# TALAT Lecture 2301

Design of Members Axial Force Example 5.7 : Axial force resistance of orthotropic double-skin plate
9 pages Advanced Level prepared by Torsten Höglund, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm

Date of Issue: 1999  EAA - European Aluminium Association

TALAT 2301 – Example 5.7

1

Example 5.7. Axial force resistance of orthotropic double-skin plate

Input

N newton (highlighted) 5 . mm 300000 . mm 5000 . mm 160 . mm a w 2 cf 0 240 . MPa 260 . MPa 70000 . MPa kN 1000 . N
6 MPa 10 . Pa

Plate thickness Plate width Plate length "Pitch" (2a or d)

t b L w

t1

t

fo fu E

ht If heat-treated alloy, then = 1 else ht = 0

γ M1 1.1 ht 1

a) Profiles with groove and tongue

Half bottom flange Thickness of bottom flange Profile depth Web thickness Half width of trapezoidal stiffener at the top Number of webs Width of web

a2 t2 h t3 a1 nw a3

40 . mm 5 . mm 70 . mm 5 . mm 80 . mm 4 a1 a2
2

h

2

a 3 = 80.6 mm

TALAT 2301 – Example 5.7

2

Local buckling
Internal elements

0

β i 1 β ε

a1 t1 max β i 250 . newton fo mm
2

β i 2

2 .a 2 t2

β i 3 β
= 16.1

a3 t3

β i=

16 16 16.125

[1] Tab. 5.1

β 1 9 .ε β 2 13 . ε

β 1 9.186 = β 2 13.268 = β 3 18.371 =
class i = 3

class i

β 3 18 . ε if β > β 1 , if β > β 2 , if β > β 3 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
50

No reduction for local buckling

0

50

100

100

50

0

50

100

Overall buckling, uniform compression
Cross sectional area A 2 .t 1 .a 2 .t 2 .a 2 2 .t 3 .a 3 . nw 2 A = 2.812 . 10 mm
3 2

Gravity centre

2 .t 2 .a 2 .h e 2 .t 2 .a 2 .h
2

h nw 2 .t 3 .a 3 . . 2 2 A 2 .t 3 .a 3 .
2 2 h .n w 3 2

e = 30.022 mm A .e
2

Second moment of area

IL IT

I L = 2.059 . 10 mm
6

4

Approx. torsional constant

4. h. a 1 a 2 2 .a 1 2 .a 2 a3 2. t1 t2 t3

I T = 3.517 . 10 mm
6

4

Rigidities of orthotropic plate Table 5.10 Bx By H E .I L 2 .a 0.001 . N . mm G .I T 2 .a

ν

0.3 E 2 .( 1

B x = 9.007 . 10 B y = 1 . 10
3

8

N . mm mm
2

2

Table 5.10

G

N . mm mm
8

ν)

Table 5.10

H = 5.918 . 10

N . mm mm

2

TALAT 2301 – Example 5.7

3

Elastic buckling load (5.77) N cr
2 π . Bx 2 b L

2 .H

L B y. b

2

4

if

L b

<

Bx By

N cr = 1.067 . 10 kN
5

b (5.78) Buckling resistance A ef (5.69) A A ef . f o N cr if ( ht > 0 , 0.2 , 0.32 ) 0.5 . 1 A ef = 2.812 . 10 mm
3 2

2 .π b

2

.

B x .B y

H

otherwise

λ c α φ

λ c 0.08 = λ 0 if ( ht > 0 , 0.1 , 0 ) λ 0 λ c
2

α = 0.2 λ 0 0.1 = φ = 0.501 χ c = 1.004

α . λ c
1

(5.33)

χ c φ φ

2

λ c
fo

2

(5.68)

N cRd

A ef . χ .c γ

for one stiffener

N cRd = 616.164 kN

M1

TALAT 2301 – Example 5.7

4

b) Truss cross section

Half bottom flange Stiffener depth Thickness of bottom flange Web thickness Width of web

a2 h t2 t3 a3

a 2 70 . mm 5 . mm 5 . mm a1
2

a1

a 2

a = 80 mm a 1 = 40 mm a 2 = 40 mm

h

2

a 3 = 80.623 mm 0

Local buckling
Internal elements

β i 1 β

2 .a 1 t1 max β i 250 . newton fo mm
2

β i 2

2 .a 2 t2

β i 3 β
= 16.1

a3 t3

β i=

16 16 16.125

[1] Tab. 5.1

ε

β 1 9 .ε β 2 13 . ε

β 1 9.186 = β 2 13.268 = β 3 18.371 =
class i = 3

class i

β 3 18 . ε if β > β 1 , if β > β 2 , if β > β 3 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
50

No reduction for local buckling

0

50

100

100

50

0

50

100

TALAT 2301 – Example 5.7

5

Overall buckling, uniform compression
Cross sectional area A 2 .t 1 .a 1 2 .t 2 .a 2 .h Gravity centre Second moment of area e A 2 .t 2 .a 2 .h
2

2 .t 2 .a 2 2 .t 3 .a 3 .

