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Original Title: TALAT Lecture 2301: Design of Members Example 4.4: Bending moment resistance of welded hollow section with outstands. Class 4 cross section

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Design of Members

Bending Moment

hollow section with outstands. Class 4 cross section

10 pages

Advanced Level

EAA - European Aluminium Association

Example 4.4. Bending moment resistance of welded hollow

section with outstands. Class 4 cross section

Half bottom flange b 96 . mm Width of HAZ haz 30 . mm γ M1 1.1

99 . mm MPa 10 . Pa

6

Section dept h HAZ reduction ρ haz 0.8

Flange thickness d 6 . mm

haz .( c

bz c b)

Web thickness w 8 . mm

2 2

(c b) h

Bottom flange t. t 8 . mm

Type of element haz .h

hz

- Internal element: T = 0

2 2

- Outstand: T > 0 (c b) h

o 0 . mm

0 a o o 0

Comments:

1 c haz o d 1 Node 10 and 13

indicate shift in neutral axis.

2 c o d 1

Element 1-2, 2-3, 4-5, 5-6, 8-9

3 c haz o d 0 and 14-15 define HAZs.

4 c haz o d 0

5 c o d 0

This solution of the example is

6 c haz o d 1 comprehensive because:

1. Calculations are shown in every

7 a o d 1 detail

i y z t T

8 c o o 0 2. It covers all classes of cross

section

9 bz hz w 0 3. The possibility to increase the

10 .

0.5 ( c b ) 0.5 . h w 0 effective thickness for elements not

fully stressed is shown. The iteration

11 b h w 0 procedure is then mandatory.

12 b h t 0 However, in this example, the result

is almost exactly the same as if a

13 0.5 . ( c b) 0.5 . h w 0 simplified method was used, that's

because there is no reduction of the

14 bz hz w 0

web thickness due to local buckling.

15 c o w 0

close to the neutral axis why HAZ softening does not 0

influence the moment resistance.

Area of cross

ti .

2 2 100

section dAi yi yi 1 zi zi 1 200 100 0 100 200

elements

Cross rows ( y ) 1

section A dAi

area

A = 5.52 . 10 mm

3 2

i =1

First rows ( y ) 1

dAi Sy

moment Sy zi zi 1 . z gc

of area 2 A

Gravity centre i =1

z gc = 41.752 mm

z gc.gr z gc

Second rows ( y ) 1

dAi

zi . zi 1 . A . z gc

moment 2 2 2

Iy zi zi 1 Iy Iy

of area 3

i =1

I y = 1.061 . 10 mm

7 4

I y.gr Iy

Elastic section Iy Iy

modulus W el if max z z gc > min z z gc , ,

max z z gc min z z gc

W el = 1.853 . 10 mm

5 3

Torsion rows ( y ) 1 2

ti

dAi . I tu = 9.536 . 10 mm

constant for 4 4

I tu

open parts 3

i =1

y2 z2 t1

96 0 6

y5 z5 t4

96 0 6

yh y11 y h = 96 mm zh z11 zh = 99 mm th t 11 th= 8 mm

y12 96 z12 99 t 12 8

96 0 8

y15 z15 t 14

rows y h 1

Area within

0.5 . y h . z A tu = 1.901 . 10 mm

4 2

mid-line A tu yh hi zh

i i 1 i 1

i =1

yh yh zh zh

i i 1 i i 1 22

Dn if t i > 0 , , 10 Dn = 80.75

th

i =1 i

4 .A

2

Torsion constant tu

I t = 1.79 . 10 mm

7 4

for closed part It

Dn

Torsion constant

I t = 1.799 . 10 mm

7 4

whole section It It I tu

Torsion

2 . A tu . min t h W v = 2.281 . 10 mm

5 3

resistance Wv min t h = 6 mm

z gc = 41.752 mm

Effective cross section. First iteration

z8 z gc zd zi z gc

5.4.3 (1) ψi 1 j 9 .. 11 ψj ψ j 4

ψ j

i

z11 z gc max z max z d

0.8

(5.7 or 5.8) gi if ψ i > 1 , 0.7 0.30 . ψ i , Outstand gi if Ti > 0 , 1 , gi

1 ψ i Figure 5.2

y2 y0 0.5 . t 13

5.4.3 (1) c) k 1 .. 2 βk βk 5

β k

y2 = 96 mm

t2 y0 = 200 mm

y2 y0

y5 y2 t 13 = 17.333

l 3 .. 5 βl t2

t4

2 2

y11 y8 z11 z8

β j

if t 11> 0 , gj. ,1 βj 4

β j

t 11

5.4.4 (5) ε o εi ε o. εi if zi z gc . zi 1 z gc , ε i , 99 ε o= 1.118

fo z gc

5.4.5 (3) 2 2

a) or c) β ε ε β ε ε

> 4 , 8. 16 . > 15 , 25 . 150 .

