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UNIT 1 : COMPUTER SYSTEM ORGNIZATION WHAT IS A COMPUTER?

The word computer comes from the word compute which means to calculate. So a computer is normally considered to be calculating device that can perform arithmetic Operations at enormous speed. CHARACTERSITICS OF COMPUTERS The power and usefulness of computer is due to the following characterstitics: 1. A TO!AT"#: Once a $ob is started it will wor% by itself without human intervention until the $ob is finished. &. S'((): A computer is a very fast device. "t can perform in a few seconds the Amount of wor% that a human being cn do in an entire year. !icroseconds *1+(,.anoseconds *1+(/'icoseconds*1+(1&0. A## 1A#2 : The accuracy of a computer is consistently high and the degree of Accuracy of a particular computer depends upon its design. #O11(#T ".' T ".ST1 #T"O. 1(3"A43(5 A## 1AT( O T' T #omputer error caused due to incorrect input data or unreliable programs is called 6arbage in 6arbage out *6"6O7. )(3"6(.#( : A computer is free from monotony8 tiredness8lac% of concentration8 and can wor% for hours together without creating any error and without grumbling. 9. :(1SAT"3"T2: #omputer can do many things together or simultaneously. "t can prepare result8 prepare electricity bill8 type a important letter together. ,. 'O;(1 O< 1(!(!4(1".6: A computer can store and recall any amount of information because of its secondary storage. (ven after several years 8 the information recalled would be as accurate as day one. =. .O ".> ? A computer is not a magical device."t possesses no intelligence of its own. "t has to be told what to do and in what se@uence. A computer cannot ta%es its own decision.

A. .O <((3".6 ? #omputer is devoid of emotions. They have no feeling and no instincts because they are machines..#omputers cannot ma%e $udgements8 it is based on instructions given to them in the form of programs that are written by human beings.

4AS"# #O!' T(1 O16A."BAT"O. The basic logical structure proposed by :on .ewman has not changed over many years. .o matter what shape and siCe of the computer we may be tal%ing about8 all computer systems perform the following five basic operations for converting the raw data into information . )ifference between data and information 1. "nputting: The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system &. Storing : Saving data and instructions so that they available when needed. 0. 'rocessing: 'eforming arithmetic operations*addDsubDdivDmul- or logical operations *E8 F8G etc- on data inorder to convert them into some useful information. 7. Outputting : The process of producing useful information or result for user 8 such as printed output or visual display. 9. #ontrolling: )irecting the manner and se@uence in which all the above operations can be performed. ".' T ."T "nput unit lin%s the eHternal environment with the computer system. )ata and instructions enter input units in forms that depends on the particular device used. The following functions are performed by the input unit: "t accepts the list of instructions and data from outside world. "t converts these instruction and data in computer acceptable form "t supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system for further 'rocessing

O T' T ."T

Output unit supplies the information obtained as a result of data processing to the outside world. Thus it lin%s the computer with the eHternal world. The following functions are performed by the output unit: "t accepts the results produced by the computer8 which are in the coded form and hence cannot be easily understood by us. "t converts these coded results to human acceptable form "t supplies the converted results to the outside world.

STO1A6( ."T The data and instructions that are entered into the computer system through input devices have to be stored inside the computer before the actual processing starts. Also8 the result produced by the computer after processing must be also %ept somewhere inside the computer before being passed on to the output units. Also 8 the intermediate results need to be stored. The specific function of the storage unit are All data to be processed and the instruction re@uired for processing "ntermediate results of processing <inal results of processing before the result are given to the output device.

The storage unit of all computer has two types: 1. '1"!A12 STO1A6( &. S(#O.)A12 STO1A6( '1"!A12 STO1A6( 1. '1"!A12 STO1A6(: also %nown as main memory8 is used to hold pieces of program instruction and data. &. The primary memory can hold information only while the computer is on 8 as soon as the computer system is switched off or reset8 the information held in the primary storage disappears. 0. 'rimary storage normally has limited storage capacity as it is very eHpensive. S(#O.)A12 STO1A6( 1. &. 0. 7. "t is called auHillary storage. "t is used to ta%e care of the limited primary storage. secondary storage is much cheaper than primary memory 1etains information even when the computer system is switched off "t holds programs8 instructions8data and information of those $obs on which computer system is not wor%ing.

A1"TI!(T"# 3O6"# ."T "t is the place where actual eHecution of the instruction ta%es place during the processing operation. All calculations 8 comparisons and decisions are made in the A3 . .o processing in done in the primary memory8 intermediate results are calculated and send bac% to primary memory.

#O.T1O3 ."T "t maintains order and direct the operations of the entire system. "t does not perform any actual processing of data 8 the control unit acts as a central nervous system for other components of the computer system. "t manages and coordinates the entire computer system.

#(.T1A3 '1O#(SS".6 ."T*#' The control unit and A3 together are %now as #' . All ma$or calculations and comparsions are made inside the #' #' is also responsible for activating and controlling the operations of other units of the computer system.

;IAT "S A #O!' T(1 S2ST(!J ;I2 "S "T #A33() S2ST(!J A system is a group of intergrated parts have a common purpose of achieving some ob$ective. Three main characteristics are %ey to a system 1. A system has more than one element &. All elements are logically related. 0. All the elements of a system are controlled in such a way that the goal is achieved. Since #O!' T(1 is made up of input8 output8storage and #' that wor% together to perform the steps called for in the program being eHecuted 8 it is called a computer system. (ach part separately is useless ony when put together they form a system. The two basic types of computers are 1. A.A3O6 &. )"6"TA3

A.A3O6 computer handles or process information which is of physical nature eHample temperature8 pressure etc. )"6"TA3 computer process information which is essentially in binary or two state form namely Cero or one. )igital computer fall into ranges called microcomputer8 minicomputers8 mainframes and supercomputers8 classified in ascending order of siCe ? small medium8large and very large.

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM


The binary number system is eHactly li%e the decimal number system eHcept tha the base is & instead of 1+. There are only two symbols * + and 1!ethod of converting binary to decimal The decimal e@uivalent is obtained by multiplying each binary digit with its positional value. The right most bit has positional value &e+8 second right most bit has &e1 and so on. #onvert decimal to binary )ibble dabble method )ecimal number to be converted is repeatedly divided by &. The remainder +s and 1s so obtained are read in reverse order in order to obtain the binary e@uivalent of the decimal number. The number is divided till the @uotient is +. (K(1#"S(: <ind the decimal of the following binary values: 1. 11+1+11 &. 1+++ 0. 11+1+ 7. 1+1+1111+111 9. 1++++1+1 ,. 111 =. 11111+1 A. 1111+1+1+1 /. 1+++1+11+1 1+. 1+++1+1+1+1 <ind the binary e@uivalent of the decimals:

1. &79 &. 79 0. 07 7. &1 9. ,9 ,. A= =. &+1 A. 1& /. /+ 1+. =A AS#"" *American Standard #ode for "nformation "nterchange- is used to represent data internally in microcomputer. AS#"" are of two types 1. AS#""5= is a =5bit code that allow 1&A different characters. The first 0 bits are Cone bit and last 7 bits indicate the digits. &. AS#""5A allows &9, different characters. The first 7 bits are Cone bit and last 7 bits indicate the digits. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL(.) LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL