defined minimum threshold.
Cell edge coverage probability (%): On each bin of each transmitter service area, the coverage corresponds to
the pixels where the signal level from this transmitter fulfils signal conditions (defined in Conditions tab) with dif-
ferent cell edge coverage probabilities. In the explorer, there is one coverage area per transmitter.
Best cell edge coverage probability (%): On each bin of each transmitter service area, the coverage corre-
sponds to the pixels where the best signal level received fulfils signal conditions (defined in Conditions tab). In the
explorer, there is one coverage area per cell edge coverage probability.
Caution: In case of a signal level, path loss or total losses display, the lowest defined threshold must
be equal to the minimum threshold entered in the Condition tab.
Notes
Atoll provides default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction
studies (coverage by signal level, coverage by transmitter and overlapping), but it is possible to
cover by signal level even if choosing a coverage by transmitter study.
The definition of a study (coverage condition and display parameters) can be chosen for a study
template.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.
In UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 projects, transmitter coverage areas may be displayed
according to any cell attribute. If you study a given carrier, Atoll only displays the coverage areas
of transmitters using the selected carrier. If the study is based on all the carriers, all the trans-
mitter coverage areas will be displayed. For each transmitter, Atoll concatenates the value of
each carrier for the selected attribute and proposes a colour for each string of values.
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5.5.1.10 Running Coverage Calculations
In Atoll, coverage studies can be firstly created and tuned, and then calculated. So, it is possible to prepare a complete
set of coverage studies, and let them work all together only when necessary.
To run calculations on created predictions:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Calculations will be made only on unlocked predictions ( ),
Either,
- From the menu toolbar, click either the Calculate button
1
or the Force calculation button
2
,
Or,
a. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Choose either the Calculate or Force calculation command from the open scrolling menu,
3. The event viewer opens showing the calculations progress in the Tasks tab (you may stop calculations even by
clicking the Stop button or pressing the Esc key),
4. When finished, results are then displayed on the current map (if the visibility flag is checked).
5.5.1.11 Locking Coverage Studies
Atoll allows you to lock some coverage predictions (and to freeze their result display) whereas you desire to commit calcu-
lations on other studies. So, this feature enables the user to easily compare prediction results made with different param-
eters individually. This can be made either globally or for each single prediction.
To lock/unlock any single prediction study:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Predictions folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the prediction study you want to lock/unlock the calculations,
4. Select/Unselect the Study Locked option from the open scrolling menu,
To lock/unlock all the existing prediction studies:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Select either the Lock studies or Unlock studies from the open scrolling menu.
Locked predictions are displayed with the icon, whereas unlocked predictions are given by the icon.
1. In this case, locked path loss result matrices (in the Result storage window from the Predictions context menu) are not
calculated again. Only invalid path loss matrices (compared to the current radio parameters) will be computed again.
If locked, even invalid matrices are not recalculated
2. In this case, even locked matrices are all deleted and recalculated. If there are some valid matrices, Atoll warns you
about the potential destruction of existing data
Notes
The calculate and Force calculation features can be also accessed either:
- by using respectively the F7 and Ctrl+F7 keys,
- from the Tools menu in the menu toolbar,
- from the Predictions folder context menu.
It also possible to run a single unlocked study by selecting the Calculate command from its con-
text menu. Even if the other studies are unlocked, only this prediction will be computed.
After having been calculated, coverage predictions are automatically locked.
Notes
After having been calculated, coverage predictions are automatically locked.
Be careful not to mix up locking predictions with locking path loss results from the Result storage.
Even if some predictions are locked and other unlocked, path loss matrices may stay unchanged
if either they are locked in the Result storage window or if the user does not use the Force cal-
culation button ( ).
Caution: When calculations have to be completed, be sure to have already defined the coordinate
system used in the current project.
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5.5.2 Prediction Study Templates
5.5.2.1 Calculating a Coverage by Transmitter
In Atoll, all studies are classified in a study types box, referencing standard and customized studies. Standard studies are
divided into two parts, common studies and studies which are specific to the current project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS,
cdmaOne/CDMA2000). Common studies for any projects are: coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level and over-
lapping zones.
The coverage by transmitter study enables the user to predict coverage zones by transmitter depending either on their
signal level, their path loss or total losses defined within a user-defined range.
To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the coverage by transmitter option from the study
types window. The next window comprises three tabs: General, Condition, and Display. For all of these, use the What's
this help to get description about the fields available in the windows (See also Defining the coverage condition and
Manage prediction display).
The coverage by transmitter study is a template for which the field 'Transmitter' is selected by default in the display tab. In
that case, coverage zones will be displayed with the same colours than the ones defined for each transmitter.
5.5.2.2 Calculating a Coverage by Signal Level
In Atoll, all studies are classified in a study types box, referencing standard and customized studies. Standard studies are
divided into two parts, common studies and studies which are specific to the current project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS,
cdmaOne/CDMA2000). Common studies for any projects are: coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level and over-
lapping zones.
The coverage by signal level study enables the user to predict coverage zones by field strength from transmitter depending
either on their signal level, their path loss or total losses defined within a user-defined range.
To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the coverage by signal level option from the study
types window. The next window comprises three tabs: General, Condition, and Display. For all of these, use the What's
this help to get description about the fields available in the windows (See also Defining the coverage condition and
Manage prediction display).
The coverage by signal level study is a template for which the field 'Best signal level' is selected by default in the display
tab. In that case, each layer corresponds to an area where the signal level from the best server exceeds a defined minimum
threshold. Numerous option related to signal level coverage are available in the Display tab.
5.5.2.3 Calculating Overlapping Areas
In Atoll, all studies are classified in a study types box, referencing standard and customized studies. Standard studies are
divided into two parts, common studies and studies which are specific to the current project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS,
cdmaOne/CDMA2000). Common studies for any projects are: coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level and over-
lapping zones.
Overlapping is a coverage whose points correspond, for a defined condition, to the common points of areas covered by
the signal of, at least, two transmitters. Therefore, Atoll displays the areas where the signal level from at least two trans-
mitters (signal level option), the path loss of the signal received from at least two transmitters (path loss option), or total
losses along two paths between the considered point and transmitters (total losses option), is between minimum and maxi-
mum user-defined thresholds.
To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the Overlapping option from the study types
window. The next window comprises three tabs: General, Condition, and Display. For all of these, use the What's this
help to get description about the fields available in the windows (See also Defining the coverage condition and Manage
prediction display).
Notes
Atoll offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies
but it is possible to cover by signal level even if choosing a coverage by transmitter study just by
setting this in the display tab.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.
Notes
Atoll offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies
but it is possible to cover by transmitter even if choosing a coverage by signal level study just by
setting this in the display tab.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.
Choosing a display per best signal level creates a study item made of threshold items whereas
choosing a display per signal level let the folder be made of transmitter items. On each of these
items, it is possible to check/uncheck the visibility flag.
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The coverage by overlapping area study is a template for which the field 'Number of servers' is selected by default in the
display tab. In that case, each layer corresponds to an area where the number of servers exceeds a defined minimum
threshold.
5.5.2.4 Creating a Coverage Study Template
Atoll provides a feature allowing you to save the definition of a coverage study (General, condition and display tab prop-
erties) in a study template.
To save the settings of any study in a template:
1. Right-click the coverage study you want to save as a template,
2. Choose the "Save as a template" command from the open context menu,
3. Atoll saves the study parameters in a "Studies.xml" file stored in the Atoll installation directory.
All the study templates saved in this file are available when creating new prediction studies. In the Study types window,
Atoll lists all the classical studies available for a type of project in the standard studies part and the study templates you
have created in the customised studies part.
It is possible to remove a study template from the file. In the Study types window, select a customised study and click on
the Delete button.
5.5.2.5 Deleting a Coverage Study Template
In Atoll, coverage study templates are saved in a "Studies.xml" file stored in the Atoll installation directory. These
templates contain settings of reference studies set in their General, condition and display tab properties.
To delete an existing study template proceed as follows:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Click in the scrolling menu on New.
4. Select from the list the study template (customized studies) you want to delete,
5. Click the button,
6. Click OK to close the dialogue.
5.5.3 Path Loss Management
5.5.3.1 Storage of Path Loss Matrices
The first step of coverage predictions consist in the determination of the path loss matrices associated with each active
and filtered transmitter in the network. This is automatically made for the first coverage prediction. Results (path loss matri-
ces) may be stored either directly in the current atl project or can be externalised either in the same directory than the ATL
project or in any directory you can specify.
To set the location of the path loss matrices of an ATL Atoll project:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Choose the Properties option from the scrolling menu,
4. In the Predictions tab, click the button and choose a location to store multi-resolution path loss matrices:
- Embedded: matrices are included in the ATL document.
- \<ATL_name>.losses: Multi-resolution matrices are stored in an external folder located in the same directory
as the ATL document. Atoll memorises a relative path to access path loss matrices. By default, this folder is
called <ATL_name>.losses (<ATL_name>is the name of the ATL document). Nevertheless, it is possible to
Notes
Atoll offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies
but it is possible to cover by transmitter even if choosing an overlapping study just by adjusting
display.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.
Note: The name given to the reference study is kept as template name.
Note: You can also delete all the customized studies by deleting the Studies.xml file in the Atoll
directory.
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change the folder name afterwards; all the names are supported. When using the Save as command, Atoll
creates a new folder associated to the new ATL document in the same directory; this folder contains path loss
matrices and has the same name as the ATL document. No recalculation occurs if you move the ATL docu-
ment and its related path loss matrix folder in another directory.
- Browse: In this case, specify the directory where you want to save path loss matrices and click on OK. Atoll
memorises the whole path to access path loss matrices. The path can be manually typed or modified. In that
case, Atoll works differently than in the previous option when using the Save as command. It only creates the
new ATL document.
5. Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
6. Click OK to validate.
When externalising path loss results, Atoll creates an external folder containing:
One LOS file per transmitter; it corresponds to its main path loss matrix.
A DBF file giving validity information for all the main matrices.
A folder called LowRes dedicated to extended path loss matrices.
This folder contains one LOS file per transmitter, which has an extended path loss matrix, and a DBF file giving validity
information for all the extended matrices.
Using this option, calculations are no longer stored in the ATL file. This feature enables the user to store bigger calculations
in external files without storage size limitation (2 Gbytes for a file).
5.5.3.2 Locking Path Loss Results
This feature enables you to let freeze any path loss matrix, even if invalid when using the Calculate button ( ). Never-
theless, all existing (even locked) matrices are recalculated if you use the Force calculation button ( ) during calcula-
tions.
There are two ways to lock path loss matrices, either from the Predictions global properties in a table form, or from any
transmitter properties.
To lock/unlock propagation results (one transmitter at a time):
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Transmitters folder by clicking on the button,
Either
a. Right-click on the transmitter you want to lock the associated path loss matrix,
b. Choose the Properties option from the open scrolling menu,
Or
- Double click on the transmitter you want to lock the associated path loss matrix
3. Click on the Propagation tab,
4. Check/Uncheck the Locked box,
5. Use the What's this get description about other fields available in the current window,
6. Click OK to validate.
To lock/unlock propagation results (possibly on several transmitters):
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Choose the Result storage... option from the open scrolling menu,
Either
- Check/Uncheck the Locked box associated with the transmitters you want to lock/unlock the associated
path loss matrix,
Or
a. Select the transmitters you want to lock path loss matrix,
b. Choose the Lock/Unlock option from the Action button,
Caution: The external files are updated without saving the Atoll environment as soon as calculations
are performed. To keep consistency with the stored calculations, the corresponding Atoll
environment must be saved before closing.
Notes
Since the dbf file has a standard format, its contents can be checked by opening it in Access.
This feature allows you to create matrices that can be shared amongst several users.
In the case of a project in which some matrices were initially embedded, Atoll provides a feature
that compresses ATL files when getting out
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4. Use the What's this get description about other fields available in the current window,
5. Click OK to validate.
5.5.3.3 Checking the Validity of Path Loss Results
This feature enables you to check if current path loss results are consistent with the current radio parameters. There are
two ways to check path loss matrices validity, either from the Predictions global properties in a table form, or from any
transmitter properties. If validity is not ok, you may calculate path loss matrices again in order to keep consistency.
Reasons of invalidity are displayed for each transmitter.
To check propagation results validity (one transmitter at a time):
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Transmitters folder by clicking on the button,
Either
a. Right-click on the transmitter you want to check the associated path loss matrix validity,
b. Choose the Properties option from the open scrolling menu,
Or
- Double click on the transmitter you want to check the associated path loss matrices validity,
3. Click on the Propagation tab,
4. Check the label displayed in the Validity line. If the label is "No", the invalidity reason is given just below,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
6. Click OK to validate.
To check propagation results validity (possibly on several transmitters):
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Choose the Properties option from the open scrolling menu,
4. Click on the Propagation tab,
5. Check the label displayed in the Validity column. If the label is "No", the invalidity reason is given on the same
row,
6. Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
7. Click OK to validate.
From this dialogue, it is possible to know how many transmitter path loss data must be recalculated in order to be
consistent with the current radio configuration before starting calculations. Only matrices dealing with active transmit-
ters are taken into account in that case. To do so, click on the button. The number is automatically given in
the dialogue. The number of transmitters available in the current network is also indicated.
Notes
Be careful not to mix up locking matrices with locking calculations.
It is possible to lock/unlock matrices from the context menu of the Propagation tab of the Trans-
mitter global properties.
Notes
It is possible to check the validity of existing path loss matrices from either the [Predictions:
Result storage...] command or the Propagation tab of the Transmitters folder.
Repeaters are also listed along with their donor transmitters in the path loss validity dialogue.
Atoll manages path loss matrix validity, transmitter by transmitter, even in case transmitters
have main and extended path loss matrices. Therefore, even if only one path loss matrix of the
transmitter is invalid, Atoll will recalculate both of them.
In the Results storage dialogue and in the Propagation tab of the Transmitters property dialogue,
Atoll lists calculated transmitters (transmitters with main and extended matrices) without distin-
guishing main path loss matrices from extended ones.
Important: Whatever the propagation model is, during the path loss computation, the resulted is lim-
ited by the value given by the free space loss formula. This means than if a propagation
model gives, on a pixel, a path loss value lower than the one given by the free space loss
formula, this is this last value which is kept.
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5.5.3.4 Exporting Main Path Loss Matrices
Existing main path loss matrices may be exported in external files in order to be used in external applications. For the
export, the user must select the type of value to export (Path loss or Signal levels). If "Signal level" is selected, units have
to be chosen.
Furthermore, Atoll enables the user to select the storage file format (binary, text or table).
To export one or several path loss matrices:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Choose the Result storage... option from the open scrolling menu,
4. Select the transmitter(s) from which you want to export the existing main matrix,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
6. Choose the Export... option from the Action button,
7. Choose the directory, the format, and the field to export,
8. Click OK to validate.
Two files are created by exported matrix. One is the exported field, the other, the geo-reference file related to the involved
transmitter and its related calculation area.
Possible exports are:
Attenuations in dB;
Signal levels in dBm, dBV or dBV/m.
Possible file formats to export values are:
Binary format: BIL;
Text: TXT with tab as separating character;
Table: CSV with semicolon as separating character.
5.5.4 Prediction Coverage Outputs
Atoll contains several features in order to manage prediction results. Prediction results concern both coverages or
matrices.
From available results, it is possible to display associated statistical reports on the coverage zones associated with each
prediction study, and to easily export or print them.
When a coverage display is satisfactory, it is possible to lock it in order to create further comparative coverage with
different parameters. A comparison tool between two different predictions is even available
Depending on their type, coverage results may be exported in vector or raster formats. Exported data are covered areas
and related threshold definition.
Another Atoll feature allows you a complete management of path loss matrices related to transmitters. Firstly, it is possible
to lock only some path loss matrices (even if invalid), while calculating path loss matrices from other transmitters of
the network. Then, it is possible to check the validity of current matrices regarding the current radio parameters. Then,
these path loss matrices my also be exported in order to be used in external applications.
Results (path loss matrix for each transmitter) may be either directly embedded in any current project, or saved in an
external folder, in order to make them available for other users. Indeed, Atoll permits to share propagation results stored
in an external folder between several users. Therefore, this special results storage permits to use in the same project,
both external results for some transmitters and private results for others. This part is treated in the specific multi-users
chapter.
Note: even if several cells can be defined per transmitter in UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000, only one path loss matrix is
computed per transmitter, powers not being parameters of interest for matrix computation.
5.5.4.1 Displaying Prediction Reports
Atoll provides a report editing feature on all available prediction for any project type. These can be done either for each
single prediction or for all displayed prediction ( box checked for predictions in the Predictions folder from which you
want a report). Reports are displayed in a table form and their content
1
can be managed like in any other table.
When a report table is active, columns can be managed by using the columns to display option from the Format menu. On
first opening, the report will only display the name and coverage areas columns.
Caution: Take care not to mix-up with externalising path loss matrices (where each matrix is "made"
of a PAR and LOS file).
Note: Secondary matrices, linked with extended calculation radius, cannot be exported.
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To edit a report about any displayed coverage:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Predictions folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the Prediction from which you want a report to open the associated context menu,
4. Choose the Generate Report option from the scrolling menu,
5. The associated report is then displayed as a new window,
6. Choose the Display columns... option from the Format menu,
7. Check the boxes associated with the related information to display as columns is the current report.
5.5.4.2 Exporting Prediction Reports
The report on any coverage prediction can be exported to any other Office-like application. To do so, like for any
other table in Atoll, perform a copy and paste action for the entire report, then reformat the text if required (change into
a table, modify, etc.).
You may also export the displayed map (including currently displayed results) and the results from the point analysis
window to any other application program supporting image data format.
5.5.4.3 Printing Prediction Reports
You can use Atoll to print both characteristics tables and reports as well as maps with their coverage.
1. Depending on the coverage study type, Atoll may provide, by checking the appropriate boxes, in the reports the
following information:
The absolute covered surface (in km),
The proportion of covered focus zone (if existing),
The proportion of covered computation zone (if existing),
The percentage of coverage of each clutter class according to the defined clutter class map (with respect to the
layer order),
The percentage of coverage of each population class. Population classes are defined according to the way pop-
ulation is displayed (in term of thresholds of densities or values),
The covered population (number of inhabitants) by the prediction according to the defined population map (with
respect to the layer order) [Population (Population)],
The proportion of covered population (percentage of covered inhabitants) by the prediction according to the
defined population map (with respect to the layer order) [Population (%Population)],
The total population within the studied zone (see below) [Population (Population [total])],
The percentage of coverage of each generic data class. Generic data class are defined according to the way
generic data is displayed (in term of thresholds of densities or values),
The total amount of covered generic data (e.g., revenue ->total amount of covered revenue) by the prediction
according to the related defined generic data map (with respect to the layer order) [e.g., Revenue (Revenue)]
(available only if this data has been chosen 'Integrable')
The relative amount of covered generic data (e.g., revenue ->percentage of the covered revenue) by the predic-
tion according to the related defined generic data map (with respect to the layer order) [Revenue (%Revenue)]
(available only if this data has been chosen 'Integrable')
The value of any field related to each layer, e.g., in case of a coverage by transmitter, it is possible to indicate any
transmitter attribute in the report (antenna type, mechanical downtilt, max number of neighbours, etc.).
In case of GSM/GPRS/EGPRS projects, 5 additional outputs are available:
Circuit traffic (Erlangs): summed compatible circuit traffic over the zone defined by the coverage with respect to
the selected traffic map(s) in the default traffic capture
% total circuit traffic: relative proportion of covered compatible circuit traffic within the studied area by the coverage
with respect to the selected traffic map(s) in the default traffic capture
Packet traffic (kbps): summed packet compatible traffic over the zone defined by the coverage with respect to the
selected traffic map(s) in the default traffic capture
% total packet traffic: relative proportion of covered packet compatible traffic within the studied area by the cov-
erage with respect to the selected traffic map(s) in the default traffic capture
Notes
Outputs are given within the focus zone, if existing. If not, the computation zone is used.
Most results are given both for the overall coverage and for each single layer (transmitters, thresholds, attributes, etc.).
In case of overlapping, the overall coverage does not correspond to the addition of each single layer.
Notes
You may display simultaneously report on all displayed coverages by using the Generate Report
option from the Predictions folder context menu. The obtained report concerns all displayed pre-
dictions, and is organised in the same order than the one defined in the Explorer window Data
tab.
Columns to display are either related to the global coverage or to each transmitter taking part
into the coverage.
In GSM/GPRS projects, reports dealing with traffic data are base on the default traffic analysis
If a GSM, UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 environment map exists in the project, it is possible to
display the report according to the ratio of covered environment classes.
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To print a prediction report:
1. Make active a report window,
2. Choose the Print... option from the File menu in the menu toolbar,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Adjust the printing parameters (We assume that your printer is correctly configured for your Windows applica-
tions. If this is not the case, first use the Print configuration... option),
5. Click OK to validate and activate the printing.
Print reports can be centred on the sheet and possibly spread over a number of sheets for large-scale tables. Cell sizes
are then displayed on the screen.
5.5.4.4 Viewing Prediction Study Statistics
Atoll provides a feature for displaying detailed statistics for coverage prediction studies displayed by value intervals (see
V.5.2.i). It includes graphically represented statistical charts based on the already calculated the covered area of any
coverage prediction and the mean and standard deviation values computed during the coverage study computation.
To display the statistics of any prediction coverage study:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Predictions folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the Prediction whose statistics want to be displayed to open the associated context menu,
4. Choose the Histogram option from the scrolling menu,
5. The associated statistics are displayed in a new window,
By default, the window displays a histogram based on the area covered in the prediction study. The histogram is
displayed using the coverage study colours, interval steps and shading. You can also choose to display a cumulative
distribution function (CDF) or an inverse CDF (1 CDF). In these cases the resulting values are integrated and shown
along a continuous curve. It is also possible to display the histogram or the CDFs in percentages of the covered area.
The Detailed Results section gives the covered area values, or the percentage of the covered area, along the y-axis
against the coverage criterion along the x-axis.
The Copy button enables you to copy the graph to the clipboard in order to import it later to any other application. It is also
possible to print the graph by simply clicking the Print button.
The Statistics based on Study Conditions section provides the mean and standard deviation of the coverage criterion
calculated during the coverage calculations.
5.5.4.5 Exporting Prediction Coverages
With Atoll, you can export the coverage areas resulting from any coverage prediction in Bmp, Tiff, or ArcViewgrid or
Vertical Mapper (GRD and GRC) raster formats or in ArcView, MapInfoor Agd vector formats. Exporting coverage
predictions allows the user to generate a data file that can be imported as a vector or raster object in Atoll or in another
application. For each exported prediction (total or for a transmitter), the exported zone is delimited by the rectangle encom-
passing the coverage. All coverage types can be exported.
To export a prediction coverage:
1. Select the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the button to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the Prediction of which you want to export the coverage zones.
4. Select Export the Coverage from the context menu.
5. Enter the file name and select the type and the path of the file to be exported.
6. Click Save to export the prediction coverage.
- If you have chosen to export the prediction coverage in raster format, a dialogue appears where you can select
The Coverage Area of the Prediction Study to export a rectangle containing only the area covered by the
study, or The Computation Zone to export a rectangle containing the entire computation zone.
- If you have chosen to export the prediction coverage in a vector format other than in Agd format:
i. If necessary, change the export resolution. The default resolution is the resolution of the prediction plot
(as set in the prediction study property dialogue).
Comment: When printing a report, a footnote is created automatically in order to indicate the date (in
month/day/year format) and the time of printing as well as the page numbering.
Note: It is normal to observe differences between the mean and standard deviation values dis-
played by Atoll and perceived by the user from the histogram/CDF. This is because the his-
togram and CDFs are computed based on the surface area covered by the coverage study
while the mean and standard deviation values are computed according to the coverage
study conditions during its calculations.
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ii. If necessary change the reference coordinate system for the file being exported.
iii. Click Export to finish exporting the prediction coverage zone.
See "The Types of Coverage Prediction Export Available" on page 171.
5.5.4.6 The Types of Coverage Prediction Export Available
Depending on the type of prediction, the following types of export are possible:
For each exported prediction (global or for a single transmitter), the exported zone is delimited by the rectangle encom-
passing the coverage.
5.5.5 Prediction Studies Comparisons
Atoll is capable of comparing the coverage plots resulting from two different prediction studies and generating a compar-
ative plot from the two. This type of comparative coverage plot is called a Delta plot in Atoll. This can be made either within
a unique project or between two different projects.
As there are two types of coverage prediction studies in Atoll:
Coverage prediction studies displayed by transmitter, and
Global coverage prediction studies (e.g., coverage by signal level, i.e., by thresholds),
it is possible to compare two global coverage studies, two coverage studies by transmitter, and a global coverage study
with a coverage study by transmitter. The resulting delta plot can be of two types depending on the types of coverage stud-
ies being compared.
Delta plots are always locked studies and cannot be unlocked. Comparative studies have the following properties:
Naming conventions have been adopted for delta plots. Depending upon the types of prediction studies being
compared, delta plots are named either:
Comparison (Prediction Study 1 Prediction Study 2), or
Splitting in Cells (Prediction Study 1 Prediction Study 2).
The comments field contains the comments from the two prediction studies compared.
The names and bin resolutions for the two studies compared are also stored.
The bin resolution used for the delta plot calculation is the finer one of the two.
Like all other prediction studies, it is also possible to export delta plots in agd, mif, tif, shp and bmp formats.
It is also possible to configure delta plots by the grouping, sorting and filtering features available in the General tab of their
properties dialogue. Delta plots are automatically calculated and are locked. If you modify the display properties, the delta
plot will be automatically recalculated when the properties window is closed by clicking OK.
Notes
Be very careful about the accuracy of the coordinate system format to export. When selecting a
different coordinate system than the one initially defined within Atoll, the file is converted using
this other coordinate system.
Raster format export is not possible when the coverage is made per transmitter (coverage
studies with display type per transmitter, per any transmitter attribute, per signal level, per path
loss, per total losses). In this case, only coverage area of a single transmitter can be exported in
raster format.
Prediction Possible Export
Overlapping
Coverage by signal level
Coverage by C/I level
Pilot pollution
Downlink total noise The total coverage
handover status
GPRS/EDGE max throughput per timeslot
GPRS/EDGE coding scheme
Coverage by transmitter
Interfered zones
Service area (Eb/Nt) uplink The total coverage
Service area (Eb/Nt) downlink Coverage of each transmitter
Effective service area
Pilot reception analysis Ec/Io
Note: Exporting coverage zones by transmitter is possible only when the coverage study item is
made of transmitter sub-items.
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5.5.5.1 Comparing Two Similar Prediction Studies
Atoll enables the user to generate delta plots for two similar coverage prediction studies, i.e., two global coverage predic-
tion studies or two coverage prediction studies by transmitter. Delta plots resulting from comparing two global prediction
studies are global comparison studies, while those resulting from comparing two coverage prediction studies by transmitter
are comparison studies by transmitter.
The coverage prediction studies must be locked in order to be compared.
To compare two similar coverage prediction studies:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Predictions folder by clicking the button in front of it,
3. Right-click on the coverage prediction study you want to compare to open its context menu,
4. Choose the coverage prediction study with which you want to compare this study from the Compare with menu,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
6. Set the configuration and display parameters,
7. Click OK or Apply to validate.
A new delta plot (comparison coverage study) is created in the Predictions folder following the naming conventions for
comparison coverage studies.
Three display formats are possible for delta plots:
Intersection: Shows the area where both prediction study plots overlap (i.e., pixels covered by both studies with
red colour).
Union: Shows all the pixels covered by both or by only one of the prediction studies with different colours (i.e.,
pixels covered by both studies with red colour and pixels covered by one study only with blue colour).
Difference: Shows all the pixels covered by both or by only one of the prediction studies with different colours (i.e.,
pixels covered by both studies with red colour, pixels covered by study 1 only with green colour, and pixels covered
by study 2 only with blue colour).
Cell contours are drawn in black colour in case of a comparison study by transmitter.
Delta plots are locked and it is not possible to unlock them. However, it is possible to rename, delete, generate reports on
and access the properties of these delta plots.
5.5.5.2 Comparing a Global Study with a Study by Transmitter
Two different types of coverage prediction studies, i.e., a global coverage study and a coverage study by transmitter, can
be compared and a delta plot generated. A simple comparison of the two coverage prediction studies is not possible since
this is not a symmetrical operation. In order to compare a global coverage study with a coverage study by transmitter, the
global coverage study must be split into cells according to the coverage study by transmitter. This results into a coverage
study by transmitter called a "split into cells study".
A "split into cells" coverage study is computed by filtering (masking) the global coverage study by applying the cell contours
of the coverage study by transmitter being compared to this global coverage study. Three categories of coverage pixels
are treated:
Pixels covered by both studies displayed with global study colours
Pixels covered by the study by transmitter only in transparent
Pixels covered by the global study only in transparent
Cell contours are drawn in black colour.
The coverage prediction studies must be locked in order to be compared.
To compare a global coverage prediction study with a coverage prediction study by transmitter:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Predictions folder by clicking the button in front of it,
3. Right-click on the global coverage prediction study you want to compare to open its context menu,
4. Choose the coverage prediction study by transmitter with which you want to compare this study from the Split
in Cells menu,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
6. Set the configuration and display parameters,
7. Click OK or Apply to validate.
A new delta plot (comparison coverage study) is created in the Predictions folder following the naming conventions for
comparison coverage studies.
Note: It is also possible to compare studies from two different projects in co-planning. Coverage
prediction studies must be available (using the 'Make accessible in' command) in the com-
plementary project for them to be accessible for comparisons.
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Delta plots are locked and it is not possible to unlock them. However, it is possible to rename, delete, generate reports on
and access the properties of these delta plots.
5.6 Point Analysis Predictions
Atoll contains several propagation models for specific needs. Once the choice has been made, the associated parameters
have been set and the receiver has been tuned, you are able to make radio wave propagation predictions. Moreover, Atoll
provides a point analysis tool allowing you, in the standard case (for all types of projects),
to study reception along a profile between a reference transmitter and a UMTS user in real time (no matrix
needed),
to evaluate the signal levels coming from the surrounding transmitters at a given point (using existing path loss
matrices).
Furthermore, this tool is very helpful in the analysis of cases related to specific technologies. With this, you can:
evaluate interferences on a selected transmitter at a given point, and determine the interferers and associated
noise levels in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects,
make a complete active set analysis at a given point for a probe UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 user moving in
the network with a particular behaviour. This tool will help you to study also, at a point, the pilot reception and the
connection status.
These specific studies are available in their specific parts.
Of course due to the fact that several powers can be defined on an identical transmitter (at the subcell level in GSM/GPRS/
EDGE or at the cell level in UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000), point analysis window provides the possibility to select either
the TRX type or the carrier of the study.
Using the Standard Propagation Model, it is possible to obtain further data along a terrain profile with the point analysis.
Other tools like export ease, link budget, the possibility to adjust in real time cell edge coverage probability, etc., are also
available.
5.6.1 Displaying Point Analysis Results
5.6.1.1 Using the Receiver
To make the point analysis active, click on the icon (or check the Point analysis in the View menu). When this is
made, you can move on the active map, and have displayed in Point analysis window the profile analysis between a
given transmitter and the current location, the predictions from all the surrounding transmitters, and specific GSM/GPRS/
EDGE or CDMA/UMTS studies.
If you click on the map, the receiver is fixed on a particular point. To move it again, just click the icon, and drag it
over the map.
5.6.1.2 Studying the Profile froma Transmitter
With the point analysis tool, Atoll is able to display a view of the terrain profile between a given station and the point defined
by the receiver on the map using the propagation model as defined before (with priority order respect). Results are given
in real time (no need for path loss matrices).
To make active the reception profile window:
1. From the menu toolbar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
2. The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
3. Click on the Profile tab,
4. Select the transmitter on which you want to base the prediction from the associated scrolling list,
Either
- Click the button in the Point analysis window,
Or
- Click the button from the toolbar,
5. The data appearing on the profiles (ellipses, clutter, etc.) will be function of the considered model (See below).
Note: As with coverage predictions, and because propagation models may be defined either in
the Predictions folder or in the Transmitters folder, you must be very careful to its priority
order. The propagation model defined with transmitters is taken first compared to the
one defined with Predictions (See "Selecting Propagation Models" on page 133).
Note: Receiver options are reachable from its context menu (right-click on the receiver).
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In this profile tab window, Atoll indicates the propagation model associated with the selected transmitter; this model is
used for analysis. You may choose to display either the signal or several losses at any point. You can also choose the item
level at which the power(s) of each transmitter are defined (TRX type or carrier).
The altitude (expressed in metres) is reported on the vertical scale. A green line shows the line of sight (LOS) from the
studied transmitter and Atoll displays the angle of the LOS read in the antenna vertical pattern. Along the profile, if the
signal meets an obstacle, this causes an attenuation with diffraction symbolized by a red vertical line (if the model used
takes into account diffraction mechanisms). The main peak taken into account is the one that intersects the most the Fres-
nel ellipsoid. Any attenuation that occurs is then calculated in one hand, between the station and the main peak, in the
other hand, between the main peak and the receiver. With some propagation models using a 3 knife-edge Deygout diffrac-
tion method, the result may then show up two new attenuations peaks in addition to the main peak. The various peaks are
identified by red lines. The attenuation generated by all the peaks is displayed above the main peak.
Profile with ITU 526-5, Okumura-Hata or Cost-Hata Model
When you use the ITU 526-5, Okumura-Hata or Cost-Hata models, Fresnel ellipsoids (blue) will appear on the profile and
possible diffraction peaks will be represented by a red line. The attenuation generated by these peaks will be displayed
above the main peak.
Profile with WLL Model
When you use the WLL model, clutters will also appear on the profile in addition to DTM.
As for the previous models, the Fresnel ellipsoids (in blue) and possible diffraction peaks due to the DTM and/or clutters
symbolized by red lines with attenuation calculated for all these peaks are displayed above the main peak.
Profile with the Longley-Rice and Vienna 93 Models
Only the first Fresnel ellipsoid and the terrain profile appear for these two models.
Profile with the Standard Propagation Model
Peaks of diffraction are displayed regarding to the selected method (Deygout, Epstein-Peterson, Deygout with correction
and Millington). Both the terrain profile and the clutter (and its height, if defined) appear using this model. A report contain-
ing information on transmitter-receiver profile can be displayed.
5.6.1.3 Displaying Predicted Signal Levels at a Point
With the point analysis tool, Atoll is able to display the signal from active transmitters in a network at the point defined by
the receiver on the map by using the propagation model as defined before (with priority order respect).
To make active the reception window:
1. From the menu toolbar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
2. The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
3. Click on the Reception tab,
4. Click the button from the toolbar,
5. Move over the current map to the places where you want to make your analysis.
The value of the different signal levels coming from different transmitters is reported in the Reception window in toolbar
form, from top to bottom from the highest predicted signal level to the lowest one. Displayed toolbars have the same
colours as defined for each transmitter.
Notes
By Right-clicking in the window, it is possible to consider or not indoor coverage by checking/
unchecking the related box. Indoor losses are defined per clutter class. Considering a reception
pixel of a specific clutter class, this loss is added to the total path loss regarding to the defined
value (in dB),
Shadowing can be taken into account and a cell edge coverage probability can be set for any
point analysis. The shadowing margin applied to the path loss (if shadowing is considered) is
evaluated from the model standard deviation and the cell edge coverage probability.
From the window context menu, it is also possible to either Print it or to copy it in order to paste
it in an external application.
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
5.6.1.4 Listing All Signal and C/I Levels at a Point
In addition to the studies with the point analysis of the profile from a transmitter, predicted signals from surrounding trans-
mitters, and, potentially interferences in case of GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, Atoll provides an additional tab in the point
analysis window allowing you to display, in the same window, general information at the receiver.
So, Atoll provides in the Results tab of the Point analysis window:
General information on the receiver: its coordinates (stated in the Display coordinate system) and the clutter class
which it is located on,
The signal level received from each transmitter containing the receiver in its calculation area, (Transmitters are
sorted in a descending signal level order),
C/I levels due to surrounding transmitters, first both in co-channel and adjacent cases, then in adjacent channel
case only (studying always the most interfered TRX) in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects.
5.6.2 Managing Point Analysis
5.6.2.1 Selecting a Transmitter in Point Analysis
When studying reception profile and interferences using the point analysis tool, it is possible to display results at an iden-
tical point for several transmitters.
To do so, when using the point analysis icon over the map as a moving receiver, click on the map at the location
you want to study different transmitters. Then, the receiver is fixed on the map. In the Point analysis window (Profile
or Interference tab), select the transmitter to study then. Results are automatically displayed in the Point analysis
window.
Notes
Displaying the predicted signal level at a point is possible only if path loss matrices have been
already determined. To do this, you must have previously executed any coverage prediction or
simulations (cdmaOne/CDMA2000, UMTS) before using the point analysis tool.
You can choose the item level at which the power(s) of each transmitter are defined (TRX type
or Carrier),
IN GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, it is possible to select the HCS layer on which you want to study
signal levels.
For UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 studies, that is the pilot power which is displayed in this
window whereas it is the Ec/Io which is given in the AS analysis window.
By Right-clicking in the window and choosing Properties, you open the property dialogue of this
window. In this dialogue, it is possible to consider or not indoor coverage by checking/
unchecking the related box. Indoor losses are defined per clutter class. Considering a reception
pixel of a specific clutter class, this loss is added to the total path loss regarding to the defined
value (in dB),
Shadowing can be taken into account and a cell edge coverage probability can be set for any
point analysis. The shadowing margin applied to the path loss (if shadowing is considered) is
evaluated from the model standard deviation and the cell edge coverage probability.
From the window context menu, it is also possible to either print it or to copy it in order to paste
it in an external application.
Notes
Displaying interference levels at a point is possible only if path loss matrices have been already
determined. To do this, you must have previously executed any coverage prediction or simula-
tions (cdmaOne/CDMA2000, UMTS) before using the point analysis tool.
Interferences are possible only if some channels have been allocated to TRXs.
You can choose the item level at which the power(s) of each transmitter are defined (TRX type
or Carrier),
IN GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, it is possible to select the HCS layer on which you want to study
signal levels.
For UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000 studies, that is the pilot power which is displayed in this
window whereas it is the Ec/Io which is given in the AS analysis window.
By Right-clicking in the window and choosing Properties, you open the property dialogue of this
window. In this dialogue, it is possible to consider or not indoor coverage by checking/
unchecking the related box. Indoor losses are defined per clutter class. Considering a reception
pixel of a specific clutter class, this loss is added to the total path loss regarding to the defined
value (in dB),
Shadowing can be taken into account and a cell edge coverage probability can be set for any
point analysis. The shadowing margin applied to the path loss (if shadowing is considered) is
evaluated from the model standard deviation and the cell edge coverage probability,
From the window context menu, it is also possible to either print it or to copy it in order to paste
it in an external application.
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5.6.2.2 Selecting the Power Definition Itemin Point Analysis
Depending on the considered technology, power can be defined with different values within the same transmitters. The
point analysis window allows you to select the level at which several powers can be defined for the same transmitter.
Hence, you can select:
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE, the TRX type (BCCH, TCH or TCH_INNER) over which to study the profile. Choosing the
(All) option takes the TRX type with the highest signal level
In UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000, the carrier, assuming that several cells can be assigned to a transmitter, each
cell characterising a carrier on a transmitter. Choosing the (All) option takes the carrier where the related cell has
the highest signal level.
This feature is available both when working in the Profile, Reception, Interference, Results and AS Analysis tabs in UMTS/
CDMA. Nevertheless, concerning the last one, the (all) option (for cells) works regarding the carrier selection mode as
defined in the site equipment (UMTS, cdmaOne/CDMA2000)
5.6.2.3 Taking into Account Shadowing in a Point Analysis
Atoll allows the user to display the properties of a probe receiver used in a point analysis window. Depending on the tab
in use (reception profile, predicted signal, interference analysis, Results, and AS Analysis tabs in UMTS/CDMA, it is possi-
ble to display different pieces of information.
Shadowing can be taken into account and the cell edge coverage probability can be set at the receiver level. If considered,
Atoll will calculate shadowing margins (using model standard deviation defined per clutter class or the default one) to be
applied to computed path loss (made by the model).
In any tab window of the point analysis window, to take into account shadowing:
1. Right-click in the current Point analysis window,
2. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Select the Shadowing taken into account option,
5. Set the value of the cell edge coverage probability,
6. The related shadowing margin value is automatically displayed,
7. Click OK to close the dialogue.
5.6.2.4 Displaying Signal Levels or Losses in Point Analysis
Atoll allows the user to display the properties of a probe receiver used in a point analysis window. Depending on the tab
in use (reception profile, predicted signal, interference analysis, Results, and AS Analysis tabs in UMTS/CDMA, it is possi-
ble to display different pieces of information.
Hence, you can choose to display results at a given point in term of path loss, total losses or signal level in the Profile tab
of the point analysis window. This can also be made as a coverage condition.
In the Profile tab window, to access the result type box:
1. Right-click in the current Point analysis window,
2. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Choose to display either the signal level, path loss or total losses in the Result type scrolling box,
5. Click OK to close the dialogue and validate your choice.
The available study criteria are detailed in the table below.
Notes
When the cell edge coverage probability is different from 50% and standard deviations are not
null, shadowing margin values are different from zero.
In the Profile and Reception tabs, the shadowing margin applied to the path loss (if shadowing
is considered) is evaluated from the model standard deviation and the cell edge coverage prob-
ability.
In GSM/GPRS/EGPRS projects, when calculating C/I, Atoll applies shadowing margins (if con-
sidered) to the C values only. The shadowing margin depends on the entered cell edge coverage
probability and the C/I standard deviation on the pixel.
In UMTS and cdmaOne/CDMA2000 projects, the cell edge coverage probability helps in the
determination of the Eb/Nt UL and Ec/Io DL macro-diversity gains (taking into account the Eb/Nt
and Ec/Io standard deviations defined per clutter class). The shadowing margin applied to Ec/Io
(or Eb/Nt) (if shadowing is considered) is evaluated from the Ec/Io (or Eb/Nt) standard deviation
and the cell edge coverage probability. Finally, if shadowing is considered, Atoll takes into
account the computed macro-diversity gains. Else, it considers in case of uplink the default value
user-defined in the Transmitters global parameters.
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
5.6.2.5 Displaying Link Budget at a Receiver
Atoll allows the user to display the link budget at a receiver along a path profile. The link budget is made of powers, gains
and losses composing the resulting signal level.
To display the link budget box at any point:
1. From the menu toolbar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
2. Click on the Profile tab,
3. Right-click in the current Point analysis window,
4. Choose the Link budget... option from the context menu.
5.6.2.6 Using a Site as a Target for Point Analysis
Atoll provides a feature in order to drop the receiver used for point analysis on the exact location of an existing site, using
any tab (reception profile, predicted signal, interference analysis, Results, or AS Analysis tabs in UMTS/CDMA of the point
analysis window.
To put the point analysis tool on an existing site:
1. Make active the point analysis,
2. Right-click on the receiver to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the Target site command from the open scrolling menu,
4. In the Target site dialogue, choose one existing site from the scrolling list,
5. Click OK to close the dialogue.
5.6.2.7 Displaying SPMParameters over a Profile Analysis
When using Standard Propagation model, you may display a report containing information on transmitter-receiver profile.
To get it:
1. Right-click on the profile part of the current window in order to open the associated context menu,
2. Choose the Model details command from the displayed menu.
The default text editor. In this report, Atoll gives the number of points taken into account along the transmitter-receiver
path and details for every point:
The distance between the point and the transmitter (Dist) in m,
The ground height (Alt) in m,
The ground height with earth curvature consideration (Gr H) in m,
The total height (Tot H) in m,
The clutter class code,
The filtered total height (Flt H) in m. Atoll determines this parameter only when the Enhanced slope at receiver
method is selected.
Then, it recapitulates the effective transmitter antenna height (Tx effective height), K1 and K2 parameters used in calcu-
lations (Far or Near, LOS or NLOS), the diffraction loss, the antenna loss, the clutter loss and the correction for low Tx
effective height. In addition, Atoll informs you that the free space loss is considered when the loss calculated by the model
is lower.
5.6.2.8 Exporting a Point Analysis Study
Whatever the point analysis on which you are working (reception profile, predicted signal level, interference analysis, and
AS Analysis - UMTS/CDMA - tabs) is, Atoll allows the user to export a result as displayed in the Point analysis window as
in image in any application.
Study Criteria Formulas
Signal level ( )
Path loss ( )
Total losses (Total-Losses)
rec
P ( )
Rx ant Shadowing path rec
L
G
M L EIRP P
Rx
+ =
path
L
L
L L
ant path
Tx
+ =
model
( ) ( )
G G
L L M L Losses Total
ant ant Rx Tx Shadowing path
Rx Tx
+ + + + =
Note: In case of coverage studies, it is possible to calculate the signal level at the receiver in dBm,
dBV or dBV/m.
Note: At the transmitter (first point in the list) or at the receiver (last point in the list), we respec-
tively have: Tot H =Gr H +H
Tx
and Tot H =Gr H +H
Rx,
where, H
Tx
and H
Rx
are respec-
tively transmitter and receiver antenna heights above the ground (m).
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Atoll User Manual
To do so:
1. From the menu toolbar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
2. The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
3. Choose the tab associated with your current study,
4. Make your results displayed,
5. Right-click in the Point analysis window,
6. Choose the Copy option from the context menu,
7. Switch to another application supporting any format image,
8. Paste the current content of your clipboard by:
Either
- by using the Ctrl+V shortcut,
Or
- by choosing the Paste command from the Edit menu.
5.6.2.9 Printing a Point Analysis Study
Whatever the point analysis on which you are working (reception profile, predicted signal level, interference analysis, and
AS Analysis - UMTS/CDMA - tabs) is, Atoll allows the user to print a result as displayed in the Point analysis window:
To do so:
1. From the menu toolbar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
2. The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
3. Choose the tab associated with your current study,
4. Make your results displayed,
5. Right-click on the Point analysis window,
6. Choose the Print... option from the context menu,
7. The Print dialogue opens,
8. Choose the appropriate printing parameters,
9. Click OK to start printing.
5.7 Calculation Tools in Atoll
5.7.1 Atoll Features for Computing
Atoll provides a multithreading feature allowing you to spread some computations over several processors. Hence, Atoll
can use four processors of the local machine for propagation computations, neighbour allocations (internal and Inter-tech-
nology neighbours), UMTS and cdmaOne/CDMA2000 simulations and coverage studies (standard or specific GSM/
GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or cdmaOne/CDMA2000), automatic scrambling code allocation and automatic PN Offset allocation.
This feature is automatic. That means that, on a quad-processor PC, each processor works out one path loss matrix, one
prediction study or one simulation. Therefore, calculation times are divided by four.
It is also possible to distribute path loss calculation using several PCs at the same time.
Caution
Windows 2000 (all versions) does not work properly when installed on computers using Pentium4 proc-
essors with Hyper-Threading. The performance may be drastically reduced.
It is highly recommended to install Windows XP or Windows 2003 Server where the problem has been
fixed, or to disable Hyper-Threading on hardware running Windows 2000.
For more information, refer to the following Web site: http://www.intel.com/support/processors/sb/cs-
017343.htm
Note: In the case of very large networks, multiplying the number of processors can drive to memory limi-
tations since the needed memory is multiplied by the number of threads. To limit the number of threads
to be used, put the following lines in the Atoll.ini file located in the Atoll installation directory.
[ Remot eCal cul at i on]
Number Of Thr eads=1, 2, 3 or 4 (according to the number of processors to be used)
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Chapter 5: Managing Computations in Atoll
5.7.2 Distributing Calculations on Several PCs
Atoll provides you the possibility to share computations using four processors of a multi-processor PC. Moreover, another
feature enables you to distribute path loss calculations on several workstations. The Atoll package provides a computing
server application; it can be installed on either workstations or servers and used by Atoll sessions installed on other
stations. Once the computing server application is installed on a workstation, this one is considered as a potential calcu-
lation server for other workstations with computing server application. Therefore, a user can distribute calculations of path
loss matrices on another workstation if the computing server application is installed on his workstation and the other one.
The computing server application (working only on path loss matrix computations) supports quad-processor configura-
tions. Once the computing server application is installed on computation servers, distributed computation is possible for
other computers of the network.
To activate the distributed calculation on a local workstation:
1. From the menu toolbar, select the Distributed calculation... command in the Tools menu,
2. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
3. Check the Activate the distributed calculation option,
Either,
- Type the name of calculation servers, which you want to distribute computations on (use semicolons as sep-
arators). Atoll automatically saves the list of calculation servers to be used in an Atoll.ini file located in the
Atoll installation directory. The file has the following syntax:
[ Remot eCal cul at i on]
Ser ver s=Wor kst at i on_1; Wor kst at i on_2
If the list is empty, Atoll considers that the distributed calculation option is inactive. Then, computations are
run on the local workstation.
Or,
- When clicking on the Detect button, Atoll searches and displays all the potential calculation servers you can
use.
Or,
- When clicking on the All button, Atoll displays the symbol * in the Use servers dialogue. In this case, it will
scan all the potential calculation servers when starting calculations. Atoll will use all the found calculation
servers.
4. Click OK to validate your choice.
When starting propagation computations, Atoll searches the calculation servers of the list and distributes calculations on
the found servers. It displays in the Events tab the found calculation servers.
5.7.3 Improving Calculation Performances
It is possible to specify a cut-off value on the received signal level; this one is used by Atoll to limit contribution of some
interferers. Using this feature, some calculation performances may be improved:
All the calculations based on the C/I criterion study in GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA documents: the coverage predic-
tions (coverage by C/I level, interfered zones or GPRS/EDGE studies), the interference tab of the point analysis
window, the traffic analysis and interference histograms,
All the calculations based on the total noise in UMTS/WCDMA and cdmaOne/CDMA2000 documents: the UMTS
(CDMA) specific coverage predictions, and neighbour automatic allocation.
Notes
If calculation servers entered in the list are not available (for example, if the workstation is off),
computations are run on the local workstation.
The distributed calculations do not work in case of embedded geographic data and ISTAR format
maps (*.ist).
Several users can distribute their computations on the same calculation server. Path loss
matrices are not simultaneously calculated but one at a time (e.g., 1
st
matrix from user1, 1
st
matrix from user2 and so on)
An Atoll.ini file can be prepared by an administrator in order to specify the computing servers,
and marked as read only.
This calculation server(s) uses 1 Atoll licence for every four processors. Of course, each client
uses one licence for every four processors.
Floating licence are not mandatory using the Atoll calculation server feature.
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To set the cut-off value:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Either,
a. Right-click on the Predictions folder to open the context menu,
b. Choose the Properties option from the context menu.
Or
- Double click on the Predictions folder,
2. Click on the Predictions tab from the open window,
3. In the Calculation limitation part of the dialogue, enter the cut-off value.
This value is used as a filter criterion on interferers. Therefore, Atoll will discard all the interferers, which the signal level
is lower than this value.
5.7.4 Displaying Calculation Events in a Log Window
An event viewer window is available in Atoll. To make it open, use the View menu. This window consists in two tabs, the
Events and Tasks tabs.
Events Tab
Atoll lists some events and provides for each of them, the type, the hour the event occurred and a description. Events
detailed in the Events tab concern PlaNET imports and calculations (path loss matrices and coverage studies). You may
encounter three types of events, displayed with a specific symbol:
Errors occurred during PlaNET import or calculations: Atoll does not stop the import or calculation process; it
automatically opens the Events tab to warn you,
Warnings about minor problems happened during calculations. Be careful, Atoll does not open the Events tab
to inform you,
Information on time a calculation or PlaNET import process is started and ended.
Some features in order to manage events are available. To access them, Right-click on the window in order to open the
related context menu. Then you will be able to:
Delete the selected event(s) (Clear command),
Delete all the events (Clear all command),
Copy the event description in the clipboard (Copy command),
Display the entire event description (Properties command).
Tasks Tab
The Tasks tab enables you to visualise progress of path loss matrix, prediction study, UMTS, cdmaOne/CDMA2000 simu-
lation calculations and neighbour allocation.
As calculation progress is managed in the Tasks tab, it is possible to work with Atoll while calculations start.
The Tasks tab is automatically open as soon as calculations are started.
To interrupt calculations, click on the button, available in the Tasks tab.
5.7.5 Exporting Calculation Events in a Log File
The Event viewer window contains two tabs: Events and Tasks. The events tab displays details about processes and
potential errors, information and warnings.
Messages listed in this tab can be saved in a LOG file. To do that, add an option when starting Atoll from a command line,
with the syntax above:
"C:\Program Files\Forsk\Atoll\Atoll.exe" -log "C:\....\events.log"
Notes
Messages listed in the events tab can be saved in a log file.
The log window is automatically magnetised within the other set of Atoll windows. To break this
magnetism, and freely move this window, use the CTRL key when dragging it.
CHAPTER 6
GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA PROJ ECT
MANAGEMENT
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Chapter 6: GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA Project Management
6 GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA Project Management
6.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Projects: Overview
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) and DCS ((Digital Communications System) are radio technologies
using TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) principles, each on a different frequency band.
In TDMA technologies, users are spread over frequency bands made of physical channels. Each of these physical chan-
nels is divided into a certain number of logical channels called timeslots. The norm in standard TDMA is 8 timeslots per
channel. This means that a channel can carry simultaneously 8 speaking users.
Even if users on a same physical channel do not interferer each other (spread on time), every data carried on a physical
channel can be potentially interfered by other communications occurring on co-channel or on adjacent channel. The goal
of planning such a GSM/GPRS/EDGE network will be to provide a sufficient coverage to cover a maximum area, to assign
to transmitters enough channels in order to absorb the traffic demand by limiting interferences in the network.
GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data-rates for GSM - or Global - Evolution) are 2.5th numeric
telephony norms working around the 900-1800 MHz band, using the also TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technol-
ogy as classical GSM norm. Contrary to GSM working in circuit switched mode, EDGE and GPRS use timeslot working
on packet switched mode, but can be mixed with GSM timeslots on transmitters.
GSM and GPRS/EDGE projects share the same template. A station will be able to allow both GSM and GPRS services
depending on its properties. This will be set at the subcell level with timeslot either dedicated to circuit, packet or composite
services.
Each transmitter dealing with GPRS/EDGE must have a piece of GPRS/EDGE equipment. Atoll allows the user to either
create or modify easily these equipment. These are linked with so-called coding schemes functions of C or C/I thresholds.
GPRS technology provides 4 coding schemes whereas EDGE can offer 9. With Atoll, you can set these coding schemes
and display their effects in graphs.
Since GPRS/EDGE technology is based on GSM norm, it is possible to define or not, in the same network, transmitters
as GPRS/EDGE stations.
Compared to GSM norm, GPRS/EDGE provides the support of larger amounts of data services. Moreover, this technology
permits to carry more data per timeslot. Depending on the radio data and the number of timeslots dedicated to packet serv-
ice transmissions for the transmitters part of the current network, Atoll can determine the average capacity per timeslot
per transmitter.
Geo data are easily manageable as in the other projects. You may either create or import any of these data. Sites, anten-
nas, station templates, transmitters, measurements, and propagation models work in the same way for GSM/GPRS/EDGE
projects than for the other technology types. Nevertheless, the complexity of such a modelling has led to the introduction
of several services, mobility types, terminals, user profiles, environments), multi-service cartography (maps per environ-
ment, per user profile, live traffic, user density). Mixing the network and all these multi-service data, traffic is spread using
the traffic capture feature.
Using it, and by the use of a dimensioning model, it is possible to determine the requested number of TRXs to absorb the
traffic with regard to quality requirements. The resource allocation can be made either manually or by using an Automatic
Frequency Planning.
Even if all common studies are available (coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level, overlapping) with some
specific conditions due to GSM/GPRS/EDGE, Atoll provides also some other specific coverage studies dealing with inter-
ferences: interfered zones and coverage by C/I level and specific GPRS/EDGE coverages: coding schemes and through-
put per timeslot.
The resulting network can be analysed using different tools dealing with frequency plan check, channel location search
and KPI calculation.
The What's this context tool allows the user to understand the specific GSM/GPRS/EDGE fields and features available
in the several dialogues.
6.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Projects Protocol
A classical GSM/GPRS/EDGE project protocol, within Atoll, is described below:
Project initialisation
- Choice of a project template
- Definition projection and display coordinate systems
- Definition of length, reception and transmission units
Definition of geographic data through the import or the creation of maps
- Clutter classes
- Clutter heights
- DTM
- Vector data
- Population data
- Generic data
- etc.
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Common coverage studies (by transmitter, by signal level, HCS layers, etc.)
Network design: Setting radio data
- Determination of domains and groups (frequencies, BSICs, HSNs)
- Setup of cell types
- Definition and tuning of transmitters and subcells
- Coding scheme definitions
- Setup of GPRS/EDGE equipment
Definition of multi-service traffic parameters
- Services
- Mobility types
- Terminals
- User profiles
- Environments
Definition of the traffic through the import or the creation of maps
- Traffic maps per environment
- Traffic maps per user profile
- Live traffic maps
- User density traffic maps
Capture of the traffic to analyse the demand
Dimensioning of the network
- Dimensioning model settings
- Required number of TRXs per transmitter to absorb the input traffic
- Determination of the traffic load per transmitter
Definition of the neighbours manually or automatically
Resource manual allocation
- Manual allocation of frequencies
- Manual allocation of BCCH
- Manual allocation of BSICs
- GSM/GPRS/EDGE Automatic Frequency Planning
Checking of the network allocations
- Frequency plan checking
- Channel search tool
- KPI calculation
GSM/GPRS/EDGE oriented prediction studies
- Interference areas
- Coverage by C/I level
- Coverage by coding schemes
- Coverage by rates per timeslot
6.3 Defining GSM/GPRS/EDGE Resources
6.3.1 Defining GSM/GPRS/EDGE Resources: Overview
In Atoll, radio network modelling needs the management of specific radio resources data in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects:
Frequencies
HSNs (Hopping Sequence Number)
BSICs (NCC-BCC pairs)
As many other objects in Atoll, these parameters have been integrated to the tool with a will to make their management
and their use easy. These parameters are used as inputs for cell types, subcells and TRXs in stations.
The resources are organised in domains, and each domain may be made of several groups. During the resource alloca-
tion, only items belonging to the defined domains will be allowed to be chosen.
6.3.2 Frequencies
In Atoll, for a complete exploitation of frequencies, it is possible to define frequency domains and groups based on stand-
ard frequency bands.
A domain is a set of groups; it consists in one or several groups. A frequency domain belongs to a frequency band;
it is a subset of the frequency band.
A group is a set of channels. A frequency group belongs to one or several frequency domains; it is a subset of
frequency domains.
Note: For frequencies, the top layer is the frequency band. A frequency domain (made of several
groups) will be a part of a frequency band.
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Manual and automatic frequency planning is based on frequency domains assigned to the TRX types in cell types.
