Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco and the Brazilian el Dorado, 1673-1682 Author(s): Manoel da Silveira Soares Cardozo

Source: The Americas, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Oct., 1944), pp. 131-159 Published by: Academy of American Franciscan History Stable URL: . Accessed: 17/02/2014 13:15
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HEN, in the year 1670, Afonso Furtado de Castro do Rio de Mendonga became governor-generalof Brazil, and assumed the responsibilities of the highest officein the colony, the searchfor El Dorado was already something of a recognized pursuit on the part of many government officials and of many enterprising colonists. The existence of rich deposits of gold, silver, and precious stones within the confines of Portuguese America was pretty generally taken for granted; and numerous people were periodically diverted from agriculture, which early formed the basisof much of colonial wealth, to follow the will-o'-the-wisp of hidden treasure into the wilderness. The appeal of the unknown was, of course, enormous, and the vision of El Dorado had become fixed in many minds, especially after the news of Spain'sgood fortune in Peru and Terra Firma was spread. With geographicalknowledge as piecemeal and as imperfect as it then was, it was no difficult matter for a credulous age to suppose that by penetrating the jungle areaswestward from the sea the Portuguesemight in some way tap the sourcesof Spain's Andean mines. Colonial chroniclers had no proof for their wild assertions,but they talked of gold and silver with the unmistakablefervor of certainty. And the colonial mind, not to speak of the home government, whose needs for ready cash multiplied particularly in the seventeenth century,' was willing to believe that something tangible might be achieved by sending prospecting expeditions into the land. Simao de Vasconcelos (1597-1671), the Jesuit writer, was convinced that America, especially Peru, Mexico, and Brazil, was the Ophir of Biblical tradition, whose rivers, he felt, were more
I wish to acknowledge my gratitude to the Instituto Para a Alta Cultura of Lisbon for financial assistance which made possible the preparationof this subject, and to the Social Science Research Council of New York for a subsequent grant which partly enabled me, among other things, to retrace some of Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco'ssteps in Brazil. To my colleague, Dr. J. Craig LaDriire, and to Dr. Tempe E. Allison, of the San Bernardino(California) Junior College, my thanks for many favors in connection with the writing of this study. 2 As late as 1712 the mines of Minas Gerais were considered to be dangerously near Peru. See the report (consulta) of the Overseas Council (Conselho Ultramarino) of Lisbon, June 22, 1712, in the Arquivo Hist6rico Colonial of Lisbon, Codex 233, L' 20 das Consultasdo Rio, fo. 35 et seq. The Arquivo Hist6rico Colonial will hereafter be indicated with the initials A.H.C. a These needs grew out of the wars against the Dutch (who occupied areas of North Brazil from 1630 to 1654 and who attacked other parts of the Portuguese Empire in Africa and the Orient) and the long, bitter war against Spain which resulted from the restorationof the Portuguese monarchy in 1640. It will be rememberedthat the sovereignsof Spain were also sovereigns of Portugal during the period 1580-1640.

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worthy of fame than the Ganges or the Nile. The Amazon and the

River Plate, whose waters were thought to divide the Portuguese and Spanish possessionsin South America, were supposed to rise in a common lake and flow through areas filled with gold, silver, and precious stones.' Between these two geographic extremes lay other fabulous rivers: the Sao Francisco,said to rise in a lake of gold; and the Doce, assertedlythe waterway to great storehousesof precious stones. In 1576 Pero de MagalhaesGandavowas not quite sure where such extraordinarywealth could actually be found, but it was a foregone conclusion to him that it lay hidden somewherein Portuguese and not in Spanish territory.5 About a decade later Gabriel Soaresde Sousa wrote that Brazil was filled with such metals and stones as gold, silver, iron, copper, emeralds,and quartz crystal. The Baia hinterland was, in his opinion, so rich in gold and silver as to defy the imagination.6 By the beginning of the seventeenthcentury, far from doubting the existence of the coveted treasure,one began to wonder why it had not been found. It seemedincredible to the Franciscan Frei Vicente do Salvador that the mines of a territory which only an invisible line separated from Peru should not yet have been discovered.

These poetic exaggerationsamply demonstratethat the legend of El Dorado had taken a firm root in Brazil; and it was partly on the basis of these and similar reports, partly on the encouragement affordedby the discovery about the middle of the sixteenth century of limited placer gold depositsin the area then known as Sao Paulo, that numerous expeditions-were outfitted to prospect for mineral wealth. As early as 1531 Martim Afonso de Sousa, the head of the first colonizing expedition to Brazil, sent a group of men from Cananeia,in southern Brazil, to discover reputed stores of gold and
4Simio de Vasconcelos, S.J., Chronica da Companhia de Jesu do Estado do Brasil e do que obraram seus filhos n'esta parte do Novo Mundo em que se trata da entrada da Companhia de Jesu nas partes do Brasil, dos fundamentos que n'ellas lanfaram e continuaram seus religiosos, e algumas noticias antecedentes, curiosas e necessarias das cousas d'aquelle estado (ed. of Lisboa, 1865), I (LO 10 das Noticias), ??85-86. 5 Pero de Magalhies [Gandavo], History of the Province of Santa Cruz, trans. by John B. Stetson, Jr. (New York, 1922), ch. 14. 6 Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen (Visconde de P6rto Seguro), ed., "Tratado Descriptivo do Brasil em 1587, obra de Gabriel Soares de Sousa," in Revista do Instituto Histdrico e Geogrdfico Brasileiro (Rio de Janeiro), XIV, 41-42. 7 Frei Vicente do Salvador, O.F.M., Historia do Brasil, ed. by Capistrano de Abreu and Rodolfo Garcia (3rd ed., Sio Paulo, n.d.), Bk. I, ch. 5. In connection with the above paragraph, the reader will find it useful to consult Rev. J. A. Zahm, C.S.C., The quest of El Dorado: the most romantic episode in the history of South American conquest (New York, 1917).

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This content downloaded from 168. See Basilio de Magalhaes. '. of many similar ventures in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. "Ontem que foram 11 deste julho chegou hum navio da capitania de Sio Vicente que deu certa nova que era muito ouro achado pela terra dentro e que eram la " idos muitos portugueses Histdria da ColonizaCdo Portuguesa do Brasil. yet Sousa's efforts marked the beginning of a long series of explorations. he laid plans for the sending of a prospecting expedition to the interior. Rio de Janeiro. by Eugenio de Castro.. 1940). As Minas do Brasil e sua LegislaCio (Rio de Janeiro. when they set out on a prospecting trip which took them three hundred leagues inland.176. an expert miner. 1551. as nothing was to come.8 Nothing came of the venture.. 75. 1552. "Espinosa e Aspilcueta Navarro. the first governor-general of Brazil. chancellor of the royal exchequer in Santos. prata. were both urged to ascertain the extent and importance of the find. in the abortive expedition headed by Francisco Bruza de Spinosa and Father Joio Aspilcueta Navarro. Dom Duarte da Costa. 21. The discovery of mineral wealth was probably one of the purposes of the expedition which the governor sent by sea to explore the coast between Baia and Pernambuco in 1550." This they did in 1560. 1940).118 on Mon. 363-364. but a subsequent expedition by Martins 8 Didrio da Navegafdo de Pero Lopes de Sousa 1530-1532. Indeed. in Hist6ria da Colonizardo Portuguesa do Brasil. todos) . III. for there is record of the despatching to Lisbon of specimens of auriferous ore collected in the course of the journey.MANOELDA SILVEIRASOARESCARDOZO 133 silver on the Paraguay River.. together with Luiz Martins."? Reports of the discovery were received by Mem de Sai. The plans laid by Tom6 de Sousa finally materialized during the administration of the second governor-general. X (Mem6rias e comunicaq6es apresentadas ao Congresso Luso-Brasileiro de Hist6ria. ed. the second governor-general. some out of P6rto Seguro." in Congresso do Mundo Portugues.5. at least in the measure expected. some out of Bala in the direction of the Sao Francisco River and the mythical silver mines of Itabaiana. ferro e outros metaes. some out of Espirito Santo in search of an equally mythical Emerald Mountain.. the Bishop of Bala wrote to the king that gold in considerable quantities had been found in Sio Vicente." he wrote to the king in 1551. Tomo 20. and he was plainly upset when his efforts did not immediately materialize. Tome de Sousa. 210-212. ch.A. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 67-68. 1904). 11 Joio Pandii Cal6geras. The expedition was not entirely fruitless. ed. eu n6m ey de fallar mais em ouro se nio se o mandar a V. "only in the event of my sending some to Your Highness. III. 3. I (2nd. III. I. was not too busy with the construction of a capital and with problems of an administrative and military nature to lend an ear and give thought to the rumors of gold." ' Sousa himself was never to have that satisfaction. 1921-1924).. . 361. This information was confirmed . who arrived in Baia in 1549." Letter of July 18. and some out of Sao Paulo or Sao Vicente. .. but small quantities of gold were discovered about the year 1550 in the region of Sao Paulo. by Father Jos6 de Anchieta in his triennial letter of May-September 1554 written from Piratininga in which he stated that "agora finalmente descobriu-se uma grande c6pia de ouro. Lisboa. "I shall speak of gold again. I. and Braz Cubas. at6 aqui inteiramente desconhecida (como affirmam " Anais da Biblioteca Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. with understandable interest. 10 On July 12. Ibid. See also Histdria da Colonizafdo Portuguesa do Brasil (P6rto.

e tamb6. also of P6rto awaited Ant6nio Dias Adorno. loc. however. it is reported that Tourinho. 15 Gandavo. I. met with failure in his expedition of 1572. 78." A similar fate with no greater luck. and 12 "Quis noso Senhor que o achou em seys partes trinta legoas desta Vila tio bom como ho da mina e dos mesmos quilates." After a lapse of several years. O Brazil e as Colonias Portuguezas (5th ed. cit. cit. 42.. loc. 20. Gabriel Soares de Sousain 1591 sought to discover treasurein the interior of Baia.134 DoM RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BLANCO alone seems to have been more successful.. cit. Few details of Tourinho's expedition are known.op. XIX. ch. cit. ch.The recordof the nex~t yearsis filledwith of men of the exploits but the hopesthey entertained greatcourage. 13 This content downloaded from 168. indicated with the legend "Minestrouvies par Seb. I... I.. 14 Cal6geras. cit. op. In it the geographerRobert de Vaugondy places the discovery in a mountainous triangle formed by the Rivers Doce and Aceci. op. Tarinho." At about the same time Sebastiao Alvares set out overland in the direction of the Sao FranciscoRiver. Cal6geras. y de sus residencias. 390. III.op.. 1920). 66-67. 22.' Specimens of this ore were officiallyregisteredon May 11. 16 Varnhagen. gold] as fine as that of the discovered at thistimein the south Althoughthe limiteddeposits were scarcelyprofitable to work. P. cit. during which interest in the El Dorado declined.op..5. See Cal6geras. cit. Lisboa. op." This map is reproduced above. upon his return. pp. does not tell us the purpose of the undertaking. Bk. 1562. ch.. in Africa.ThusVascoRodrigues de Caldas in 1561 fruitlessly explored the interior of Baia. "Historia de la fundacion del Collegio de la Baya de todos los Sanctos. loc... but his efforts were unavailing. Although his efforts to unearth the coveted green stones were abortive. Of it Cubas wrote: "Our MinaCoastand of the samequality. pp. 9." doc. cit. Ibid. and six differentplacesat a distance of thirty leaguesfrom this town" of Santos.:14 In 1567 or 1568 Martim de Carvalho searched for emeralds in the captaincy of P6rto Seguro Seguro. 388. I. comprihendeos Limites do Governo de S. cit. 380 et seq. cit."Descriqa6do Mapa q." Lord permitted him to discover it [i."Anais da Biblioteca Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. given in an anonymousearly eighteenth century manuscript. cit. Bk." SebastiaoFernandesTourinho. I. I.176. See also Frei Vicente do Salvador. of course. p. Paulo e Minas.. See also J. Although Gabriel Soares de Sousa.op. who left Baia on an ambitious undertaking of discovery in 1574. Varnhagen. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "Descriga6do Mapa. 20. III.118 on Mon. os do Rio de Jan. 108. Frei Vicente do Salvador. 17 Cal6geras. cit. 23-24." Cal6geras. the chronicler of the expedition. attempts to find El Doradoin other parts of Brazilprovedeven more disone hundred appointing. cit. 60-61.. 18 Varnhagen. The Mina Coast is.. Oliveira Martins. upon his return Carvalho reported the existence of certain "rich mines" of gold which he assertedlyfound during the course of his long trek. and never providedmore than a faint trickle of wealth to a restrictedareaof the colony. where the Portuguesehad for a number of years been getting gold.e. 24-25. announced the discovery of emeralds and other precious stones. wereneverrealized.o". in the Ajuda Palace Library of Lisbon. op. This account is confirmed on the whole by a French map of 1749. p. An excellent account of its course is..op.

1597-1602. though tragic. the new governorgeneral. de que V. tira tanto proveito sem lhe custar da sua fazenda um s6 vintim. fo. Indeed..2 In this work of discovery the crown was nearly always vitally interested. in A. expedition to find it. 21 Cal6geras. 25 Report of his grandson. 23 It will be remembered that the crown was entitled to the quint on gold. and Frei Vicente do Salvador. fo. intrigued by stories of the fabulous Emerald Mountain.H. who was appointed governor of the three southern captaincies of Espirito Santo. "The collection of the fifths in Brazil. 1712. op. sio aqicar e pau brasil. makes it clear that the expedition left about the year 1614. M. ch. Lo 20 das Consultas do Rio. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . an intensive period of search was begun which continued almost uninterruptedly until the man's death in 1611. fo. in A. NO 1837.. is given in A.20 A good many years later.5.. in A. op. but his remarks were never heeded. 306. 1940). in accordance with the laws of Portugal. and on several occasions spared neither pains nor money to find some foundation of fact for the gilded legend. 50.H." in The Hispanic American Historical Review. 144 verso. 23. Cardozo.23 Not everyone was convinced of the convenience or desirability of finding the bruited El Dorado. 1590. op. 1695-1709. cit. 1693 (?)." Joio Li6cio de Azevedo. 437. The report of the Overseas Council of November 15.. which yield a good profit without costing Your Majesty's exchequer a single farthing. See Manoel S. placed the expedition between the years 1592-1612." 24 Events of his own day were almost proof enough that he was right. fo. LO 10 de Oficios. M. cit. 394.H. Doc. This content downloaded from 168. 35 et seq. fo. The extensive powers and privileges for the expedition that Gabriel Soares de Sousa secured from the crown are listed in A. cit. 24 "Creia-me V.C.C. Bk. IV.). Your Majesty.. May 3. the governor of Baia wrote to the king at the beginning of the seventeenth century. "Believe me. in A.25 actively pursued the 19 Frei Vicente do Salvador. I.118 on Mon. 24. 20 From a study of various sources Cal6geras. Codex 13. governor of Rio. See Varnhagen.MANOEL DA SILVEIRASOARESCARDOZO 135 lost his life in the venture. 43 et seq. Important documentary material will be found in the report of the Overseas Council of June 22. and Sao Paulo in 1614.C. I. Rio de Janeiro. p.176. 1597-1602. Salvador Correia de Sa e Benevides to the Overseas Council." Diogo de Meneses. left on an important. Salvador Correia de S i.C.. "the true mines are sugar and brazilwood. XX. Codex 112. Historia do Brazil (2nd ed. 22 Dom Francisco's commission of office (carta Patente) of December 1. to the Overseas Council. cit. No. Agostinho Barbalho Bezerra.H. 3 (August. with the arrival in Brazil of Dom Francisco de Sousa. 395 et seq. Lo 10 das Consultas da Bala.H. of Rio. op....H. In 1591. LO 10 de oficios.C. I. Ppocas de Portugal Econdmico (Lisboa.22 During this time ambitious attempts were made not only to push discoveries in Sio Paulo but also to give some form." About the year 1614 Marcos de Azeredo searched in vain for the Emerald Mountain of Espirito Santo. but this is not true. to the administration of the few placer gold fields then being worked..C. in 1665. Lo 10 de Consultas Mixtas. 1929). 1644. 42 et seq. See also Ant6nio Pais de Sande. IV. ch. que as verdadeiras minas. Codex 112. Codex 253. Bk. 1677. Codex 233.

. LII. The mines of that area. 28 This authority in part permitted him to appoint the director or proveedor of the Paranagui mines. Mendonga's commission of office (carta patente) is dated July 16. In 1688 death closed the career of one of the most colorful figures in Brazilian seventeenth-century history. but the report was encouraging enough to many people." A. e cada dia de novo se descobrem mais.5. and a testimony to the continuing interest in El Dorado. This content downloaded from 168. 360.136 DoM RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BLANCO work of discovery. Upon his return to the mother country. II Clearly the history of the search for mines in Brazil. where he sat as a councilman for a number of years. No 2. Doc. For the next few decades members of the Correia de Saifamily.. "have gold and there are many of them. See Albino Forjaz de Sampaio." 26 There was a measure of exaggeration in what he said. from Lisbon and from Baia. 39 verso. who virtually monopolized the government of southern Brazil during a large part of the seventeenth century. Codex 118. . as minas teem ouro e sio muitas. on the administrator of the Sio Paulo mines and." Revista do Instituto Histdrico e Geogrdfico Brasileiro. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . from both sides of the Atlantic. Lo 50 de Oficios.118 on Mon. They had to put up with the difficulties created by the invasion and conquest of the Dutch of North Brazil (1630-1654). o restaurador de Angola (Lisboa. When in 1670 Mendonca was appointed to the highest office in the colony. 26. 1670. e Caramurus na Bahia. Yet the interest of the crown and of the colonists in mineral wealth was never at a higher pitch. he sailed for Portugal. 27 His checkered career in Brazil came to an end in 1662. particularly Salvador Correia de Sai e Benevides. and new ones are being discovered every day. he wrote. Salvador Correia de Sd e Benevides. fo. is a record of great activity on the part of many people. on the chancellor of the Rio exchequer.C. in questions of mining administration.H. vigorously pushed forward the quest for El Dorado. before the discovery of the bonanza placer gold deposits of Minas Gerais became a reality on the very threshold of the eighteenth century. says that Salvador died in 1685. he was granted special authority over mining matters which no previous governor-general had possessed.27 carried on the search at a time when the mother country was in dire need of a ready source of wealth. and by the long war with Spain that grew out of the restoration of Portuguese independence in 1640. and thus gave him a measure of control over a section of the country which heretofore had depended. 1937). especially in and about Sao Paulo. but the remarkable family. as probably befitted a civil servant who was anxious to please his superiors.176. . of Rio. in his absence.C. where he reported considerable mining activity as early as 1616. as the result of his removal from the office of governor of Rio de Janeiro. p. 8.H. in his "Catalogo genealogico das principaes familias que procederam de Albuquerques e Cavalcantes em Pernambuco. than during the administration of Afonso Furtado de Castro do Rio de Mendonca.. Jaboatio.28 At the same time. as we have traced it. when. A. Salvador eventually found his way to the Overseas Council.