i i i i i i

non heat ρ c if Ti > 0 , if , 1.0 , if , 1.0

i ε β β ε β β

treated, welded i i i i i i

Effective

thickness t eff ρ .ct

Flange t haz.f ρ haz. t 2 t haz.f = 4.8 mm

Web t haz.w ρ haz .t t haz.w = 6.4 mm

9

n 2 .. 3 t eff if t eff > t haz.f , t haz.f , t eff t eff t eff

n n n 8 n n

9 9 9 15 9

βi t eff

= i

ε ρ c= =

ψi = gi = βi = εi = i i mm

1 1 16.667 1.309 12.731 0.53 3.178

1 1 16.667 1.309 12.731 0.53 3.178

Comment: 1 1 30.667 1.309 23.425 0.794 4.763

εi was given a large value (99) 1 1 30.667 1.309 23.425 0.794 4.763

for elements entirely on 1 1 30.667 1.309 23.425 0.794 4.763

the tension side 1 1 16.667 1.309 12.731 0.53 3.178

1 1 16.667 1.309 12.731 0.53 3.178

1 1 0 1.309 0 1 0

-0.729 0.481 5.955 1.309 4.549 1 6.4

-0.729 0.481 5.955 99 0.06 1 8

-0.729 0.481 5.955 99 0.06 1 8

Area of effective 1 1 0 99 0 1 8

thickness -0.729 0.481 5.955 99 0.06 1 8

t eff .

elements 2 2

dAi yi yi 1 zi zi 1 -0.729 0.481 5.955 99 0.06 1 8

i

-0.729 0.481 5.955 1.309 4.549 1 6.4

TALAT 2301 – Example

rows4.4

( y) 1 4

Cross rows ( y ) 1

section A eff dAi

A = 5.52 . 10 mm

3 2

area

i =1

A eff = 4.6 . 10 mm

3 2

dAi

of area Sy zi zi 1 . Sy

2 z gc z gc = 49.794 mm

i =1 A eff

Gravity centre

Node 10 and 13 is moved to the neutral z10 z gc 0.01 . mm z13 z gc 0.01 . mm

axis from the first iteration

z10

y10 y5 . y y11 y13 y10

5

z11

z8 z gc zd zi z gc

5.4.3 (1) ψi 1 j 9 .. 11 ψj ψ j 4

ψ j

i

z11 z gc max z max z d

0.8

(5.7 or 5.8) gi if ψ i > 1 , 0.7 0.30 . ψ i , Outstand gi if Ti > 0 , 1 , gi

1 ψ i Figure 5.2

y2 y0 0.5 . t 13 y5 y2 t 13

5.4.3 (1) c) k 1 .. 2 βk βk 5

β k

l 3 .. 5 βl

t2 t4

2 2

y11 y8 z11 z8

β j

if t 11> 0 , gj. ,1 βj 4

β j

t 11

5.4.4 (5) ε o εi ε o. εi if zi z gc . zi 1 z gc , ε i , 99 ε o= 1.118

fo z gc

5.4.5 (3) 2 2

a) or c) β ε ε β ε ε

> 4 , 8. 16 . > 15 , 25 . 150 .