2 .t 3 .a 3 h 2
2

A = 1.606 . 10 mm
3

2

e = 35 mm h A .e
2

IL

2 .t 3 .a 3 .
2

3

I L = 1.309 . 10 mm
6

4

Torsion constant

IT

4. h. a 1 a 2 2 .a 1 2 .a 2 a3 2. t1 t2 t3 E .I L 2 .a E .t 1 .t 2 .h G .I T 2 .a
4 2

I T = 1.952 . 10 mm
6

4

Orthotropic plate constant Table 5.10 Bx By H B x = 5.728 . 10 B y = 8.575 . 10 H = 3.285 . 10
8 8

N . mm mm N . mm mm N . mm mm
2

2

Table 5.10

8

2

t1

t2

Table 5.10 Elastic buckling load (5.77)

N cr

2 π . Bx 2 b L

2 .H

L B y. b

2

if

L b

<

Bx By

N cr = 6.786 . 10 kN
4

b (5.78) Buckling resistance A ef (5.69) A A ef . f o N cr if ( ht > 0 , 0.2 , 0.32 ) 0.5 . 1 2 .π b
2

.

B x .B y

H

otherwise

A ef = 1.606 . 10 mm
3

2

λ c α φ

λ c 0.08 = λ 0 if ( ht > 0 , 0.1 , 0 ) λ 0 λ c
2

α = 0.2 λ 0 0.1 = φ = 0.5

α . λ c
1

(5.33)

χ c φ φ

χ c = 1.005 λ c
2

2

(5.68)

N cRd

2 . A ef . χ .c γ

fo M1

for two pitches

N cRd = 704.4 kN

TALAT 2301 – Example 5.7

6

c) Frame cross section

Half bottom flange Stiffener depth Thickness of top flange Thickness of bottom flange Web thickness Width of web

a h t1 t2 t3 a3

37.5 . mm 70 . mm 5 . mm 5 . mm 5 . mm h

a1 a2

a a a 1 = 37.5 mm a 2 = 37.5 mm a 3 = 70 mm 0

Local buckling
Internal elements

β i 1 β

2 .a 1 t1 max β i 250 . newton fo mm
2

β i 2

2 .a 2 t2

β i 3 β
= 15

a3 t3

15 β i= 15 14

[1] Tab. 5.1

ε

β 1 9 .ε β 2 13 . ε

β 1 9.186 = β 2 13.268 = β 3 18.371 =
class i = 3

class i

β 3 18 . ε if β > β 1 , if β > β 2 , if β > β 3 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
50

No reduction for local buckling

0

50

100

100

50

0

50

100

TALAT 2301 – Example 5.7

7

Overall buckling, uniform compression
Cross sectional area A 2 .t 1 .a 2 .t 2 .a 2 t 3 .a 3 . t 3 .a 3 h 2
2

A = 1.1 . 10 mm
3

2

Gravity centre

2 .t 2 .a 2 .h e A 2 .t 2 .a 2 .h
2

e = 35 mm h A .e
2

Second moment of area Torsion constant

IL IT

t 3 .a 3 .
2

3

I L = 1.062 . 10 mm
6

4

4. h. a 1 a 2 2 .a 1 2 .a 2 a3 2. t1 t2 t3 E .I L 2 .a a .t 3
3

I T = 1.901 . 10 mm
6

4

Orthotropic plate constant (5.80d) Bx B x = 9.909 . 10 a .t 2 t 3 t1
3 3 3. 3 8

N . mm mm

2

(5.80a

By

E .t 1 12 . 1

3

. . 10 b . 2 2 ν 32 . a
2

6 .h .t 2

3 2

a .t 3
3

3

2 .h . t 1

t2

3

t . 1 2 3 3 2 3 .h .t 1 .t 2 L a .t 3
3

(5.80b)

H

2 .E 3. 1 t3 2 .a

. 1

t1

t2 1

3

B y = 1.118 . 10 H = 8.75 . 10
6

7

N . mm mm
2

2

6 .t 1 2 .a t3 L B y. b

6 .t 2 2 .a L b t3
4

N . mm mm

Elastic buckling load (5.77) N cr
2 π . Bx 2 b L

2 .H

2

if

<

Bx By 2 .π . b
2

N cr = 1.174 . 10 kN
5

b (5.78) Buckling resistance A ef A A ef . f o N cr if ( ht > 0 , 0.2 , 0.32 ) 0.5 . 1 2 .π b
2

.

B x .B y

H

otherwise

B x .B y

H = 7.501 kN
3 2

A ef = 1.1 . 10 mm

(5.69)

λ c α φ

λ c 0.047 = λ 0 if ( ht > 0 , 0.1 , 0 ) λ 0 λ c
2

α = 0.2 λ 0 0.1 = φ = 0.496 χ c = 1.011

α . λ c
1

(5.33)

χ c φ
N cRd

φ

2

λ c

2

(5.68)

2 . A ef . χ .c γ

fo M1

for two pitches

N cRd = 485.112 kN

TALAT 2301 – Example 5.7

8

Summary
a) N Rd.a = 616.2 kN N Rd.b = 704.4 kN N Rd.c = 485.1 kN A a = 2.812 . 10 mm
3 2

N Rd.a Aa N Rd.b Ab N Rd.c Ac

= 219.1 = 219.3 = 220.5

N mm N mm N mm
2 2 2

b)

A b = 3.212 . 10 mm
3

2

c)

A c = 2.2 . 10 mm
3

2

TALAT 2301 – Example 5.7

9