Afonso Furtado de Castro do Rio de Mendonca thanked Pais for his offer and promised him honors and rewards in the regent's name. Consult Afonso d'Escragnolle Taunay." p. Francisco Dias Velho." These and Men29 From Sio Paulo set out the celebrated bandeiras or expeditions that seriously interfered with the expansion of the Jesuit missions of Paraguay. 1931). hespanhoes e portuguezes (7 vols.. Parte 1a. Carvalho Franco. and emeralds. Many of those who offered to lead expeditions were probably more interested in capturing Indians for their plantations or to sell in the Sio Paulo slave market than to prospect for mineral wealth. 1672. the residents of Sao Paulo. and Mateus Nunes de Siqueira on February 23.") 32 Taques. (Hereafter cited as Actas. In 1674 the council's letter was courteously acknowledged.. offered to take part in the quest.H..32 The home government naturally fostered the surge of private initiative. and Manuel Rodrigues de Arzio. In 1671 Fernio Dias Pais. 28 also gives the following names: Paulo Rodrigues da Costa.C.) The best life of Pais is by Afonso d'Escragnolle Taunay. In addition to the above. the latter's tragic failure confessedly fired the Paulistas in their determination to be of assistance to the crown." p. Codex 223. Slo Paulo. Manuel de Brito Nogueira. 28. Taques "Copia de informagio.5.. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . cited in A.3 In 1672 the Sao Paulo Town Council wrote to Lisbon that various Paulistas were ready to leave for the interior of the captaincy to look for gold. 33 To Pascual Pires da Costa on March 23. 30 On October 20. acknowledging his letter of August 12. A. This content downloaded from 168. (Hereafter cited as Taques. Lo 10 das Cartas do Rio. 1940). VI (Sio Paulo. fo. "Copia de informagio sobre as minas de S. quickly offered their services. August 12. 1671. Estevio Fernandes P6rto. 38-39.C. Codex 223. a31 Pedro Taques de Almeida Pais Leme. "Copia de informagio.118 on Mon. Cornelio de Arzio. Bandeiras e bandeirantes de Sio Paulo (Sio Paulo. to Fernio Dias Pais. 283-284.C. 28. A. "Copia de informagio.H. a wealthy Paulista whose subsequent exploits were destined to make him the outstanding bandeirante of his time. Corresponding to the crown's concern in the matter. after many decades of fruitless effort. LO 10 das Cartas do Rio. that no expense or encouragement should be spared to sound out definitely the truth or falsehood of the Brazilian El Dorado which several generations of men had vainly sought to discover.H. to Dom Francisco de Lemos. 1679. and to Joio Leite da Silva and Lourengo Castanho Taques on February 28. and individual letters of encouragement were sent by the prince regent to a number of prominent Paulistas. A Grande Vida de Ferndo Dias Paes (Sio Paulo.. Doc. 1915). especially during the first half of the seventeenth century.176. 2 verso et seq." Revista do Instituto Histdrico e Geogrdfico Brasileiro. Paulo e dos SertSes da sua capitania desde o anno de 1597 ate o presente 1772. The mother country was now determined. In this connection see also Actas da Camara da villa de S. 1672. 2 verso et seq. fo. on February 25. and in the regent's reply published by Capistrano de Abreu in Revista do Arquivo Publico Mineiro. LXIV. silver. 1924-1936)."3 This renewed interest in the discovery of mineral wealth was ostensibly motivated by the misadventure of Agostinho Barbalho Bezerra.29 stimulated by promises of liberal rewards. Paulo 1653-1678. The governor's letter is enclosed in the petition of Garcia Rodrigues Pais. of Baia. XIX. Historia Geral das Bandeiras Paulistas escripta d vista de avultada documentardo inedita dos Archivos brasileiros. See Pais's letter to the regent. who had already made a name for themselves as pathfinders of the wilderness.MANOEL DA SILVEIRA SOARES CARDOZO 137 the Brazilian colonists were repeatedly urged to discover mineral wealth.

Specimens of the ore collected by the explorer. in Paranagui. they added. Fired by rumors.118 on Mon. January 8. Codex 232..5. Belchior Dias. Joao Furtado. the aldermen of the Sao Vicente and Sao Paulo Town Council wrote to the prince regent that Captain Agostinho de Figueiredo. who had served as the explorer's assay-master. Equally encouraging news. together with the full details of the discoveries made."' In his letter of July 24 of the same year. 35 The letter is cited in the report of the Overseas Council. The departure of the younger Furtado for Europe was motivated by certain mineral discoveries reported in North Brazil. who was then making ready to leave for Lisbon. in command of a numerous levy. This content downloaded from 168. and shortly thereafter Lourengo Castanho Taques left for the Cataguazes area. in A. had reputedly found.. and pointed out the necessity of fortifying the port of Laguna but three leagues removed from the mining area. LO10 das Consultasda Baia. but also of sufficient importance to instruct his son. in A. long the scene of limited mining activity. in the meantime.H. 18 verso. 36 See the report of the OverseasCouncil.35 The governor considered the reputed silver mines not only worthy of military defense against possible invaders. At about the same time Manuel Pereira Sardinha. Codex 232. As early as 1672 Manuel Pais de Linhares had sought and obtained the authorization of the town council to head an expedition to the interior.H. November 22. December 7. These discoveries represent another quixotic occurrence in the history of Brazilian mining. written several months after the receipt of information from the south.. 1693.C. personally to acquaint the home government with the state of affairs in Paranaguai. 1674. penetrated the regions in the vicinity of Paranagui and Iguape.176. cit.H. As early as June 16. which had grown inordinately in recent years. 1674.138 DolM RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BLANCO donga's efforts to stimulate the search for precious stones and metals were well received in Sao Paulo. The 3 The letter is cited in the report of the Overseas Council. of the existence of silver in the Baia hinterland.. Codex 252. LO10 das Consultasdo Rio. had earlier been sent to the governor-general of Baia. fo. 1674.C. fo. in A. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .36 Afonso Furtado de Mendonqa had earlier authorized Colonel Belchior da Fonseca Saraiva Dias Moreia to search for the mines that his great grandfather. was received from Paranaguai. In 1674 Fernao Dias Pais set out on his now famous expedition in the direction of Minas Gerais. the governor spoke of the work of Figueiredo and of Frei Jolo de Granica. 84 verso.C. had found silver in the area. at the head of an expedition authorized by them.

whose exploits will become familiar to the reader in the course of this paper. LO 10 das Consultas da Baia. and he quickly despatched his son to Lisbon as the bearer of the melted proceeds. probably mispickel. 38 Cal6geras. the specimens never reached their destination..H. See also "Sobre os gastos que fizera5 para o intabolam. nevertheless. With these specimens he mixed a portion of silver nuggets which had belonged to Belchior Dias. of the regent's gentlemen-in-waiting (fidalgo da sua casa) who had spent some time in the mining fields of Potosi. 13 verso (report of the OverseasCouncil of January 29. 39 Registo geral da camara municipal de Sdo Paulo 1661-1709. May 28. Lost in the storm which wrecked Furtado'svessel off the coast of Peniche. See also Robert Southey. Codex 252. but Furtado. 1917). the new undertaking was In his commission of officeof June 28.op. Dom Rodrigode was Castel-Blanco orderedby the princeregentof Portugalto sail from Lisbonto Baiato conferwith AfonsoFurtado immediately de Castrodo Rio de Mendon<a on the organization of the projected 7 Cal6geras. History of Brazil (London. The results of the assay impressedthe governor. 1673. 31 et seq. 18171819). Rodrigo de castello Branco corn os papeis que acuza.a que foy D. III (Sio Paulo. 186. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . On June 28. said that Dom This content downloaded from 168. 1931). who was ignorant of the subterfuge employed. very likely influenced by Colonel Moreia'searlierefforts. 1674).118 on Mon.176. the central figure in what turned out to be the most ambitious attempt ever made to discover mineral wealth in colonial Brazil. Don Jose de Garro. in his declaration to the governor of Buenos Aires. 568-569. 1680. 1673. but it is true that the home government. seq.. without knowing it. (Hereafter cited as Registo geral. its tributary. "Copia de informagio. from there. and his subsequentoral representations of the discovery found ready listenersin court circles. which he mistook for silver. those of the Jabibiri." A.5. 449-450. Campaiia del Brasil antecedentes coloniales. to examine the reputed silver mines of the ItabaianaMountains in entrusted to the SpaniardDom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco." Carlos Correa Luna. Jorge Soares de Macedo. and he sent the adulteratedmixture to be melted in Baia. cit. 450.MANOEL DA SILVEIRA SOARES CARDOZO 139 expedition eventually reached the headwaters of the Real River and. II. cit. to das Minas de Taboyana. financed by the royal exchequer. II." Shortly thereafter Dom Rodrigo left Portugal to comply with his instructions and to become. Rodrigo was his "primo hermano.escaped with his life. north of Lisbon.C." now laid plans for a well-organized expedition. During the course of his wanderings Colonel Moreiacollected a few samplesof an ore. gives the date as June 2. 254 et I (BuenosAires.) Taques." p. II. III the interior of Bala. firm in the belief that the precious metal had come from the latter's assertedmines.. op.." What effect Furtado's representations had in Lisbon is unfor- tunately not known.

n.4 Dom Rodrigo arrived in Baia toward the end of the year 1673 " and at once began the final preparations for his expedition.C.795 $660 rdis. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . while still in Portugal. 38. as expert miner.5. cit. IV. 44 This may be inferred from a letter written by the Count of 6bidos on January 2. as part of his supplies. For his initial expenses. IV.42 Subsequent charges in Brazil. cit. of the heads of the other captaincies.. Codex 252. as controller.. and the report of the Overseas Council. "Copia de informagio.. Jolo Alves Coutinho. a resident of Baia who had had experience in the silver foundries of Spanish America. doc.0 10 das Consultas da Baia. Varnhagen. IV. five hundred pounds of quicksilver. He was further authorized to capture and enslave as many non-domesticated Indians as he should see fit.41 Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco reached his destination at the begin4o Registo geral. January 29. 1677. Jorge Soares de Macedo. 145 n. DOM RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BLANCO The purpose of the undertaking was limited to the of the asserted silver mines of the Itabaiana Mountains. 146. 41 Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen (Visconde de P6rto Seguro). were to be paid partly by the royal exchequer of Baia and partly with the income from the whaling contract or monopoly received in that city. Varnhagen." p. reached the appreciable sum of 1.176. he was appointed administrator of the Itabaiana mines." The total cost on the exchequer of the preparations made in Europe for the expedition. op. Varnhagen." in A.d.. cit. to the extent of eight thousand cruzados. 145-146.118 on Mon. "Sobre a Jornada de Dom Rodrigo de castelBranco as minas do Brasil com os papeis do que nellas se tem obrado e do que se deve faser. but also of all crown officials in the area of the proposed discoveries. 1674. p. May 3. 42 43 Report of the Overseas Council. and by Jolo Peixoto Viegas.. op. including the transportation of the party and necessary equipment. fo. IV. Historia Geral do Brazil (3rd ed.'? The court was determined that money should never be a drawback in carrying out the work as outlined. examining Dom Rodrigo was assured of the assistance not only of the Brazilian governor. 1. and. Dom Rodrigo was granted an allowance of four hundred milrdis and.140 expedition. from private individuals as well as from the several reservations under royal control.H. Joao da Maia as secretary. 254 et seq.). He was authorized to request as many Indians as he required. This content downloaded from 168. 43 et seq. 45 See Taques. Accompanied among others by Francisco Joao da Cunha as director of personnel or apontador. Manuel Vieira da Silva as assay-master. if need be. Slo Paulo. Finally. who had come with him from Portugal. cit. 145 n. op. 1674. with full powers and jurisdiction over all matters pertaining to that region.

