What is FOOD? Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body.

It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.

What is Food habit? Concisely, food habit refers to the way in which different people select , cook, serve and eat food that are available to them. Some other describes food habit as when someone or something tends to make or eat the same thing a lot because they enjoy it.

Factors those influences Food Habit:       Education Food Available Religion Ethnicity Income/ economic status Convenience



Education: Nutrition education is very important in the life of every human being. Think about what would happen to us if you we not eat the right kinds of food over a long period or if we do not know how to cook our food well to get the necessary nutrients. Nutrition education would help us make many wise decisions about food. For example, what type to eat, when to eat, how many times we would eat a day and what combinations of food provide a healthy diet? Education also gives us consumer information which would help us to buy food wisely from the market place. It also provides us with the relevant skills needed to prepare your food well. In short, education helps us to make informed food choices which will provide the necessary nutrients for a healthy body at a minimum cost. Education helps us to form certain food habits and change others. For example, education can make us decide to eat fruits at every meal because we have learnt about its nutritional benefits. Education can also make us decide not to eat certain foods because of their harmful effect on your body.

Economic Status or Income: Economic status refers to the amount of money we have to spend that is whether we are rich or poor. Our economic status affects our food habits because the types of food we choose would depend on how much money we have. When someone is rich, he can afford very expensive foods, he can eat in restaurants and he can eat as many times as he want in a day. Foods chosen by poor people are meager and monotonous. Even where nutrition knowledge is high economic status still dictates what foods one can eat and how one eats them.

Ethnicity: All ethnic groups have their own food customs. As cultural groups develop over the ages they formed their own living patterns which included food customs. Each group spelt out what its members could or could not eat how the food should be cooked and when it could be eaten

Religion: Food patterns are influenced by religious beliefs. What foods people can eat or cannot eat have been dictated by their religious beliefs. For example, Moslems do not eat pork because Islam forbids them to eat it.



and keeping one as healthy as possible—all of which can be achieved by learning some nutrition basics and using them in a way that works for one. Page 3 . walk instead of driving vehicle or take the stairs instead of the elevator. One can expand one’s range of healthy food choices and learn how to plan ahead to create and maintain a tasty. When a person start the day with a healthy breakfast. it’s about feeling great. having more energy. The ADA also recommends incorporating at least five times per day of fruits and vegetables--which are low in calories and high in nutrients-in to a person diet to help with weight control. Rather. says the American Dietetic Association (ADA). or depriving one of the foods he/she love. staying unrealistically thin. stabilizing one’s mood. According to the Mayo Clinic.Availability of foods: The kinds of food available to you usually are the foods you eat. it helps avoid hunger spasms that could send hem/her running to the fast food before lunch. Healthy Food Habits Healthy eating is not about strict nutrition philosophies. healthy diet. Some foods can grow only in certain types of geographic locations and this determines the foods available in such locations. one can obtain benefits of exercise by being active in simple ways throughout the day. Eating a low-fat diet can also help control weight. most people depend on locally grown food products for their basic or staple food. For example. Benefits of Healthy Food Habits:  Controls Weight: Eating right and exercising regularly can help a person to avoid excess weight gain and maintain a healthy weight. Even though food may be imported from other countries.

communal activities help improve mood and mental functioning by keeping the mind active and serotonin levels balanced. lowfat dairy products. or "good. The American Council on Exercise reports that the short-term results of exercise include decreased stress and ability to think better. and arthritis. This combination keeps our blood flowing smoothly. stroke. decreasing our risk of cardiovascular diseases.  Boosts Energy: We've all experienced the energy drop that comes from eating foods high in sugar and saturated fats. lean meats. diabetes. depression. It's not just diet and exercise that lead to improved mood. which can boost his/her confidence and selfesteem. and high blood pressure--by boosting high-density lipoprotein (HDL). another healthy habit that leads to better mental health is making social connections. The Mayo Clinic notes that physical activity stimulates brain chemicals that often leave a person feeling both happier and more relaxed. and fruits and vegetables. certain types of cancer. When we eat a balanced diet including whole grains.  Combats Diseases: Healthy habits can help prevent certain health conditions--such as heart disease. Eating a healthy diet as well as exercising can lead to a better physique. joining a club. our body has the fuel that it needs to manage our energy level. including metabolic syndrome. Improves Mood: Doing right by our body pays off for your mind as well. or attending a movie. Page 4 . says the American Academy of Family Physicians." cholesterol and decreasing unhealthy triglycerides. so one may also feel better about his/her appearance. According to a study published in the American Journal of Health Behavior. Whether it's volunteering. The Mayo Clinic says that regular physical activity and proper diet can help you prevent or manage a wide range of other health problems.