The creation and the management of frequency domains and groups, like for many other objects in Atoll is always easy
and clear.
6.3.2.1 Managing Frequency Bands
Frequency bands represent the reference frequency set that frequency groups and domains (which include specific rules,
steps and exclusions) refer to. Frequency bands can be seen as a fixed item, whereas groups and domains are the
frequency subsets that can be managed in order to check to available frequency lists.
Frequency band properties can be accessed from a frequency band table.
To open the frequency band table:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: Frequencies: Bands...] command from the open menu,
4. Define the parameters of each frequency band.
6.3.2.2 Managing Frequency Domains and Groups
For an easier resource management, frequency domain and group tables are available. Frequency domains are linked to
types of TRXs. When defining a cell type, you must assign a frequency domain to each TRX type.
To define domains and groups of frequencies:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: Frequencies: Domains] command from the open menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. In the Domains dialogue, enter a domain per row and specify the related frequency band. To validate a
domain creation, select another line.
Either
- Select a domain in the table and click on the Properties... button.
Or
- Select the row relating to a domain and double click on it.
6. In the domain properties dialogue, specify the name of group(s) that you want to associate to this domain and
define for each of them:
- The lowest available frequency (Min channel number),
- The highest available frequency (Max channel number),
- The value interval between the frequencies (Step between channels),
- Frequency (frequencies) you do not want to use (Excluded channel numbers). You can paste a list of chan-
nels; separator must be either a comma, or a semi-colon, or a space. It is also possible to exclude a set of
frequencies by using this syntax number1-number2; Atoll will exclude all the frequencies from number1 to
number2 (e.g., 520-525 corresponds to 520 521 522 523 524 525).
- Additional frequency (frequencies) you want to consider during allocation (Extra channel numbers). You can
paste a list of channels; separator must be either a comma, or a semi-colon, or a space. It is also possible to
add a set of frequencies by using this syntax number1-number2; Atoll will add all the frequencies from
number1 to number2 (e.g., 520-525 corresponds to 520 521 522 523 524 525).
You can also define the domain-group pairs in the Group of frequencies window.
To do so:
1. After defining all the domains, close the Domains dialogue,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: Frequencies: Groups] command from the open menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. In the Group of frequencies window, select a domain and associate one or several groups of frequencies to
each of them. Define the groups as explained above.
Notes
The dialogue of each frequency band (see above) is reachable by either double clicking the
related record in the table, or by using the button once a record is selected,
The button helps you to manage the content of the frequency band table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the Fre-
quency band table.
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The defined domains can be now assigned to TRX types of each cell type in order then to be used as constraints in the
automatic allocation of frequencies.
6.3.3 HSNs
In Atoll, modelling of base frequency hopping and synthesised frequency hopping are supported. So, some parameters
such as MAL (Mobile Allocation List), HSN (Hopping Sequence Number), MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset) are
managed.
HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) parameter is used to describe frequency hopping sequence; this is one of 4 input
parameters for GSM hopping sequence generator algorithm. HSN may take 64 different values; they are numbered from
0 to 63. Frequency sequences are pseudo-random, except for the special case of HSN =0, where frequencies are used
one after the other (cyclic hopping).
In Atoll, for a complete exploitation of HSNs, it is possible to define HSN domains and groups.
A domain is a set of groups; it consists in one or several groups.
A group is a set of HSNs. A HSN group belongs to one or several HSN domains; it is a subset of HSN domains.
Manual and automatic HSN planning are based on the HSN domains assigned to TRX types in cell types.
Creation and management of HSN domains and groups, like for many other objects in Atoll always stays easy and clear.
6.3.3.1 Managing HSN Domains and Groups
For an easier resource management, HSN domain and group tables are available. HSN domains are linked to types of
TRXs. When defining a cell type, you must assign a HSN domain to each TRX type.
1. To define domains and groups of HSNs:
2. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
3. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
4. Choose the [Network settings: HSNs: Domains] command from the open menu,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
6. In the Domains dialogue, you can enter a domain per line. To validate a domain creation, select another line.
Either
- Select a domain in the table and click on the Properties... button.
Or
- Select the row relating to a domain and double click on it.
7. In the domain properties dialogue, specify the name of group(s) included in this domain and define for each of
them:
- The lowest available HSN (Min),
- The highest available HSN (Max),
- The value interval between the HSNs (Step),
- HSN(s) you do not want to use (Excluded). You can paste a list of HSNs; separator must be either a comma,
or a semi-colon, or a space. It is also possible to exclude a set of HSNs by using this syntax number1-
number2; Atoll will exclude all the HSNs from number1 to number2 (e.g., 5-10 corresponds to 5 6 7 8 9 10).
- Additional HSN(s) you want to consider during allocation (Extra). You can paste a list of HSNs; separator must
be either a comma, or a semi-colon, or a space. It is also possible to add a set of HSNs by using this syntax
number1-number2; Atoll will add all the HSNs from number1 to number2 (e.g., 5-10 corresponds to 5 6 7 8 9
10).
You can also define the domain-group pairs in the Group of HSNs window.
To do so:
1. After defining all the domains, close the Domains dialogue,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: HSNs: Groups] command from the open menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. In the Group of HSNs window, select a domain and associate one or several groups of HSNs to each of them.
Define the groups as explained above.
The defined domains can be now assigned to TRX types of each cell type in order then to be used as constraints in the
automatic allocation of HSNs.
Note: A default domain called "ALL HSNs" exists; it contains the 64 HSNs.
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6.3.4 BSICs
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE, the BSIC (Base Station Identity Code) colour code is associated with a BCCH in order for a mobile
to distinguish the base station to which both are assigned from the other surrounding ones. The BSIC is composed of a
NCC (Network Colour Code) and BCC (BTS Colour Code). NCC and BCC are integers between 0 and 7.
Hence, the BSIC is a result of a (NCC-BCC) couple and can be noted using two types of notation: octal or decimal. Atoll
supports both syntaxes and will make its allocation depending on the chosen format.
As available BSICs depend on the country and on the area; it is sometimes necessary to distinguish borders from other
zones. To model this, domain and group tables have been created.
A domain is a set of groups; it consists in one or several groups.
A group is a set of BSICs. A BSIC group belongs to one or several BSIC domains.
Therefore, a BSIC domain can contain more or less than 8 BSICs.
Manual or automatic BSIC planning is based on the BSIC domain assigned to transmitter.
Creation and management of BSIC domains and groups, like for many other objects in Atoll always stays easy and clear.
6.3.4.1 Defining the BSIC Format
The BSIC colour code is the result of two digits: NCC (Network Colour Code) and BCC (BTS Colour Code). NCC and BCC
are integers between 0 and 7. 64 BSICs are available. They are distributed in 8 groups (one group per possible NCC) of
8 BSICs. For each pair, it is possible to define a BSIC number, following either the octal or the decimal notation.
Decimal Format
By considering NCC (Network Colour Code [0..7]) and BCC (Base station Colour Code [0..7]), it is possible to build a BSIC
number with the rule: NCCx8 +BCC. For example, the (3-2) pair leads to a BSIC value of 26. In Decimal format, the BSIC
value is written on base 10, which means that all the numbers from 0 to 9 can be used to define it (0...8, 9...15, 16...23,
etc.).
Octal Format
The octal rule is identical to the decimal rule, except the fact that 8 is replaced by 10 (NCCx10 +BCC). For the case above,
the (3-2) pair drives to a value of 32 in octal format. In Octal format, the BSIC value is written on base 8, which means that
all the numbers from 0 to 7 can be used to define it (0...7, 10...17, 20...27, etc.)
To choose the BSIC format globally for a project:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: BSICs: Format] command from the open menu,
4. Tick either the Decimal or Octal option.
6.3.4.2 Managing BSIC Domains and Groups
For an easier resource management, BSIC domain and group tables are available. You must assign a BSIC domain to
each transmitter.
To define domains and groups of BSICs:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: BSICs: Domains] command from the open menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. In the Domains dialogue, you can enter a domain per line. To validate a domain creation, select another line.
Either
- Select a domain in the table and click on the Properties... button.
Or
Notes
When defined, the selected BSIC format will be taken into account by the BSIC manual allocation
(i.e., only values consistent when the selected choice are available in the BSIC scrolling box
TRX tab of transmitter property dialogue), the AFP and Audit tool.
Take care about the definition of the BSIC domain, in order to be consistent with the chosen
BSIC notation.
It is still possible to enter the BSIC in NCC-BCC format in the TRX tab of the transmitter dialogue.
Depending on the BSIC format, Atoll will translate the NCC-BCC pair in BSIC number.
The BSIC format has to be defined correctly prior to the Test mobile data imports.
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- Select the row relating to a domain and double click on it.
6. In the domain properties dialogue, specify the name of group(s) that you want to associate to this domain and
define for each of them:
- The lowest available BSIC (Min),
- The highest available BSIC (Max),
- The value interval between the BSICs (Step),
- The BSIC(s) you do not want to use (Excluded). You can paste a list of BSICs; separator must be either a
comma, or a semi-colon, or a space. It is also possible to exclude a set of BSICs by using this syntax number1-
number2; Atoll will exclude all the BSICs from number1 to number2 (e.g., 0-5 corresponds to 0 1 2 3 4 5).
- Additional BSIC (s) you want to consider during allocation (Extra). You can paste a list of BSICs; separator
must be either a comma, or a semi-colon, or a space. It is also possible to add a set of BSICs by using this
syntax number1-number2; Atoll will add all the BSICs from number1 to number2 (e.g., 0-5 corresponds to 0
1 2 3 4 5).
You can also define the domain-group pairs in the Group of BSICs window.
To do so:
1. After defining all the domains, close the Domains dialogue,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: BSICs: Groups] command from the open menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. In the Group of BSICs window, select a domain and associate one or several groups of BSICs to each of them.
Define the groups as explained above.
The defined domains can be now assigned to each transmitter in order then to be used as constraints in the automatic
allocation of BSICs.
6.4 Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE Radio Data
In Atoll, radio network modelling and radio resource management has lead to the introduction of specific radio data for
GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects:
HCS layers
Timeslot configurations
TRX types and Cell types
Subcells
TRX Equipment
Codec Equipment
GPRS/EDGE Equipment
As many other objects in Atoll, these parameters have been integrated to the tool with a will to make their management
and their use easy. By their use, it is possible to define subcells and TRXs of stations.
Using this advanced description level, concentric cells are supported. In addition, modelling of several hopping modes are
supported: no hopping, Base Band Hopping and Synthesised Frequency Hopping. Some parameters such as MAL (Mobile
Allocation List), HSN (Hopping Sequence Number), MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset) are managed.
6.4.1 HCS layers
6.4.1.1 Hierarchical Cells: Overview
In Atoll, It is possible to model hierarchical networks. You may define several types of layers with given priorities, minimum
reception and maximum speed thresholds, and then assign them to transmitters.
Hierarchical cells are taken into account (including priority and minimum reception threshold) in prediction studies (e.g.,
coverage by transmitter, interfered zones and coverage by C/I levels) based on search for best server for coverage condi-
tions. The threshold speed is used for the traffic distribution as a filter criterion on the mobility. Only mobiles with a mobility
lower than the maximum speed will be considered eligible to reside on the layer.
6.4.1.2 Managing HCS Layers
In Atoll, HCS layers are listed in a table form. Hence, their management (creation, deletion or modification) is identical to
standard management of data in tables.
Notes
A default domain called "ALL BSICs" exists; it contains the 64 BSICs in 8 groups (NCC =0, ..., 7).
Domains must be defined according to the selected BSIC format.
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To manage HCS layers that will be available to assign to transmitters:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: HCS Layers...] command from the open menu,
4. Define and modify each HCS layer with its name, and its related priority, by editing cells.
The priority and minimum reception threshold of each HCS layer are taken into account in coverage predictions when
considering, on each pixel, the server which has the highest signal level on the highest priority layer. It is also possible to
define a minimum reception threshold for each HCS layer. Both parameters (priority and HCS reception threshold) are
used to determine, at reception, the server ranking. At reception, several cases can be seen:
1
st
case: The RxLev (Signal Level) from each transmitter is higher than the layer minimum threshold.
The transmitter ranking is based on the Layer Priority.
If there are more transmitters within the same Layer Priority, then these transmitters are ranked according to each individ-
ual difference (RxLev-Layerthr) within the given Layer Priority. Highest priority is given to the greatest difference.
2
nd
case: Transmitters with [RxLev-Layerthr]>=0 and [RxLev-Layerthr]<0
Transmitters with [RxLev-Layerthr]>=0 are ranked first according to 1
st
case.
Transmitters with [RxLev-Layerthr]<0 are then ranked according to signal level only.
3
rd
case : The RxLev (Signal Level) from each transmitter is lower than the layer minimum threshold
Transmitter ranking is based on the received signal level only.
You can also assign a threshold speed to each HCS layer. This speed threshold is used to distribute traffic over different
network layers using the mobility criterion. Mobiles with a mobility of less than the threshold speed for a layer can reside
on that layer.
6.4.1.3 Assigning HCS Layers to Transmitters
To assign a HCS layer among existing ones to a transmitter:
Either:
a. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it
c. Right-click on the transmitter which you want to assign a HCS layer to,
or
- Select on the map the transmitter which you want to assign a HCS layer to by clicking on the appropriate
Tx symbol (arrow),
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
3. Click on the General tab,
4. Choose the HCS layer to assign to the current transmitter in the associated scrolling menu,
5. Click OK or Apply to validate.
Note: Priority is organised in ascending order, i.e., 1 has higher priority than 0 (lowest priority).
Notes
Layer priority and minimum reception threshold are automatically assigned to transmitter. These
parameters may be taken into account in GSM/GPRS/EDGE coverage conditions in prediction
studies,
The threshold speed is used for the traffic distribution as a filter criterion on the mobility. Only
mobiles with a mobility lower than the maximum speed will be considered eligible to reside on
the layer.
Once selected, the HCS property dialogue can be open by clicking on the button,
Assigning HCS layers to transmitters is optional.
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6.4.2 Timeslot Configurations
It is possible to define timeslot configurations that can be used in allocating different timeslot types to TRXs. A timeslot
configuration defines the distribution method for circuit, packet and shared timeslots on a TRX. Timeslot configurations
influence the network dimensioning results (evaluation of the number of TRXs required to fulfil the traffic demand) and
calculation of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).
6.4.2.1 Managing Timeslot Configurations
To create and describe a timeslot configuration:
1. Right-click on the Transmitters folder,
2. In the context menu, choose Network settings and Timeslot configurations command,
3. In the List of timeslot configurations dialogue, type the name of a new configuration in the table,
4. In the table, select the row including the configuration and then, either click on Properties or double click,
5. In the configuration property dialogue, indicate the distribution of circuit, packet and shared timeslots for
each TRX.
6. A TRX per row is described in the table: enter the TRX number and specify the corresponding number of circuit,
packet and shared timeslots. When there is not enough number of TRXs, Atoll uses the timeslot distribution
assigned to the last TRX.
7. Click OK to validate the timeslot configuration description,
8. Click on Close.
6.4.3 Cell Types
In Atoll, a cell type describes the types of TRXs that a cell can use and their parameters, which can be different.
Examples: Default cell types are available in the tool:
The cell type GSM900_N_NORMAL (a non concentric GSM900 normal cell) contains BCCH and TCH TRXs.
The cell type DUALBAND_CC_MINI (a concentric dual band cell) contains BCCH, TCH and TCH_INNER TRXs.
Cell types are linked to station templates or transmitters. Indeed, when defining a station template or transmitter properties,
you must specify the cell type which the station or transmitter refers to.
Creation and management of cell types, like for many other objects in Atoll always stays easy and clear.
6.4.3.1 TRX Types: Definition
By default, three types of TRXs are modelled in Atoll:
The BCCH TRX type: this TRX type is the BCCH carrier,
The TCH TRX type which is the default traffic carrier,
The TCH_INNER TRX type: this TRX type is the inner traffic carrier.
The cell type definition must include a TRX type, which is the BCCH carrier (BCCH TRX type), and a TRX type, which is
the default traffic carrier (TCH TRX type). Only one TRX type carrying the broadcast and only one TRX type carrying the
default TCH are supported.
TRX types are the standard elements which compose cell types.
6.4.3.2 Managing Cell Types
Cell types are linked to station templates or transmitters. Indeed, when defining a station template or transmitter properties,
you must specify the cell type which the station or transmitter refers to.
Cell type properties can be accessed in two ways, either from a Cell type table, either from a Cell type dialogue.
Note: Shared timeslots are used for both, circuit-switched and packet-switched calls, circuit-
switched timeslots for circuit-switched / GSM calls and packet-switched timeslots in case of
packet-switched / EGPRS calls.
Notes
Three default timeslot configurations (one per TRX type: BCCH, TCH and TCH_INNER) are
available.
The fields defined at the subcell level "Number of packet (circuit or shared) timeslots" are used
when no timeslot configuration is defined.
Note: You can define additional TRX types directly from the GSM_EGPRS.mdb document tem-
plate.
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To open the cell type table:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: Cell types...] command from the open menu,
Either
a. Select the cell type you want to manage,
b. Click the button to open the associated dialogue,
Or,
- Double click the cell type you want to manage.
4. Define the parameters of each cell type.
6.4.3.3 Cell Type Parameters
In the cell type properties window, you can rename it, enter the types of TRXs (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) used by this
cell type and specify for each of them:
The Assigned Frequency Domain
Only channels belonging to this frequency domain will be allocated to TRXs during automatic or manual frequency plan-
ning.
DL Power Offset
This is a reduction of power relative to the transmitter power. It enables you to model power control of TCH TRXs and
concentric cells (TCH_INNER TRXs that transmit a power lower than BCCH TRX and TCH TRXs).
Reception Threshold
This is the reception condition for this TRX type. You can enter a specific reception condition for each TRX type.
C/I Threshold
This is a quality condition; you can enter specific quality requirements for each TRX type. It can be used as reference value
in interference studies and in AFP.
DTX Support
Here, you can specify if DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) technology is supported for this TRX type. Subcells supporting
DTX may reduce their impact on interferences with a defined voice activity factor.
Timeslot Configuration Name
Name of the timeslot configuration describing the distribution of circuit, packet and shared timeslots on TRXs of a subcell.
Half-rate Traffic Ratio
It is the percentage of Half-Rate voice traffic in the subcell. This parameter is taken into account to calculate the required
number of timeslots to satisfy the voice traffic demand.
Target Rate of Traffic Overflow
This parameter is used during the traffic analysis to distribute the traffic between subcells and layers. For a given subcell,
this parameter is the percentage of candidate traffic considered to overflow to another subcell with a lower priority. It
impacts the traffic capture between Inner and Outer subcells, as well as between micro and macro layers. In other words,
it is a kind of anticipation of the percentage of traffic rejected from higher priority subcells/layers to lower ones.
Notes
The dialogue of each cell type (see above) is reachable by either double clicking the related
record in the table, or by using the button once a record is selected,
The button helps you to manage the content of the cell type table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the Cell
type table.
Note: If the traffic overflow target is set to a value lower than the Grade of Service, it implies that
the traffic rejected (according to the dimensioning model, Erlang B or Erlang C) will be con-
sidered lost and will not overflow to other subcells.
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Hopping Mode
Here, you can specify if frequency hopping technology is supported for this TRX type. If frequency hopping is supported,
choose either the Base Band Hopping mode (BBH), or the Synthesized Hopping mode (SFH). Else, select Non Hopping.
Allocation Strategy
It refers to the allocation strategy used during manual or automatic frequency planning. Two allocation strategies are
offered:
Free allocation: all the channels of the frequency domain can be assigned to TRXs.
Grouped allocation: Only channels belonging to a same group of the frequency domain can be chosen.
Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation List) Length
This is the maximum size of the MAL. In other words, it corresponds to the maximum number of channels allocated to
TRXs of a subcell during automatic frequency planning in case SFH (Synthesized Frequency Hopping) or BBH (Base Band
Hopping) is supported and allocation mode is free.
HSN Domain
Only HSNs belonging to this HSN domain will be allocated to subcells during automatic or manual frequency planning.
Allocation of HSN is performed in case of BBH or SFH.
Freeze HSN
Selecting this option enables you to keep the current HSN allocation of subcells related to this TRX type when starting a
new AFP session.
AFP Weight
This is a cost factor used to increase or decrease the importance of a TRX type during automatic frequency planning. The
cost factor must be a positive real. The higher the AFP weight is, the higher the constraint on the TRX type is.
% Max Interference
This is the maximum percentage of interfered area or interfered traffic that Atoll must not exceed during automatic
frequency planning.
Default TRX Equipment
By selecting a TRX Equipment, the maximum number of coding schemes in GPRS (CS) and in EDGE (MCS) is imposed
at the TRX type level. It is even possible to impose this at the TRX level
8PSK Power Backoff
This is the average power reduction for E/GPRS transmitters due to 8PSK modulation in EDGE. This has an impact on
the EDGE service zone (traffic analysis and EDGE predictions).
When a cell type is assigned to a transmitter, its parameters are used to initialise the properties of the transmitter subcells.
If you modify cell type parameters afterwards, Atoll updates the subcell lists of existing transmitters based on this cell type
by creating missing subcells and removing the subcells that are no longer defined in the cell type. For existing subcells
and subcells whose parameters may have been individually set, Atoll proposes either to keep the current existing param-
eters or to reset them from the cell type.
6.4.3.4 Examples of cell types
Two examples of cell types provided by default in Atoll are explained below:
Normal cell type
A normal cell type consists in two TRX types:
BCCH TRX type
TCH TRX type
The table below describes parameters to be specified for any selected hopping mode.
Characteristics Used in Atoll Hopping mode
Non
hopping
BBH SFH
Frequency domain
Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation
List) length
Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
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Concentric cell type
A concentric cell type consists in three TRX types:
BCCH TRX type
TCH TRX type
TCH_INNER
The table below described parameters to be specified for any selected hopping mode.
Allocation mode
Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
Min C/I
Interference studies,
Automatic frequency planning
x x x
% max interference Automatic frequency planning x x x
Default DL power offset Signal level studies
=0 for BCCH
=0 for TCH
=0 for BCCH
=0 for TCH
=0 for BCCH
=0 for TCH
Default hopping mode Interference studies Non Hopping
Base Band
Hopping
Synthesized
Hopping
Default reception threshold Signal level studies x x x
AFP weight Automatic frequency planning x x x
HSN domain Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
Freeze HSN Automatic frequency planning x x x
DTX support (default)
Automatic frequency planning,
Interference studies
x x x
Half-rate traffic ratio Traffic analysis x x x
Target rate of traffic overflow Traffic analysis x x x
Timeslot configuration Dimensioning x x x
Characteristics Used in Atoll Hopping mode
Non
hopping
BBH SFH
Characteristics Used in Atoll Hopping mode
Non
hopping
BBH SFH
Frequency domain
Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation
List) length
Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
Allocation mode
Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
Min C/I
Interference studies,
Automatic frequency planning
x x x
% max interference Automatic frequency planning x x x
Default DL power offset
Signal level studies
=0 for BCCH
=>0 for TCH
<>0 for
TCH_INNER
=0 for BCCH
=>0 for TCH
<>0 for
TCH_INNER
=0 for BCCH
=>0 for TCH
<>0 for
TCH_INNER
Default hopping mode Interference studies Non Hopping
Base Band
Hopping
Synthesized
Hopping
Default reception threshold Signal level studies x x x
AFP weight Automatic frequency planning x x x
HSN domain Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
Freeze HSN Automatic frequency planning x x x
DTX support (default)
Automatic frequency planning,
Interference studies
x x x
Half-rate traffic ratio Traffic analysis x x x
Target rate of traffic overflow Traffic analysis x x x
Timeslot configuration Dimensioning x x x
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6.4.3.5 Assigning Cell Types to Transmitters
A cell type consists in TRX types (BCCH, TCH or TCH inner). Assigning a cell type to a transmitter enables you to define
its subcells (TRX type properties become subcell properties). A subcell corresponds to the transmitter-TRX type pair.
To assign a cell type to a transmitter:
Either:
a. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
c. Right-click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
- Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialogue,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
4. Click on the scrolling menu and choose a cell type in the list,
5. Click OK to close the dialogue.
6.4.3.6 Defining Extended Cells
An extended cell is one whose coverage is not restricted to the 35km theoretical limit of normal GSM cells. This 35km limit
originates from the fact that any signal received beyond this limit has a shift of almost an entire timeslot T. Extended GSM
cells enable the operator to counter this limit by defining cells that cover beyond 35km by communicating over timeslot T
1. This implies that information sent on timeslot T 1 will reach beyond 35km at the start of timeslot T. Extended cells
may cover from 70 to 140km.
To define an extended cell for a transmitter:
Either
a. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the Transmitters folder by clicking on the button,
c. Right-click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
- Select the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the relevant transmitter symbol (arrow) on the
map,
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialogue,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
4. Define minimum and maximum coverage range in the Extended cell section,
5. Click OK to close the dialogue.
Notes
If you modify the settings of a Cell type already assigned to a transmitter,
- Atoll will update the subcell lists of the concerned transmitters according to the cell type
assigned by creating missing subcells and removing the subcells that are no longer defined
in the cell type.
- For existing subcells and subcells whose parameters may have been individually set, Atoll
proposes either to keep the existing parameters or to reset them from the Cell Type.
It is also possible to update the subcell lists for all or a group of transmitters through the Update
from Cell Types command in the Subcells menu.
Once selected, cell type property dialogue can be open by clicking on the button,
Atoll indicates the main frequency band of the transmitter. This is the frequency band, which the
frequency domain assigned to BCCH TRX type belongs to. Atoll takes into account this fre-
quency band in path loss matrix evaluation.
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6.4.4 Subcells
6.4.4.1 Managing Subcells in Transmitters
The subcells of transmitter and their settings are defined in this part. A subcell is a group of TRXs sharing the same radio
characteristics, the same quality (C/I) requirements, and common settings. A subcell is defined by the transmitter-TRX
type pair.
Subcells of transmitter and their settings depend on the cell type selected for the transmitter. The cell type defines the TRX
type of each subcell since the properties of each TRX type initialise the ones of each subcell. The default values reported
for subcells can be modified without changing reference for the cell type. On the other hand, Atoll updates subcell char-
acteristics when selecting another cell type.
Except their TRX type (coming from the selected cell type), all subcell properties are editable and can be modified in the
subcell part of any transmitter property.
To access the subcell table from the transmitter properties:
Either:
a. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
c. Right-click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
- Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialogue,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
4. Define the Subcell settings in the subcell part,
5. Click OK to close the dialogue.
Clicking the Properties button ( ) on a selected subcell opens the related subcell property dialogue.
6.4.4.2 Displaying the Subcell List
Even if subcells are linked to transmitters, it is possible to display all existing subcells of a network in an editable form.
To open the subcell general table:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Subcells: Open Table] command from the open menu,
4. Define the Subcell settings.
The button helps you to manage the content of the subcell table. Like in any other table, double clicking on
a row opens the related record property dialogue.
6.4.4.3 Subcell Property Details
Whatever is the way to reach subcell properties (from transmitter properties or from the subcell table), for any of them,
Atoll details:
Assigned Frequency Domain
Only channels belonging to this frequency domain will be allocated to TRXs during automatic or manual frequency plan-
ning. In the case of dual cells, it is also possible to assign a specific propagation model to each frequency band to which
frequency domains belong to.
Excluded Channels
When defining frequency domains, you have to choose the range of channels, the step, exceptional and excluded chan-
nels. Excluded channels are channels that are in the defined range that you do not want to make allocatable. Excluded
channels can be set first in the frequency domain definition. In addition, you can also define less constraining domains
(with less excluded channels) and define excluded channels at the subcell level. All subcells related to this domain must
not have access to these excluded channels for the allocation.
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Required TRXs
This is the number of TRXs requested for a subcell. In case of BCCH TRX type, the number of requested TRXs is 1 by
default. In case of TCH or TCH_INNER TRX type, this is a network dimensioning result, which depends on the traffic
density in the subcell and on the blocked call percentage.
Traffic Load
It indicates the usage rate of TRXs; its value is between 0 and 1. This parameter may be, either user-defined, or automat-
ically reported after calculating the number of requested TRXs. In this case, traffic load ( ) is a dimensioning result;
this is a global traffic load for all the subcells of each transmitter. We have:
is the served traffic (Erlangs) on the transmitter coverage area,
is the total number timeslots required by a transmitter.
It is taken into account in interference calculation and automatic frequency planning.
DL Power Offset
This is a reduction of power relative to the transmitter power. Entering 3 dB means that the subcell power will be 3 dB lower
than the transmitter power defined in the Transmitter tab.
Reception Threshold
This is the reception condition for the subcell. This value can be used as reference value in signal level coverage predic-
tions (lowest received signal level in order for receiver to be covered by the subcell).
C/I Threshold
This is a quality condition; you can enter specific quality requirements for each subcell. It can be used as reference value
in interference studies.
DTX Support
Here, you can specify if DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) technology is supported for this subcell. Subcells supporting
DTX may reduce their impact on interferences with a defined voice activity factor.
The Name of the Timeslot Configuration to be Used
The timeslot configuration indicates the distribution of circuit, packet and shared timeslots on TRXs of the subcell. It is
considered for the network dimensioning (evaluation of the number of TRXs requested to fulfil the traffic demand) and
calculation of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).
Required Number of Shared Timeslots
This is the number of shared timeslots required for all the TRXs of a subcell.
Notes
1. Channels must be separated by either a comma, or a semi-colon, or a space. It is possible to exclude
a set of channels by using this syntax number1-number2. Atoll will exclude all the channels from
number1 to number2 (e.g., 520-525 corresponds to 520 521 522 523 524 525).
2. When defined, the excluded channels (per subcell) will be taken into account by the frequency manual
allocation (i.e., only consistent values are available in the TRX channel scrolling box TRX tab of trans-
mitter property dialogue), the AFP and Audit tool.
3a. In Non Hopping mode or Base Band Hopping, in Free or Group Constrained strategy, excluded chan-
nels are not visible in their related domains. So, subcells are allocated with consistency within their
defined domain.
3b. In Synthesized Frequency Hopping, in Free strategy, excluded channels are not visible any more in
their related domains.
3c. In Synthesized Frequency Hopping, in Group Constrained strategy, since the allocation is made per
exact group, as soon as a group has a defined excluded channel, the complete group is excluded from
the domain. The allocation (and what is visible in frequencies scrolling boxes) is then possible only over
groups with initially no excluded channel.
These 3 rules are checked by the Audit tool.
traffic
L
L
Traffi c
T
Served
N
TS
------------------- =
T
Served
N
TS
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Required Number of Circuit Timeslots
This is the number of circuit switched timeslots required for all the TRXs of a subcell.
Required number of packet timeslots
This is the number of packet switched timeslots required for all the TRXs of a subcell.
Half-rate Traffic Ratio
It is the percentage of Half-Rate voice traffic in the subcell. This parameter is taken into account in the traffic analysis and
to calculate the required number of timeslots to match the voice traffic demand.
Target Rate of Traffic Overflow
This parameter is used during the traffic analysis to distribute the traffic between subcells and layers. For a given subcell,
this parameter is the percentage of its candidate traffic that is considered to overflow to another subcell with a lower prior-
ity. It impacts the traffic capture between Inner and Outer subcells, as well as between micro and macro layers.
In other words, it is a kind of anticipation of the percentage of traffic which is rejected from higher priority subcells/layers
to lower ones.
Figure 6.1: Overflow between concentric cells
Figure 6.2: Overflow between HCS layers
Hopping Mode
If frequency hopping is supported, choose either the Base Band Hopping mode (BBH), or the Synthesized Hopping mode
(SFH). Else, select Non Hopping.
Allocation Strategy
It refers to the allocation strategy used during manual or automatic frequency planning. Two allocation strategies are
offered:
Free allocation: all the channels of the frequency domain can be assigned to TRXs.
Grouped allocation: Only channels belonging to a same group of the frequency domain can be chosen.
Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation List) length,
This is the maximum size of the MAL. In other words, it corresponds to the maximum number of channels allocated to
TRXs of a subcell during automatic frequency planning in case SFH (Synthesized Frequency Hopping) or BBH (Base Band
Hopping) is supported and allocation mode is free.
HSN Domain
Only HSNs belonging to this HSN domain can be allocated to subcells during manual frequency planning. Allocation of
HSN must be performed in case of SFH or BBH.
HSN
This is the hopping sequence number of subcell. All the TRXs of the subcell have the same HSN. HSN can be manually
entered or automatically allocated. Only HSN belonging to the HSN domain assigned to this TRX type (in the selected cell
Important: The target rate of traffic overflow and the Half-Rate traffic ratio must be the same for BCCH
and TCH subcells. If you enter different values for BCCH and TCH subcells, Atoll will take
the BCCH subcell values.
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type property dialogue) can be allocated. This parameter is taken into account in interference calculation in case of SFH
or BBH.
Freeze HSN
Selecting this option enables you to keep the current HSN allocation of subcells related to this TRX type when running a
new AFP.
Synchronisation
Type the same string of character in order for the TRXs of several subcells are synchronized during frequency hopping.
By default, synchronization is performed at the site level; TRXs of subcells on a same site are synchronized. You may also
define synchronization at the subcell level (different values for each subcell) or group of transmitters level (unique value
for subcells of this group).
This parameter is taken into account in interference calculation in case of frequency hopping (BBH or SFH).
AFP Weight
This is a cost factor used to increase or decrease the importance of a subcell during automatic frequency planning. The
cost factor must be a positive real. The higher the AFP weight the greater the constraint on the subcell.
Maximum Percentage of Interference
This is the maximum percentage of interfered area or traffic (defined during the interference histogram determination) that
Atoll must not exceed during automatic frequency planning.
Effective Rate of Traffic Overflow
This is the percentage of traffic overflowing from a subcell. It contain results from the dimensioning process.
Default TRX Equipment
By selecting a TRX Equipment, the maximum number of coding schemes in GPRS (CS) and in EDGE (MCS) is imposed
at the subcell level. It is even possible to impose this at the TRX level
8PSK Power Backoff
This is the average power reduction for E/GPRS transmitters due to 8PSK modulation in EDGE. This has an impact on
the EDGE service zone (traffic analysis and EDGE predictions).
With this data model, all data contained in cell types become default ones, i.e., they are used to initialise subcell properties
when creating a transmitter; they can be modified in the transmitter property dialogue without modifying the default values
defined for the cell type, which the transmitter refers to. If you modify one of these data in cell types, transmitters already
dealing with these cell types will not have their default parameters modified.
6.4.5 Advanced Modelling of Multi-Band transmitters
The aim is the possibility to define different bands to subcells and see how this really impacts the propagation in coverage
results. In other words, you can, in Atoll, manage the following elements at the subcell level differently than at the trans-
mitter level (default settings)
Antenna type, height, mechanical and additional electrical downtilt,
Equipment losses
Propagation models and matrices
This settings are taken into accounts in:
Any prediction study (coverage, interference, packet, circuit quality indicators)
Traffic capture
Dimensioning
Interference matrices.
A frequency domain is assigned to each subcell. If the frequency domain of at least one subcell is not within the same
frequency band than the BCCH frequency domain, you can assign to that additional frequency band specific settings deal-
ing with its propagation.
Notes
Any string of character can be entered.
This field is case sensitive.
Note: This functionality is not activated by default and is accessible by defining specific settings in
Atoll.ini as described in the Administrator manual.
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To define the propagation settings of a particular frequency band within a transmitter:
Either:
a. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
c. Right-click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
- Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialogue,
3. Select the subcell row where propagation settings have to be set and click the Frequency Band Propagation
button,
4. Define antenna and propagation settings for the frequency band corresponding to the selected subcell domain
in the same way than you defined them at the transmitter level,
5. Click OK to close the dialogue.
6.4.6 TRX Equipment
6.4.6.1 Creating TRX Equipment
A menu called TRX equipment is available in the Transmitter folder context menu that enables you to manage the capa-
bilities of hardware in term of coding schemes. For each TRX (which can be assigned from the cell type up to the TRX
level), it is possible to impose a maximum of coding scheme in case of GPRS only (CS), or a in case of EDGE (MCS). The
maximum CS and MCS are also defined at the terminal level (only the ones which are not exclusively GSM).
To create a new TRX equipment:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Equipment: TRX Equipment...] command from the open menu,
Either
- Fill the empty table row in order to create the new piece of equipment,
Or
- Either
- Double click the table row
- Or
i. Right-click the table row,
ii. Choose Record Properties from the context menu to open the related complete dialogue,
iii. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Set the TRX equipment settings,
5. Click OK or Apply to finalise the creation,
Notes
By default, all the subcells are defined with the same parameters than the BCCH in term of prop-
agation settings.
For each transmitter, Atoll calculates a main and an optionnal extended matrix per defined fre-
quency band.
You can verify the assigned propagation model when using the Profile analysis and selecting the
appropriate subcell type.
Notes
The Table Fields command from the context menu lets you manage the content of the TRX
Equipment table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the TRX
Equipment table.
Codec Equipment can be assigned as default to cell types or subcells, or more specifically to
TRXs.
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6.4.6.2 Managing TRX Equipment Properties
It is possible to modify properties (name, Max CS and MCS) of any existing equipment. TRX Equipment can be optionally
selected at the cell type, subcell or even TRX level. These ranges of coding schemes limits the number of algorithm and
has to be considered from the station side but also from the terminal side.
To manage a Codec equipment:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Equipment: TRX Equipment...] command from the open menu,
4. The associated Data table opens,
5. Define the parameters of each TRX Equipment.
6.4.6.3 Assigning TRX Equipment
A TRX equipment impose to the hardware that selects it its maximum number of coding schemes in GPRS (CS) or in
EDGE (MCS) related to the selected GPRS/EDGE Equipment defined in each transmitter which can provide packet trans-
mission. This type of equipment can be assigned at the cell type level. In that case, the value is used to initialise the
subcells of the transmitters selecting the related cell type. It is even possible to select the type of TRX equipment for each
single subcell. Finally, the deepest assignment - and the one with the highest priority - can be made at the TRX level.
To assign TRX Equipment to a cell type:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Network settings: Cell types...] command from the open menu,
Either
a. Select the cell type on which you want to manage TRX Equipment,
b. Click the button to open the associated dialogue,
Or,
- Double click the cell type on which you want to manage TRX Equipment,
4. Define the TRX Equipment of each TRX type.
To assign TRX Equipment to a subcell:
Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Either,
a. Access the property dialogue of the transmitter that you want to modify a subcell,
b. Click on the TRXs tab
c. In the Subcell part, select the appropriate TRX Equipment,
Or
a. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
b. Choose the [Subcells: Open Table] command from the open menu,
c. Assign the appropriate TRX Equipment to each single subcell
To assign TRX Equipment to a TRX:
Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Either,
a. Access the property dialogue of the transmitter that you want to modify a TRX,
b. Click on the TRXs tab
Notes
The dialogue of each TRX Equipment is reachable either by double clicking the related record in
the table, or by Right-clicking the related record and choosing Record Properties from the con-
text menu.
The Table Fields command from the context menu lets you manage to content of the TRX Equip-
ment table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the TRX
Equipment table.
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c. In the TRXs part, select the appropriate TRX Equipment,
Or
a. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
b. Choose the [Subcells: TRXs] command from the open menu,
c. Assign the appropriate TRX Equipment to each TRX
6.4.7 Codec Equipment
6.4.7.1 Creating Codec Equipment
A menu called Codec Equipment is available in the Transmitters folder context menu that enables you to manage specific
voice codec equipment for GSM/TDMA networks. Parameters associated with Ideal Mode Selection and different quality
indicators, namely BER, FER and MOS, are defined in these equipment. Transmitters have to be assigned relevant codec
equipment in order to perform prediction studies concerning voice or packet quality indicators.
You can create different codec equipment for different Active Codec mode Sets (ACS). For example, in stead of being
compatible with all possible codec modes, a codec equipment can have 12.2kbps, 7.4kbps, 5.9kbps and 4.75kbps Full-
Rate and 7.4kbps, 5.9kbps and 4.75 kbps Half-Rate codec modes defined. In this way this equipment will be only compat-
ible with the defined family of codec modes, also known as Active Codec mode Sets (ACS) in the 3GPP specifications.
To create a new codec equipment:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Equipment: Codec Equipment...] command from the open menu,
4. Fill the empty table row in order to create the new piece of equipment,
Either
- Fill the empty table row in order to create the new piece of equipment,
Or
- Either
- Double click the table row
- Or
i. Right-click on it,
ii. Choose Record Properties from the context menu to open the related complete dialogue,
- Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. Set the codec equipment settings,
6. Click OK or Apply to finalise the creation.
6.4.7.2 Managing Codec Equipment Properties
In Atoll, it is possible to modify properties (name, ideal mode selection, quality indicator and its associated graphs) of any
existing equipment. These equipment have to be defined for each transmitter taking part in specific quality indicator cover-
age predictions (regarding BER, FER and MOS).
To manage a codec equipment:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Equipment: Codec Equipment...] command from the open menu,
4. The associated Data table opens,
5. Define the parameters of each codec equipment.
Notes
The Table Fields command from the context menu lets you manage the content of the Codec
Equipment table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the
Codec Equipment table.
Codec equipment can be assigned to transmitters or terminals.
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6.4.7.3 Setting Codec Mode Adaptation Thresholds
In GSM, different codec modes are available in the network for managing voice calls so as to optimise the usage of
resources (spectrum, etc.). These codec modes include Full Rate (FR), Half Rate (HR), Enhanced Full Rate (EFR), and
many Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) modes. A GSM network, with different codec equipment installed at the transceivers, is
intelligent enough to dynamically allocate and manage resources on the basis of interference levels.
You can define quality thresholds for each codec mode compatible with the codec equipment in the Adaptation Thresholds
tab in the equipment properties dialogue. These thresholds are used in computations when the equipment does not imple-
ment automatic mode selection.
To define the adaptation thresholds to be used for no automatic mode selection with a codec equipment:
1. Access the properties dialogue of the equipment for which you want to define adaptation thresholds,
2. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
3. Click on the Adaptation Thresholds tab to define or modify, for each compatible codec mode:
- mobility type,
- frequency hopping type,
- frequency band,
- the quality threshold to be used in case of no automatic mode selection implemented.
4. Click OK or Apply to validate.
6.4.7.4 Setting Codec Mode Quality Thresholds
The Quality Thresholds tab in the codec equipment properties contain graphs for different quality indicators, such as Bit
Error Rate (BER), Frame Error Rate (FER) and Mean Opinion Score (MOS), against C/N and C/I values. Each codec
equipment can contain descriptions of these quality thresholds for numerous combinations of each quality indicator and
codec mode pair with compatible mobility type, frequency hopping type and frequency band.
You can define quality thresholds for each quality indicator Quality Thresholds tab in the equipment properties dialogue.
These thresholds are used in computations when the equipment implements automatic mode selection according to the
quality indicator defined in the General tab.
To define the quality thresholds to be used in automatic mode selection with a codec equipment:
1. Access the properties dialogue of the equipment for which you want to define quality thresholds,
2. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
3. Click on the Quality Thresholds tab to define or modify, for each quality indicator and codec mode pair:
- mobility type,
- frequency hopping type,
- frequency band,
- graphs of the quality indicator with respect to C/N and C/I to be used in automatic mode selection.
4. Click OK or Apply to validate.
The and buttons display graphs associated with the currently selected quality indicator
and codec mode pair.
6.4.7.5 Assigning Codec Equipment to Transmitters
In Atoll, codec equipment may or may not be assigned to transmitters. If no codec equipment is defined for some trans-
mitters, only the codec equipment assigned for the terminal types (defined in the prediction study properties) will be used
in computations. If no codec equipment is defined either at the terminal types level or at the transmitters level, these trans-
mitters will not be considered in the specific quality indicators prediction studies.
Notes
The dialogue of each codec equipment is accessible either by double clicking the related record
in the table, or by Right-clicking the related record and choosing Record Properties from the con-
text menu.
The Table Fields command from the context menu lets you manage to content of the Codec
Equipment table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the
Codec Equipment table.
Codec equipment can be assigned to transmitters or terminals.
Note: Graph values can be edited directly in the quality thresholds tab as well as in the graph
window.
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To assign codec equipment to any transmitter:
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Either,
a. Double click the Transmitters folder to open the associated table,
b. Assign the associated codec equipment to transmitters through the related column,
Or
a. Access the properties dialogue of the transmitter for which you want to assign a codec equipment,
b. Click on the Equipment tab,
c. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the current window,
d. Select the Codec equipment from the list.
e. Click OK or Apply to validate.
6.4.7.6 Assigning Codec Equipment to Terminal Types
Codec equipment may or may not be assigned to terminal types. If no codec equipment is defined for some terminal types,
only the codec equipment defined for the corresponding transmitters will be used in the computations. If no codec equip-
ment is defined either at the terminal types level or at the transmitters level, these transmitters will not be considered in
the specific quality indicators prediction studies.
To assign codec equipment to any terminal type:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Parameters folder by clicking the button,
Either,
a. Expand the Terminals folder by clicking the button,
b. Double click the terminal type to open its properties dialogue,
c. Assign the associated codec equipment to the terminal type choosing from the list.
d. Click OK or Apply to validate.
Or
a. Double click the Terminals folder to open the corresponding table,
b. Assign the associated codec equipment to the terminal type through the related column,
c. Close the table to validate.
6.4.8 GPRS/EDGE Equipment
6.4.8.1 Creating GPRS/EDGE Equipment
A menu called GPRS/EDGE equipment is available in the Transmitter folder context menu that enables you to manage
specific equipment for GPRS and EDGE networks. Thresholds associated with coding schemes are defined in these
equipment. Any transmitter dealing with GPRS or EDGE technology have to be assigned an existing piece of equipment.
To create new GPRS/EDGE equipment:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Equipment: GPRS/EDGE Equipment...] command from the open menu,
Either
- Fill the empty table row in order to create the new piece of equipment,
Or
- Either
- Double click the table row
- Or
Notes
When choosing the equipment, all pieces of equipment previously defined in the codec equip-
ment table are available in the codec equipment scrolling menu.
All these inputs are also available in the station template description.
Note: When choosing equipment, all pieces of equipment previously defined in the codec equip-
ment table are available in the Codec equipment scrolling menu.
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i. Right-click on it,
ii. Choose Record Properties from the context menu to open the related complete dialogue,
iii. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. Set the GPRS/EDGE equipment settings,
6. Click OK or Apply to create the new equipment,
6.4.8.2 Managing GPRS/EDGE Equipment Properties
In Atoll, it is possible to modify properties (name, number of coding schemes, thresholds and associated graphs) of any
existing equipment. These equipment have to be defined for each transmitter taking part in specific GPRS/EDGE coverage
predictions (Coding schemes and Max throughput per timeslot). The user can define the technology supported by this
equipment (whether GPRS or EGPRS).
To manage a GPRS/EDGE equipment:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Equipment: GPRS/EDGE Equipment...] command from the open menu,
4. The associated Data table opens,
5. Define the parameters of each GPRS/EDGE Equipment.
6.4.8.3 Computing Automatically Coding Scheme Thresholds
It is possible to automatically compute the reception and C/I thresholds for any GPRS/EDGE equipment in Atoll. You can
enter the permissible level of Block Error Rate (BLER) in the equipment properties window and Atoll will calculate the
thresholds required to satisfy this criterion.
To calculate the reception and C/I thresholds for a given equipment:
1. Access properties dialogue of the concerned equipment,
2. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
3. Enter the permissible BLER in the Calculate the thresholds section,
4. Click Calculate to generate new reception and C/I threshold values,
5. Click OK or Apply to save the new threshold values.
6.4.8.4 Setting Coding Schemes Parameters
In GPRS or EDGE technology, the coding scheme is a coding algorithm used to introduce more or less redundancy (rate
multiplier) and improve packet transmission. Four and nine coding schemes are respectively available for GPRS and
EDGE networks. The more important the coding scheme is, the less redundancy there is. Therefore, in GPRS networks,
using a coding scheme 4 means that there will be no redundancy.
Notes
The Table Fields command from the context menu lets you manage content of the GPRS/EDGE
Equipment table.
An Other Properties tab is available if some user defined fields have been added to the GPRS/
EDGE Equipment table.
Notes
The dialogue of each GPRS/EDGE Equipment is reachable either by double clicking the related
record in the table, or by Right-clicking the related record and choosing Record Properties from
the context menu.
The Table Fields command from the context menu lets you to manage content of the GPRS/
EDGE Equipment table.
An Other Properties tab is available if some user defined fields have been added to the GPRS/
EDGE Equipment table.
Each GPRS/EDGE equipment has an associated reference thermal noise defined. This noise is
used to convert C graphs to C/N graphs.
The throughput per timeslot graphs are defined for given frequency hopping mode, mobility type
and frequency band. These graphs will be taken into account in a prediction study if these param-
eters correspond to the ones defined in that study. Otherwise, Atoll will use the graphs for which
none of these parameters has been defined. If no such graph exists, Atoll will consider that the
corresponding coding scheme is not defined during the calculations.
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To adjust the parameters associated with coding schemes from any equipment, proceed as follow:
1. Access the property dialogue of the equipment you want to adjust the associated coding schemes,
2. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
3. Click on the General tab to check or modify, for the current equipment:
- The name and/or the maximum number of coding schemes available for the current equipment,
- If the equipment supports only GPRS or both GPRS and EDGE.
4. Click on the Thresholds tab to define, for each coding scheme:
- Power threshold and Signal noise ratio threshold: They are respectively the minimum power (C) and the
minimum signal noise ratio (C/I) required at the receiver in order for the coding scheme to be used,
- Max throughput (kbps): It is the maximum throughput (kbps) obtained when there is no data transmission
error,
- Throughput depending on C (kbps) and throughput depending on C/I (kbps): These columns contain values
used to represent Throughput=f(C) and Throughput=f(C/I) graphs.
- 8PSK modulation used or not (EDGE only).
- Type of Frequency hopping (1 =No hopping; 2 =Ideal FH; empty =all hopping modes)
- Mobility type and Frequency band compatible with the coding scheme: These two parameters are used to
filter out the traffic to which certain coding schemes can be allocated, i.e., users having compatible mobility
and frequency bands.
5. Click OK or Apply to validate.
The and buttons allows to display graphs associated with the currently selected coding
scheme.
6.4.8.5 Displaying Rate Graphs
In GPRS/EDGE technology, coding schemes are linked with data transmission redundancy level. The least redundancy
deals with riskier data transmissions with potentially higher transmission rates. The most redundancy deals with safer data
transmissions but with lower rates. Coding schemes are hence defined in order to obtain the best compromise between
enough transmission speed and safety of data packet transmission. That is why each coding scheme has an optimum
working range depending on either C or C/I values. This can be pointed out through graphs attached with the definition of
each coding scheme linked to GPRS/EDGE equipment.
To display the rate graph as function of C or C/I values for a given coding scheme:
1. Access properties dialogue of the equipment you want to adjust the associated coding schemes,
2. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
3. Click on the Thresholds tab,
Either,
- Click on the C or C/I cell you want to display the associated rate graph,
Or,
a. Select the row of the coding scheme you want to display a rate graph,
b. Click either the or button to open the graph (as function respectively of C or C/
I) dialogue,
4. The Rate graph window opens. It consists in a table where you can define C (or C/I) and rate values (copying
and pasting a set of values, adding and deleting values is possible) and a part where the graph is displayed,
5. Click OK or close the window.
Note: In the case of GPRS/EDGE, two sets of charts (C and C/I) can be given: one is related to
the GPRS mode and another one related to the EDGE mode. If the option Edge is not
checked, Atoll considers that the charts (C and C/I) are related to the GPRS mode, else it
uses them as charts related to the EDGE mode.
Note: These graphs show the rate evolution depending on radio conditions (C and C/I) by consid-
ering block error rates. Therefore, from these graphs, you can choose a coding scheme
suitable to radio conditions.
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6.4.8.6 Setting GPRS/EDGE Transmitters
In Atoll, transmitters part of network dealing either with GPRS or EDGE can be or not considered as GPRS/EDGE sectors
by default. If not, they are taken as classical GSM stations.
To assign GPRS/EDGE properties to any transmitter:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Either,
a. Double click the Transmitters folder to open the associated table,
b. Check the boxes associated with such transmitters in the GPRS/EDGE column,
c. Assign the associated GPRS/EDGE to cells,
Or
a. Access the properties dialogue of the transmitter you want to define as a GPRS/EDGE station,
b. Click on the Equipment tab,
c. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the current window,
d. Check the GPRS/EDGE Station box and complete the GPRS/EDGE equipment field,
e. Click OK or Apply to validate.
6.5 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Management
The Atoll GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic model is flexible, versatile and comprehensive. This traffic model introduces the notion
of service in the GSM/GPRS/EDGE documents allowing the user to completely model the multi-service 2G/2.5G network
traffic. The salient parameters in this regard are the settings of a GSM/GPRS/EDGE parameters folder containing:
Services,
Terminal types,
Mobility types,
User profiles,
Environment classes
All of these items are classified into subfolders. In addition to these, the folder also contains a GPRS dimensioning model
subfolder.
Finally, Atoll provides the possibility to create various types of traffic maps: per environment, per user profile (vector), per
user density, or by using live traffic data.
Furthermore, the traffic analysis feature allows the user to manipulate the created traffic maps in order to use them in
prediction studies and in the dimensioning procedure.
A user profile can be considered to be the principal data for the traffic maps. It describes the behaviour of a certain type
of users in terms of terminal type, service and mobility. This data can then be used to generate traffic environments that
contain a certain type of users with a certain density. Traffic maps can then be based on environments, user profiles,
throughput per sector (Live traffic) and densities.
6.5.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Multi-service Traffic Data
6.5.1.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Services
6.5.1.1.1 Creating GSM/GPRS/EDGE Services
The traffic model allows the user to define not only voice but also data services in GSM/GPRS/EDGE documents. Services
are divided into two categories: circuit switched and packet switched. Currently, the circuit switched service includes only
GSM voice services that use a single timeslot.
To create a service:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the Services folder to open the associated context menu,
4. Click in the scrolling menu on New,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Notes
When choosing the equipment, all pieces of equipment previously described in the GPRS/EDGE
equipment folder are available in the GPRS/EDGE equipment scrolling menu. If none is chosen,
Atoll does not consider the associated transmitter in the GPRS/EDGE specific studies,
All these inputs are also available in the station template description.
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6. Click the available tabs to set the parameters of the created service,
7. Validate by clicking on OK.
6.5.1.1.2 Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE Service Parameters
Similar to the other Atoll object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE services are easily manageable. Creation steps and display
management are standard.
To manage the GSM/EGPRS services parameters:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Expand the Services folder by clicking on the button,
Either,
a. Right-click on the service of which you want to manage the properties to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
- Double click on the service of which you want to manage the properties,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. Click the available tabs to adjust the parameters of the current service,
6. Validate by clicking on OK.
The maximum blocking rate defines the call blocking or call queuing rate for the GSM voice services and the prob-
ability of delayed packet arrivals for EGPRS data services.
The field minimum throughput per user defines the lower threshold on the user throughput and is one of the inputs
for the dimensioning process for EGPRS networks. The dimensioning takes into account the availability per-
centage of this minimum throughput as well. These two criteria tell Atoll dimensioning engine that the defined min-
imum user throughput should be available for at least that percentage of cell coverage.
Maximum allowable delay for a certain type of service is another input to the dimensioning process. This is the
user level delay perceived accessing a given service, i.e., web, ftp, e-mail, etc.
The maximum number of timeslots can be specified to limit the allocation at the dimensioning within a practical/
feasible range for the network operator.
The throughput scaling factor and offset are used in determining the user or application level throughput in RLC/
MAC throughput/timeslot prediction studies. These two parameters model the header information and other sup-
plementary data that does not appear at the application level.
6.5.1.1.3 Managing Globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE Services
Atoll allows the user to simultaneously display all topics of one type (services, terminal, mobility types, user profiles, envi-
ronment types) in a table window.
To open the services table:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
Notes
For a circuit switched service the user can specify the maximum blocking rate (stated in term of
Erlang B or C).
For each packet switched service the user can enter, apart from a maximum permissible blocking
rate, a maximum permissible delay, a minimum required throughput with a percentage of cov-
erage that should at least be provided with this throughput, and minimum/maximum number of
timeslots allowed to be multiplexed per user for that particular service.
Note: When the properties dialogue is open from the explorer, it is possible to scroll through the
properties dialogues of different services within the subfolder without closing. To do this,
use the buttons.
- The buttons enable you to switch back to the first/previous service properties dia-
logue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the properties
of the first item of a subfolder.
- The buttons enable you to move forward to the next/last service properties dia-
logue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the properties
of the last item of a subfolder.
- Subfolders are organised following the grouping/sorting/filtering configuration.
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Either,
a. Right-click on the Services folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
- Double click on the Services folder,
3. The services table opens.
4. Click on to close the table.
The services table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and copy/paste
functions are available.
6.5.1.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Mobility Types
6.5.1.2.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Mobility Type
With the knowledge of user mobility, i.e., speed, Atoll can analyse multi-layer traffic. In a multi-layer GSM/GPRS/EDGE
network, a user speed is one of the main criteria that is taken into account at the moment of connection establishment
when there are more than 1 possible servers available. A fast moving mobile is usually allocated a channel from the macro/
umbrella layer rather than from the micro layer to minimize signalling and hence computational load on the system.
To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility type:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the Mobility type folder to open the associated context menu,
4. Click in the scrolling menu on New,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
6. Set the parameters of the currently created mobility,
7. Validate by clicking on OK.
6.5.1.2.2 Setting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Mobility Type
Like for the other Atoll object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility types are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.
To manage the mobility types parameters:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Expand the Mobility type folder by clicking on the button,
Either,
a. Right-click on the mobility of which you want to manage the properties to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
- Double click on the mobility of which you want to manage the properties,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. Set the parameters of the current mobility,
6. Validate by clicking on OK.
Notes
The advanced grouping/filtering/sorting feature may be used on the services from the context
menu associated with the Services folder. From the properties dialogue, you may also manage
the contents of the services table. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields
available in the different windows.
When the Services table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialogue of
any service by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated row, or on the associated
arrow at left.
Note: A maximum speed for each HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure) layer is defined in the Net-
work settings that allows each HCS layer to capture a certain type of traffic within defined
mobility limitations.
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6.5.1.2.3 Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE Mobility Types Globally
Atoll allows the user to simultaneously display all topics of one type (services, terminal, mobility types, user profiles, envi-
ronment types) in a table window.
To open the mobility types table:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
Either,
a. Right-click on the Mobility types folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
- Double click on the Mobility types folder,
3. The mobility types table opens.
4. Click on to close the table.
The mobility types table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and copy/
paste functions are available.
6.5.1.3 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Terminals
6.5.1.3.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Terminal
A terminal defines the capabilities of a mobile terminal in terms of the number of timeslots it can multiplex in downlink (if it
is defined as GPRS/EDGE compatible), the frequency bands, and the technology it is compatible with.
During traffic analysis (capture), packet switched service can only work with GPRS or GPRS/EDGE technology compatible
mobile terminals. On the other hand, circuit switched service can be associated to GSM technology compatible mobile
terminals as well as GPRS and GPRS/EDGE technology compatible mobile terminals. Therefore, Atoll will distribute:
Circuit switched service users in the service areas of GSM and GPRS/EDGE stations,
Packet switched service users with GPRS technology compatible mobile terminals in the service areas of GPRS/
EDGE stations with GPRS/EDGE equipment supporting either only GPRS, or both GPRS and EDGE technolo-
gies,
Packet switched service users with GPRS/EDGE technology compatible mobile terminals in the service areas of
GPRS/EDGE stations with GPRS/EDGE equipment supporting both GPRS and EDGE technologies.
To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminal:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the Terminals folder to open the associated context menu,
Notes
When the Mobility type table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialogue
of any mobility by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated row, or on the associated
arrow at left.
When the properties dialogue is open from the explorer, it is possible to scroll through the prop-
erties dialogues of different types of mobility within the subfolder without closing. To do this, use
the buttons.
- The buttons enable you to switch back to the first/previous mobility properties dia-
logue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the properties
of the first item of a subfolder.
- The buttons enable you to move forward to the next/last mobility properties dia-
logue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the properties
of the last item of a subfolder.
- Subfolders are organised following the grouping/sorting/filtering configuration.
Notes
The advanced grouping/filtering/sorting feature may be used on the services from the context
menu associated with the mobility types folder. From the properties dialogue, you may also
manage the contents of the mobility types table. Use the What's this help to get description
about the fields available in the different windows.
When the Mobility type table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialogue
of any mobility by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated row, or on the associated
arrow at left.
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4. Click in the scrolling menu on New,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
6. Set the parameters of the currently created terminal,
- Specify the compliant technology type(s) with the current terminal
- Since a GPRS or GPRS/EDGE technology compatible mobile terminal can consume/communicate over mul-
tiple timeslots simultaneously, in that case indicate the number of downlink timeslots.
- Specify the frequency band(s) the mobile terminal is compatible with. The definition of compatible fre-
quency bands again allows the software to allocate the mobile to a certain network layer in the multilayer sce-
nario with multiple bands (GSM900 and DCS1800 layers, for example).
- You may define a compatible GPRS/EGPRS equipment for the terminal type.
- You may also assign a compatible codec equipment by selecting from the list.
- It is also possible to restrict the number of coding schemes by defining the highest CS and MCS coding
schemes compatible with the terminal type.
- A noise figure for each terminal type can be defined. This value is added to the reference thermal noise during
the relevant calculations for determining the C/N and C/(I+N) graphs from C and C/I graphs respectively.
7. Validate by clicking on OK.
6.5.1.3.2 Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE Terminal Parameters
Like for the other Atoll object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminals are easily manageable. Creation steps and the display
management are standard.
To manage the terminal parameters:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Expand the Terminals folder by clicking on the button,
Either,
a. Right-click on the terminal of which you want to manage the properties to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
- Double click on the terminal of which you want to manage the properties,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. Set the parameters of the current terminal,
6. Validate by clicking on OK.
Note: Highest CS and MCS are linked with the same limits available at the TRX level (coming
from the selected TRX equipment).
Notes
When the Terminal table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialogue of
any terminal by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated row, or on the associated
arrow at left.
When the properties dialogue is open from the explorer, it is possible to scroll through the prop-
erties dialogues of different terminals within the subfolder without closing. To do this, use the
buttons.
- The buttons enable you to switch back to the first/previous terminal properties dia-
logue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the properties
of the first item of a subfolder.
- The buttons enable you to move forward to the next/last terminal properties dia-
logue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the properties
of the last item of a subfolder.
- Subfolders are organised following the grouping/sorting/filtering configuration.
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6.5.1.3.3 Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE Terminals Globally
Atoll allows the user to simultaneously display all topics of one type (services, terminal, mobility types, user profiles, envi-
ronment types) in a table window.
To open the terminals table:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
Either,
a. Right-click on the Terminals folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
- Double click on the Terminals folder,
3. The terminals table opens.
4. Click on to close the table.
The terminals table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and copy/paste
functions are available.
6.5.1.4 GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profiles
6.5.1.4.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile
User profiles model the behaviour of the different subscriber categories. Each user profile is constituted by a list of services
and their associated usage parameters such as used terminal, call or session frequency (calls/hour) and duration or data
volume to be transferred.
Parameters for circuit switched services are:
Average number of calls per hour,
Average duration of a call in seconds,
Used terminal (equipment used for the service (from the Terminals table)).
Parameters for packet switched services are:
Average number of sessions per hour,
Volume in Kilobytes which is transferred on the downlink during a session,
Used terminal (equipment used for the service (from the Terminals table)).
These parameters are used in traffic distribution to assign a certain traffic type to a certain layer and station that can
manage the said traffic.
To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the User profiles folder to open the associated context menu,
4. Click in the scrolling menu on New,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
6. Set the parameters of the currently created user profile,
7. Validate by clicking on OK.
Notes
The grouping/filtering/sorting advanced feature may be used on the services from the context
menu associated with the Terminals folder. From the properties dialogue, you may also manage
the contents of the terminals table. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields
available in the different windows.
When the Terminal table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialogue of
any terminal by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated row, or on the associated
arrow at left.
Notes
For circuit-switched services, entering a one-hour call during 1000s corresponds to define 2 calls
per hour during 500s; the activity probability is the same in both cases.
You can model temporal variations of user behaviour by creating different profiles for different
hours (busy hour, etc.).
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6.5.1.4.2 Adjusting GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Properties
Like for the other Atoll object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profiles are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.
To manage the user profile parameters:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Expand the User profiles folder by clicking on the button,
Either,
a. Right-click on the user profile of which you want to manage the properties to open the associated context
menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
- Double click on the user profile of which you want to manage the properties,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. Set the parameters of the current user profile,
6. Validate by clicking on OK.
6.5.1.4.3 Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profiles Globally
Atoll allows the user to display simultaneously all topics of one type (services, terminal, mobility types, user profiles, envi-
ronment types) in a table window.
To open the user profiles table:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
Either,
a. Right-click on the User profiles folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
- Double click on the User profiles folder,
3. The user profiles table opens.
4. Click on to close the table.
The user profiles table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and copy/paste
functions are available.
Notes
When the User profiles table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialogue
of any user type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated row, or on the associated
arrow at left.
When the properties dialogue is open from the explorer, it is possible to scroll through the prop-
erties dialogues of different user profiles within the subfolder without closing. To do this, use the
buttons.
- The buttons enable you to switch back to the first/previous user profile properties
dialogue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the prop-
erties of the first item of a subfolder.
- The buttons enable you to move forward to the next/last user profile properties dia-
logue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the properties
of the last item of a subfolder.
- Subfolders are organised following the grouping/sorting/filtering configuration.
Notes
The grouping/filtering/sorting advanced feature may be used on the services from the context
menu associated with the User profiles folder. From the properties dialogue, you may also
manage the contents of the user profiles table. Use the What's this help to get description
about the fields available in the different windows.
When the User profiles table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialogue
of any user type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated row, or on the associated
arrow at left.
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6.5.1.5 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environments
6.5.1.5.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment
Environment classes may be used to describe subscriber spatial distribution on a map; they are the available classes for
traffic cartography design. An environment class represents an economic and social concept, which defines the charac-
teristics of user profiles. Each environment class contains a set of three data (user profile, mobility, density) where density
is a number of subscribers with the same profile per km. There is no restriction on the number of data sets constituting
an environment.
To get an appropriate user distribution, you may assign weights per clutter classes, for each environment class.
To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment type:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the Environments folder to open the associated context menu,
4. Click in the scrolling menu on New,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
6. Click the available tabs to set the parameters of the currently created environment,
7. Validate by clicking on OK.
Particular case: When no multi-service geo-marketing data are available, you may supply Atoll with usual traffic data like
user densities per service (for example, values coming from adapted GSM Erlang maps).Traffic distribution will only
depend on densities per service.
6.5.1.5.2 Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment Parameters
Like for the other Atoll object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE environments are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.
To manage the environments parameters:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
3. Expand the Environments folder by clicking on the button,
Either,
a. Right-click on the environment type of which you want to manage the properties to open the associated con-
text menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
- Double click on the environment type of which you want to manage the properties,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. Click the available tabs to adjust the parameters of the current environment,
6. Validate by clicking on OK.
Notes
To get an appropriate user distribution, you may assign weights per clutter classes, for each envi-
ronment class in the Clutter weighting tab.
When the Environments table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialogue
of any environment type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated row, or on the
associated arrow at left.
When the properties dialogue is open from the explorer, it is possible to scroll through the prop-
erties dialogues of different environments within the subfolder without closing. To do this, use the
buttons.
- The buttons enable you to switch back to the first/previous environment properties
dialogue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the prop-
erties of the first item of a subfolder.
- The buttons enable you to move forward to the next/last environment properties
dialogue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the prop-
erties of the last item of a subfolder.
- Subfolders are organised following the grouping/sorting/filtering configuration.
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6.5.1.5.3 Managing Globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment Types
Atoll allows the user to simultaneously display all topics of one type (services, terminal, mobility types, user profiles, envi-
ronment types) in a table window.
To open the environment types table:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by clicking on the button,
Either,
a. Right-click on the Environments folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
- Double click on the Environments folder,
3. The Environment type table opens.
The environment types table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and copy/
paste functions are available.
6.5.1.5.4 Subscriber Clutter Weighting in GSM/GPRS/EDGE Area
Enter a weight for each clutter class in order to get an appropriate user distribution.
The following formula is used for calculations:
where:
Examples: We consider a square of 10 km. The subscriber density is 100/km. So, in this square, 1000 subscribers have
to be considered. The square is made of two clutter classes: Open and Building. The clutter weighting is 1 for Open, and
4 for Building.
1. The square is equally made of Open and Building pixels. In that case, for this square 1000 subscribers will be
considered, 200 over the Open clutter class and 400 over the Building class.
2. The area covered by the Open pixels represents 80% of the square. The remaining area is covered with Building
pixels. In that case, for this square 1000 subscribers will be considered, 500 over the Open clutter class and 500
over the Building class.
6.5.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Multi-service Traffic Cartography
Atoll provides 4 types of traffic maps for GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects:
Traffic raster maps based on environments: each pixel of the map is assigned an environment class.
Traffic vector maps based on user profiles: each polygon or line contains a density of subscribers with given user
profile and mobility type.
Traffic maps per transmitter and per service: live traffic is spread over a best server coverage plot.
Traffic raster maps based on traffic densities: actual traffic density (Erlangs/km for circuit services, kbps for packet
services) per pixel can be used to create a map of this type.
Notes
The grouping/filtering/sorting advanced feature may be used on the services from the context
menu associated with the Environments folder. From the properties dialogue, you may also
manage the contents of the environment types table. Use the What's this help to get descrip-
tion about the fields available in the different windows.
When the Environments table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialogue
of any environment type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated row, or on the
associated arrow at left.
Number of users in the k clutter
Number of users in a zone area
k clutter weight at fixed surface
k clutter surface (stated in km)

=
i
i i
k k
Area k
S W
S W
N N
k
N
Area
N
k
w
k
S
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Whatever the type of map is, this one can be either created or modified manually, imported from an external file and
exported to an external file.
6.5.2.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment Traffic Maps
6.5.2.1.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment Traffic Map
There are two solutions to define an environment traffic map, either by creating environment polygons or by directly import-
ing a raster map in your project as an environment traffic map.
To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map by drawing:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
4. Choose the map based on environments (raster) option in the Create a traffic map open window,
5. Press the button to validate,
6. Use the cartography editor (selecting one of the available environment classes as defined in the environment
folder) to draw environment polygons,
7. Click the button to close the editor.
6.5.2.1.2 Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment Traffic Map
There are two solutions to define an environment traffic map, either by creating environment polygons or by directly import-
ing a raster map (with the appropriate format) in your project as an environment traffic map.
To import a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map from an external file:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
4. Choose the map based on environments (raster) option in the Create a traffic map open window,
5. Press the button to validate,
6. Locate the file to be imported and click the button to validate,
7. Choose the Traffic option from the scrolling menu in the open File import window,
8. Press the button to validate,
9. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
10. In the name column, click cells in order to replace class (codes or clutter) names by existing environment
classes,
11. Press OK or Apply to validate.
Notes
Like other raster maps, it is easily possible to save the generated traffic map.
You can only choose among existing environment classes in the cartography editor. To make
available additional classes, do it in the GSM/GPRS/EDGE parameters.
Notes
Importing a file as a traffic map can be also made through the generic import (selection of the
environment traffic type in the appropriate scrolling menu),
Clutter files can be imported as traffic files,
In order to manage traffic on the entire map, this operation must be carried out for all classes.
The description table can be fully copied and pasted (using Ctrl+V and Ctrl+C) in a new Atoll
project after importing the raster file. To select globally the environment class table, click on the
top left angle of the environment table.
Like other raster maps, it is easily possible to save the generated traffic map.
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6.5.2.1.3 Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment Traffic Maps
On an existing environment traffic map, you can access properties and it is possible to modify the class association and
its display settings.
To access the properties of an existing environment traffic map:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Either
a. Right-click on the related environment map folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
- Double click on the related environment map folder,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Click the description tab to re-associate environment classes,
5. Click the display tab to set the transparency level, the visibility scale and to add the map information to the
legend,
6. Press OK or Apply to validate.
It is also possible to access the properties of a single file composing the resulting map (properties command in the related
context menu) to embed it into the atl project or to check the map geocoding.
6.5.2.1.4 Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment Traffic Map
Like the other GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic map types (user profile, live traffic or user density), it is possible to export a envi-
ronment traffic map in either a 8 bits/pixel raster tiff, bil or bmp format. It is possible to export a part or the complete envi-
ronment traffic map.
To export a part or the complete environment traffic map in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
3. Right-click on the Environment map folder in order to get the related context menu,
4. Click on the Save as... option from the open scrolling menu,
5. Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported,
6. Click the Save button when this is made,
7. In the Export dialogue, select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of file:
- The Entire Project Area option allows you to save the whole traffic map in another file. As soon as the file is
saved, the properties (name, etc.) of the traffic maps listed in the Environment Traffic subfolder are updated.
- The Only Pending Changes option allows just to save in the file the created traffic polygonal area. As soon as
the modifications are saved, an additional traffic item is created and listed in the Environment Traffic subfolder.
- The Computation Zone option allows you to save only traffic map region inside the computation zone in
another file. As soon as the file is saved, an additional traffic object is created and listed in the Environment
Traffic subfolder. To enable this option, you must have drawn a computation zone beforehand.
- A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for raster traffic from the following criteria:
- If one traffic object is clipped, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
- If several objects are modified, the suggested resolution will be the smallest resolution of the altered items.
- If there is no initial traffic item, the resolution will equal the resolution of DTM object which the modifications
are made on or the smallest resolution of the merged DTM objects if the modifications are performed on
several DTM objects.
- If you draw your own traffic data without initial DTM, clutter or traffic object, a 100 m default resolution will
be suggested.
- The resolution value must be an integer.
- The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
8. Click OK to validate.
Notes
Absolute and relative statistics can be provided for this type of map.
Atoll provides the possibility to export the cumulated traffic when working on several traffic
map(s), whatever there types are.
Comment: When you save files using BIL, TIF, and BMP formats, .hdr, .tfw and .bpw files are automat-
ically created in the same folder. The .hdr, .tfw and .bpw files are respectively associated
with .bil, .tif and .bmp files; they contain geocoding information and resolution.
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6.5.2.1.5 Displaying Statistics on GSM/GPRS/EDGE Environment Traffic Maps
It is possible to display statistics on an existing GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map. Statistics are given globally
and relatively as functions of environment traffic classes. Traffic density statistics indicates the proportion of each traffic
class. Traffic statistics refer to the focus zone is existing.
To display traffic statistics of the map in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
3. Right-click on the Environment Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
4. Choose the Statistics option from the scrolling menu
5. The surface (Si in km) of imported or edited traffic class (i) included in the focus (if existing) zone and its per-
centage (% of i) are specified:
6.5.2.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Traffic Maps
6.5.2.2.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Traffic Map
In Atoll, user profile traffic maps can be defined in any type of project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or cdmaOne/
CDMA2000). The vector data (points, lines, polygonal shapes) are expected to directly link a dedicated user profile, mobil-
ity and traffic density. The way to get user profile traffic maps consists in either importing vector files (MapInfo(MIF, MID),
Arcview (SHP), Autocad(DXF)) and using them as traffic maps or creating vectors with the vector editor and assign them
some traffic information.
To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map by drawing:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
4. Choose the map based on user profiles (vector) option in the Create a traffic map open window,
5. Press the button to validate,
6. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialogues,
7. Potentially define traffic information (user profile, mobility type, density) in the Table tab, assign them to Atoll
internal traffic fields in the Traffic tab, and use the vector editor to draw environment polygons, lines or points,
8. Click the button to close the editor.
See "Examples of GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Traffic Data" on page 219.
6.5.2.2.2 Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Traffic Map
In Atoll, user profile traffic maps can be defined in any type of project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or cdmaOne/
CDMA2000). The vector data (points, lines, polygonal shapes) are expected to directly link a dedicated user profile, mobil-
ity and traffic density. The way to get user profile traffic maps consists in either importing vector files (MapInfo(MIF, MID),
Arcview (SHP), Autocad(DXF)) and using them as traffic maps or creating vectors with the vector editor and assign them
some traffic information.
To import a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map by drawing:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
4. Choose the map based on user profiles (vector) option in the Create a traffic map open window,
Notes
If no focus zone is defined, statistics are given over the computation zone.
Current statistics are printable by clicking the button.
100 of % =

k
k
i
S
S
i
Notes
Like other vector layers, it is easily possible to save the generated traffic map.
Points can be seen as traffic hotspots.
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5. Press the button to validate,
6. Locate the file to be imported and click the button to validate,
7. Choose the Traffic option from the scrolling menu in the open File import window,
8. Press the button to validate. A dialogue is displayed in order to configure traffic vector data.
9. Click the Traffic tab,
10. In the Traffic fields part, specify the user profiles to be considered on the traffic vector map, their mobility types
(km/h) and their densities (number of users/km for polygons and number of user/km for lines). You can decide
the type of information that you want to use to define the traffic characteristics, either a field described in the file
(by field option in the Defined column) or a value directly user-definable in Atoll (by value option in the Defined
column).
- The first method can be used only if the file you are importing contains attributes providing information about
the user profile, mobility or density. In this case, select in the Choice column a suitable field for each data (user
profile, mobility and density); Atoll lists all the attributes described in the file. The attributes of the source file
cannot be modified. Using this method, each traffic polygon or linear is assigned specific characteristics (user
profile, mobility or density).
- The second way is useful when traffic files contain no attribute. Therefore, you may assign manually user pro-
files, mobility types and densities created in Atoll. Select in the Choice column user profile and mobility listed
in GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder and specify manually a global density for all the polygons. Before-
hand, just make sure to define in GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters the internal data like user profile and
mobility you want to allocate. Here, all the polygons are described by global characteristics (user profile,
mobility or density).
11. In the Clutter weighting part, assign a weight to each clutter class. Thus, Atoll allows you to spread traffic inside
the polygons according to the clutter weighting defined for the whole subfolder. The spreading operation (using a
raster step) will be carried out during the simulation process.
12. Press OK to validate the properties setting.
See "Examples of GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Traffic Data" on page 219.
6.5.2.2.3 Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Traffic Maps
To access the properties of an existing user profile traffic map:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Either
a. Right-click on the related user profile traffic map folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
- Double click on the related user profile traffic map folder,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Click on the General tab to either embed the file into the atl project, to relocate the map by the definition of the
appropriate coordinate system, by imposing sorts on the vector organisation or filters on the vector display,
5. Click on the Table tab to manage the content of the vector,
6. Click on the Traffic tab to re-associate vector fields and Atoll internal traffic fields, and to impose subscriber clutter
weighting using this map for the traffic analysis,
7. Click on the Display tab to open the Atoll generic display dialogue,
8. Press OK or Apply to validate.
Note: Take care to define in Atoll user profiles and mobility types described in traffic file with
exact spelling.
Notes
Importing a file as a traffic map can be also made through the generic import (selection of the
Traffic type in the appropriate scrolling menu),
During the import procedure, if the imported user profiles or mobility types are not currently part
of the existing user profiles or mobility types, Atoll warns you about the fact that these may not
be correctly taken into account as traffic data.
Path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.
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6.5.2.2.4 Examples of GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Traffic Data
Structure of two vector traffic files is described hereafter. Niceregion.mif consists in eleven polygons representing the Nice
region. Each polygon is characterised by a user profile, the services offered to subscribers, their mobility types and densi-
ties. Densities are stated in number of subscribers per km. Highway.mif represents a highway (linear) where density corre-
sponds to a number of subscribers per km.
Niceregion.mif
Using the user profile traffic import procedure, it is possible to associate (Traffic tab of the properties dialogue):
To user profile: either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the Userprofile field of the vector (by field),
with a different definition for each polygon,
To mobility: either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the Mobility field of the vector (by field), with a
different definition for each polygon,
To density: either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the Density field of the vector (by field), with a
different definition for each polygon.
Highway.mif
Using the user profile traffic import procedure, it is possible to associate (Traffic tab of the properties dialogue):
To user profile: either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the User_profile field of the vector (by field),
with a different definition for each polygon,
To mobility: either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the Mobility field of the vector (by field), with a
different definition for each polygon,
To density: either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the Density field of the vector (by field), with a
different definition for each polygon.
6.5.2.2.5 Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE User Profile Traffic Map
Like the other GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic map types (environment, live traffic or user density), it is possible to export user
profile traffic maps.
To export a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the user profile traffic map folder to open the associated context menu,
4. Click on the Save as... option from the open scrolling menu,
5. Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported. Possible formats are Arcview
(.shp), MapInfo (.mif) and the Atoll internal format (.agd),
6. Click the Save button to complete the export procedure.
6.5.2.3 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Live Traffic Maps per Sector
6.5.2.3.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Live Traffic Map per Sector
This kind of traffic map requires a coverage by transmitter prediction study. Then, Atoll expects on each transmitter service
area, a number of Erlangs in case of speech service and rate values (kbps) for packet-switched services.
Note: Atoll provides the possibility to export the cumulated traffic when working on several traffic
map(s), whatever there types are.
Name
User
Profile
Services Used Mobility
Densit
y
Hinterland rural user Speech 90 km/h 8
Village rural user Speech 50 km/h 10
Corniche rural user Speech 50 km/h 10
Rural rural user Speech 90 km/h 8
Villages rural user Speech 50 km/h 10
Nice urban user Speech, Web, Simple messaging, Video conferencing pedestrian 700
Nice airport urban user Speech, Web, Simple messaging, Video conferencing pedestrian 700
Nice surroundings rural user Speech 50 km/h 100
Rural rural user Speech 90 km/h 5
Villages rural user Speech 50 km/h 10
Nice centre urban user Speech, Web, Simple messaging, Video conferencing pedestrian 4000
ID User_profile Service Used Density Mobility
highway driver Speech 400 120 km/h
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The definition of GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic maps per sector can be made either from a direct creation on the basis of
a coverage by transmitter study previously calculated or by importing a file.
To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map per sector:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
4. Choose the map based on transmitters and services option in the Create a traffic map open window,
5. Press the button to validate,
6. Select the prediction study to be considered for traffic distribution. Only coverage per transmitter studies can
be used. A table where you can indicate the live traffic spread over the transmitter service areas is available. It
consists in a column dedicated to transmitters and several columns for the different services previously defined in
the GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Parameters folder. Three ways enable you to fill in this table:
- In the TX_ID column, select each row, click on the arrow and choose a transmitter in the list. Then, enter
Erlangs for speech service and rate values (kbits/s) for packet-switched services for each transmitter.
- You may also use the copy and paste commands (respectively Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V) from an Excel file already
containing the expected columns.
- Finally, it is possible to import an ASCII text file (only .txt format is supported) containing the expected col-
umns. To do this, click on the Actions button and choose Import.
7. Press OK to continue the map creation.
8. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialogues,
9. Atoll displays the property dialogue of the map. Click the Traffic tab of the opened property dialogue and define
terminal and mobility ratios by entering percentage values for each terminal and each mobility type (they will be
used in the traffic scenario). You may also specify a weight per clutter class to spread traffic over each coverage
area. The spreading operation will be performed during the traffic distribution.
10. Click OK to validate. Atoll creates an object called "Traffic map per transmitter" in the Traffic folder of the Geo tab.
6.5.2.3.2 Updating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Live Traffic Map per Sector
Live traffic maps per transmitter can be updated afterwards when a transmitter is added or removed. In this case, you first
have to recalculate the coverage by transmitter prediction study. Then, you may update the traffic map.
To update the traffic map:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click the traffic map that you want to refresh,
3. Select Update from the context menu,
4. In the open dialogue, select the updated coverage by transmitter prediction study and define traffic values for the
new transmitter(s) listed at the bottom of the table. Note that deleted or deactivated transmitters are automatically
removed from the table.
5. Click OK. The traffic map property dialogue appears with the same settings as the ones initially defined.
6. Click OK. The traffic map is updated on the basis of the selected coverage by transmitter prediction study.
Moreover, it is possible to update traffic values (Erlangs or rates) in the Table related to the map.
To update traffic values in the table:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click the traffic map of which you want to display the data table,
3. Select Open Table from the context menu,
4. Edit the content of the table by entering the value directly in the field.
6.5.2.3.3 Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Live Traffic Map per Sector
The definition of GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic maps per sector can be made either from a direct creation on the basis of
a coverage by transmitter study previously calculated or by importing a file.
You may import files with AGD format. This is the Atoll geographic data internal format. This kind of file must be created
from Atoll (export of a coverage by transmitter study in the AGD format).
Note: It is possible to define either one map per service or one map with all services.
Note: The map only contains the service areas of transmitters listed in the table. It can be updated
afterwards when a transmitter is added or removed. Moreover, it is possible to modify traffic
values (throughputs or number of users) afterwards in the Table related to the map.
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To import a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map per sector by drawing:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
4. Choose the map based on transmitters and services option in the Create a traffic map open window,
5. Press the button to validate,
6. Locate the file to be imported and click the button to validate,
7. Choose the Traffic option from the scrolling menu in the open File import window,
8. Select the option "embed in the document" to include the file in the .atl document. When this option is not selected,
Atoll just memorizes the file directory path.
9. In the coordinate systems part, Atoll summarises the projection coordinate system you have defined in the .atl
project. In the box just below, specify the coordinate system of the file you are importing (click on Change... to
choose another coordinate system).
10. Press the button to validate,
11. Atoll displays the property dialogue of the map. Click the Traffic tab of the opened property dialogue and define
terminal and mobility ratios by entering percentage values for each terminal and each mobility type (they will be
used in the traffic scenario). You may also specify a weight per clutter class to spread traffic over each coverage
area. The spreading operation will be performed during the traffic distribution.
12. Click OK to validate,
13. Open the table related to the map in order to define the traffic existing inside each polygon. Therefore, for each
row of the table, enter Erlangs for speech service and rate values (kbits/s) for packet-switched services,
14. Close the table.
6.5.2.3.4 Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE Live Traffic Maps per Sector
Management features of vector maps are available for traffic maps per transmitter: standard graphical features are avail-
able in the Display tab of the map property dialogue and each map has a corresponding table. This table contains the
transmitters used to build the map and traffic information for each of them.
To access the properties of an existing live traffic map per sector:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Either
a. Right-click on the related live traffic map folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
- Double click on the related live traffic map folder,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Click on the General tab to either embed the file into the atl project, to relocate the map by the definition of the
appropriate coordinate system, by imposing sorts on the vector organisation or filters on the vector display,
5. Click on the Table tab to manage the content of the vector,
6. Click on the Traffic tab to re-define terminal and mobility ratios and to impose subscriber clutter weighting using
this map for the traffic analysis,
7. Click on the Display tab to open the Atoll generic display dialogue,
8. Press OK or Apply to validate.
To open the table related to an existing live traffic map per sector:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
3. Right-click on the related live traffic map folder to open the associated context menu,
4. Click in the scrolling menu on Open
The management of the table is generic and can be accessed from the Table tab of the properties dialogue or from the
Table context menu (Fields command). Sorts and Filters features on the display are also available.
Note: It is also possible to import a traffic map per transmitter using the standard import procedure
(Import command in the File menu). In this case, you must specify in the import dialogue
that you want to import the file in the Traffic folder.
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6.5.2.3.5 Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Live Traffic Map per Sector
Like the other GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic map types (environment, user profile or user density), it is possible to export live
traffic maps per sector.
To export a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map per sector:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the live traffic map folder to open the associated context menu,
4. Click on the Save as... option from the open scrolling menu,
5. Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported. Possible format is the Atoll
internal format (.agd),
6. Click the Save button to complete the export procedure.
6.5.2.4 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Density Maps
6.5.2.4.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Density Map
This type of traffic maps allows the user to express the traffic density directly in the form of a map using graphical vector
layers. The user can add vector layers and draw the regions with different traffic densities. The user can also specify the
distribution of Terminal types, Mobility types, and Services for the map based on traffic density.
The definition of GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic maps can be made either from a direct creation by drawing or by
importing a raster (16 or 32-bit format) file.