which the governor-general had previously focused.. Even the celebrated area of the Itabaiana Mountains. and retraced his steps to Baia." in A. and it was decided that Mendonqa should send Antonio Correia Pinto. failed them.H. cit. 4 Taques. and other miscellaneous items. cit. Dom Rodrigo gave up the undertaking altogether. May 3. e cons. doc. but all their efforts were in vain. fo.op.. 146.MANOEL DA SILVEIRA SOARESCARDOZO 141 ning of July 1674.H." The crown also determined that Afonso Furtado de Mendonga should appoint a competent person to witness the assays to be made in Paranaguai by Frei Joao de Graniga so that. By virtue of this comparison the home government wished to devote its attention. three arrobas. "Copia de informagio." p."6 During the next two years Dom Rodrigo and his chief assistants. See also report of the OverseasCouncil. 1677." Meanwhile. and eighteen pounds of steel.5. on the basis of his information." This content downloaded from 168. to the richer of the two. Realizing the futility of the expedition and not wishing further to jeopardize the finances of the venture. Codex 252. should be immediately sent to Afonso Furtado de Mendonga in Baia. son of the governor-general. "Sobreas Minas de prata do distrito de Pernegui e vio os papeis. These purchases included one hundred and two quintals. it is hardly conceivable that it should have turned a deaf ear on the encouraging news which young Furtado presented.ta que se acusa6 que vay registadaneste L. On November 8.. The problem of military defense. he commenced the work before him on the eleventh of the same month. was likewise considered by the crown. At a period when the crown was so intent on discovering the mineral wealth of its American colony. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Codex 252. court circles were weighing oral reports on the Paranaguwi mining area of southern Brazil which Joso Furtado. fo. cit.118 on Mon. it might be possible to judge the comparative value of the Sao Paulo and Itabaiana mining fields. for the time being. had made. a portion of quicksilver. on which the crown had placed such high hopes. November 22. Jorge Soares de Macedo and Joao Peixoto Viegas. 4 Report of the OverseasCouncil.176. four iron implements (jogos de ferro). LO10 das Consultas da Baia. Varnhagen. where he arrived on July 10. 1674. sixty-two quintals. four wire sieves. in Lisbon. 1676. 16 verso et seq. "Sobre os Jogos de ferros Pineiros de Arame e outras cousas que se devem in A. destined for the Paranaguai mining development project.o fl 16. 1674. 1674. 18. 48 Report of the OverseasCouncil. 38. IV.C. roamed over a large area of the Bala hinterland in search of silver mines. from where they were to be forwarded to Sao Paulo.. remeter ao Brasil para as minas de Perneg&.C. and fourteen pounds of iron. the prince regent ordered that supplies and materials to the extent of four thousand cruzados in value. November 13-14. two arrobas.

17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. to assistin the proposed the as it was in a were Indians. The firstwas while the secondoffereda an accountof the journeyto Itabaiana. 50 A. For this purpose. at the latest. 43 et seq. fo. and in view of the deficientknowlfurthertrial.was to reporton the state of the try. mas dos mais generos que produs.. The governor. mightproveto advantage of Montevideo to the fortification andthe River With reference a as of secursuggested means Plate. Dom GabrielGarcese Gralhahad earlierbeen sent 49 que o estado do Brasil.who arrivedin Portugalfrom Baia during the first half of the monthof January1677. doc.the council urgedthat the from the residents alreadyplannedshouldbe carriedout with all military measures due rapidity. Broughtup intuitive a of to which knowledge geology supposed possess special in Brazil. This content downloaded from 168.176. Both eventuallyfound their way to the Overseas Council.142 DoM RODRIGODE CASTEL-BLANCO an engineerthen living in Baia. Dom of drawn number suggestions.not only prepared becauseof the news of the mines..once so earnestly without begun. up by Rodrigo. mining thought. cit.on the development of the other mining areasin Brazil. queira6 faser." articles of the Paranagui Whilethe development mineswasthusmapped news Lisbon of the failure of Dom reached out. November 13-14.and formedthe subject-matter councilmeetingof May3..50 of the important mineralwealth The councilagreedthat the attemptto discover should not be abandoned in Brazil. na6 por so terem as noticias das minas. in Brazil. but also becauseof the other 4 it produces. in Brazil. Codex the southern miningareafor the of suggesting in that partof the counfortifications purpose possible in the interim. 1674. esteja prevenido para qualquer emvasa6 que os Inimigos nelle .118 on Mon. Rodrigo's expediMountains. either through tradersor throughPortuguese discoveries.This unwelcome tion to the Itabaiana information was the containedin two long reportsaddressed to the Spaniard by to the home and presented governmentby Jorge prince regent Soaresde Macedo. 1674. LO10 das Consultasda Bala. country.H. 1677. The council's recommendationswere approvedby the prince regent on November 17. Suchprecautions as these existingmilitaryestablishments in weredeemed order that the American necessary colony"mightbe for any invasionthe enemymightwish to make.whichDom Rodrigoapparently of and other information Indians on Peruvian possibly mining ing of Spanish suggested the advisability of securing edgeof conditions Indiansfrom Peru.C.." Report of the Overseas Council. living in that Spanishcolony.

" The councilfurtherrecommended that Dom Rodrigode CastelBlancoand Jorge Soaresde Macedoshouldbe orderedto examine the reputedgold and silverminesof Paranagut. Travancor. December 4. and it washopedthat the presenceof the two men would lead to moredefiniteachievethat a smallbodyof infantrymen. Manar. 1940). Etiopia a alta ou Preste Jodo. 57-66.. by by governor-general of Rio. S. cit. Malaca. e como trataveis o search for the silver mines which Fernao Dias Pais. amostras de christais. Relardo anual das coisas que fizeram os Padres da Companhia de Jesus nas suas missdes Do Japdo.shouldaccompanythe new expedition.MANOEL DA SILVEIRASOARESCARDOZO 143 to the Plateestuary. in that part of Brazil which later became known as Minas Gerais. Bengala.118 on Mon. Angola.52 Failing to find the coveted metals in da Serra de Sabara busi. Pegu. Serra Leoa.. p. 1677. Ternate.5. Diu. IV. Rio. de 4 enviastes as " of Letter the e outras pedras prince regent to Fernio Dias Pais. XXXV.") See also Basilio de Magalhies. Codex 252. I. The councildecided under the commandof Macedo. of. Ambdina. "Nobiliarchia paulistana genealogia das principaes familias de S.. Cabo Verde e Brasil nos annos de 1600 a 1609 e do processo da conversdo e cristandade daquelas partes: tirada das cartas que os missiondrios de Id escreveram (2 vols. XIX. Dom Rodrigo and his chief aide were to be instructed to leave at once for Sabarabuqfi.H. "A lenda de Sabarabug'.C. 43 et seq. fiquey entendendo o zello 4 tendes do meu servo. and in Pedro Taques de Almeida Pais Leme. By a royalordinance of November 29. NO 2434. 1. 39. Lahor. Salcete. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Coimbra. Tidore." As to the problemof labor. 1677-T"bearingin mind the information. fo.. 54 A. This content downloaded from 168. Madure.176. Many were convinced that it was the dividing line between Brazil and the semi-mythical country of Peru. Sodomala. X (Mem6rias e comunicag6es apresentadas ao Congresso Luso-Brasileiro de Hist6ria. 185. 1930).J. Malabar. in A."the decisions Overseas Councilwere quicklyexecuted. (Hereafter cited as Taques. 1677. 52 Similar instructions had been given him for the Itabaiana mines. ch..0. at that time prospecting for mineral wealth in the Brazilian interior. 53 "Pellas Cartas 4 me escrevestes. 104-105.. more probable from that end of Brazil may not have been foreign to the council's reasoning. Bk. Lisboa. For the importance of the River Plate in this connection see Fernao Guerreiro. Tomo 2. was convinced ex- istedthere. Monomotapa.C. Cataio. Registo Geral." Revista do Instituto Histdrico e Geogrdfico Brasileiro.the councilsuggested that domesticated undertaking shouldbe supplied Indians of the Brazilian by the provincial Jesuits. Bisnagd.The resultsof the activitiesundertaken sometime beforeby Agostinhode Figueiredo and othershad not beenentirelysatisfactory. "'Nobiliarchia paulistana. The thought that the discovery of mines might be. Doc." Congresso do Mundo Portugues publicaf6es.andby the governor of the Approvedby the regenton May 12.. Costa da Pescaria.H. Thesemen wereto be usedlaterin workingout the militarydefense of the areaif the successof the venture should justify important factorin an of this nature.. China.. but the needsof the momentdemanded greater despatch. in the the of rector the of JesuitCollege Rio. Ceildo.. Goa. Brazil. as a consequence. Guind. published in Revista do Arquivo Puiblico Mineiro (Belo Horizonte). e outras Minas desse Certa6. Paulo Colligidas pelas infatigaveis diligencias do distincto paulista. ments. received 51 The importance of the Plate River to contemporaries must not be under-estimated.