or salmon.   Water: Water helps flush our systems of waste products and toxins. so staying well hydrated will also help you make healthier food choices. A person should think of water and exercise as food groups in his/her diet. Changing everything at once usually leads to cheating or giving up on your new eating plan. have more energy. The long term goal is to feel good. he/she should think about planning a healthy diet as a number of small. As one’s small changes become habit. and headaches.  Simplify: Instead of being overly concerned with counting calories or measuring portion sizes.Healthy eating: Set up for success To set one up for success. and freshness. he/she will have a healthy diet sooner than he thinks. One should focus on finding foods he loves and easy recipes that incorporate a few fresh ingredients. his diet will become healthier and more delicious. like adding a salad (full of different color vegetables) to diet once a day or switching from butter to olive oil when cooking. yet many people go through life dehydrated—causing tiredness. It’s common to mistake thirst for hunger. a person should think of his diet in terms of color. Make small steps. just like he/she would add healthy greens. low energy.  Page 5 . Gradually. manageable steps rather than one big drastic change. blueberries. The benefits of lifelong exercise are abundant and regular exercise may even motivate you to make healthy food choices a habit.   Every change he/she makes to improve his/her diet matters: A person doesn’t have to be perfect and he/she doesn’t have to completely eliminate foods he/she enjoy having a healthy diet. If one approaches the changes gradually and with commitment. Exercise: One should find something active that he/she likes to do and add it to his/her day. One should start slow and make changes to his eating habits over time: one trying to make his diet healthy overnight isn’t realistic or smart. and reduce the risk of cancer and disease. variety. This way it should be easier to make healthy choices. he can continue to add more healthy choices to your diet.

One should ask himself/herself if he/she is really hungry. During a meal. So one should try to think of moderation in terms of balance. Healthy eating habits can be learned and it is important to slow down and think about food as nourishment rather than just something to gulp down in between meetings or on the way to pick up the kids. saturated fat. The goal of healthy eating is to develop a diet that a person can maintain for life. for example. We tend to rush though our meals. salty. it means eating far less of the unhealthy stuff (refined sugar. or until he/she has hit his/her ideal weight. but a key foundation for any healthy diet is moderation. forgetting to actually taste the flavors and feel the textures of our food. we all need a balance of carbohydrates. Chewing food slowly. and minerals to sustain a healthy body. fat. vitamins. and then feel like a failure if he/she gives in to temptation. It's not just what one eats. or unhealthy foods. Listening to our body. If a person is drawn towards sweet. Eating in front of the TV or computer often leads to mindless overeating. But it doesn't mean eliminating the foods one loves. could be considered moderation if a person follows it with a healthy lunch and dinner—but not if he/she follows it with a box of donuts and a sausage pizza. Taking time to chew food and enjoy mealtimes. One should try not to think of certain foods as “off-limits. Despite what certain fad diets would have he/she believes. Later he/she may find himself/herself craving them less or thinking of them as only occasional indulgences. moderation or balance means eating less than we do now. not just a few weeks or months. one should stop eating before he/she feels Page 6 . Reconnect with the joy of eating. For most of us. protein. savoring every bite is good for heath. for example) and more of the healthy (such as fresh fruit and vegetables). its how he/she eats Healthy eating is about more than the food on one’s plate—it is also about how he/she thinks about food.Healthy eating: Moderation is the key People often think of healthy eating as an all or nothing proposition. More specifically. or have a glass of water to see if he/she is thirsty instead of hungry. Eating bacon for breakfast once a week. fiber. Eating with other people has numerous social and emotional benefits—particularly for children—and allows a person to model healthy eating habits. he/she should start by reducing portion sizes and not eating them as often. it is natural to want those foods more. Eating with others whenever possible.” When a person bans certain foods or food groups.

and fiber. anchovies. and cells. flaxseed oils. Early studies suggest that this simple dietary adjustment—eating only when a person is most active and giving his/her digestive system a long break each day—may help to regulate weight. corn. Healthy eating: Enjoying healthy fats & avoids unhealthy fats Good sources of healthy fat are needed to nourish our brain. mackerel. Eating breakfast. and eating small. Add to your healthy diet: Monounsaturated fats. and help prevent dementia. A healthy breakfast can jumpstart our metabolism. minerals. In addition to being delicious and satisfying. Page 7 . and seeds (such as pumpkin. antioxidants. which means they are packed with vitamins. We should try to eat dinner earlier in the day and then fast for 14-16 hours until breakfast the next morning. sardines. Avoid eating at night. Polyunsaturated fats. and diabetes. whole grains are rich in photochemical and antioxidants. Fill up on colorful fruits and vegetables Fruits and vegetables are the foundation of a healthy diet. as well as our hair. heart. anyway. hazelnuts. including Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids. especially whole grains. which help to protect against coronary heart disease. skin. improve your mood. and olive oil. and nails. It actually takes a few minutes for our brain to tell your body that it has had enough food.full. from plant oils like canola oil. and pecans). so eat slowly. soybean. herring. as well as avocados. sesame). Other sources of polyunsaturated fats are unheated sunflower. Foods rich in certain omega-3 fats called EPA and DHA are particularly important and can reduce cardiovascular disease. found in fatty fish such as salmon. healthy meals throughout the day (rather than the standard three large meals) keeps our energy up and our metabolism going. They are low in calories and nutrient dense. for long lasting energy. and walnuts. After-dinner snacks tend to be high in fat and calories so are best avoided. nuts (like almonds. and some cold water fish oil supplements. Eating more healthy carbs and whole grains A person should choose healthy carbohydrates and fiber sources. and eat smaller meals throughout the day. certain cancers. Studies have shown people who eat more whole grains tend to have a healthier heart. peanut oil.