To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic map:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
4. Choose the map based on densities option in the Create a traffic map open window,
5. Press the button to validate. Atoll adds a subfolder in the Traffic folder.
6. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialogues,
7. Atoll displays the property dialogue of the map. In the Traffic tab, you can describe the distribution of different
types of traffic. Specify the percentages of the distribution of different Terminal types, Mobility types and Services
in the map (they will be used in the traffic scenario). You can also manage the Display properties of the map from
the Display tab.
Note: Atoll provides the possibility to export the cumulated traffic when working on several traffic
map(s), whatever there types are.
Note: It is possible to create multiple maps based on traffic density with different distribution of
Terminal types, Mobility types and Services.
Notes
The map contains traffic density per pixel directly entered by the user. So, if the user has entered
a traffic density of 100 users per km, Atoll will allocate x users per pixel (depending on the pixel
size) and these x users will be distributed according to the percentages given in the Traffic tab
of the maps properties window.
It is possible to modify traffic distribution (Terminal types, Mobility types and Services) afterwards
in the properties of the map.
- Atoll creates an object called "Traffic density map" in the Traffic folder of the Geo tab. A
vector layer is automatically created in this subfolder,
- Edit this vector layer to define geographical areas with a certain traffic density. To
change the traffic density, you have to open the vector layer table and enter values in the
Traffic density(Density) column.
- Close the table to validate.
Notes
You can turn the vector editor ON and OFF either through the Edit... menu in the Traffic density
Maps context menu or through the Edit menu in the vector layers context menu.
In this type of traffic maps, you are not asked to specify a clutter weighting as it is already the
traffic density per pixel that is stored in the map.
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6.5.2.4.2 Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Density Map
The definition of GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic maps can be made either from a direct creation by drawing or by
importing a raster (16 or 32-bit format) file. The supported formats are BIL (16 or 32 bit), BMP, PlaNET, TIFF, ISTAR, Erdas
Imagine formats
To import a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic map:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
4. Choose the map based on densities option in the Create a traffic map open window,
5. Press the button to validate,
6. Locate the file to be imported and click the button to validate,
7. Choose the Traffic density option from the scrolling menu in the open File import window,
8. Press the button to validate,
9. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialogues,
10. Atoll displays the property dialogue of the map. In the Traffic tab, you can describe the distribution of different
types of traffic. Specify the percentages of the distribution of different Terminal types, Mobility types and
Services in the map (they will be used in the traffic scenario). You can also manage the Display properties of the
map from the Display tab.
11. Click OK to close the dialogue.
6.5.2.4.3 Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Density Maps
Management features of vector maps are available for traffic density maps: limited set of graphical features are available
in the Display tab of the map property dialogue and each map has a corresponding table. This table contains the traffic
density values used.
To access the properties of an existing user density traffic map:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Either
a. Right-click on the related user density traffic map folder to open the associated context menu,
b. Click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
- Double click on the related live traffic map folder,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
4. Click on the Traffic tab to re-define Terminal, Mobility and Services ratios using this map for the traffic analysis,
5. Click on the Display tab to open the Atoll generic display dialogue,
6. Press OK or Apply to validate.
To open the table related to an existing user density traffic map:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
3. Expand the User density Traffic subfolder by clicking on the button in front of it,
4. Right-click on the vector layer to open the associated context menu,
5. Click in the scrolling menu on Open
The management of the table is generic and can be accessed from the Table tab of the vector properties dialogue or from
the Table context menu (Fields command). Sorts and Filters features on the display are also available.
Notes
Importing a file as a traffic map can be also made through the generic import (selection of the
Traffic density type in the appropriate scrolling menu),
The map contains traffic density per pixel directly entered by the user. So, if the user has entered
a traffic density of 100 users per km, Atoll will allocate x users per pixel (depending on the pixel
size) and these x users will be distributed according to the percentages given in the Traffic tab
of the maps properties window,
It is possible to modify traffic distribution (Terminal types, Mobility types and Services) afterwards
in the properties of the map.
In this type of traffic maps, you are not asked to specify a clutter weighting as it is already the
traffic density per pixel that is stored in the map.
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6.5.2.4.4 Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Density Map
Like the other GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic map types (environment, user profile or live traffic), it is possible to export user
density traffic maps.
To export a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic map:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the user density traffic map folder to open the associated context menu,
4. Click on the Save as... option from the open scrolling menu,
5. Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported. Possible format are BIL (only
32 bit) and BMP formats,
6. Click the Save button to complete the export procedure.
6.5.2.5 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Cumulated Traffic
6.5.2.5.1 Exporting the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Cumulated Traffic
Atoll allows the user to export the cumulated traffic generated with all the traffic maps in the environment. The cumulated
traffic can be exported in BIL (only 32 bit) and ArcView Grid formats. These exported files can later be imported and used
as traffic density maps in Atoll and used for the traffic analysis.
To export a raster file containing the cumulated traffic density:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
3. Click in the scrolling menu on the Export cumulated traffic command,
4. Specify the directory where you want to save the exported file, the file name and the file type in the opened
dialogue,
5. Select the area to consider, the terminal, mobility and service(s) to be filtered on the selected traffic map(s),
and the raster resolution,
6. Press OK to validate
The exported traffic map will be made of pixels of:
Erlangs/km for circuit services
kbps/km for packet services
6.5.3 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Analysis
Traffic analysis allows the user to analyse the traffic from maps at the transmitter level. This feature, in general, distributes
the traffic from the maps to all the transmitters in each layer according to the compatibility criteria defined in the transmitter,
services, mobility, terminal items. More specifically, this feature allows Atoll to allocate the traffic to each transmitter of
each layer (micro/macro, multiband, etc.) taking into account the criteria defined in the user profiles and the transmitters.
For example, an EGPRS enabled transmitter will be allocated the data user traffic while a transmitter not having the
EGPRS functionality will only carry the GSM voice traffic.
Similarly, a user using a GSM900 band mobile phone will not be allocated to a transmitter that only functions on the
DCS1800 band, and so on and so forth.
This feature allows the user to create multiple traffic distributions with different criteria and to later analyse the network
according to any of them.
6.5.3.1 Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Capture
To perform a traffic analysis:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Traffic analysis folder and choose New in the associated context menu,
3. The property dialogue opens. Click the available tabs to set the parameters of the currently created traffic dis-
tribution,
- The General tab: Here, you may type the name of the traffic analysis, add some comments and filter the trans-
mitters which you want to spread the traffic over.
Note: Atoll provides the possibility to export the cumulated traffic when working on several traffic
map(s), whatever there types are.
Important: The traffic analysis is a mandatory step before dimensioning. The outputs of a traffic analy-
sis can be used for dimensioning and KPI calculation, and the determination of coverage
study reports and neighbour allocation is based on a default capture.
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- The Source traffic tab: Atoll lists in this tab all the traffic maps available in the .atl document. Select this (or
these) to be considered in the traffic analysis. It is possible to globally scale the traffic maps with a certain mul-
tiplying factor; this factor enables you to increase the traffic request of the map without changing the traffic
map description.
- The Condition tab: Parameters available in the Condition part are used to determine each transmitter service
area which Atoll will distribute traffic and then, the traffic demand. Service areas of subcells are determined
using the option "Best signal level per HCS layer," a 5dB margin and the subcell reception threshold as lower
threshold.
- In case of data traffic, it is possible to base the traffic demand in packet timeslots (using the GPRS/EGPRS
Equipment graph) by considering the current level of interferences I and the receiver noise (using the thermal
noise defined at -121 dBm and the receiver noise figure).
Two options are possible:
- Worst case between C and C/I:; For each C and C/I process, the coding scheme related to the computed
threshold is extracted (from the related GPRS/EGPRS equipment). The minimal value is kept.
- Interpolation between C/N and C/(I+N): For each C and C/I process, the coding scheme related to the com-
puted threshold is extracted (from the related GPRS/EGPRS equipment). The C thresholds are internally con-
verted to C/N thresholds (where N is the receiver noise defined in the Predictions folder property dialogue), in
order to be indexed with the C/(I+N) value. C/I thresholds are also indexed with the C/(I+N) value. The maximal
value is kept.
The demand in packet timeslots is then extracted from the computed coding scheme.
Either confirm by clicking on Calculate in the Condition tab, or
Click on OK to close the dialogue and choose OK in the Atoll dialogue in order to calculate the traffic capture.
After completing calculations, Atoll adds two new tabs named "Results per transmitter" and "Results per subcell" in
the property dialogue producing the outputs of the traffic analysis.
6.5.3.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Capture Outputs
After completing calculations, Atoll adds two new tabs named "Results per transmitter" and "Results per subcell" in
the property dialogue of the current traffic capture.
In the Results per transmitter tab, Atoll indicates the traffic allocated to each transmitter. The following columns are
present in the traffic capture Results per transmitter tab:
Circuit Traffic Demand (in Erlangs)
It is the total circuit switched traffic demand for that transmitter in Erlangs. This is computed through integrating the circuit
switched traffic Erlangs per bin within the transmitter coverage area.
Average Demand in Circuit Timeslots
This average considers the effect of Half-rate circuit switched traffic carried by the transmitter. The average demand in
circuit timeslots takes into account the fact that 2 half-rate users are equivalent to 1 full-rate user in terms of Erlangs of
traffic.
Packet Traffic Demand (kbps)
It is the total integrated traffic demand in kilobits per second that is generated by the packet switched users within the
coverage area of that transmitter.
Average Demand in Packet Timeslots
The number of timeslots to be used to match the packet traffic demand depends on the maximum throughput that a packet
timeslot can support.
Average Packet Timeslot Capacity (kbps)
This parameter is calculated according to the RF conditions at each bin/pixel of the transmitter coverage area. The user
can define whether to base this calculation on carrier power or on interferences (C or C/I). The timeslot capacity is
computed for each bin and then averaged over the transmitter coverage area to provide an average timeslot capacity in
kbps.
In the Results per subcell tab, Atoll details the distributed traffic per subcell, service, terminal and mobility. For each
subcell of each transmitter (except BCCH subcell, which is supposed to capture the same traffic as TCH subcells), Atoll
indicates the type(s) of traffic assigned (service, mobility, and terminal). Then, for each set (subcell, service, mobility, termi-
nal), it displays:
The packet switched traffic demand in kilobits per second assigned to that subcell.
The circuit switched traffic demand in Erlangs assigned to that subcell.
The average demand in number of timeslots that match the circuit switched and packet switched traffic demand.
Note: C/I standard deviation values, defined per clutter class, are used when performing a traffic
capture based on C/I or C/(I+N).
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In case of circuit switched services, it depends whether the subcell supports half-rate traffic. If the percentage of half-rate
traffic ratio of the subcell is set to 0, the average demand in circuit timeslots will be the same as the traffic demand in
Erlangs and the number of used timeslots will equal the traffic demand. If there is a certain percentage of half-rate traffic,
the number of used timeslots will depend on the percentage of traffic using half-rate connections.
In case of packet switched services, the demand in packet timeslots depends on the maximum throughput that a timeslot
can support. Hence, it depends on the average timeslot capacity within the transmitter coverage area, which in turn
depends on the RF propagation conditions.
Formulas and calculation details of results are available in the Technical Reference Guide.
6.5.3.3 Using a GSM/GPRS/EDGE Traffic Analysis
Different tools are available on an existing GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic analysis. From its context menu (Right-click), you
may:
Use standard management features (Delete, Rename),
Open the property dialogue of the traffic analysis to check analysis parameters and results (Properties),
Recalculate the traffic analysis (Recalculate),
Select the traffic analysis as the default traffic distribution to be taken into account in coverage study reports and
neighbour allocation (Default). This particular captured traffic is assigned an icon ( ) icon describing it as the
default distribution for studies (distributions other than the default are assigned this icon: ).
Perform dimensioning of network based on a traffic analysis (Dimensioning),
Calculate KPIs of a real network based on the traffic analysis (KPI calculation, etc.),
6.6 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Network Dimensioning
6.6.1 Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE Dimensioning Models
Dimensioning models are provided at the GSM/GPRS/EDGE parameters level. This item is the basis of GSM/GPRS/
EDGE dimensioning and quality analysis process. A user can define a dimensioning model by providing the simple param-
eters in the properties window.
To set parameters of a dimensioning model:
1. Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE parameters folder by clicking on the button,
2. Expand the Dimensioning models subfolder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on a dimensioning model and select Properties in the context menu.
These parameters define the system level conditions to be taken into account when dimensioning the system or
when analysing the quality of service (QoS) of the system.
4. Open the General tab and indicate dimensioning directives:
- The default upper limit on the number of TRXs that can be placed in a transmitter,
- The queuing model for GSM voice calls (Erlang B or Erlang C),
- The lower limit on the number of dedicated packet switched timeslots that must be allocated to the transmitter,
- The upper limit on the number of TRXs that can be added in order for the subcell to fulfil the packet switched
traffic demand
- The Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to be taken into account when performing the dimensioning process.
5. Open the Quality charts tab including the curves of throughput reduction factor, delay, and blocking probability
used for the dimensioning process of packet switched traffic. All these three curves are against the system load,
which is defined as the ratio of used packet timeslots to the number of timeslots available for communication. Atoll
provides a basic set of curves by default for these parameters. The user can always modify or replace the quality
curves with curves generated through some other software tool using simulation or analytical approaches.
6. Click OK to close the property dialogue.
Note: It is possible to impose a specific maximum number of TRXs for each single transmitter in
its properties.
Notes
The quality model curves should not be modified haphazardly, as it may cause the dimensioning
and quality analysis feature to malfunction.
The curve for delay against network load is left to be entered by the user for the moment.
The curve of blocking probability against network load is for a user multiplexing factor of 8
(default value). The user multiplexing factor corresponds to the number of GPRS/EDGE users
that can be multiplexed on a timeslot. This field has been added in the database structure of the
document template "GSM GPRS EDGE" (EGPRSDimensioningModel table) but it is not used for
the moment. This feature will be completely implemented in a later release.
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6.6.2 Key Performance Indicators: Definitions
The KPIs for GPRS/EDGE packet switched traffic dimensioning are the minimum required throughput, blocking probability
and delay. They are described below.
Minimum Required Throughput
Throughput from a GPRS/EDGE users perspective is the average maximum throughput perceived at the mobile terminal
during a data call. If there are more than one user multiplexed on the same timeslot, which occurs when the system accom-
modates many users, each multiplexed user will perceive a reduction in his throughput per timeslot due to this multiplexing.
This reduction in throughput is depicted by the Reduction Factor. A Reduction Factor of 1, or almost 1, means that each
user is communicating using the maximum throughput that a timeslot can offer in a given environment (the maximum
throughput per timeslot depends, in its turn, on the carrier power or C/I ratio at a given location). As the system starts being
loaded with users, the reduction factor starts decreasing depicting the decrease in throughput per user.
Blocking Probability and Delay
Each user communicating over a packet switching protocol experiences a delay that is due to the buffering of packets, the
resource allocation, and transmission delay. This delay can be restricted to a maximum allowable limit within the properties
of a service. This delay and the blocking probability in the EGPRS system are closely related, meaning that a user starts
to experience more delay in service when the system is near saturation and the incoming packets are placed in a waiting
queue as there are no resources available for immediate transfer. This buffering of packets is related to the load of the
system. Hence the blocking probability is the probability that an incoming packet be placed in a waiting queue. And the
delay is the average delay this packet will undergo due to the blocking as it waits its turn for being transmitted as soon as
some resources are liberated.
6.6.3 Dimensioning GSM/GPRS/EDGE Transmitters
Atoll allows the user to dimension a GSM/EGPRS network fully and thoroughly. The user can work with multiple traffic
maps, whose traffic has been distributed over the transmitters and network layers, to dimension the transmitters according
to GSM voice and EGPRS data traffic carried. Only one traffic capture can be used for dimensioning computations at a
time.
To run a dimensioning calculation:
1. Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Traffic analysis folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on a Traffic capture item, according to which you want to dimension the network, to open the context
menu,
4. Select the Dimensioning command in the opened scrolling menu,
5. In the Dimensioning dialogue, choose the dimensioning model to be used for computations,
You can select the columns you want to display in the table. To do this, click on the Displayed columns button and
select information you wish to display.
6. Click on Calculate button to perform the dimensioning.
Atoll sums up dimensioning inputs and outputs in the table. Atoll displays rows of the table in red when the number of
required TRXs for a transmitter exceeds the maximum number of TRXs per transmitter.
Note: When the properties dialogue is open from the explorer, it is possible to scroll through the
properties dialogues of different dimensioning models within the subfolder without closing.
To do this, use the buttons.
- The buttons enable you to switch back to the first/previous dimensioning model
properties dialogue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing
the properties of the first item of a subfolder.
- The buttons enable you to move forward to the next/last dimensioning model prop-
erties dialogue within the relevant subfolder. These buttons are not active when viewing the
properties of the last item of a subfolder.
- Subfolders are organised following the grouping/sorting/filtering configuration.
Note: The term system load refers to the ratio of the number of used packet timeslots to the
number of packet switching (shared +dedicated) timeslots available in the system. It has
roughly the same concept as traffic load in the GSM.
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6.6.4 Dimensioning Outputs in GSM/GPRS/EDGE
After a dimensioning procedure, for each subcell of each transmitter, Atoll provides a list of results. All the columns of the
result window are detailed below with their descriptions and meaning:
Transmitter and TRX Type
These two columns define the subcell for which the results are stated in the other columns. For each transmitter, the results
are divided over the TRX types it carries (e.g., BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER).
Required Number of TRXs
This is the principal result of the dimensioning process. This column states the total number of TRXs required to accom-
modate the totality of the circuit switched and packet switched traffic assigned to that subcell considering the Quality of
Service criteria defined for both.
Required Number of Shared/Circuit/Packet Timeslots
This is the distribution of timeslots within each subcell according to the timeslot configurations defined for different TRX
types. Shared timeslots are supposed to be available for both traffic types, while the other two types are dedicated and
can not be inter-assigned.
Load (%)
This is the system load calculated as a percentage ratio of the used packet switched timeslots to the total packet switched
timeslots (shared +dedicated) available in the system. It is a very important parameter as it defines the overall ability of
the system to accommodate more packet switched traffic and its response to rise in packet switched traffic demand. All
the quality curves of the dimensioning model are plotted against this parameter and it is used to compute the resulting
KPIs through these quality charts.
Multiplexing Factor
This is the user multiplexing factor or the TBF multiplexing factor (Temporary Block Flow). This is one of the inputs to the
dimensioning process and describes the number of packet switched service users that can be multiplexed over one times-
lot.
Maximum Number of TRXs per Transmitter
This is also one of the inputs and a limiting parameter for the dimensioning process. This is the maximum number of TRXs
that a transmitter can support. This is a limit provided by the equipment manufacturer. This value is indicated in the dimen-
sioning model properties. You can also define a maximum number of TRXs for each individual transmitter in its respective
properties
Target Rate of Traffic Overflow (%)
Another input to the process. This parameter defines the percentage of traffic that is allowed to overflow from one subcell
in case the traffic assigned to this subcell is more than maximum traffic that it can accommodate with the maximum number
of TRXs it is allowed to carry. It is specified in the subcell properties.
Half-rate Traffic Ratio (%)
Again another input to the dimensioning process. This is the percentage of traffic within a subcell that uses half-rate
access. It is defined in the subcell properties.
Packet Traffic Demand (kbps)
It is the total integrated traffic demand in kilobits per second that is generated by the packet switched users within the
coverage area of that transmitter.
Notes
Dimensioning is based on a traffic capture. Modifications of traffic map(s), traffic parameters and
transmitter properties (e.g., calculation area, GPRS/EDGE equipment, etc.) have an influence
on the traffic capture. Therefore, if you modify some of these data, you must recalculate the traffic
capture before performing dimensioning.
The maximum number of TRXs per transmitter can be defined globally at the dimensioning
model level, as well as individually for each transmitter.
The number of required TRXs can be manually entered in the subcells (table or from each trans-
mitter property) and taken into account by the AFP tool.
Note: When the Target rate of traffic overflow and the Half-Rate traffic ratio values are different for
BCCH and TCH subcells, Atoll takes the BCCH subcell values.
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Average Demand in Packet Timeslots
The number of timeslots to be used to match the packet traffic demand depends on the maximum throughput that a packet
timeslot can support.
Average Number of Timeslots per Connection (Packet)
This is another input describing the average number of timeslots being used by the packet switched traffic users while
accessing different services. Packet switched services allow up to a maximum of 8 timeslots per connection. The average
number of timeslots per connection corresponds to the average number of downlink timeslots, which mobile terminals can
simultaneously communicate over.
Circuit Traffic Demand (Erlangs)
It is the total circuit switched traffic demand for that transmitter in Erlangs. This is computed through integrating the circuit
switched traffic Erlangs per bin within the transmitter coverage area.
Average Demand in Circuit Timeslots
This average considers the effect of Half-rate circuit switched traffic carried by the transmitter. The average demand in
circuit timeslots takes into account the fact that 2 half-rate users are equivalent to 1 full-rate user in terms of Erlangs of
traffic.
Average Number of Timeslots per Connection (Circuit)
This is another input data for the dimensioning process according to the circuit switched services. For the moment the tool
only models GSM or voice calls using 1 timeslot per connection. In the future, when the tool will be able to model the
HSCSD data calls, this parameter will be used more effectively. The number of timeslots per connection is 1 in case of full
rate traffic, otherwise it depends on the half rate traffic ratio.
Served Circuit Traffic (Erlangs)
This is an output of the process that gives the circuit switched traffic in Erlangs that the subcell will serve after the current
dimensioning results are applied. The served circuit traffic is the difference of the circuit traffic demand and the effective
overflowed circuit traffic.
Served Packet Traffic (kbps)
This is an output of the process that gives the packet switched traffic in kbps that the subcell will serve after the current
dimensioning results are applied. The served packet traffic is the difference of the packet traffic demand and the effective
overflowed packet traffic.
Effective Rate of Traffic Overflow (%)
This is the resulting traffic overflow rate for each subcell. For a GSM network this would be the same as the resulting block-
ing probability. For a more varied network, this parameter includes overflow traffic of all the services. The effective rate of
traffic overflow corresponds to the rejected packet traffic due to missing packet timeslots.
In case of Erlang B, the effective rate of traffic overflow corresponds to the effective blocking rate. This value is deduced
from the required number of circuit timeslots (shared +dedicated) and the circuit traffic demand in Erlang B tables.
In case of Erlang C, the effective rate of traffic overflow is zero except if the maximum number of TRXs is exceeded. The
effective blocking rate is inferred from the required number of circuit timeslots (shared +dedicated) and the circuit traffic
demand in Erlang C tables.
Circuit Blocking Rate (/Delay) (%)
This is the GoS output of the network considering only the circuit switched traffic. This can be either the rate with which
calls are blocked or delayed according to the Erlang model (B or C) selected for the dimensioning.
Minimum Throughput Reduction Factor (%)
This is one of the criteria for packet switched traffic dimensioning. It is computed through the data defined in the services
properties, i.e., minimum service throughput, the maximum number of timeslots per connection, the required availability,
and the timeslot capacity per pixel of the subcell coverage area. This parameter is in fact computed at the Traffic Analysis
step but displayed in the dimensioning results, as it is more relevant here.
The minimum throughput reduction factor is the least throughput reduction factor that is allowable for a given service in a
subcell. The minimum throughput reduction factor is stated in percentage. It corresponds to the highest reduction (lowest
Note: In case of concentric cells, the traffic demand on TCH subcells is different from the one
evaluated during the traffic capture. It is calculated from the traffic demand of the capture
and the effective rate of traffic overflow (instead of the maximum rate used in traffic analy-
sis).
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percentage) in throughput that can still guarantee the service availability with the minimum permissible rate (defined for
the service).
Throughput Reduction Factor (%)
This is the resulting throughput reduction factor calculated from the quality charts according to the load and available
connections for each subcell. This reduction factor must be greater than the minimum reduction factor for the packet
switched services to be satisfactorily available in the subcell.
Maximum Delay (s)
This is the input parameter defined for each service that implies that the service will only be satisfactory if the actual delay
remains less the maximum delay.
Delay (s)
This is the KPI computed through the quality charts according to the load and the number of connections available. It must
not exceed the maximum delay defined for the service to be satisfactorily available in the subcell.
Maximum Packet Blocking Rate (/Delay) (%)
This parameter, defined in the service properties, is the maximum blocking probability acceptable for the service.
Packet Blocking Rate (/Delay) (%)
Result of the dimensioning process that should remain less than the input parameter above in order for the service to be
satisfactory. It is also derived from the quality charts according the load and the number of available connections.
6.6.5 Steps of the Dimensioning Process in GSM/GPRS/EDGE
Let us assume we have a subcell with circuit switched and packet switched traffic.
Atoll evaluates a number of TRXs so as to have enough circuit timeslots (shared and dedicated) to match the circuit traffic
demand with the effective blocking rate.
Then, it calculates how many TRXs it must add to match the packet traffic demand. This value is determined for a given
packet traffic load from quality charts defined in the dimensioning model.
If the dimensioning model takes into account the three KPIs (minimum throughput reduction factor, maximum delay and
maximum blocking rate), the number of TRXs to add for packet service is calculated such that it complies with the following
conditions:
The throughput reduction factor must be more than the minimum throughput reduction factor.
The delay and the blocking rate must be respectively lower than the maximum delay and maximum blocking rate.
After a computation, click on Commit to assign the results to transmitters (required number of TRXs) and subcells
(the required number of TRXs, load, required number of shared, circuit and packet timeslots and effective rate of traffic
overflow).
Atoll displays rows of the table in red when the number of required TRXs for a transmitter exceeds the maximum number
of TRXs per transmitter.
6.7 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Resources Allocation
At this step, a GSM/GPRS/EDGE parameters, traffic maps have been defined. A traffic analysis has been performed with
a view to dimension the network. The number of needed resources (TRXs) is known.
The next step is to define transmitters neighbours. This can be made manually, but Atoll proposes an algorithm which
allows you to perform it automatically. Allocating transmitter neighbours manually can also be made for external transmit-
ters from a linked network in co-planning. In addition, Atoll makes easy the visualisation of neighbourhoods on the active
map. An Audit tool of the current neighbourhood plan is also available.
Neighbour definition helps in the Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP) in order to impose frequency separation constraints
on neighbours.
Notes
Dimensioning is based on a traffic capture. Modifications of traffic map(s), traffic parameters and
transmitter properties (e.g., calculation area, GPRS/EGPRS equipment, etc.) have an influence
on the traffic capture. Therefore, if you modify some of these data, you must recalculate the traffic
capture before performing dimensioning.
Formulas and calculation details of parameters listed in the table are available in the technical
reference guide.
The maximum number of TRXs per transmitter can be defined globally at the dimensioning
model level, as well as individually for each transmitter.
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Once the neighbours are known, the resource allocation can be made either manually or by using an automatic allocation
tool. The constraints on it come from the data model itself, from the user which can impose separation constraints on:
Neighbours
Within transmitters
On transmitters located on unique sites
Defined exceptional pairs of subcells.
and from the different dialogues composing the procedure of the AFP.
Concerning the AFP features, Atoll provides a generic AFP interface which is compliant for the use of a specific AFP
model. General constraints are imposed in the generic parts and the strategy directives can be set in the specific model
itself.
This automatic tool will try to reach a best solution respecting also the number of requested resources. Furthermore, this
tool can help you for the determination of HSNs, MAIOs, BSICs, SFHs.
After the resource allocation, the network can be analysed using the use of the following tools:
A tool to check the frequency plan consistency,
A tool to check the consistency between transmitters and subcells,
A channel search tool working on channels, BCCHs and BSICs,
The possibility to compute Key Performance Indicators (KPI) on the basis of a traffic capture and a resource allo-
cation.
The network is the ready for the study of interfered zones, C/I predictions, and specific E/GPRS studies (coding schemes
and throughputs).
6.7.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbours
6.7.1.1 Allocating GSM/GPRS/EDGE Transmitter Neighbours Manually
When defined, cell neighbours are a way to optimise the search of possible cells aiming to perform handover from the
current coverage area. Allocating neighbours in a network is optional. Defining neighbours helps in imposing constraints
for frequency automatic allocation.
Manual allocation of GSM/GPRS/EDGE neighbours must be performed for each transmitter, one at a time.
To manually allocate GSM/GPRS/EDGE neighbours:
Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Either,
- Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
- Either,
i. Right-click on the transmitter from which you want to define the neighbourhood,
ii. Choose the properties option from the context menu,
- Or
i. Double click on the transmitter from which you want to define the neighbourhood,
ii. Click the Intra-technology Neighbours tab from the current window,
iii. Use the What's this help to get information about fields available in the current window,
iv. In the displayed window, use the top table. Select the row with the icon, then in the Neighbours col-
umn, click on the cell to choose from the scrolling box the desired neighbour. The list contains the first
32 neighbours of the reference transmitter,
v. Click either another cell of the table, or the button to validate and add a new row to the table,
vi. When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialogue.
Or
a. Choose the [Neighbours: Intra-technology Neighbours] command from the Transmitters folder context
menu,
b. In the displayed table, use the row with the icon. Click the cell of the Transmitters column to select a ref-
erence transmitter and then, click the cell of the Neighbours column to choose a neighbour,
c. Click another cell of the table to validate and add a new row to the table,
d. When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialogue.
In the table, Atoll provides additional information; see "Working with Data Tables" on page 41.
Note: Neighbours are not a filter for transmitters being part of interferers. All transmitters in a net-
work take part in interferences on each transmitter. Neighbours of any linked project in co-
planning can also be listed and chosen manually.