17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. nas capitanias da Repartigio do Sul. Codex 252. 37 et seq.144 DOM RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BLANCO on the work that has been done in the hills of Paranaguwi in the Captaincies of the Southern Division. See also Taques. 183-188. e ouro . "Copia de informago. the regent instructed Macedo to organize an expedition of his own if.0 de Castelbranco. 58 Taques. pp. Dom Rodrigo could not explore the interior himself. On the Dom Rodrigo's favor. parte se diz haver minas de prata. already severely taxed by the high costs of the futile search for mines in Itabaiana." The crown was determined to ascertain the truth of the rumors concerning the existence of precious metals in southern Brazil.176.C. He was also promised a monthly stipend of sixty milrdis for life and an annual inheritable grant of seven hundred milrdis if the net income of the Paranaguai and Sabarabucii mines to the royal treasury should amount to at least forty thousand cruzados the first year of development. 1677. in both of which silver and gold mines are said to exist. 246-247... He was conceded a monthly salary of forty milris beginning on the day of his departure from Bala. cit. the regent had already appointed Jorge Soares de Macedo as commander ad-honorem of the body of fifty infantrymen which was to accompany Dom Rodrigo on his tour of inspection of the Paranagui area. 56 Registo geral.. "Copia de informago. 46 verso. fo. had been ordered to visit Sabarabugi in the event of the failure of the proposed Paranagui expedition. IV."e serra de Sabarabuqi em que em uma e outra Registo geral. same day several other ordinances were passed in "Copia de informagao. Registo geral. e Jorge soares de Macedo ao descobrimento das minas de Pernaguay.." as the preamble reads 5-Dom Rodrigo was ordered to leave Baia. 1677.." in A.5" Several weeks later. 38-39. it wished either to find the elusive El Dorado or definitely give it up. On October 30 of the same year.58 Dom Rodrigo.5. See also Registo geral." p. he declared. See also Taques. See Varnhagen. 147.H. 30 et seq. "Copia de informacio. 1677. de Pernagui. This content downloaded from 168." p. Once and for all. the regent instructed the council to pay the expenses tendo consideraio ao que se me representou pelas experienciasque se fizeram nos cerros 55 .118 on Mon. 246-251. 5" Taques. in addition. Both offices were made hereditary in his line. Unwilling to burden the royal exchequer." p. e forma em 4 os officiaesdella deve ser pagos. and in the Serra de Sabarabucii. LO 10 das Consultas da Baia.. 191-192. on December 19. Such was the tenor of the opening paragraph of the regent's letter to the Sao Paulo Town Council written on November 29.op. pp. was appointed chancellor of the royal exchequer and administrator of the mines of the new mining fields. He was again given the powers and privileges he had enjoyed in the past on his unsuccessful expedition to Itabaiana and.a os 50 infantes 4 ha6 de passar c6 D Rodr. for Sao Paulo. October 29. 41 et seq. pp. Compare the report of the OverseasCouncil. 188-191." pp. where he was then staying. pp. "Sobre se formar em comp. for reasons of health.

1679. in A.. was included in the treaty of peace signed between the two nations. ammunition. and other needed supplies.C. Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco began at once to organize his voluminous equipment and make ready to leave for the south." Unfavorable weather conditions.H. LO 10 das Consultas do Rio. a large indemnity. October 3. 195-196. unclassified papers of Sio Paulo.C. April 22. who was instructed to arrange the details of the projected expedition to Paranagu~i. 1678.H. In 1662 Catherine of Braganga married Charles II of England. as published in Publicardo official de documentos interessantes para a historia e costumes de Sdo Paulo. Following the receipt of his new commission of office. cited in the report of the Overseas Council. and finally arrived in Santos on November 25 of the same year. the regent also solicited the Paulista's co5peration. and it was not until some time during the late winter or early spring of 1678 that he at length sailed from Baia.MANOELDA SILVEIRA CARDOZO SOARES 145 of the new undertaking.C. arms. 1692. where he received money.H. When the Dutch were finally expelled from Brazil in 1654 and the war against Holland was brought to a close. Dom Rodrigo despatched Jodo de Matos to the hinterland on an unsuccessful search for mines. In 1666 the captaincy of Rio. cit. pp. Codex 232. This report. and fifty soldiers from the Baia garrison accompanied Dom Rodrigo only part of the way. 1679. for they did not stay with him in Rio. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and no one more than he was in a position to be of greater service to the crown in the Sabarabuquiarea. to be paid in twenty-four annual installments. LIII (Sio Paulo. a chaplain. See report of the Overseas Council. Another copy of the same report. t'he party was sent on ahead to Santos. This content downloaded from 168. 64 See Dom Rodrigo's letter of April 22. however.. was taxed four hundred thousand cruzados for this purpose. and laid plans for the outfitting of an important expedition which Jorge 5 See Registo geral." During his stop-over in Rio. gives the date of Dom Rodrigo's letter as February 26. Both of these obligations overtaxed the mother country's budget." The explorer was at that time on his long journey to the "Emerald Quarry" of Marcos de Azeredo.176. 1678. Lo 10 das Consultas do Rio. 199-200. delayed his departure. 61 Letter of Dom Rodrigo to the Sio Paulo Town Council. 42. various minor officials. 62 He was in Rio at least as early as September 30. and with the Portuguese princess went a handsome dowry. an expert miner. Taques. For this purpose the aldermen were authorized to utilize the money normally paid in Sao Paulo as that township's share of the royal donation then being collected in Brazil for Catherine of Braganqa's dowry to England and the war indemnity to Holland. Baia. Codex 232." p. to be paid by Portugal. pp. 1619-1721. 33-34. is dated October 1. in A. October 5. especially in view of the fact that the war against Spain was still in progress.62 He stopped for a time in Rio. 1678.118 on Mon. 1931).63 Jorge Soares de Macedo. 63 Letter of Dom Rodrigo to the regent. "Copia de informagio. 60 See note 53.5." Writing to Fernao Dias Pais in December 4 of the same year.. in A. February 16. Under the command of Macedo. for example. and it was decided that part of the money for this double encumbrance should be collected in Brazil. Registo geral.

256 et seq. of Buenos Aires. 196-199." and to provide for the military security of the unsettled southern frontier of the colony. excluding only those guilty of treason. cit. II. op.e. adds that Macedo had been "mandado a estudar o " In his rio da Prata e escolher ponto para uma povoaio. 186. 183-186. and although Dom Rodrigo experienced considerable difficulty in fulfilling his demands.68 The Sao Paulo Town Council contributed 5. op. beans. who had come from Sao Paulo to meet him. See also Registo geral. Correa Luna. whose prisoner he then was. while still in Rio. 197. Even the necessary Indians were secured through Dom Rodrigo's personal efforts in Sao Paulo. November 18. P6rto Alegre. op. cit.a o Rio de Buenos ayres. e 's llhas o de Sa6 Gabriel e daly penetrar 0erta6 daquellas bandas da Coroa de V. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1679. The proclamation of November 29. Taques. e partira [i.. The purpose of the venture seems to have been twofold: to discover mines in an unnamed region located in or about the Plate estuary. "Copia de informagio. and cloth. pp. This content downloaded from 168.66 The expedition was prepared with a great deal of care.. Dom Rodrigo offered pardon to prisoners who should volunteer to accompany Macedo. munitions. 1678.146 DOM RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BLANCO Soares de Macedo was to lead to southern Brazil. I. 68 Letter of Dom Rodrigo to the regent. including seven small vessels. governor been to find a "puerto fasil p. But he may not have been willing to tell the whole truth to the Spaniard. p.5.. by the aldermen of the Sio Paulo Town Council and Macedo. 1678. furnishing not only money and supplies but also men. J6natas da Costa R~go Monteiro.. and he promised honors and rewards to others. 1679.ra desembarcar La gentte en las ttierras del brasil de dhos..176. p. pork. February 16. whither he had gone apparently to gather support for the Plate undertaking.. .. Macedo was also provided with quicksilver and iron implements.. 66 Instructions (regimento) of Dom Manuel Lobo.69 The residents of the captaincy in general codperated willingly. I. 67The prohibitive order was signed on September 30. says in part that the latter had been entrusted by the regent with "o cuidado e diligencia do descobrimento das minas de prata que houver neste sertio ate o rio de Buenos Aires. 42. In the early spring of 1678. 1680-1777 (2 vols. made it clear that the purpose of the expedition had Macedo . and provisions.. May 28. paid out of the income of the royal donation. minerales G . signed . ta6 perto as do Perii " This is a que achava por impossivel na6 haver nellas minas paraphrase of Dom Rodrigo's letter. 62."Registo geral. Jorge Soares de Macedo] p. 1678. . 186. 1943). It varies in some particulars from the results of my own investigations. Histdria das missdes orientais do Uruguai (Rio. 1678.A. cit. nothing was omitted. published in Monteiro. When the expedition finally set 65 After the departure of the expedition Dom Rodrigo wrote to the home government on February 16. cit. At the same time the Sao Paulo hinterland was declared closed to all expeditions until after the departure of Macedo and his party.000 cruzados in money and large quantities of flour.67 Shortly after his arrival in Santos on November 25." p. Dom Rodrigo conferred with Macedo. 5-6. declaration to Don Jose de Garro. 69 See note 59. Macedo presented him with a list of the things most needed for the venture.. "." Correa Luna. 1937). in his A Col6nia do Sacramento . p.118 on Mon. cit. 1680. . A good account of Macedo's expedition will be found in Aurelio P6rto.