lower immunity. Large amounts of added sugar can be Page 8 . found in vegetable shortenings. and other processed foods made with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. he/she may find himself/herself naturally cutting back on foods that can get in the way of your healthy diet—sugar and salt. Sugar Sugar causes energy ups and downs and can add to health and weight problems. cakes. snack foods. fried foods. A person should try to get as much of your daily calcium needs from food as possible and use only low-dose calcium supplements to make up any shortfall. and good fats. found primarily in animal sources including red meat and whole milk dairy products. Protein is particularly important for children. Often we may not even be aware of the amount of sugar we’re consuming each day. cookies. crackers. limiting foods that deplete our body’s calcium stores. reduce muscle mass. as well as many other important functions. reducing the amount of candy. some margarines. candies. and organs.Reduce or eliminate from your diet: Saturated fats. Limit sugar and salt If a person succeed in planning your diet around fiber-rich fruits. Protein in food is broken down into the 20 amino acids that are the body’s basic building blocks for growth and energy. whole grains. Recommended calcium levels are 1000 mg per day. A lack of protein in our diet can slow growth. tissues. and getting our daily dose of magnesium and vitamins D and K—nutrients that help calcium do its job. and weaken the heart and respiratory system. Unfortunately. Putting protein in perspective Protein gives us the energy to get up and go—and keep going. whose bodies are growing and changing daily. Trans fats. It is an essential building block for lifelong bone health in both men and women. baked goods. vegetables. and essential for maintaining cells. 1200 mg if you are over 50 years old. lean protein. and desserts we eat is only part of the solution. Adding calcium for strong bones Calcium is one of the key nutrients that our body needs in order to stay strong and healthy. We and our bones will benefit from eating plenty of calcium-rich foods.

canned soups and vegetables.hidden in foods such as bread. Page 9 . One should try to limit sodium intake to 1.500 to 2. Most restaurant and fast food meals are loaded with sodium. soy sauce. Here are some tips: Avoid sugary drinks. We should be careful when eating out. frozen dinners. more than the daily recommended limit Salt Most of us consume too much salt in our diets. instant mashed potatoes.300 mg per day. One 12-oz soda has about 10 teaspoons of sugar in it. Avoiding processed or pre-packaged foods. margarine. pasta sauce. so ask for it to be served on the side. Most gravy and sauces are loaded with salt. fast food. and ketchup. Some offer lower-sodium choices or you can ask for your meal to be made without salt. the equivalent of one teaspoon of salt. Processed foods like canned soups or frozen dinners contain hidden sodium that quickly surpasses the recommended limit. Eating too much salt can cause high blood pressure and lead to other health problems.

`Moon' or 'huroom' (puffed rice) or 'cheera' (flattened rice). These are taken with milk or yogurt and seasonal fruits like mango. tomato and onion is made to go with the main dishes. a spicy yoghurt drink to start with followed almost immediately by `biryani' (fine rice and mutton or poultry cooked in `ghee' or clarified butter). therefore. a watery soup of vegetable and sour fruits. Added with salt. It is their staple food. It is also taken with `gur'. but a lot. usually very hot with chilies. spices and herbs this is a real delicacy. Salad of cucumber. `Jhol' is typical and an exclusive dish of Bangladesh. depending on what is available in the season. fried or boiled. `Dal' or the lentil soup is taken with rice and nearly always at the far end of the meal. `Tauk'. It is a vegetable and fish curry with a lot of thin gravy in it. figures prominently in the food habits of the people. These are first boiled. This watery rice mixed with salt and chilly. not just a small quantity to go with vegetable and meat. Page 10 . with a lot of whole green chilly added to an otherwise mild dish. On a festive occasion. In a `bhoj' or a formal feast elaborate dishes are served. But this is not just the only sort of breakfast. Chicken roast or mutton rezala is served with it. a crude form of country sugar. At day-break. baked or cooked and then meshed. not less than five. is sometimes a substitute for dal. a farmer or a laborer starts his long day with a breakfast of 'panta'. During the harvesting season breakfast consists of a great variety of `pithas' (rice cakes) of different sizes and shapes. Such a festive dinner has `borhani'. spices and other ingredients. plain boiled rice soaked overnight in water and slightly fermented. `Bhaji' is sauted or fried vegetable. During weddings the bridegroom is given 'nakhsi pithas'carved and decorated rice cakes. one may find dishes other than the ones mentioned here. They eat rice every day and at every meal. `dopeaji' is cooked with plenty of chopped onion.Food Habits of Bangladeshi People: The deltaic plains of Bangladesh have been famous for rice production which has been the chief occupation of its people since the Neolithic age. a meat preparation. The Bangladeshis eat rice. particularly in the urban areas. makes a rather filling breakfast for the poor to start their heavy toil. the sour component being green mango. A `bhorta' is prepared with vegetable or cereals or fish. fresh or dry. Rice. During the main meals at homes of the more affluent. salted or sugary. varieties of rice puddings. Cooked in low heat and for long this could be a dish of fish or meat. tamarind. are served. or tomato. roast being a spicy braised dish and rezala. banana or jackfruit. Meat is not a common everyday food in the rural areas owing partly to age long habit and partly to stringent economic conditions. Hence Bangladesh is called 'pancho banjoner desh' (the land of five dishes). which are a real treat. a number of dishes. or 'khoi' (popped rice) are other items of a traditional breakfast in most Bengalee homes in the rural areas. either green or fried dry ones. The dessert on such an occasion is `zarda' (saffron-colored sweetened boiled rice) or 'firm/ payesh'.