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An automatic allocation tool is also available; see "Allocating GSM/GPRS/EDGE Transmitter Neighbours Automatically"
on page 233.
6.7.1.2 Defining GSM/GPRS/EDGE Exceptional Pairs of Neighbours
Atoll enables you to define neighbourhood constraints that may be then considered by algorithm during the automatic allo-
cation of neighbours.
To define GSM/GPRS/EDGE exceptional pairs of neighbours:
Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Either,
- Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
- Either,
i. Right-click on the transmitter for which you want to define the neighbourhood constraints
ii. Choose the properties option from the context menu,
- Or
i. Double click on the transmitter for which you want to define the neighbourhood constraints
ii. Click the Intra-technology Neighbours tab,
iii. Use the What's this help to get information about fields available in the current window,
iv. In the displayed window, use the bottom table. Select the row with the icon. In the Neighbours col-
umn, click the cell of the Neighbours column to choose from the scrolling box a neighbour (the list con-
tains the first 32 neighbours of the reference transmitter) and then, click the cell of the Status column and
choose from the scrolling menu if you want to forbid or force this neighbourhood relationship.
v. Click either another cell of the table, or the button to validate and add a new row to the
table,
vi. When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialogue.
Or
a. Choose the [Neighbours:Intra-technology exceptional pairs] command from the Transmitters folder con-
text menu,
b. In the displayed table, use the row with the icon. Click the cell of the Transmitters column to select a
reference transmitter and then, click the cell of the Neighbours column to choose a neighbour. Finally,
click the cell of the Status column and specify if you want to forbid or force this neighbourhood relation-
ship,
c. Click another cell of the table to validate and add a new row to the table,
d. When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialogue.
Notes
It is also possible to define an importance (between 0 and 1) related to the neighbour. This field
presents a general importance of the neighbour. Importance takes into account several neigh-
bourhood criteria. It is used in Atoll Frequency Planning. The importance value varies between
0 and 100%.
Neighbours allocated manually have their Importance field forced to the default value of 100%.
It is possible to add/remove symmetric neighbourhood links at once. To do this, use the com-
mands [Symmetrise] and [Delete link and symmetric] available in a context menu. This one can
be open by Right-clicking on the neighbour you have added or you want to delete.
It is possible to apply the exceptional pairs (forbidden or forced) directly from this table by Right-
clicking in it and choosing the related command.
Due to the organisation of neighbourhoods in tables, the copy-paste feature can be used in order
to generate the neighbour table of a global network (or per transmitter).
Standard features for managing table contents (Copy/Paste, Delete, Display columns, Filter,
Sort, Table Fields) are available in a context menu (when Right-clicking on column(s)) or
record(s) and in the Format, Edit and Records menus.
This feature deals with GSM/GPRS/EDGE, cdmaOne/CDMA2000 and UMTS technologies.
Notes
Exceptional pairs are not taken into account during manual neighbour allocation.
It is possible to display on the map forced and forbidden neighbourhood relationships defined in
the Intra-technology Exceptional Pairs table.
You may directly define exceptional pairs on the map using CTRL and SHIFT shortcuts.
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6.7.1.3 Displaying GSM/GPRS/EDGE Exceptional Pairs of Neighbours on the Map
It is possible to display on the map forced and forbidden neighbourhood relationships defined in the Intra-technology
Exceptional Pairs table.
To display the forced/forbidden neighbourhood links of any transmitter:
1. Click on the right side of the Neighbour graphic management icon from the toolbar and select either
Forced Neighbours or Forbidden Neighbours in the scrolling list.
2. Click on the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon,
3. Click on the desired transmitter to select it on the map,
4. Atoll displays on the map:
- The symmetric forced/forbidden neighbourhood links with the selected transmitter (reference trans-
mitter). A single black line represents these links.
- The outwards forced/forbidden neighbourhood links (which are not symmetric); they are coloured as the
reference transmitter.
- The inwards forced/forbidden neighbourhood links (which are not symmetric). Each link has the colour of
the transmitter involved in the exceptional pair with the selected transmitter.
It is possible to configure the exceptional pairs (symmetric, inwards, outwards) you wish to display on the map
5. Click the right side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select Display
Options in the scrolling list.
6.7.1.4 Allocating GSM/GPRS/EDGE Transmitter Neighbours Automatically
Allocation algorithm permits to automatically allocate neighbours in the current network.
To automatically allocate GSM/GPRS/EDGE neighbours in a network:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Neighbours:Automatic allocation...] command from the open menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. Set the parameters for the current Auto Neighbours allocation study,
The automatic allocation of neighbours as follows. We assume a reference transmitter A and a candidate neighbour, trans-
mitter B.
When automatic allocation starts, Atoll checks following conditions:
1. The distance between both transmitters must be less than the user-definable maximum inter-site distance. If the
distance between the reference transmitter and the candidate neighbour is greater than this value, then the candidate
neighbour is discarded.
2. The calculation options,
Force co-site transmitters as neighbours: This option enables you to force transmitters located on the reference
transmitter site in the candidate neighbour list. This constraint can be weighted among the others (see after).
Force adjacent transmitters as neighbours: This option enables you to force transmitters geographically adjacent
to the reference transmitter in the candidate neighbour list. This constraint can be weighted among the others (see
after).
Notes
The displayed links are based on the exceptional pairs defined in the Intra-technology Excep-
tional Pairs table. Therefore, you may display them even if you have no current allocation in your
.atl document.
Finally, when you select a transmitter on the map, Atoll is able to show the coverage areas of
transmitters involved in exceptional pairs with it. You must just display on the map a "Coverage
by transmitter" study (with a colour display by transmitter) preliminary calculated.
You may directly define exceptional pairs on the map using CTRL and SHIFT shortcuts.
It is also possible to display inter-technology exceptional pairs on the map.
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Force neighbour symmetry: This option enables user to force the reciprocity of a neighbourhood link. Therefore,
if the reference transmitter is a candidate neighbour of another transmitter, the later will be considered as candi-
date neighbour of the reference transmitter.
Force exceptional pairs: This option enables you to force/forbid some neighbourhood relationships. Therefore, you
may force/forbid a transmitter to be candidate neighbour of the reference transmitter.
Reset neighbours: When selecting the Reset option, Atoll deletes all the current neighbours and carries out a new
neighbour allocation. If not selected, the existing neighbours are kept.
3. There must be an overlapping zone ( ) with a given cell edge coverage probability where:
SA is the area where the received signal level from the transmitter A is greater than a minimum signal level. SA is
the coverage area of reference transmitter A restricted between two boundaries; the first boundary represents the
start of the handover area (best server area of A plus the handover margin named "handover start") and the
second boundary shows the end of the handover area (best server area of A plus the margin called "handover
end")
SB is the coverage area where the candidate transmitter B is the best server.
Atoll calculates either the percentage of covered area ( ) if the option "Take into account Covered Area" is
selected, or the percentage of traffic covered on the overlapping area for the option "Take into account Covered
Traffic". Then, it compares this value to the percentage minimum covered area (minimum percentage of covered area for
the option "Take into account Covered Area" or minimum percentage of covered traffic for the option "Take into account
Covered Traffic"). If this percentage is not exceeded, the candidate neighbour B is discarded.
Figure 6.3
The coverage condition can be weighted among the others (see number 4 below).
4. The importance weighting button opens a dialogue where you can define minimum and maximum importance limits for
three allocation reasons (co-site, adjacent and coverage reasons). These values are used by the allocation algorithm to
rank the neighbours according to the allocation reason and to quantify the neighbour importance.
Atoll lists all neighbours and sorts them by importance value so as to eliminate some of them from the neighbour list if the
maximum number of neighbours to be allocated to each transmitter is exceeded. If we consider the case for which there
are 15 candidate neighbours and the maximum number of neighbours to be allocated to the reference transmitter is 8.
Among these 15 candidate neighbours, only 8 (having the highest importance values) will be allocated to the reference
transmitter.
As indicated in the table below, the neighbour importance depends on the neighbourhood cause; this value goes from 0
to 100%.
Notes
Adjacency criterion: Geographically adjacent transmitters are determined on the basis of their
Best Server coverages in 2G (GSM GPRS EGPRS) projects. More precisely, a transmitter TXi
is considered adjacent to another transmitter TXj if there exists at least one pixel of TXi Best
Server coverage area where TXj is the 2nd Best Server. The ranking of the adjacent neighbour
transmitter increases with the number of these pixels.
When this option is checked, adjacent cells are sorted and listed from the most adjacent to the
least, depending on the above criterion. Adjacency is relative to the number of pixels satisfying
the criterion.
This criteria is only applicable to transmitters belonging to the same HCS layer. The geographic
adjacency criteria is not the same in 3G (UMTS WCDMA, CDMA2000) projects.
Notes
The margin "handover end" must exceed the margin "handover start".
The higher the margin "handover end" is, the bigger the list of candidate neighbours is.
B A
S S
A
B A
S
S S
B A
S S
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Except forced neighbour case (importance =100%), priority assigned to each neighbourhood cause is now linked to the
Importance Function (IF) evaluation. The importance is evaluated through a function (IF), taking into account the following
three factors:
Co-site factor (C) which is a Boolean factor,
Adjacency factor (A) which deals with the percentage of adjacency,
Overlapping factor (O) meaning the percentage of overlapping
The (IF) function is user-definable using the Min importance and Max importance fields. Details on the (IF) function are
available in the Technical Reference Guide.
In the Results part, Atoll provides the list of neighbours, the number of neighbours and the maximum number of neigh-
bours allowed for each transmitter. In addition, it indicates the importance (in percentage) of each neighbour and the allo-
cation reason. Therefore, a neighbour may be marked as exceptional pair, co-site, adjacent, coverage or symmetric. For
neighbours accepted for co-site, adjacency and coverage reasons, Atoll displays the percentage of area checking the
coverage conditions (or the percentage of covered traffic on this area) and the corresponding surface area (km2) (or the
traffic covered on the area in Erlangs), the percentage of area checking the adjacency conditions and the corresponding
surface area (km2). Finally, if transmitters have previous allocations in the list, neighbours are marked as existing.
1. Once calculations are finished, select the neighbours you want to assign to transmitters. You may do this by check-
ing/unchecking the related boxes in the Commit column; shortcuts (Ctrl+D and Ctrl+U) can be used for a faster
management. In addition, sort and filtering options are available in the result table context menu.
2. Click the button to assign neighbours to transmitters as displayed in the current table. Neighbours
are then listed in the Intra-technology Neighbours tab of each transmitter properties window.
3. Click the Close button to finish the procedure.
Neighbourhood cause When
Importance
value
Existing neighbour
Only if the Reset option is not selected and in case of a
new allocation
Existing importance
Exceptional pair Only if the Force exceptional pairs option is selected 100%
Co-site transmitter
Only if the Force co-site transmitters as neighbours
option is selected
(IF) function
Adjacent transmitter
Only if the Force adjacent transmitters as neighbours
option is selected
(IF) function
Neighbourhood relationship that fulfils
coverage conditions
Only if the percentage minimum covered area is
exceeded
(IF) function
Symmetric neighbourhood relationship Only if the Force neighbour symmetry option is selected (IF) function
Notes
If there is no overlapping between the range of each factor, the neighbours will be ranked by
neighbourhood cause. Using the defaults values for minimum and maximum importance fields,
neighbours will be ranked in this order: first co-site neighbours, then adjacent neighbours, and
finally neighbours found on overlapping criterion.
If ranges of factors overlap each other, the neighbours may not be ranked by neighbourhood
cause.
The ranking between neighbours from the same category will depend on (A) and (O) factors.
The default value of Min(O)=1%, ensures that neighbours selected for symmetry will have an
importance greater than 1%. With a value of Min(O)=0%, neighbours selected for symmetry, will
have an importance field greater than 0% only if there is some overlapping.
Click the button to start calculations.
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6.7.1.5 Displaying the Current GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbour List
Atoll provides the possibility to open an editable table referencing all the GSM/GPRS/EDGE neighbours of the current
network.
To access the GSM/GPRS/EDGE neighbour table:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Neighbours:Intra-technology Neighbours] command from the open menu,
4. In the displayed table, Atoll lists reference transmitters and their related neighbours. In addition, it indicates
the number of neighbours assigned to each reference transmitter, and for each neighbour:
- The distance between the neighbour and the reference transmitter,
- If the neighbourhood relationship is symmetric or not,
- The type of allocation. Three values are available, manual (copy/paste of a neighbour list, manual edition of
neighbours), automatic (automatic allocation), or imported (Planet import, generic import, import using an add-
in). This output will be able to be considered by AFP; it is currently unused.
- The neighbour rank in the list of neighbours of the reference transmitter. This information is given only in case
of an automatic allocation.
- The allocation reason. This information is given only in case of an automatic allocation.
- The importance of each neighbour. This field is set to 100% for manually allocated neighbours by default.
This table can be used to allocate neighbours manually. Standard features for managing table contents (Copy/Paste,
Delete, Display columns, Filter, Sort, Table Fields) are available in a context menu (when Right-clicking on column(s)) or
record(s) and in the Format, Edit and Records menus.
Notes
This feature deals with GSM/GPRS/EDGE, cdmaOne/CDMA2000 and UMTS technologies.
The allocation algorithm needs path loss matrices. Therefore, when starting an automatic neigh-
bour allocation, Atoll automatically calculates the path loss matrices if not found.
The allocation algorithm needs a traffic map when the option "Covered traffic" is selected. It con-
siders traffic map(s) selected in the default traffic analysis in order to determine the percentage
of traffic covered in the overlapping area.
The percentage of area (or the percentage of covered traffic) is calculated with the resolution
specified in the property dialogue of the predictions folder (Default resolution parameter).
When the option "Force adjacent transmitters as neighbours" is used, the margin "handover
start" is not taken into account. Atoll considers a fixed value of 0 dB.
A forbidden neighbour must not be listed as neighbour except if the neighbourhood relationship
already exists and the Reset neighbours option is unchecked when you start the new allocation.
In this case, Atoll displays a warning in the Event viewer indicating that the constraint on the for-
bidden neighbour will be ignored by algorithm because the neighbour already exists.
The notion of importance is used in Atoll Frequency Planning.
The force neighbour symmetry option enables the users to consider the reciprocity of a neigh-
bourhood link. This reciprocity is allowed only if the neighbour list is not already full. Thus, if
transmitter B is a neighbour of the transmitter A while transmitter A is not a neighbour of the
transmitter B, two cases are possible:
- 1st case: There is space in the transmitter B neighbour list: the transmitter A will be added
to the list. It will be the last one.
- 2nd case: The transmitter B neighbour list is full: Atoll will not include transmitter A in the list
and will cancel the link by deleting transmitter B from the transmitter A neighbour list.
When the options "Force exceptional pairs" and "Force symmetry" are selected, Atoll considers
the constraints between exceptional pairs in both directions so as to respect symmetry condition.
On the other hand, if neighbourhood relationship is forced in one direction and forbidden in the
other one, symmetry cannot be respected. In this case, Atoll displays a warning in the Event
viewer.
In case of HCS layers, neighbours between macros and micros in HCS are not currently allo-
cated even if the macro and micro are physically adjacent.
You can carry out neighbour allocation globally on all the transmitters or only on a group of trans-
mitters. In this case, Atoll will consider all the transmitters contained in the group of transmitters,
the symmetric neighbours of these transmitters and all the other ones, which have an intersec-
tion area with the transmitters of the group.
Neighbours are not a filter for transmitters being part of interferers. All transmitters in a network
take part in interferences on each transmitter.
If the Reset button is unchecked and no new neighbour is found after a new allocation, the
Results part stays empty. Atoll only displays the transmitters for which it finds new neighbours.
Therefore, if a transmitter has already reached its maximum number of neighbours before
starting the new allocation, it will not appear in the Results table.
The input parameters for the neighbour automatic allocation can be exported to an to an external
user configuration file (Automatic Neighbour Allocation Parameters).
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6.7.1.6 Modifying the Allocated GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbours
You may add new neighbours or remove allocated neighbours.
To delete allocated neighbours:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Either
a. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
b. Right-click on the transmitter from which you want to exclude some neighbours,
c. Choose the properties option from the context menu,
d. Click the Intra-technology Neighbours tab from the current window,
Or
a. Right-click on the transmitters folder,
b. Choose the [Neighbours:Intra-technology Neighbours] option from the context menu,
c. In the displayed table, select the target neighbour row,
d. Press the keyboard Del (or Suppr.) key
2. Click on OK to validate and close the dialogue.
To add new neighbours:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Either
a. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
b. Right-click on the transmitter from which you want to exclude some neighbours,
c. Choose the properties option from the context menu,
d. Click the Intra-technology Neighbours tab from the current window,
e. In the displayed table, use the last row with the icon. Click the cell of the Neighbours column to choose
a neighbour or edit the neighbour name,
f. Edit the neighbour name,
Or
a. Right-click on the transmitters folder,
b. Choose the [Neighbours: Intra-technology Neighbours] option from the context menu,
c. In the displayed table, use the last row with the icon. Click the cell of the Transmitters column to select
a reference transmitter and then, click the cell of the Neighbours column to choose a neighbour or edit the
neighbour name,
2. Click on OK to validate and close the dialogue.
Note: It is possible to access several allocation tools directly from this table. By Right-clicking in it, you
may:
Apply the exceptional pairs (forbidden or forced),
Delete the link and its symmetric of the selected row,
symmetrise a selected link.
Note: It is possible to remove symmetric neighbourhood links at once. To do this, use the com-
mand [Delete link and symmetric] available in a context menu. This one can be open by
Right-clicking on the neighbour you want to delete.
Notes
Adding/Removing neighbours can be also made using the Neighbour graphic management
icon
It is possible to add symmetric neighbourhood links at once. To do this, use the command [Sym-
metrise] available in a context menu. This one can be open by Right-clicking on the neighbour
you have added.
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6.7.1.7 Displaying GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbours and their Characteristics on the
Map
Once the GSM/GPRS/EDGE neighbours have been allocated, you can display neighbour relations of any transmitter on
the map. In addition, it is possible to display any neighbour characteristic available in the Intra-technology Neighbours
table.
6.7.1.7.1 Displaying GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbours
To display the neighbours of any transmitter:
1. Click the right side (arrow) of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select
Neighbours in the scrolling list.
2. Click the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ),
3. Click the desired transmitter to select it on the map,
4. Atoll displays on the map:
- The symmetric neighbourhood links with the selected transmitter (reference transmitter). A single black line
represents these links
- The outwards neighbourhood links (which are not symmetric); they are coloured as the reference trans-
mitter. They show the neighbours of the selected transmitter (however, the selected transmitter is not one of
their neighbours).
- The inwards neighbourhood links (which are not symmetric). They show the transmitters, which have the
selected transmitter as neighbour (however, these transmitters are not in the neighbour list of the selected
transmitter). Each link has the transmitter colour.
Figure 6.4: Transmitter Site22_0 located on Site22
It is possible to configure the neighbourhood links you wish to display on the map.
5. Click the right side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select Display
Options in the scrolling list.
6.7.1.7.2 Displaying GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbour Characteristics
When you select a transmitter on the map, Atoll can show the coverage areas of its neighbours and colour them depend-
ing on any neighbour characteristic available in the Intra-technology Neighbours table.
1. Display on the map a "Coverage by transmitter" study (with a colour display by transmitter) preliminary calculated.
2. Display neighbour relations of the desired transmitter as explained in the previous paragraph.
3. Click the right side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select Display
Options in the scrolling list. The Neighbourhood Display dialogue appears.
a. Click the Browse button ( ).
b. The Intra-technology Neighbour Display dialogue appears.
Three display types are available.
- Unique: Atoll colours coverage areas of neighbours with a unique colour.
Note: It is also possible to display inter-technology neighbours on the map.
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- Discrete Values: In this case, the user must select a field among the integer and text type ones available
in the Intra-technology Neighbours table. Atoll colours coverage areas of neighbours depending on the
neighbour parameter value (e.g. rank).
- Value Intervals: In this case, the user must select a field among the numeric ones available in the Intra-
technology Neighbours table. Atoll colours coverage areas of neighbours depending on the neighbour
parameter value (e.g. Dropped call number, we assume that this field is a custom field previously imported
in the table).
Finally, you may choose neighbour characteristics to be displayed in the tool tip. This one is available on each
coverage area.
4. In order to restore colours and cancel the neighbour display, click the left side of the Neighbour graphic man-
agement icon ( ).
6.7.1.8 Adding or Removing GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbours and Exceptional
Pairs on the Map
You may directly add and remove neighbourhood links as well as exceptional pairs of neighbours on the map using CTRL
and SHIFT shortcuts.
To add a symmetric neighbourhood link:
1. Click on the right side (arrow) of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select
Neighbours in the scrolling list.
2. Click on the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ),
3. Click on the reference transmitter on the map. Atoll displays its neighbourhood links,
4. In order to define a new symmetric link between the reference transmitter and a transmitter A (transmitter A is
neighbour of the reference transmitter and vice versa), hold down SHIFT on your keyboard and click on the trans-
mitter A. Atoll displays a single black line between both transmitters.
To remove a symmetric neighbourhood link:
1. Click on the right side (arrow) of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select
Neighbours in the scrolling list.
2. Click on the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ),
3. Click on the reference transmitter on the map. Atoll displays its neighbourhood links,
4. In order to remove an existing symmetric link between the reference transmitter and a transmitter A, hold down
SHIFT on your keyboard and click on the transmitter A.
To add an outwards neighbourhood link:
1. Click on the right side (arrow) of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select
Neighbours in the scrolling list.
2. Click on the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ),
3. Click on the reference transmitter on the map. Atoll displays its neighbourhood links,
4. In order to define a new outwards link between the reference transmitter and a transmitter A (transmitter A is neigh-
bour of the reference transmitter but reference transmitter is not neighbour of transmitter A), hold down CTRL on
your keyboard and click on the transmitter A. Atoll displays an arrow directed to transmitter A; it is coloured as
the reference transmitter.
To remove an outwards neighbourhood link:
1. Click on the right side (arrow) of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select
Neighbours in the scrolling list.
2. Click on the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ),
3. Click on the reference transmitter on the map. Atoll displays its neighbourhood links,
4. In order to remove an existing outwards link between the reference transmitter and a transmitter A, hold down
CTRL on your keyboard and click on the transmitter A.
To add an inwards neighbourhood link:
1. Click on the right side (arrow) of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select
Neighbours in the scrolling list.
2. Click on the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ),
3. Click on the reference transmitter on the map. Atoll displays its neighbourhood links,
4. In order to define an inwards link between the reference transmitter and a transmitter A (the reference transmitter
is neighbour of transmitter A but transmitter A is not neighbour of reference transmitter):
- If there is an existing symmetric link between both transmitters: hold down CTRL on your keyboard and click
on the transmitter A.
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- If no neighbourhood link exist between both transmitters: first, create a symmetric neighbourhood link as
explained above and then, hold down CTRL on your keyboard and click on the transmitter A.
5. Atoll displays an arrow directed to the reference transmitter; it is coloured as transmitter A.
To remove an inwards neighbourhood link:
1. Click on the right side (arrow) of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select
Neighbours in the scrolling list.
2. Click on the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ),
3. Click on the reference transmitter on the map. Atoll displays its neighbourhood links,
4. In order to remove an existing inwards link between the reference transmitter and a transmitter A, hold down
SHIFT on your keyboard and click on the transmitter A.
6.7.1.9 Performing an Audit of the Current GSM/GPRS/EDGE Neighbourhood
Plan
It is possible to perform an audit of the current neighbourhood plan in Atoll. The audit function can be used to check for
the following information:
The average number of neighbours per transmitter
Transmitters with no neighbours (having empty neighbours list)
Transmitters having the maximum number of neighbours allowed
Transmitters having more than the maximum number of neighbours allowed
Transmitters with missing co-site neighbours
Transmitters with non-symmetric neighbourhood
Transmitters with missing forced neighbours
Transmitters with existing forbidden neighbours
The audit feature can be used for checking the above criteria in the same project (intra-technology) as well as in linked co-
planning projects (inter-technology). The audit outputs are listed in a .txt file (IntraNeighbourCheck.txt for intra-technology
and InterNeighbourCheck.txt for inter-technology neighbours).
To perform a neighbourhood plan audit:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Neighbours:Audit...] command from the open menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
5. Select the checks you want Atoll to perform for the neighbours,
6. Click OK to perform the audit,
7. Once you have finished performing audits, click Close to close the audit dialogue.
The Audit provides the following outputs
Average number of neighbours: X; where, X is the average number of neighbours (integer) per transmitter for the
plan audited.
Empty lists: x/X; x number of transmitters out of a total of X having no neighbours (or empty neighbours list)
Syntax: |TRANSMITTER|
Full Lists (default max number =Y): x/X; x number of transmitters out of a total of X having Y number of neighbours
listed in their respective neighbours lists.
Syntax: |TRANSMITTER| |NUMBER| |MAX NUMBER|
Notes
In order to graphically define exceptional pairs of neighbours, proceed as explained above. You
just have to select either Forced Neighbours or Forbidden Neighbours instead of Neighbours in
the scrolling list when you click the right side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ).
Neighbourhood relationships and exceptional pairs of neighbours are automatically updated in
the respective tables.
Adding/removing neighbourhood links on the map is easier when a "coverage by transmitter
study (with a colour display by transmitter) preliminary calculated is displayed on the map. In
order to add/remove a transmitter as neighbour, use the CTRL and SHIFT shortcuts as
explained above and click its coverage area on the map. The same feature may be used when
you graphically define exceptional pairs of neighbours.
Note: A related Inter-technology Neighbours tab will be available for inter-technology neigh-
bourhood plan audit in case of linked co-planning projects.
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Lists >max number (default max number =Y): x/X; x number of transmitters out of a total of X having more than
Y number of neighbours listed in their respective neighbours lists.
Syntax: |TRANSMITTER| |NUMBER| |MAX NUMBER|
Missing Co-Sites: X; total number of missing co-site neighbours in the audited neighbourhood plan.
Syntax: |TRANSMITTER| |NEIGHBOUR|
Non symmetric links: X; total number of non-symmetric neighbourhood links in the audited neighbourhood plan.
Syntax: |TRANSMITTER| |NEIGHBOUR| |TYPE| |REASON|
Missing Forced: X; total number of forced neighbours missing in the audited neighbourhood plan.
Syntax: |TRANSMITTER| |NEIGHBOUR|
Existing Forbidden: X; total number of forbidden neighbours existing in the audited neighbourhood plan.
Syntax: |TRANSMITTER| |NEIGHBOUR| |TYPE| |REASON|
6.7.2 Allocating GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Resources Manually in Atoll
6.7.2.1 Assigning BSIC Domains to Transmitters
Once defined, a BSIC domain have to be assigned to a transmitter. Only BSICs included in the assigned BSIC domain
can be manually or automatically allocated to a transmitter.
To assign a BSIC domain to a transmitter:
Either:
a. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
c. Right-click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
- Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialogue,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
4. In the Identification part, click on the scrolling menu and choose a BSIC domain in the list,
5. Click OK to close the dialogue
6.7.2.2 Assigning Manually BSICs to Transmitters
The colour code BSIC (Base Station Identity Code) for a transmitter is made up of the NCC (Network Colour Code) and
the BCC (BTS Colour Code). The NCC code is, for example, 0 or 4 for France. The BCC code (respectively NCC) is a digit
between 0 and 7.
The BCCH-BSIC pair permits, on a given territory, to identify precisely a cell. At a higher level, it may exist identical BCCH-
BSIC pairs characterising very distant zones. In Atoll, you can either allocate it manually to each transmitter or automat-
ically to all transmitters in the network.
Once a BSIC domain has been allocated to a transmitter, it is possible either to manually or automatically choose a BSIC
among available ones for any transmitter.
To manually allocate a BSIC to a transmitter:
Either:
a. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Note: If the field Maximum number of neighbours in the Transmitters table is empty, the above
two checks take into account the Default Max Number value defined in the audit dialogue.
Notes
The BSIC domain must be consistent with the defined BSIC format. When choosing a format,
Atoll adapts automatically the related domain in order not to consider inconsistent values.
BSIC domain associated to the transmitter can be changed afterwards,
Once selected, BSIC domain dialogue can be open by clicking on the button,
The BSIC domain is an input required for manual or automatic BSIC allocation,
When running the AFP, you can also select the BSIC allocation.
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c. Right-click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
- Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialogue,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
4. Click on the scrolling menu and choose a BSIC in the list,
5. Click OK to close the dialogue
6.7.2.3 Allocating a BCCH to Transmitters Manually
BCCH (Broadcast Control CHannel) permits the diffusion of the cell characteristic data, including the steady diffusion of
several types data systems. This channel must be part both of the main frequency band (coming from the selected cell
type) and allocated channels in TRXs. The BCCH is defined on the timeslot 0 of a selected frequency.
To allocate manually a BCCH to a transmitter:
Either:
a. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
c. Right-click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
- Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow).
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialogue,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
Either,
- In Non Hopping or Base Band Hopping, Create a new TRX of type BCCH and enter the related channel,
Or,
- In Synthesised Frequency Hopping, Create a new TRX of type BCCH, fill the related MAL in the TRX part,
and enter the channel on which will be located the timeslot 0 dedicated to the steady diffusion of BCCH infor-
mation,
4. Click OK to close the dialogue
6.7.2.4 Creating TRXs in Transmitters
In Atoll, for GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, channels are defined at the TRX level. The manual allocation of frequencies is
made by the management of TRXs in transmitters.
The allocation can be also made by filling the Channels column from the transmitter table. When entering channel values
in the table, TRXs of type TCH are automatically created in the related transmitters.