cit. p.118 on Mon. But the weather was so bad that Santa Catarina could not be reached. priority over Dom Rodrigo's plans seems to have been granted by the regent to Dom Manuel Lobo whose job it was. 71 Taques. whence an attempt would be made to find a safe port on the continent for debarkation.. Macedo was ordered to take no "passo adelantte" without first consulting Dom Manuel Lobo. deposed that he left Santos in February of the previous year. p. Buenos Aires. a carpenter. but part of its story must now be briefly told.176.XXXIX. op. See also the excellent work by CorreaLuna." and to accompany Dom Manuel on the latter's expedition to the River Plate. 72 Not to be confused with the river of the same name in North Brazil. 1679. Frei Lourenqo da Trindade. May 28 183. "Copia de informaqio. the " expedition therefore sailed south to the S o Francisco River and beyond. Ant6nio Afonso Vidal as sergeant major (sargento-m6r). 1680. however. Macedo received word from the regent of Portugal which completely altered his plans. even in the face of inevitable Spanish hostility. Friar later Lourenqo deposed that there were about 300 Indians on the expedition.5. op." p. 75 The checkered history of Nova Col6nia do Sacramentohas been treated very well by Monteiro. cit. as chaplain. 7 CorreaLuna. Jorge Soares de Macedo. 74 Letter of Jorge Soares de Macedo to the regent. 162. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .M. the expeditionhad already left. and the seven vessels under Macedo's command sailed in the direction of that island. still impeded their progress to such an extent that Macedo resolved to return to Santos.. This content downloaded from 168.71 Dorn Manuel's expedition had nothing to do with the discovery of mines. 1679. and two hundred Indians. Upon his arrival at his home port. Portugal was at that time engaged in another ambitious project. "Copia de informaio.MANOEL DA SILVEIRA SOARES CARDOZO 147 sail from Santos a short time before February 16." p. to extend Portuguese dominion to o70 Taques.e in Correa Luna. a blacksmith.70 Jorge Soares de Macedo could count on a numerous following: Braz Rodrigues Arzao as captain major (capitdo-m6r). is in error when he says the expedition left on March 10. 1682. the regent on February16. December 15. 45." The immediate goal of the expedition seems to have been Santa Catarina Island. cit. no later than the first week in May 1679.. 183. in his declaration to Don Jose Garro of May 28. Ant6nio Ferreira as controller. When Dom Rodrigo wrote to-cit. Manuel da Costa Duarte as inspector (vidor). in Anais da BibliotecaNacional do Rio de Janeiro..governor of BuenosAires. O. 1680. which involved the establishment of a base on the Plate estuary.F. op. 45. Declarationto Don Jos' de Garro. a body of soldiers under the command of Mauricio Pacheco Tavares. cit. 1679.. The weather. op. 7 and. cit. doubtless because of the importance of the venture and of the limited resources then available. numerous Paulista explorers. the future Nova ColOnia do Sacramento.

Cwill inform you of a matter which concerns my royal service and which. regent did not say. principally of those who . 1678. and in Taques. Dom Manuel Lobo. Now the governor arrived in Rio on May 9.C. and other supplies needed for use in the construction of the proposed settlement of Nova Colonia. tile." the regent wrote to Fernao Dias Pais on November 12. 39. 80 Monteiro. 1682.." This was in fact done. 78 By decree of November 12. published by Monteiro." p. Correa Luna.. 183. 5-16. I.118 on Mon." he was also given authority over the other southern captaincies of Brazil. 73 verso. 80 and no sooner was Macedo aware of the regent's intentions than he set out from Santos overland for Rio to place himself at Dom Manuel's disposal.. "The Governor.. Finally. to meet Dom Manuel as urgently as possible and. but the commander himself. boats. marched down the coast to a point where he was eventually able to cross the 76Monteiro. overriding for the time being the plans to search for metals. cit. On his journey thither Macedo received word from Dom Manuel that he (Macedo) would do his highness a greater service were he to sail instead to Santa Catarina Island and there. cit. I. que pondose em effeito dedundari [sic] em augmento de meus vassalos." live in the Southern division.176. .. His official instructions or regimento for the office are dated January 7. December 15. baskets. NO 2434." What this matter was the .C.. op.148 DOMRODRIGODE CASTEL-BLANCO a point opposite the river from Buenos Aires.H. 1677. and to render such other services as might lead to the happy realization of the undertaking. cit. LO 10 de Regimentos. while awaiting further instructions. I. It had been in pursuance of this purpose that Dom Manuel was appointed governor of Rio on December 19."8 Moreover. 1678.H. It is published in Revista do Arquivo Piblico Mineiro. "Nobiliarchia paulistana. to assist Dom Manuel personally and with slaves. if realized. cit. will redound to the benefit of my subjects. op. to sail with him to the River Plate. 106.5. the regent also ordered Jorge Soares de Macedo. as we have seen. p. Monteiro. make lime. Buenos Aires.. 42. the better to carry out the work outlined for him. . charcoal. 1679. A copy of the document may be found in A. II. of Brazil. the crown seems to have been anxious to fall back upon the experience and resources of some of the Paulistas. Part of Macedo's men left Santos by sea. This content downloaded from 168. cit. 76 and. fo. op. principalmente dos 4 vivem nessa of Rio. 41. 70 '"O Governador Dom Manoel Lobo vos hade dar conta de hum negocio de meu serviqo. Doc. 81 Letter of Jorge Soares de Macedo to the regent. brick. but he asked the explorer.. 39-40. 77 This work is outlined in Dom Manuel's regimento of November 18. Codex 169. who was then searching for emeralds in the interior of Brazil. 1679. op. The letter refers to the southern captaincies repartiqa6 do Sul .. op. together with the Franciscan chaplain and others. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." A. doc. 1678. XIX. . cit.

wrote "that when the hope was lost of finding mines in our colony.82 It is no longer necessary to follow the fortunes of Macedo or of Dom Manuel. February 16.118 on Mon. 146 above. 1679. discovered by Paulistas toward the end of the year 1678. Cananeia. Yet such a conjecture does not seem to be entirely unfounded. Nova Collonia a aproveitarmonos das de Castella . 86 Registo geral. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .) . according to information he had received from Dr. Writing from Santos to the Sao Paulo Town Council on February 22.and Peruna.H. perchance. it had seemed advisable to make way through Nova Col6nia in order to profit from those of Castile . 85 Letter of Dom Rodrigo to the regent. "Copia de informagio. op. This letter was a confirmation of his public proclamation of the seventeenth of the same month. enough has been said to explain the diversion to another end of the efforts Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco had made in preparation for the furtherance of his own plans to discover El Dorado in the regions of southern Brazil. 52." p. 183.C. Santos. 84 verso. Iguape." p. Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco left Santos for Paranaguaidur82 CorreaLuna. where.8" IV With Macedo's first departure from Santos in February 1679. pp. and.5. Dom Rodrigo ordered the aldermen to prohibit the departure of anyone to the Curitiba mining field before his arrival in Paranagui. partly as a base of supplies for This content downloaded from 168. Joso da Rocha Pita on the latter's return from Paranaguwi. voicing the opinion of the procuradorof the exchequer. and Paranaguai. Taques.MANOEL DA SILVEIRASOARESCARDOZO 149 channel that separates Santa Catarina Island from the mainland..86 He hoped to restore a measure of order out of the chaos then reigning in the awarding of mineral lands. he did not wish outsiders to aggravate an already serious situation. the Overseas Council. 207-208. . p. " A." The search for silver. among others. though not his primary concern. Codex 232.. de achar Minas em nossa Conquista pareqerabem fazer caminho p.176. " (". fo." Completely ignorant as yet of the course of Macedo's expedition. on January 8. . Dom Rodrigo began to prepare his own expedition to Paranaguai and Curitiba. LO10 das Consultas do Rio. 4 See p. cit. before his projected visit to Paranagui.considerable workings of placer gold had previously been discovered. Years later. "Copia de informaqio. perdida a esperanqa . if not before. 1679. 87 Taques. 83 Was Nova Col6nia do Sacramento founded." He expected to visit the mines then in operation in the former area and from there go to Curitiba. was also included in the Spaniard's plans. 52. Ribeiro de Nossa Senhora da Conceiqao. These were probably the mines of Nossa Senhora da Graqa do Itaibe. cit. but this alone is insufficient to connect the founding of Nova Colonia with the widespread search for mineral wealth. the twenty-seventh clause of the document instructs the governor to assist all those who should volunteer to discover mines. which he had affixed in the towns of Sao Paulo. Portuguese explorations in that area? It is true that no mention of these plans is made in Dom Manuel's regimento for the office of governor of Rio.

58-59.88 Following the highway which skirted the eastern slopes of the Maritime Cordillera (Serra do Mar). Rodrigo's Council. and Agostinho de Figueiredo. Father Antfnio de Alvarenga. 91 Miners were obliged by law to bring their gold to this establishment. slaves. Dom Rodrigo left in the company of these men and of the Paranagui aldermen for the scene of the reported " e que elle Dom R.9? Dom Rodrigo returned to Paranaguaibefore the month was quite up and quickly laid plans to visit the silver mines which had assertedly been discovered in that area. Expenses for the undertaking were borne by the same Antfnio de Lemos Conde. 1679. of letter Dom February 16. 1679. Yet the attempt was destined to be one in a series of disappointments. however." pp. 92 Taques. he made his first important stop at Iguape.0.where their ore was melted into bars and where the tax on gold (quint or quinto) was paid to the crown. paraphrasing 89 Taques. master of the Paranagu-i Smelting House.5. treasurer. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .150 DE CASTEL-BLANCO DOM RODRIGO ing the last days of February 1679. Dom Rodrigo named Francisco Jicome Bajarte on May 4 of the same year. Luiz da Costa. On August 28. This content downloaded from 168.0 sahia dentro de tres dias a Pernagua Report of the Overseas . Manuel " de Lemos Conde. Roque Dias Ferreira. Antonio Dias. on September 10. where.8" As the latter's chief lieutenant (Capitadoda gente desta leva). and ammunition.. cit.. supplies. October 5. Dom Rodrigo at this time did not remain many months in Paranagui.. his main concern does not seem to have been the discovery of precious metals but the regularization of the collection of the quint on the production of the placer mines then in operation.. Dom Rodrigo threw himself immediately into the work he had planned to do. 48. for as early as August 13. 0oIbid. Reaching Paranagui at the very end of March or during the first week in April 1679. and Frei Joao de Granica. 58. On that day he authorized two separate expeditions to leave for the Curitiba hinterland in a futile search for placer gold mines.118 on Mon. secretary of the same establishment. 1679. and it was outfitted on a scale which provided for the necessary men. "Copiade informagio. "Copia de informagio. 1679 he entrusted the outfitting of the expedition to Joso Alvares Coutinho. the other.176. p.. One party included Luiz de G6is.92 Two weeks later. 1679. The Paranagui Smelting House was established to take care of the needs of the surrounding area. On April 6 he appointed Ant6nio de Lemos Conde captain major of an expedition to search for the silver said to exist on the Guaianazes plains. we find him on the plains of Curitiba. 88." p. and Jolo de Arraiolos. Manuel Veloso da Costa.