Occasionally rice is fried in ghee or mixed with lentils making a delicious gruel called `khichri' that goes well with meat. 'Mache Bhate Bengalee' (Bengalees fed and nourished by fish and rice) so goes the popular saying which has become almost proverbial. beans. Gourd. 'Misti aloo' (sweet potato) is eaten in the lean season as a substitute for rice. are eaten raw or at times fried or popped. It is difficult to deny a Bangladeshi his bowl of rice. Rice is usually boiled and eaten with curry. tomato. While inland fisheries have scope for improvement. It is simple and economical to make dough with and baked on the back of an earthen pot the poor man's dinner is ready. As flat bread or leaves of puffed bread. are grown in Bangladesh. meat. But potato is not yet deemed as a substitute for rice. vetki and sole are very popular. marine fisheries have vast potentialities within its territorial waters. partly owing to increased domestic consumption and partly due to the increased cold storage facilities. fish. A substantial quantity of fish is dried and preserved every year. Wheat is gaining popularity among the poor on purely economic grounds. Only a real connoisseur of dry fish knows what a dry fish bhorta or salted hilsa curry or 'sidhal' (sealed in earthen vessels and preserved underground) paste with a lot of chilly means to the taste. Rice mixed with milk and sugar could make payesh or pudding. Wheat is another variety that is fast carving out its own place as a staple item. Green plants are popular. wheat. fruit. Various kinds of tropical fruits. eggs and milk are the most obvious ones with rice claiming a large share of the daily intake. But the yearly inland catch is not enough. It is generally eaten cooked as curry or fried with spices. so ingrained is the habit. Page 11 Fruits as a food variety have immense potentials for development. Cassava has been experimented with limited success. carrots are popular in urban areas. boiled or fried in oil with green chillies. also known as makna. cabbage. it may be grounded and made into fine flour and this could be the ingredient for rice cakes or pithas.There are other foods in rural Bangladesh. But new food habits are being acquired for sheer survival. Vegetable. Food Varieties : Food varieties in Bangladesh are limited: rice. Nearly two decades ago when wheat was seriously tried. Water lily seeds. A few varieties of sea fish like the pomfret. including oranges in winter in limited areas. vegetable. is yet to be able to lessen the role of rice in Bengalee food habits. wheat is fast becoming important. a large variety of which is taken to add taste to the bowl of rice. Wheat has taken on and is quite common in the country. eggplant. The appeal of jackfruit is universal . or flat bread fried in oil. Fish is a major food item. people showed disliking but in the average Bengalee home today it is a common item for breakfast. Rice has other uses too. Between two harvests jackfruit too comes in handy if there is a scarcity of rice. It has become an important second crop during the dry season. reddish are common vegetable in the rural areas while varieties like cauliflower. Fish figures very prominently in the Bengalee cuisine. Potato cultivation has increased.