i i i i i i

non heat ρ c if Ti > 0 , if , 1.0 , if , 1.0

i ε β β ε β β

treated, welded i i i i i i

Effective

thickness t eff ρ .ct

Heat Affected Zone

t eff if t eff > t haz.f , t haz.f , t eff t eff t eff

n n n 8 n n

9 9 9 15 9

βi t eff

= i

ε ρ c= =

i = Ti =ψ i = gi = βi = εi = i i mm

1 1 1 1 16.667 1.118 14.907 0.465 2.788

2 1 1 1 16.667 1.118 14.907 0.465 2.788

3 0 1 1 30.667 1.118 27.429 0.712 4.272

4 0 1 1 30.667 1.118 27.429 0.712 4.272

5 0 1 1 30.667 1.118 27.429 0.712 4.272

6 1 1 1 16.667 1.118 14.907 0.465 2.788

7 1 1 1 16.667 1.118 14.907 0.465 2.788

8 0 1 1 0 1.118 0 1 0

9 0 -1.012 0.398 4.921 1.118 4.401 1 6.4

10 0 -1.012 0.398 4.921 1.118 4.401 1 8

11 0 -1.012 0.398 4.921 99 0.05 1 8

β i

Max slender- β e if Ti > 0 , 0 , 12 0 1 1 0 99 0 1 8

ness i ε i 13 0 -1.012 0.398 4.921 99 0.05 1 8

- Internal 14 0 -1.012 0.398 4.921 1.118 4.401 1 8

elements β Imax max β e

15 0 -1.012 0.398 4.921 1.118 4.401 1 6.4

β Imax = 27.429

β i

Max slender- β e if Ti > 0 , ,0

ness i ε i

- Outstands

β Omax max β e

β Omax = 14.907

class

class O if β Omax 2 , 1 , if β Omax 3 , 2 , if β Omax 4 , 3 , 4 class O = 4

(5.15)

class if class I > class O , class I , class O class = 4

Area of effective

t eff .

thickness 2 2

dAi yi yi 1 zi zi 1

elements i

rows ( y ) 1

Area of

A eff dAi

A = 5.52 . 10 mm

effective 3 2

cross section i =1

A eff = 4.424 . 10 mm

3 2

First rows ( y ) 1

moment dAi Sy

of area. Sy zi zi 1 . z gc

2 A eff

Gravity centre i =1

z gc = 51.768 mm

Second rows ( y ) 1

moment of dAi

zi . zi 1 . A eff . z gc

2 2 2

area of effective Iy zi zi 1 I eff Iy

3

cross section i =1

I eff = 8.344 . 10 mm

6 4

Section I eff

W eff = 1.612 . 10 mm

5 3

modulus zd zi z gc max z.eff max z d W eff

i max z.eff

Compare I y.gr

W gr = 1.853 . 10 mm

5 3

gross zd zi z gc.gr max z.gr max z d W gr

i max z.gr

section

Reduced thickness in HAZ h 2 .. 3 th ρ haz. t h th 3 th t9 ρ haz. t h t 15 ρ haz. t h

ti .

2 2

Area dAi yi yi 1 zi zi 1

rows ( y ) 1

Area of

A ele dAi

A = 5.52 . 10 mm

effective 3 2

cross section i =1

A ele = 5.126 . 10 mm

3 2

First rows ( y ) 1

moment dAi Sy

of area. Sy zi zi 1 . z gc.e

2 A ele

Gravity centre i =1

z gc.e = 44.228 mm

Second rows ( y ) 1

moment of dAi

zi . zi 1 . A ele. z gc.e

2 2 2

area of effective Iy zi zi 1 I ele Iy

3

cross section i =1

I ele = 1.013 . 10 mm

7 4

I ele

W ele = 1.849 . 10 mm

5 3

Section zd zi z gc.e max z.ele max z d W ele

modulus i max z.ele

W el = 1.853 . 10 mm

5 3

Plastic section modulus

A = 5.52 . 10 mm

3 2

rows ( y ) 1

Area of

ti .

2 2

A pl yi yi 1 zi zi 1

A pl = 5.126 . 10 mm

effective 3 2

cross section i =1

Cross section 7

ti . 2 . t9.

area of upper 2 2 2 2

A up yi yi 1 zi zi 1 y9 y8 z9 z8

part

i =1

A up = 2.486 . 10 mm

3 2

A z9 = 30 mm

Move node 8 A up

2

to plastic z10 z9 z13 z10 z10 = 47.1 mm

neutral axis t 11 t 13

z10

y10 y5 . y y11 y13 y10 y10 = 96 mm

5

z11

rows ( y ) 1

Plastic section zi zi 1

W ple . t. yi yi 1

2

zi zi 1

2

W ple = 2.267 . 10 mm

5 3

modulus 2 i

i =1 W ple

= 1.224

W el

Shape factor

W el

Shape factor

W ele 15 β Imax W ple W ele 4 β Omax W ple

(5.15) α 3I . 1 . 1 α 3O . 1 . 1

W el 15 11 W ele W el 4 3 W ele

α 3 if α 3I < α 3O , α 3I , α 3O α 3= 1.465

W ple W eff

α if class< 3 , , if class< 4 , α 3 , class = 4 α = 0.87

W el W el

50

100

200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200

- first iteration dashed-dotted line

- second iteration dashed line

Plastic neutral axis dotted line

Bending moment resistance

fo W el = 1.853 . 10 mm

5 3

(5.14) M y.Rd α . W el.

γ M1

W ple = 2.267 . 10 mm

5 3

M y.Rd = 29.3 kN . m

class

A eff = 4.424 . 10 mm

3 2

I eff = 8.344 . 10 mm

6 4

50

100

200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200

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