"Sobre o que escreve o administrador g. were held in their homes pending an investigation on the charge of defrauding the royal exchequer in the collection of the quint. 1680. several months after his return to Paranagui." The unsuccessful expedition to the highly publicized silver mines was to cause quite an upheaval in the mining circles of Paranagua. if only to exhaust all possibilities of finding the coveted treasures. Hoping later on to explore the Furnas area of Itaemb6. the greater were its difficulties. October das Minas.5. Dom Rodrigo wrote to the regent that he considered the existence either of silver or of gold lode mines in the Paranaguai area as extremely unlikely. but only worthless rock was found. 1679. Taques." his work in Paranaguiat an end. cit. expeditionwas given up entirely. The officers of the Paranaguai Smelting House. the thought of the taking. and it had been a suppliesin Paranagu'i poor season for wild fruits." p. Yet Dom Rodrigo. 62 verso. 1680. Dom R.MANOEL DA SILVEIRASOARESCARDOZO 151 mines. fo. Codex 252. "Copia de informagio. e de como detrimina partir para a Serra de Sabarabusii. 1680." On February 14. "Copia de informagio. L0 10 das Consultas da Baia. however. through which ran a number of small streams. 4 Report of the Overseas Council.0 de castel Branco agerca do que tern obrado. 98 On February 20. Dom Rodrigo ordered Manuel Vieira da Silva to send all materials on hand by water to Santos. 5 Ibid.proved to be a particularlysterileone.The much-vaunted mines of Paranaguai and Curitiba." in A.H. The year. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .." pp. the farther its destination. p. Dom Rodrigo summarily banished Frei Joao de Granica from that section of Brazil. See also report of the Overseas Council. he sent an advance party to ascertain if a supply of pifiones sufficient to provide food for a could be collected. 96 Ibid.C. As a consequence. 9' An order to this effect was signed by Dom Rodrigo on November 13. 59. Dom Rodrigomadeup his mind to leavefor Sao Pauloandfrom therefor the SabarabugiU Mountains.118 on Mon.." This was a particularly rocky section of the country." Dom Rodrigo was determined that no other false rumor should lead to the outfitting of costly and useless undertakings. 1680.176.and at least as earlyas February 1680. This content downloaded from 168. A certain amount of excavating was done at the indicated site. Taques. 60. doc. 59-60. food itself were not plentiful."9' companyof one hundredand twenty persons Adequatefood storeswere alwaysa constantsourceof worry on these prospecting and the more ambitiousthe underexpeditions. October 7. who had resigned in a body. 9 Ibid. even after so many blasted expectationsnot one of the several attempts made to discover mineral wealth had been successful-was willing to try his luck again.

to serve as a source of food for the contemplated expedition. before his departure for Paranagui. Silver did not exist at all. however. 1680. had been complete financial failures. while the tenuous trickle of gold that reached the smelting house was of the placer variety.152 Doml RODRIGODE CASTEL-BLANCO he had found. and Registo geral. 61-62. October 7. despite his sincere efforts. cit." p. panned principally along the streams.'00 and arrived shortly thereafter in Sao Paulo. 99 Report of the Overseas Council.118 on Mon. pp. Bartolomeu da Cunha Gago.176.'02 had been ruined. It was at that time agreed that inasmuch as the crops earlier planted by Matias Cardoso de Almeida." p. in his "Copia de informagio. 266-267. Extreme care in budgeting expenses was the only condition imposed in Dom Rodrigo's new instructions.-" The projected meeting was held on the following July 3. where he launched the groundwork for the projected expedition to Sabarabuqii. 100 Taques. On October 10.99 Leaving Paranagui at the very end of April or the beginning of May 1680. were a fiction of the imagination. Dom Rodrigo was back in Santos on May 20 of the same year. and Manuel Cardoso de Almeida to plant corn and beans in the Sabarabugi and Caet6 areas the year before. 1680. Simio da Cunha Miranda. had found none. 102 Taques. "Copia de informagio. 101 Actas. with the presence. shortly after the receipt of the Spaniard's letter of February 14 of the same year. 47. during the Spaniard's first stay in S1o Paulo. Mogi. Dom Rodrigo. This content downloaded from 168. pp. Appearing before the Sao Paulo Town Council on June 20. doc. Dom Rodrigo asked the aldermen to invite the councils of Parnaiba. and Taubate to send representatives to Sao Paulo for a joint meeting with the local council and a number of prominent townspeople to decide on what might best be done to insure the success of the Sabarabug1i undertaking. V The news of Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco's unsuccessful venture in Paranaguai and Curitiba was received in Lisbon with natural disappointment. written from Paranaguai. writes that Dom Rodrigo had ordered Anttnio da Cunha Gago. the regent again authorized the indefatigable explorer to visit the Sabarabuqu area of Sao Paulo and to exhaust all other possibilities of finding precious metals in Brazil before returning to Portugal. but the search for mineral wealth was not considered hopeless. Thus far the ambitious enterprises. it would now be necessary to plant more crops at once in order that Dom Rodrigo might be able to leave for the interior in February 1681. first in Bala and later in the south. 60. The crown had expected the discovery of rich mines. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of only the local aldermen and the invited homens bons or good men of the town.5.

"0' The great need of the moment was not only food but also capable assistants to help Dom Rodrigo in his work and. 107 Upon his arrival at Santa Catarina Island. and sail at once to succor the beleaguered settlement. the necessary Indians to carry baggage and other indis"' was pensable cargo. "Copia de informagio. for assistance. Arzio and Vidal." pp. Macedo constructed barracks for his company and other buildings to store his supplies.176. p. "Copia de informaglo.F. pp. Gold in appreciable quantities was later found in the same vicinity. pp. to the South-American winter. Father Crist6bal Altamirano. Shipwrecked near Cape Santa Maria.'0' Whatever may have been Dom Rodrigo's plans in connection with Jaraguai and with his own more ambitious expedition to Sabarabuqi. The proclamation was published on July 4. Registo geral.0"' He thereupon ordered Manuel de Sousa Teixeira. were saved. According to the Registo geral. Even so. Actas. to ask 106 Taques. 60.118 on Mon." p. See Andre Joio Antonil.5. 68 et seq. Their advance. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . including Macedo. who threw them into prison. An extraordinary ill fortune dogged them all the way. above all. was cut short at the Spanish Jesuit Mission. to Santa Catarina Island with instructions to incorporate in their ranks the men whom Macedo had left behind on his way to Nova ColOnia. O. 104 Dom Rodrigo again appeared before the Sio Paulo Town Council on July 21. Arrested by the provincial. Cultura e Opulencia do Brasil por suas drogas e minas (Sio Paulo. 1680. Macedo and his party set sail for Nova Col6nia at the end of February or first part of March 1680 in the ship which Dom Manuel had sent to the island for reinforcements. who had come with him from Baia. including Macedo. in return for which co-peration honors and rewards would be promised. op.M. Leaving the Indians and a number of soldiers in Santa Catarina under the command of Captain Manuel da Costa Duarte. p. of course. 266-267. and Frei Lourengo da Trindade. he must for the present have forgotten them with the receipt of word of the Spanish attack on Nova Colonia and the difficulties which had overcome Jorge Soares de Macedo.. and several others. 64-65. 63-64.0?4 The balance of the winter probably spent in preparation for the expedition. and Actas. 266-267. however.MANOEL DA SILVEIRASOARESCARDOZO 153 At the same time the assembly decided to publish a public proclamation asking the residents of the area to co6perate with Dom Rodrigo. These activities were abruptly interrupted by an urgent call for aid from Dom Manuel Lobo. he sent a party of Indians to Jaraguai in a vain attempt to prospect for the gold that many people thought existed there. 206. but even in the midst of these activities Dom Rodrigo found time to push the more immediate search for mines.108 Before the rescue party could get under way Dom Rodrigo learned of the 10o3 Actas. 1680. This content downloaded from 168. who was at that time besieged by the Spanish from Buenos Aires. pp. See Correa Luna. his chief lieutenants.. only twentyfour of the men on board. The group probably arrived in Buenos Aires some time during the month of May 1680. decided to continue overland to the River Plate. they were Yapejfi later sent to Don Jose de Garro. 165-187. pseud. 105 We refer. pp. This was on September 20.. at the head of a small company of soldiers. 46-47. the governor of Buenos Aires. some of the survivors. 1923). Dom Rodrigo asked the Sio Paulo Town Council on October 6 for Indians to discover gold in Jaragui. pp. On September 7. 1680. cit. xo08Taques. Men were also put to work sawing lumber for the new settlement of Nova Col6nia.