not specially reared for quality meat. This is eaten with seasonal fruit like mango or banana or just with gur (raw sugar or molasses). Eating Rajshahi mango is a real tasty and sophisticated experience. Lots of them are grown on the hill terraces of the Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet as well as on the plains. Page 12 . Milk is scarce but users of milk products in Bangladesh have evolved a technology exclusive to themselves. Try a `pranhara' (heart winner) or a lady Kenny (named after Lady Kenning. For sweet dish or dessert. plums. generally `roshogolla'. Different kinds of lentils are grown but the use of `masur' is universal. It goes with the messenger in earthen pot along with the swandwesh. `Dhaka kabab' and `bakerkhani' are metropolitan Dhaka's specialty. A bowl of rice and a little dal is what satisfies the poor. Then a charcoal fire is lit and the spike is slowly turned from time to time. Swandwesh pitha. `doi' (yoghurt) or `mishtanna' (rice pudding) are served. It is eaten with biryani of duck on off-the-bone chicken or meat. Meat produced in Bangladesh is not enough to meet its domestic demands. a common practice in rural Bangladesh. is prepared from a mixture of rice flour.though the sticky substance melt in peeling may seem formidable to a foreigner. pleasing both to eye and the tongue. to name only a few. a mixture of rice. wife of the British Governor of Bengal) or a `rashmalai' and you will know what it means to the taste. The word `swandwesh' means good news. The litchis of Rajshahi are juicy and colorful. charcoal peat. melons and banana. `Doodhbhat' (milk and rice) is very common as the last item of a meal. This pitha or cake remains fresh for a few days even in the hot climate. Other pithas or cakes are `chitwa'. The number of cattle is not so small. Bakerkhani is dry flat bread baked in `tondur'. This is the basic principle for preparing kabab. Kabab is made of chunks of meat skewered on an iron spike. are grown in Bangladesh but only in the dry season. Bangladesh grows other fruits too-guava. Lentils. The j jackfruit is grown in abundance and the poor welcome it as substitute for rice during the lean season. Pineapple is another treat. the poor man's protein. gur and water and fried in mustard oil. The `chhana' (curdled milk) is unique. but these are mostly animals. It also accompanies a messenger who would carry a piece of good news to a relative or a man of importance. The condition of poultry is improving. varying in texture and sweetness and even in flavor. Sweetmeat is served to a guest any time of the day or night. The names of different kinds of sweetmeat are exotic and evocative of the experience itself. also known as poa pitha or taler pitha. Bakerkhani and Dhaka kabab were the field-ration of the Bengal cavalry of the Mughal era. Dhaka kabab differs from the others in that it is drier and can be eaten even after a few days. There are a number of varieties each having an exotic name differing in taste. The Srimongal variety known as calendar is the best. The kabab was introduced by the Mughals. flour and water cooked dry in a earthen pan or especially designed clay pans.

There are many kinds of pithas. to fizzy drinks. Kheer is also eaten as a sweet dish with rice. such as butter and lard. steamed. • Drink less alcohol. • Cut down on the amount of sugar we consume. • Increase the amount of dietary fiber eaten. especially fats high in saturated fatty acid. • Eat more cereal foods such as bread and pasta. Page 13 .Chitwa is also soaked for a day or two in evaporated milk. Kheer is the milk thickened through continuous boiling. • Use polyunsaturated margarine and oil instead of butter. such as sweets. fried. from foods. fruits and vegetables. spirits and wine. sundried or cooked. for example. • Eat less salt-cut down on salty snacks. found in cereals. found in beer. suet and lard. These are generally baked. Food Habit Recommended for a nation: The National Advisory Committee on Nutrition (NACNE) issued a report of recommendations that the nation should follow: • Eat less fatty food. `Pati shapta' is a variety of rolled pancakes with `kheer' filling.

 Food Binging Binging or eating large amounts of food in one sitting is another unhealthy eating habit that you should avoid. but if a person can't go to bed without having a plate of cookies or a slice of pie first. A bowl of oatmeal.  Skipping Breakfast Breakfast is believed to be the most important meal of the day. When we eat while doing other activities. it's easy to neglect breakfast. causing to burn fewer calories. Skipping breakfast also disrupts metabolism. fatty foods. So. This occurs when we are driven by certain emotions to eat even though we're not hungry. is another common unhealthy habit that we should avoid. then one could be setting himself up for weight gain. Foods are said to be unhealthy if they provide empty calories. we tend to overeat without knowing it. Page 14 . As a result. while reading or even while cooking then we are also developing an unhealthy eating behavior. or stress eating. Eating too close to bedtime will also give a person sleeping difficulty since his/her body will be busy digesting food.Unhealthy Food Habits: Unhealthy eating refers to eating the food which has very little or no nutritional value. fruit or a healthy cereal can get your day off to a good start.  Eating during Other Activities If we eat while watching TV. does damage to the body in some ways. One with binging habit should try to train himself/herself to eat several small meals in a day so you can avoid binging. skipping breakfast is not a good idea.  Eating Late at Night Having an occasional late night snack is fine. Doing so not only drains of energy. hydrogenated fats and sodas.  Emotional Eating Emotional eating. Perhaps one munches on candy bars when he/she is stressed about a deadline at work. When someone has to rush for work in the mornings or get his/her kids ready for school. if someone is trying to lose weight. but many people still seem to make a habit out of skipping it. Some of the unhealthy foods to avoid are canned soup. while working. do not give enough fiber and take nutrients from the body and leave one nutritionally deficient than before. we become unable to measure how much we eat. but also makes it more likely that he/she will have snack throughout the day.