BCCH can be assigned identically.
Automatic frequency allocation can also be made using the optional AFP module.
By using the advanced filter feature on transmitters, it is possible, for example, to display only transmitters linked to a
frequency and their adjacent ones. Using the filter feature in the study display tab, it is also possible to display all cells with
a specific frequency (f), and also all cells with frequencies (f+1) and (f-1) in different colours.
Notes
The BSIC value must be consistent with the defined BSIC format. Only consistent values are
available in the BSIC scrolling menu.
BSIC associated to the transmitter can be changed afterwards.
The selected BSIC must be part of the chosen BSIC domain.
Once chosen in single digit format, the related NCC-BCC format is automatically displayed
above the scrolling box.
It is possible to edit the BSIC scrolling box. Furthermore, you can enter the BSIC value with a
NCC-BCC format in the scrolling box, and click the Apply button. Atoll will convert it in the single
digit format consistent with the related BSIC domain.
Note: You can also automatically a TRX of type BCCH by entering the related frequency in the
BCCH columns from the transmitter global table.
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6.7.2.5 Managing TRXs in Transmitters
From transmitter properties, it is possible to list TRXs of transmitter and channels allocated to TRXs. This TRX table can
be automatically filled after an automatic frequency planning. You may also fill it manually. It contains a TRX per line.
TRX is the transmitter level at which channels are defined.
To access the TRX table from the transmitter properties:
Either:
a. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
c. Right-click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
- Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialogue,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
4. Define the TRX settings in the TRXs part,
5. Click OK to close the dialogue.
6.7.2.6 Displaying the TRX List
Even if TRXs are linked to transmitters, it is possible to display all existing TRXs of a network in an editable form.
To open the TRX general table:
1. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Subcells: TRXs] command from the open menu,
4. Define the TRX settings.
6.7.2.7 TRX Property Details
Whatever is the way to reach TRX properties (from transmitter properties or from the TRX table), for any of them, Atoll
details:
Index
This is identification number of TRX. This number (integer) may be user-defined or automatically given by Atoll (after clos-
ing the dialogue).
TRX Type
Channels
Specify channel(s) allocated to TRX: 1 channel per TRX if the hopping mode for the TRX type is "Non Hopping" or "Base
Band Hopping", several channels per TRX if the hopping mode for the TRX type is "Synthesized Hopping".
Channel(s) can be either copied, or manually selected one by one in the scrolling menu (select the box and click on the
arrow to open the scrolling menu). The scrolling menu offers you channels of the frequency domain assigned to this TRX
type (Cell type property dialogue).
MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset)
The MAIO is selectable for each TRX separately. It is used in case of frequency hopping (BBH or SFH) to avoid intra-site
collisions due to co or adjacent channel consumption. This is an integer; its range of value is between 0 and N-1 (N is the
number of channels used in the hopping sequence). MAIO can be manually entered or automatically allocated.
Note: When a transmitter is a donor for a repeater, modifying its TRXs has an impact on its
repeater.
Notes
The button helps you to manage the content of the TRX table.
When a transmitter is a donor for a repeater, modifying its TRXs has an impact on its repeater.
Note: When pasting a list of channels, separator must be a space.
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Freeze Channels
Select this option to keep the current channel allocation at the TRX level when starting a new AFP.
The TRX Equipment defines the maximum number of CS (GPRS) and MCS (EDGE) at the TRX level. To be fully
used, this ranges must be compliant with the ranges defined at the terminal level.
The average 8PSK Power Backoff is the average power reduction for E/GPRS transmitters due to 8PSK modula-
tion in EDGE. This has an impact on the EDGE service zone (traffic analysis and EDGE predictions)
6.7.3 Interference Matrices
Atoll provides the possibility to work with more than one set of interference matrices in a single document. You can acti-
vate, deactivate, rename, delete, import, export, and calculate as many sets of interference matrices as you want in the
same document. You can manage interference matrices outside the AFP as well as during an AFP session. You also have
the option of working with interference matrices for all or a group of transmitters. You can import already calculated inter-
ference matrices to Atoll in various formats or export them into files with various formats.
You can have more than one set of interference matrices stored under the Interference Matrices folder. You can also
choose which interference matrices are to be used by the AFP.
Interference matrices - or histograms - may be used as inputs for an automatic frequency planning tool. They can also be
generated from test mobile data measurements.
Interference matrices, in Atoll, work as follows. For each pair (interfered subcell, interferer subcell), Atoll calculates a C/
I value on each bin of the interfered subcell service area (determined by the min reception threshold defined at the subcell
level for a fixed cell edge coverage probability); all the subcells are supposed to share the same channel. Then, Atoll inte-
grates C/I values calculated over the service area of the interfered subcell and determines an interference histogram.
Histogram shows the different interference probabilities. Interference probability is the probability that users of the inter-
fered subcell receive a C/I higher than a C/I value; interference probability is stated either in percentage of interfered area
or in percentage of interfered traffic.
Example: Let (Tx1, BCCH) and (Tx2, BCCH) be the victim and interferer subcells. The service areas have been defined
using best server with 0 dB margin. The interference probability is stated in percentage of interfered area.
Figure 6.5: The probability of having at least C/I levels for a couple of subcells
In that case, we observe that the probability for C/I (BCCH of Tx2 on the BCCH of Tx1) to be greater than 0 is 100% (which
is normal because Tx1 is best server). The probability to have a C/I value at least equal to 31 is 31.1%. If we introduce the
fact that the required C/I level on the BCCH of Tx1 is 12, we consider in that case that, since the probability that C/I is at
least equal to 12 is 93.5%, the percentage of interfered areas in the service area of the BCCH of Tx1 caused by the BCCH
of TX2 is 6.5%.
6.7.3.1 Calculating Interference Matrices
The AFP calculates interference matrices if they are not already available (previously calculated or imported) during the
AFP launch process. But you can also compute them outside the AFP process.
In order to calculate interference matrices for all the transmitters or transmitters belonging to filtered sites:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Interference Matrices folder to open its context menu,
3. Choose the Calculate... command from the menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
5. Set the necessary parameters to required values,
6. Click OK to start calculations.
Note: The Freeze channels option can be also imposed at the transmitter level only.
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A new Interference Matrices item is added to the Interference Matrices folder. By default, this interference matrices item
is active and is at the top of all other items.
Subcell traffic load is read from the outputs of the default traffic capture. Calculating interference matrices requires that a
traffic capture be available beforehand. If a traffic analysis for the concerned transmitters has not already been performed,
Atoll fixes their respective traffic loads at 1.
Interference matrices can be computed either based on the maps used in the default traffic capture or based on a uniform
distribution of traffic. In the first case the interference probabilities are expressed in terms of the interfered traffic. Whereas
in the second case, these probabilities are expressed in terms of the interfered area.
In the Interference calculation dialogue, specify the servers to study (All, best signal level per HCS layer), a margin in
case of a best signal level study, whether you want to consider shadowing, and, in which case, a cell edge coverage prob-
ability. Finally, select the calculation option on how to define the interference probability:
Traffic spreading based on maps used in the default traffic capture: the probability is expressed in percentage of
interfered traffic and takes into account both traffic maps and the traffic load output from the dimensioning process
(or user-defined).
Uniform traffic spreading: the probability is expressed in percentage of interfered area. This method cannot con-
sider traffic hot spots accurately but is much faster than the previous one.
You can also calculate interference matrices for all the transmitters or for a group of transmitters as follows:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Either,
a. Right-click on the Transmitters folder to open its context menu,
3. Or,
a. Expand the Transmitters folder by clicking on the button,
b. Right-click on the subfolder for which you want to calculate interference matrices to open its context menu,
4. Choose the Calculate command from the Interference Matrices menu,
5. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
6. Set the necessary parameters to required values,
7. Click OK to start calculations.
6.7.3.2 Importing and Exporting Interference Matrices
Atoll is capable of importing and exporting interference matrices in different formats, including:
.im0 (with one histogram per line)
.im1 (with one value per line, transmitter name repeated)
.im2 (with only co-channel and adjacent interference values)
.clc +.dct (with one value per line and a dictionary file)
Please refer to the Technical Reference Guide for detailed descriptions of these file formats.
In order to import interference matrices:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Interference Matrices folder to open its context menu,
3. Choose the Import... command from the menu,
4. Select the import format and choose a filename,
5. Click Open to import the interference matrices.
Caution: Changing some transmitter or subcell properties, such as power offset, reception threshold
and transmitter power or EIRP makes the interference histograms invalid. In this case, you
must recalculate them.
Notes
Atoll only takes into account the subcells of loaded transmitters to calculate interference histo-
grams.
DTX defined in step 1 has an effect only if the AFP cost is based on interferences (calculation of
interference histograms).
The resolution used to calculate interference histograms is the default resolution defined in the
Predictions folder properties dialogue.
When calculating C/I, Atoll applies shadowing margins (depending on the entered cell edge cov-
erage probability and the C/I standard deviation on the pixel) to the C values only.
Note: C/I standard deviation values, defined per clutter class, are used when calculating interfer-
ence matrices.
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In order to export interference matrices:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Interference Matrices folder by clicking the button,
3. Right-click on the Interference Matrices item you want to export to open its context menu,
4. Choose the Export... command from the menu,
5. Select the export format and choose a filename,
6. Click Save to export the interference matrices.
6.7.3.3 Managing Interference Matrices
You can manage the properties, such as name, activity, and storage, of interference matrices.
To manage the properties of interference matrices:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Interference Matrices folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the Interference Matrices item whose properties you want to manage to open its context menu,
4. Choose the Properties command from the menu.
You can modify the name of the interference matrices item, select whether these interference matrices are active or inac-
tive, and choose whether to store the interference matrices in the .atl file or store them in external files. Difference external
file formats are available for interference matrices:
.im0 (with one histogram per line)
.im1 (with one value per line, transmitter name repeated)
.im2 (with only co-channel and adjacent interference values)
.clc +.dct (with one value per line and a dictionary file)
Please refer to the Technical Reference Guide for detailed descriptions of these file formats.
You can also rename, activate or deactivate interference matrices directly from the context menu.
The top-most Interference Matrices item under the Interference Matrices folder is used by the AFP. So you can place the
interference matrices item you want to use in the AFP on the top by dragging and dropping it on top.
It is possible to delete existing interference matrices.
To delete all the existing interference matrices:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Interference Matrices folder to open its context menu,
3. Choose the Delete Matrices command menu.
To delete a single interference matrices item under the Interference Matrices folder:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Interference Matrices folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the Interference Matrices item you want to delete to open its context menu,
4. Choose the Delete command from the menu.
Notes
If the file being imported is a .clc file, Atoll looks for the associated .dct file in the same directory
and uses it to decode transmitter identifiers. When this file is unavailable, Atoll assumes that the
transmitter identifiers are the transmitter names.
When you successively import several interference matrix files containing the same relation-
ships, Atoll considers the first imported relation only (relation found in the first imported file). The
ones found in the other files are ignored.
Multiple file selection is supported. Therefore, it is possible to import several interference matrix
files at once.
Atoll supports a simplified import format as well (syntax: Interfered subcell, Interfering subcell,
Co-channel interference probability, Adjacent channel probability). For further information,
please refer to the Technical Reference Guide.
No validity check is carried out when importing an interference histogram file. Be sure that
imported histograms are consistent with the current configuration.
Atoll only imports interference histograms related to loaded transmitters.
The histogram interference computation needs path loss results. If matrices are invalid, they will
be updated during the computation process.
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6.7.3.4 Generating a Report on Interference Matrices
Atollcan generate reports on all or one of the interference matrices available in the Interference Matrix folder. The inter-
ference matrices report gives:
The number of entries in the interference matrices,
The number of transmitters in the AFP scope,
The average number of interferers per victim transmitter in the AFP scope.
In order to generate a report on all the interference matrices available in the Interference Matrices folder:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the Interference Matrices folder to open its context menu,
3. Choose the Generate Report command from the menu.
4. Click OK to close the report dialogue.
In order to generate a report on one interference matrices item available in the Interference Matrices folder:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Expand the Interference Matrices folder by clicking on the button,
3. Right-click on the interference matrices item for which you want to display a report to open its context menu,
4. Choose the Generate Report command from the menu,
5. Click OK to close the report dialogue.
The summary of this report is then available in the Event Viewer and can be viewed by double clicking the corresponding
line.
6.7.4 Managing Exceptional Separations For Frequency Allocation
6.7.4.1 Defining Exceptional Separations for Frequency Allocation
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, the Exceptional pairs table allows you to impose/relax some channel separations between
items which are neither co-cell, nor co-site, nor part of neighbour transmitters during an automatic allocation of frequen-
cies. Standard separations are defined in the generic AFP dialogue.
For example, if we take Tx1 and Tx2, which are neither neighbours nor co-site, we can impose in the separation table a
value of 3. This will mean that if we assign f1 to Tx1 and f2 to Tx2, the AFP has to respect: . This constraint is
also checked by the Audit tool.
The separations are defined per couple of (Transmitter, TRX type) pairs, and they deal with imposing or relaxing
constraints. Relaxing constraints means that the defined separation in the Separation table has priority on the imposed
separation between co-site, co-cell or neighbour items. It is even possible to define intra-cell separations, e.g., between
BCCH and TCH subcells of a same transmitter.
Examples:
Tx1 and Tx2 are neither neighbours or co-site. We impose in the separation table the following rules:
- Separation of 3 channels between (Tx1, BCCH) and (Tx2, BCCH)
- Separation of 2 channels between (Tx1, TCH) and (Tx2, TCH)
If we assign respectively f11 and f12 to the BCCH and the TCH of Tx1, and respectively f21 and f22 to the BCCH and the
TCH of Tx2, we must have: , . Nevertheless, we could have and .
We impose a co-cell minimum separation of 3. We defined also in the transmitter table a separation of 2 for the
(Tx1, BCCH) and (Tx1, TCH) pairs. So, if we assign f11 to the BCCH and f12 to the TCH, it may be possible to
have , even if there is a co-cell configuration.
For any transmitter, to define channel separations with any other transmitter:
Either:
a. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
b. Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
c. Right-click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
- Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
1. Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
2. Click on the AFP tab of the current dialogue,
3. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
4. In the displayed table window, for each (or All) TRX type of the considered transmitter, enter the (Transmitter,
TRX type) couple and their related imposed separation,
3
2 1
f f
3
21 11
f f 2
22 11
f f
11 21
f f =
12 21
f f =
2
12 11
= f f
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5. Click either another table cell, or the button to validate and add a new row to the table.
6. When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialogue.
To access the exceptional pair table:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Frequency plan: Exceptional pairs...] command from the open menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue,
5. In the displayed table, enter the (Transmitter, TRX type) couples and their related imposed separation,
6. Click another table cell to validate and add a new row to the table,
7. When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialogue.
- The button helps you to manage the content of the Exceptional separation table.
- Other constraints are imposed in transmitter properties.
- The separation table can also be completed from the AFP generic dialogue.
- The Audit tool takes into account the defined separation table with priority compared to co-cell, co-site or
neighbour separation constraints.
- It is possible to Copy and Paste (Ctrl-C Ctrl-V) the separation list in the tables.
- In the TRX type column, it is possible to select the All value in order to force the separation for all the subcells
of the considered transmitter
- It is possible to display on the map separation constraints of transmitters.
- You may graphically define separation constraints between transmitters using CTRL shortcut.
Separation rules depend on equipment, and refer to the non-hopping configuration. Separation rules are "administration
rules" that are set once according to the equipment and are not meant to be modified during routine operations. Separation
rules do not depend on whether SFH is available in the network or not. Atoll and the AFP consider SFH independent of
the separation rules. If you relax the separation constraints, and have SFH TRXs, this means that you are asking the AFP
and Atoll to take into account the effect of SFH twice.
6.7.4.2 Displaying AFP Exceptional Separations on the Map
It is possible to display on the map separation constraints between transmitters defined in the Exceptional pairs table.
To display the separation constraints of any transmitter:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Frequency Plan:Display Options...] command from the open menu,
4. Choose between which type of TRX you want to display separation constraints:
5. Click on the right side (arrow) of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select
Exceptional Pairs (AFP) in the scrolling list.
6. Click on the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ),
7. Click on the desired transmitter to select it on the map,
8. Atoll displays on the map links between the selected transmitter and the ones with which it has separation
constraints. Each link has the colour of the transmitter involved in the separation constraint with the selected
transmitter, the separation value is displayed next to the link.
6.7.4.3 Adding or Removing AFP Exceptional Separations on the Map
You may graphically add and remove separation constraints between transmitters using the CTRL shortcut.
To add/remove an AFP separation constraint:
1. Click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
2. Right-click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
3. Choose the [Frequency Plan:Display Options...] command from the open menu,
4. Specify between which type of TRX you want to define separation constraints,
5. Click on the right side (arrow) of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ) from the toolbar and select
Exceptional Pairs (AFP) in the scrolling list.
6. Click on the left side of the Neighbour graphic management icon ( ),
7. Click on the reference transmitter on the map. Atoll displays the existing separation constraints with this
transmitter,
Note: You may directly define exceptional pairs on the map using CTRL shortcut.
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8. In order to define a new separation constraint between the reference transmitter and a transmitter A, hold down
CTRL on your keyboard and click on the transmitter A. Atoll opens a dialogue where you have to define the
separation value between both transmitters. The link is coloured as the transmitter A, the separation value is
indicated next to the link.
6.7.5 Using AFP to Allocate Resources in Atoll
6.7.5.1 Adjusting AFP Parameters fromthe Data Model
In Atoll, it is possible to adjust AFP parameters as global constraints as well as per transmitter.
In the TRXs tab of the transmitter properties dialogue, it is possible to force the following parameters:
Subcell part:
Main frequency band used by the model when assigning cell types to transmitters
Frequency domains (including excluded channels), from which the AFP tool can choose frequencies as defined
Allocation mode (Free or Group constrained) for allocating frequencies to TRXs
Allowed C/I and maximum percentage of interference
Minimum reception threshold
Maximum MAL length allowed
Hopping mode for each subcell of each transmitter
Site synchronisation
DTX support
Timeslot configurations
Furthermore, Atoll is capable of automatically computing the required number of TRXs (at the subcell level) for all trans-
mitters of the network. The computed values are automatically entered in the subcell part of the transmitter properties
dialogues.
TRX part:
You can manually choose the frequencies related to each TRX in the transmitter properties dialogues (TRXs tab). The
MAIO can also be manually specified. Specifically concerning the AFP, it is possible to freeze channels of each TRX at
this level. Thus denying any new automatic allocation to overwrite existing channels.
In the AFP tab of a given transmitter properties dialogue, it is possible to:
Impose a weight on the cost function used for convergence on this specific transmitter. For example, defining a
value of 2 for a specific transmitter, while the same for other transmitters is 1, means that convergence will be
achieved when the cost on this transmitter becomes half of the costs of other transmitters.
Freeze some entities, such as frequencies and MAIOs, HSNs and BSICs at the transmitter level, in order to dis-
allow the AFP tool to recalculate them. Frequencies can also be frozen at the subcell level (see above).
Define exceptional channel separations with other (transmitter, subcell) pairs that are neither co-site nor neigh-
bours of the currently considered (transmitter, subcell) pair.
6.7.5.2 Using the Generic AFP Interface
The role of an Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP) tool is to assign frequencies to cells within a GSM network in order
to match the traffic demand (number of required TRXs) with a certain quality (e.g., interference limitations).
A certain number of inputs are available in the data model (transmitter properties and exceptional pairs of subcells), while
others can be defined in the generic AFP tool GUI. In addition, AFP module-specific parameters can also be set.
The Atoll Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP) module is an optional module that enables automatic frequency plan
generation and allocation for GSM and TDMA networks. The following resources may be allocated:
Frequencies
Mobile Allocation Lists (MAL)
HSN, MAIO
BSIC
TRX Ranks
Notes
The graphically defined exceptional pairs are automatically listed in the Exceptional pairs table.
Finally, when you select a transmitter on the map, Atoll is able to show the coverage areas of
transmitters involved in exceptional pairs with it. You must just display on the map a "Coverage
by transmitter" study (with a colour display by transmitter) preliminary calculated.
Note: The number of required TRXs can be entered manually by the user. This information will be
used by the AFP tool.
Note: Existing channels can be frozen globally with respect to their types (control or non-control).
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You can also have more detailed results displayed by the AFP in the AFP results window. These detailed results include
the total and/or separation costs per TRX, subcell, transmitter and site. In order to have access to these results, you have
to add new custom fields (AFP_COST and AFP_SEP_COST of type SINGLE for total and separation costs respectively)
in the corresponding tables, i.e. TRX table, Subcells table, Transmitters table and sites table. Once you have added these
custom fields, these detailed results will be available for you to choose in the AFP launch wizards first dialogue, under the
AFP Indicators section.
AFP aims at generating optimal allocations, i.e., allocations that minimise interference over the network and comply with
a set of user-defined constraints. The two main types of constraints are separation constraints and spectrum limitations.
AFP uses a cost function based algorithm to evaluate frequency plans, whose aim is to find frequency plans with minimal
costs.
In Atoll, the GSM GPRS EGPRS data model has been adapted to be consistent with any AFP module. Atoll provides
generic options and parameters, which can be taken into account during the automatic frequency planning.
Atoll provides a set of successive generic dialogues (Wizard mode) for any AFP module, be it an external 3rd party module
or implemented into Atoll via the API. Different AFP modules are activated in the same manner.
For any AFP module, the convergence criterion is based on a cost function taking into account all the requirements given
by the network inputs. The goal of the module is to try to minimise the cost involved in the process. The cost function mainly
consists of two components. The first is related to interferences, while the second considers separation constraint viola-
tions. Both components are normally added in order to get the global cost. Nevertheless, it is possible to consider the sepa-
ration cost component only.
Before starting an AFP session, you have to ensure that the number of required TRXs per transmitter has already been
defined. The related traffic loads have an effect on the cost function used in the AFP.
As separation constraints may be depend on neighbours, a neighbour allocation should also be performed before starting
an AFP session.
6.7.5.3 Starting AFP
You may perform automatic frequency planning on all transmitters or only on a group of transmitters.
To start an AFP session:
1. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder or a group of transmitters. The context menu appears.
3. Select Frequency plan > Automatic allocation from the context menu,
4. Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialogue.
The AFP process consists of the following steps:
Step 1 is made of a set of dialogues organised in wizard mode presenting general AFP inputs.
The first dialogue comprises in:
- Selecting an AFP module and modifying its parameters (if required)
- Defining the resources to allocate
- Choosing the subcells to be considered
The second dialogue permits to define separation requirements.
Finally, the third dialogue defines:
- A global freezing strategy on TRXs or subcells according to their TRX types
- The source of traffic load information
- Consideration of DTX
Step 2: Atoll loads and verifies the network.
Step 3: Consists in computing the theoretical level of interference that the AFP module will have to minimise. If
you choose not to calculate it, the mathematical model will work with respect to separation constraints only. Here
you can also define a duration corresponding to the minimum time allocated to the AFP tool to find the best con-
vergence method.
Step 4: Atoll provides detailed AFP results in the form of a table.
Note: TRX Rank depicts how good or bad are the conditions of frequencies corresponding to dif-
ferent TRXs. If the TRX Rank is high, this means that the corresponding frequency is not
good.
Note: It is possible to launch AFP on a transmitter or on a group of transmitters from the respec-
tive context menus. All the involved transmitters (potential interferers or transmitters
involved in separation constraints) are taken into account but the allocation is performed
only for the non-frozen items (subcells or TRXs) of the concerned transmitter(s).
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6.7.5.4 AFP Step 1: Generic Inputs
Once an AFP session is launched, the 1st step is made of successive dialogues in wizard mode (using the
and buttons) and consists in defining the generic AFP inputs.
In this step:
1. In the first window, choose an AFP module and adjust its parameters, if required, by clicking the button.
2. Check the boxes related to the resources you wish to allocate during this AFP session. Depending on what the
selected AFP module supports, it is possible to allocate several resource types: channels (for NH or BBH sub-
cells), MAL and MAIO (for SFH subcells), HSN (for BBH and SFH subcells) and BSIC.
3. Check the AFP indicators to allocate. You can choose from AFP Ranks, Total costs and Separation costs at
TRX/Subcell/Transmitter/Site levels.
4. Indicate if you want all the potential interferers to be taken into account by the AFP module by checking/
unchecking the Load all the potential interferers option. If this option is unchecked, the cost function will only con-
sist of the separation violation cost.
5. In the second window, modify/add separations within exceptional pairs of transmitters and subcells using the
button. These separation constraints have priority on the other systematic separations
(co-cell and co-site separations as well as separations between neighbours) you may specify.
6. In the same dialogue, define the channel separations within subcells of a same cell, within subcells of co-
site transmitters and between subcells of neighbours. You may specify separations between BCCH subcells,
traffic subcells and between BCCH and traffic subcells.
7. In the third window, you may choose:
- To freeze all the subcells of a category (Control or Other - traffic -)
- To freeze all the existing TRXs (channels already allocated) of a category (Control or Other - traffic -)
- Whether the needed traffic loads (in the cost function) should be extracted from the default traffic capture of
from the Subcells table (which may contain user-defined values)
- Whether to consider discontinuous transmission (on the interference estimation) on subcells that support
DTX. Enter a circuit activity factor.
8. Click the button to start the loading the selected network and its verification.
Notes
You can later perform an audit of the computed frequency plan.
A channel search tool working on channels, BCCHs and BSICs allows you, for example, to dis-
play the transmitters (cells) with a specific frequency (f), the ones with frequencies either (f+1),
or (f-1) or (f+1) and (f-1) with different colours.
Note: All the AFP modules listed in the Modules tab will be available in the list.
Note: Atoll avoids creating TRXs without channels. Therefore, if you do not ask for MAL-MAIO
assignment, all the SFH subcells are considered "frozen", and no TRXs will be created for
them. The same happens in case only a MAL-MAIO assignment is selected. In this case, all
NH and BBH subcells will be considered frozen and no TRXs will be created.
Notes
AFP Rank (or TRX Rank) gives an idea about the usage of the frequency corresponding to a
TRX. The higher the AFP Rank, the worse the frequency.
Options to display Total costs and Separation costs at TRX/Subcell/Transmitter/Site levels in the
AFP results window will be available if you have already added new custom fields (AFP_COST
and AFP_SEP_COST of type SINGLE for the total and separation costs respectively) in the cor-
responding tables, i.e. TRX table, Subcells table, Transmitters table and sites table.
Notes
The input parameters for the automatic neighbour allocation can be exported to an external user
configuration file (AFP configuration).
Freezing implies that no frequency assignment will be made on selected entities. Nevertheless,
frozen items will be taken into consideration in the cost function of any AFP module.
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6.7.5.5 AFP Step 2: Loading and Verifying the Network
Once the AFP generic inputs are set, Atoll loads and verifies the involved items in the 2nd step.
Atoll loads:
The transmitters to be allocated (TBA transmitters): Among all the active and filtered transmitters, these are the
ones belonging to the transmitters folder for which AFP was launched, located within the focus zone.
The potential interferers of TBA transmitters if the option "Load all the potential interferers" is selected. They are
the transmitters whose calculation radii intersect the calculation radius of any TBA transmitter.
The transmitters involved in the specified separation conditions with the TBA transmitters: neighbours, co-site
transmitters, transmitters or subcells of exceptional pairs and neighbours of neighbours in case of BSIC allocation.
The calculated cost takes into account all the loaded transmitters. On the other hand, resources are not assigned to all the
transmitters. Therefore, it is important to know the transmitters to be allocated (TBA transmitters). TBA Transmitters are
the active and filtered transmitters located inside the computation zone, which belong to the folder for which AFP was
started. The resources selected in the previous dialogue will only be assigned to TBA transmitters. Other loaded transmit-
ters are considered to be "frozen" for all the types of assignments: BSIC, HSN, MAL, MAIO and channels.
Once loaded, Atoll verifies the network consistency. It reports mainly non-blocking warnings in the event viewer. These
warnings deal with, for example, values out of their range or inconsistencies of the existing allocation.
For example, Atoll can report that a list of frequencies is assigned to a TRX supporting a non-hopping or base band
hopping mode. In this case, AFP will fix it if frequencies are not frozen.
Inconsistent values (e.g., a value of 100 for the traffic load) will be replaced by Atoll in order to avoid blocking the AFP
process. Nevertheless, in some cases, like an empty HSN (or BSIC) domain when the HSN allocation is requested, the
AFP process will stop with an error message reported to the user in order to fill the domains.
After having checked the messages in the event viewer, click the Close button to open a new dialogue dealing
with other AFP settings.
6.7.5.6 AFP Step 3: Generic AFP Settings
After having loaded and verified the involved network, Atoll opens a dialogue consisting of three parts.
The first part reports the validated network conditions:
Resources to be allocated
Separation constraints
Type of loading
- Full: both potential interferers (interferences taken into account) and transmitters/subcells considered in sep-
aration requirements have been loaded and checked.
- Partial: only transmitters/subcells involved in separation requirements have been loaded and checked.
State of the loaded network: number of loaded subcells, number of subcells selected for the AFP process, warn-
ings during the consistency checking, etc.
At this step, the status box in Step 3 indicates that the allocation will be based on separation constraints only.
The second part of the dialogue displays information about the interference histograms, if interferences are taken into
account in AFP (not only separation requirements).
The status box in Step 3 indicates that the allocation will be based on separation constraints and interferences.
Finally, the third part of the dialogue displays the Event viewer window so that any important messages from loading the
network are accessible from this dialogue. Apart from this, it also enables you to:
Indicate a target time (in minutes) on which the AFP