humans included. including calorie burning.6 minutes. What's surprising is that not drinking adequate amounts of water throughout the day can actually slow down our metabolism. But when someone doesn't eat for long periods of time. making him/her overeat and filling his/her body with more food and calories than he/she needs. Page 15 . his/her brain won't get the chance to tell his/her body that it's full.  Eating too fast Hovering in food at warp speed will not only make a person look like he/she just walked out of the Neolithic ages. his/her body becomes pretty upset that he/she has been depriving it of food. the body's first reaction to starvation is weight gain via the storage of fat. it also encourages weight gain. making weight gain a likely possibility.  Not drinking enough water It's no secret that water is necessary for the optimal functioning of all life forms. Starving Contrary to what people may think. It takes about 20 minutes from the time he/she begin eating for satiety signals to reach his/her brain. since water is necessary for all metabolic functions. And then. his/her body thinks it needs to store these calories as fat because it doesn't know when the chance to eat will come again. so when he/she finally do eat again. so if he/she wolfs down his/her meal in 5. the fat remains with his/her.

poor habits develop. French fries and even hot fruit pies have high sodium contents. or high-blood pressure. or foster care. Page 16 . have nearly 100 percent of the daily limit suggested by the American Heart Association. single parent. Hypertension increases the progression of atherosclerosis and raises your risk of developing heart disease. There are many causes of unhealthy eating. or clogged arteries. This condition. Some examples of circumstances that may lead to unhealthy habits include:          Dysfunctional family situation. called atherosclerosis. if a child does not have a healthy example to model themselves after.COMMON CAUSES OF UNHEALTHY FOOD HABITS: Unhealthy food habits develop over time.  Hypertension Hypertension. is directly linked to excessive sodium intake. Many fast foods are loaded with the sodium that comes from salt used in seasoning. Family not eating meals together Poor eating habits modeled by parents/caretakers Lack of knowledge about what is healthy to eat Busy schedule Extreme amounts of traveling Lack of desire to eat healthy Poverty Depression and other emotional extremes Diseases Caused by Eating Too Much Unhealthy Food:  Atherosclerosis Meat. reducing the amount of oxygen that reaches your cells. such as fried shrimp. contain large amounts of cholesterol or saturated fat. Generally. This narrows the space where blood flows. substances that threaten your arterial health. Burgers.and fish-based entrees. tacos. Some. can cause heart attacks and strokes. the greater the buildup in your arteries. as well as side orders such as fried onion rings and French fries. Damage to the artery walls can create bleeding and dangerous blood clots. such as divorce. The more you consume.

" eating fast-food meals more than twice per week can cause an average 10pound weight increase in young adults over time. kidney. The energy value of food is measured in units called kilojoules. fast foods themselves may not cause cancer. How many kilojoules you need each day depends on your age. Overweight. Menus that emphasize fat and sugar at the expense of fiber and other beneficial nutrients have the poor-nutrition building blocks for cancer. Type 2 Diabetes Although no one knows if fast foods themselves cause diabetes. The Office of the Surgeon General associates overweight and obesity with colon. To maintain a healthy weight it is important to balance how many kilojoules you take in (from food and drink) with how many kilojoules you burn off. An Accredited Practising Dietitian can help you work this out. body size and activity levels. Carrying that much extra weight raises your risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. gender. If you consume high amounts of energy from your diet but do not burn off the energy through exercise and physical activity. but they can cause conditions such as weight gain that precipitate cancer. obesity. According to a 2005 medical study published in "The Lancet. the surplus energy will be turned into fat. health problems related to fast foods can increase your likelihood of getting the disease. Page 17 .  Cancer Again. high-blood pressure and elevated blood-sugar levels have all been linked to type 2 diabetes. gall bladder and other forms of cancer.  Obesity In most people obesity is caused by eating too much and moving too little.

Unhealthy eating habits tend to run in families. as you can learn bad eating habits from your parents. They also rely on their cars rather than walking. When they relax. you do not use the energy provided by the food you eat. and the extra kilojoules are stored as fat instead.you may be encouraged to eat too much if your friends or relatives are also eating large portions comfort eating – if you feel depressed or have low self-esteem you may comfort eat to make yourself feel better. and the food can be higher in fat and sugar eating larger portions than you need . it develops gradually from poor diet and lifestyle choices. and rarely take regular exercise. vegetables and unrefined carbohydrates. Page 18 .Lifestyle choices Obesity does not just happen overnight.alcohol contains a lot of calories. unhealthy food choices could be:        eating processed or fast food high in fat not eating fruit. such as wholemeal bread and brown rice drinking too much alcohol . or cycling. Childhood obesity can be a strong indicator of weight-related health problems in later life. Many people have jobs that involve sitting at a desk most of the day. Lack of exercise and physical activity Lack of exercise and physical activity is another important factor related to obesity. For example. people tend to watch TV. and heavy drinkers are often overweight eating out a lot – you may have a starter or dessert in a restaurant. browse the internet or play computer games. If you are not active enough. showing that learned unhealthy lifestyle choices continue into adulthood.

such as Prader-Willi syndrome. While there are some rare genetic conditions that can cause obesity. there is no reason why most people cannot lose weight. such as taking longer to burn up kilojoules (having a slow metabolism) or having a large appetite. it certainly does not make it impossible. If you are overweight or obese and trying to lose weight. Page 19 . This will help you maintain a helthy weight. can make losing weight more difficult. Many cases where obesity runs in families may be due to environmental factors such as poor eating habits learned during childhood.Adults are recommended to do at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity (for example. you may need to do more exercise – in some cases up to an hour on most days of the week may be recommended. However. It may be true that certain genetic traits inherited from your parents. Genetics Some people claim there is no point in losing weight because 'it runs in my family' or 'it is in my genes'. cycling or fast walking) on most days of the week.

The five key principles of food hygiene. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. food hygiene. preparation. In developed countries there are intricate standards for food preparation. whereas in lesser developed countries the main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water. In theory. according to WHO. food poisoning is 100% preventable. and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In considering market to consumer practices. Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens. as well as policies on biotechnology and food and guidelines for the management of governmental import and export inspection and certification systems for foods. pets. Page 20 . Store food at the proper temperature. which is usually a critical item. are:      Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people. and pests. Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods. the usual thought is that food ought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer. Do use safe water and cooked materials. food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling. food additives and pesticide residues. In considering industry to market practices. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards.Food safety Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling.

grocery store.  Inspecting frozen food packaging A consumer shouldn't buy frozen food if the package is damaged. he should look for signs of frost or ice crystals. foodborne ailments cause about 325.  Inspecting cans and jars Consumer shouldn’t buy food in cans that are bulging or dented. If the package cover is transparent.Ensuring Food Safety: It is very important for consumers to realize that protecting his family against foodborne illnesses begins not at home. poultry and eggs should be the last items placed in a consumer’s shopping cart. Packages should not be open. This could mean that the food in the package has either been stored for a long time or thawed and refrozen. It is also best to separate these foods from other foods at checkout and in your grocery bags. here are some simple things that a consumer can do while he is shopping for food to safeguard he and his family:  Checking for cleanliness One should buy from a retailer who follows proper food handling practices. This helps assure that the food is safe.000 hospitalizations and 5.  Choosing fresh eggs carefully Before putting eggs in own cart. According to the CDC. Consumer should place these foods in plastic bags to prevent their juices from dripping on other foods. he needn’t to buy food in jars that are cracked or have loose or bulging lids. Also. or any other place where he buy food that he plan to store and serve. but at the supermarket. he should avoid packages that are above the frost line in the store's freezer.200 deaths nationwide each year. So. Buy only refrigerated eggs and follow the "Safe Handling Instructions" on the carton. Page 21 . Also. and seafood from other foods in one’s grocery shopping cart.  Selecting frozen foods and perishables last Meat. A bulging can or jar lid may mean the food was underprocessed and is contaminated. the consumer should open the carton and he should make sure that the eggs are clean and none is cracked. fish. poultry. torn or crushed on the edges.  Keeping certain foods separated Separate raw meat. He should always put these products in separate plastic bags so that drippings don't contaminate other foods.

perishable foods should not be left at room temperature longer than 2 hours. Food safety situation in Bangladesh         WHAT IS OUR CONCERN FOOD ADULTERATION NATURALLY OCCURING TOXINS PESTICIDE RESIDUES MYCOTOXINS MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION VETERINARY DRUG RESIDUES HEAVY METALS Burden on public health in Bangladesh  Diarrhoea  3 Million cases reported  Responsible for 15% of mortality in children under 5years (2011)         Long term health effects Renal failure Liver damage Cancer Large scale adulteration 40-60% food samples found adulterated in Dhaka(IPH) Extent and severity of food Borne illnesses unknown Page 22 . Modify that rule to 1 hour when temperatures are above 90° F. Food safety experts stress the "2-hour rule"—because harmful bacteria can multiply in the "danger zone" (between 40° and 140° F). as they often are in cars that have been parked in the sun. Being mindful of time and temperature It's important to refrigerate perishable products as soon as possible after grocery shopping.

are used rampantly for this purpose. these chemicals in food adversely affect vital organs such as the liver and kidney resulting in organ failure and/or cancer and thus. but the recent surge in liver and kidney failure patients in the hospitals is indicative of the deteriorating situation. but this knowledge is not translated into practice. untimely loss of life. threatening life. people from all walks of life is aware of the hazards of taking foods adulterated with toxic chemicals. absence or unavailability of non-adulterated food. DDT. meat and processed food–every food item is contaminated. Ironically. Carbide. level of awareness is very low. In a recent study. Page 23 .Adulteration: A serious public health problem of Bangladesh Adulteration of food with toxic chemicals harmful to health has reached an epidemic proportion in Bangladesh. textile colours. formalin. From raw vegetable and fruits to milk and milk products to fish. newer and newer methods of adulterating newer and newer types of foods are reported. Contamination of foods with toxic chemicals pose a serious threat to public health. Almost every day in the news papers. It is very difficult to find a sector of food industry which is free of adulteration. Immediate effect of ingestion of such foods may be severe forms of diarrhoea (food poisoning). Several explanations are made for this paradox. urea etc. especially in a country like Bangladesh where due to poor health literacy. In the long run. The newspapers have dubbed it as the ‘silent killer’. they are nevertheless buying and consuming these adulterated foods. artificial sweeteners. adulterated foods are attractive in appearance and costs less. There is no database in the country for these. failure of the regulatory agency to test and screen out adulterated food. it has been found that though people are aware about the health hazards. cultural factors and food habits etc.

Food Safety Governance in Bangladesh: Page 24 .

or the very athletic. you will be better able to change them. It doesn't apply to children. Page The dietary guidelines recommend that you get the most nutrition out of the calories you eat. Calculate your calorie needs. the World Health Organization recommend that you aim for a healthy body weight with a body mass index (BMI) between 18. and where you eat. and reduce your risk of chronic disease. Combine healthy eating with physical activity. Use the dietary guidelines. There ARE a helpful number of calories for you to use to gauge your food choices each day. See the Fitness and Exercise section for recommendations on how to be physically active each day. the elderly. 25 . and eat and live to maintain (or achieve) it. help you meet your nutrient requirements. Follow dietary guidelines Whether you are working to lose or maintain weight. including recommendations for alcohol consumption.5 and 25. as an outline to help steer you toward the right foods and day-to-day proportions of foods. Pay attention to when. you should make healthy food choices following the Dietary Guidelines. Even relatively small weight loss can make a difference in health by reducing blood pressure and improving glucose tolerance and blood lipids. These guidelines will improve your health. Drink a significant amount of water (up to 2 quarts) per day. Combine healthy eating with exercise Studies show that diet alone is not as effective in achieving a healthy body weight as diet combined with exercise. BMI indicates an individual's weight status in relation to height.Recommendation for Healthy Eating General guidelines that apply to everyone and are important for good health:        Know your healthy body weight range. and it helps give a sense of a healthy ratio between the two. Physical activity has many other health benefits as well. Know your healthy body weight Chart showing healthy BMI range Because there is such strong evidence linking obesity to many chronic or acute diseases. why. When you start to notice unhealthy patterns.

By the time you become thirsty. talking on the phone. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) advises men to consume roughly 3. Pay attention to your eating patterns How.Drink water It is a common recommendation to drink 8 to 10 glasses of water a day to help your body's biological processes. coffee. there are social.7 liters (about 16 cups) of water a day and women to consume 2. and spiritual effects. and care. You may eat more than you need. or alcohol). (but not soda. which are 70% to 95% water. Eighty percent of this should come from drinking water and other beverages. or reading. and where do you eat? You may often eat meals while doing something else: driving. how active you are. and where you live. It's generally not a good idea to use thirst alone as a guide for when to drink. psychological. especially carrying nutrients to cells and eliminating wastes. As a result:     You may not always fully taste and enjoy your food.7 liters (about 12 cups) of water a day. Your water needs depend on many factors. It is especially important for older adults to drink water before becoming thirsty. Page Research demonstrates that the social component to eating is critically important to health outcomes and wellbeing. Eat with others Apart from the biological effects of eating on the run. appreciation. Fast-food habits can deny you the benefits gained from preparing foods with mindfulness. In short. The remaining 20% should come from foods—especially fruits and vegetables. when. A 2011 study showed that children and adolescents who eat meals with their family 3 or more times each week increase their likelihood of developing healthy eating habits and maintaining a 26 . you may pay little attention to your food. watching television. you may already be slightly dehydrated. because your thirst sense is diminished as you get older. Learn about why being mindful while eating matters. You may sometimes suffer from indigestion or other gastrointestinal symptoms. and eating with others in a relaxing atmosphere. including your health.

depression. your brain active. sexual intercourse. and tendons and also regulate body processes. and your muscles working. such as blood pressure. eating more fruit and vegetables can help lower blood pressure and may lower your risk of certain types of cancer (such as colorectal. improving your eating habits will contribute to you achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. For example. of course. Nutrients also help build and strengthen bones.normal weight. And. and poor academic performance among adolescents. lung and prostate cancer). Good nutrition can lower your risk of developing a range of chronic diseases. high cholesterol and blood pressure. all things in moderation. breast. Eating less saturated fat may also lower your risk of heart disease. Try to achieve a balance with the foods you eat and include lots of variety and remember. Page 27 . These nutrients give you energy and keep your heart beating. balanced diet provides nutrients to your body. Conclusion Eating a healthy. Healthy eating can also help people that already have some types of disease or illness such as diabetes. eating disorders. muscles. It stands to reason that eating with others you care about is beneficial to everyone. Another study by a team at the University of Minnesota found that family mealtimes also decreased risk for substance abuse.

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