had already spent several years in sounding out the asserted silver mines of Sabarabuci.C. in the regent's name he offered two habits in the Orders of Christ and St. Having been informed of the supposed existence of silver in Itfi.Sa" ter resposta June 4.'5 It is difficult to say whether Fernao Dias Pais actually received them. op. 386-387. 114 On February 20.. Pais's erstwhile assistant. for the Paulista. 112 Registo geral. Registo geral. "Nobiliarchia paulistana. 1680.. Registo geral.154 DoM RODRIGODE CASTEL-BLANCO loss of Nova Colbnia to the Spaniards on the previous August 7 109 and the imprisonment of Dom Manuel Lobo and Macedo. where he hoped to continue the work already begun. who was then in the interior on his long search for emeralds. 1681. Dom Rodrigo returned once more to his search for mines. With the co-peration of the Sao Paulo Town Council. by Fernao Dias Pais. 115 "Snor. 126-127." pp. 78-86. pp. *s Taques. I. 110 o109 This content downloaded from 168. 1681."x This offer of January 13. p. in the meantime. 282."' Dom Rodrigo counted heavily on the co-peration which he hoped Fernao Dias Pais would give him on the new undertaking. as his chief aide." p. Registo geral.12 Ant6nio Afonso Vidal and Estvavo Sanches de Pontes were named sergeant majors. in A. was collecting men and supplies for his expedition to Sabarabucii. pp. 299-300. published in Revista do Arquivo Piblico Mineiro. "Copia de informagio. praised the aldermen for their help. NO 2434.H. Monteiro. he appointed Matias Cardoso de Almeida. passed in favor of the council.. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1681. 111 Dom Rodrigo's affidavit of December 31.118 on Mon. of Rodrigo to Fernio Dias Pais.5. Doc. but they were never answered. 50. and ordered the refugees in Santa Catarina to return to Santos. though subsequently abandoned. XIX. cit. . Ever since his arrival in southern Brazil Dom Rodrigo had addressed a number of letters to the explorer with this end in view. James with pensions of forty milrdis. but attempts to find the precious metal were unavailing. Dom Rodrigo naturally wished to capitalize on the older man's experience. On January 28. 11 Andre Furtado that of captain. spurred a number of Paulistas in the quest. 61. Taques.. Paraopeba.176. 297-298. meu. Passim. 1681. Braz Rodrigues Arzao received the appointment of captain major. and two thousand cruzados out of his own pocket to the discoverer of the reputed mineral deposits. In view of the unexpected course of events he naturally desisted from his intention. Em todas as occazi6es que se tern offerecido de tres annos a esta parte (que he e de nenhuma tive a fortuna de o tempo em que passei a estas bandas do Sul) tenho escrito a " Dom V. Rio." Dom Rodrigo. pp.

121 The residents of Sao Paulo generally seem to have considered the presence of Dom Rodrigo as an intrusion in their own pursuits. 121 Taques. by proclamation."9 Whether the relations between Dom Rodrigo and the Paulistas became embittered at this time or not. o tal D.176. p. 119 Actas. although it was clear that without Indians the Sabarabuuiexpedition. could not be carried out. the council. As the months went by the problem of securing an adequate number of Indians for the expedition became acute. Rodrigo foi um patarata que s6 entreteu o tempo aproveitando-sedas honras que desfructou e dos dinheiros que com liberalidadeconsumiu. who had left Santa Catarina at the head of a company of about three hundred Indians. 1681." 128.5.MANOEL DA SILVEIRASOARESCARDOZO 155 however. 1' yet very little headway was made.120 Even Dom Rodrigo's principal lieutenant. and "gold" mines classed as valueless. Matias Cardoso de Almeida. On February 5. arrived in Sao Paulo on the eve of the expedition's departure with only three."p. fully aware of the plans then being made to search for silver in the Sabarabugi area.. and it was painful for many of them to have to give up their Indians for an adventure in the wilderness. the council prohibitedthe residentsof Sio Paulo from taking Indians with them to the hinterland on the pretext that such Indians were neededby Dom Rodrigo. 120 . Taques called through the regent's letter of December 4. . 287-288. 118 Registo geral. . Registo geral. Dom Rodrigo complained to the council that the residentsof Sao Paulo and nearby towns were unwilling to surrendertheir Indians. "Nobiliarchiapaulistana. pp. was on one occasion to complain to the regent of the Spaniard'ssupposedly useless spending of royal funds."'6 the Paulista was. All the others had managed to escape en route. many thought that he thus passed upon them for his own 116 See note 53. the fact remains that a lack Dom Rodrigo a worthless fellow who idled his time by taking advantage of the many privileges he enjoyed and by spending altogether too much from the public treasury. 290-291. 1677. pp.""Nobiliarchiapaulistana. 117 On January 25. This content downloaded from 168. which the regent had so much at heart. 1681. and at various times passed drastic measuresto see that the necessaryIndians were collected.118 on Mon. 113-114. 288-287."' It must indeed have been a great disappointment to Dom Rodrigo when Manuel da Costa Duarte. 1681. prohibited the hiring out or use of Indians until after the departureof Dom Rodrigo for Sabarabuqii. The Sao Paulo Town Council was obliging enough. pp. pp. 128. In his letter of March 1. Ibid. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Quite ignorant of such matters. It was irksome to have their "silver" of harmony early developed between the Spaniard on the one hand and the people who could most help him on the other.

Sumidouro. and it seriously jeopardized the success of the undertaking.. "Copia de informagio. 69-70. arrived in Paraopeba on June 26.a hemos de achar o que se pretende . and affidavit signed by Dom Rodrigo. in A. pp.128 122 See Cal6geras. See also Actas. NO 2434 (enclosures).125 In the course of his journey inland he stopped at Sapucai. 1681." he added. 1681. some time after March 27. to register a number of rock specimens his deceased father had collected. For the course of the expedition see Capistrano de Abreu. the explorer's eldest son and constant companion. mentions the names of Matias Cardoso de Almeida. Doc. and before June 26. published in Revista do Arquivo P'blico Mineiro. among them Matias Cardoso de Almeida. a circuit judge 123 sindicante). Ant6nio Afonso Vidal. (desembargador 126 . 124 Taques. and of a numerous body of retainers. 307-308. it was equally irritating to know that he received a regular salary from the royal exchequer. 128 See Registo geral. sent a messenger to inform him that he (Pais) was returning from the interior with specimens of "emeralds.156 DOM RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BLANCO benefit. in his "Nobiliarchia paulistana. in A. 48. plorer at about that time on his return journey from Itamirindiba was a great blow to Dom Rodrigo. op.176. 307-308. of Rio.122 Dom Rodrigo's task was certainly no easy one. Joio da Rocha Pita.. 1681.. pp. the Paulistas may have been offended by the Spaniard's haughty comportment. doc. 293'-294.5. I.. 63-64." pp. p. The same author. Doc. ". Actas. fio. NO 2434. 117. .S. 114. que com a asistencia de V. and Registo geral. either through Dom Rodrigo's letters or through other sources. . "that with your assistance we shall find what we are looking . XIX. 1930). . of the Spaniard's stop-over in Paraopeba. Dom Rodrigo left Sao Paulo for Sabarabui'i on March 19. 52-53.127 Garcia Rodrigues Pais. XX. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1681." 126 But the two men never met." 127 Death occurred approximately seven years after his departure from Sao Paulo on the most ambitious single prospecting expedition ever undertaken in Brazil.. . he reached Paraopeba or Arraial de Sao Pedro on or before June 4.H. 1681. It is very likely that Pais. Furthermore. 1681123 in the company of several prominent residents of the captaincy. 125 On this day he signed a receipt in favor of Captain Jolo Pais Rodrigues in return for a Negro slave which the former had in keeping for Dr.118 on Mon. At least some of the Paulistas headed small parties of their own which had been organized at their own expense. 161-162. cit. October 8. .C. Registo geral.C. pp. Accustomed as they were to paying their own expenses on prospecting expeditions. published in Revista do Arquivo P'blico Mineiro. p.H. 125-126. of Rio.. having been informed. He had to contend with the inhospitable character both of men and nature. pp. The death of the exfor. cit.124 We find Dom Rodrigo at Atibaia as early as the twenty-fourth of the same month. On that day he wrote to Fernao Dias Pais to express his pleasure at the prospect of meeting him. I am sure. The approximate time of his death may be deduced from two sources: letter of Fernio Dias Pais of March 27. and Andre Furtado. " Letter of June 4. Caminhos antigos e povoamento do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro." pp. This content downloaded from 168.

134-136.118 on Mon. and the stones were subsequently forwarded to Lisbon. 132 310-311. . 1"0 See affidavitof October 8. to begin the quest for silver in the nearby Sabarabuci' 1681. The wholematterwasclearly distastefulto him. to assist Dom Rodrigo in the search for silver.FatherJolo Leite da Silva. See also Registo geral. the person of Dom Rodrigo all title and claim to the mineral region where the stones had been found and to the various camps en route which had been previously establishedby his father. 1681.ceded all property. ran away. pp.MANOEL DA SILVEIRASOARESCARDOZO 157 This was duly done by Dom Rodrigo in his capacity as administrator of the Sao Paulo mines. 331-332. 134 Registo geral.. pp.little progress in fulfilling 129 The stones were sent in two separate parcels.132 Equallydisheartening with the Paisfamily.the young Pais voluntarily surrenderedto the crown in. 136-137.34 It was obviousthat all was not well with the expedition.176. Affidavit of October 8. pp.1"'Those who remainedimportuned Dom This content downloaded from 168. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Dom Rodrigo arrived in Sumidouro as early as October 8. Some of the Indians. Insofaras he knew. pp.rights. one through the Guaratingueta Town Council and the other through the Sio Paulo Town Council. pp. As he confessed in his letter. 33 Actas. Before leaving Paraopeba. 1681. and claimsto the regent of Portugalin the personof Dom Rodrigowho was thereforeresponsiblefor the securityof Garcia's gift.133 on Januthat he considered the ary6. pp. the priesthad not been empowered to act in the placeof Garcia he (Dom Rodrigo) Pais. Dom Rodrigofelt that the regent shouldsend a substituteto relievehim. and he was not able. and Actas. Difficulties of various sorts arose almost immediately. 1681. Replyingto the protestlodgedwith squabbles the Sao PauloTown Councilon September 1.With serious discordbrewingin its very midst. on whom he relied for the physical work that had to be done. 311-312. 1Registo geral. cit. who was fearful that from the quarriesof Marcos de Azeredo might be "emeralds" Dom Rodrigo wroteto that bodyfrom Sumidouro stolen. moreover. 309-310. together with the foodstuffs and provisions therein FernioDias Pais'sbrother.5. doc.consequently Rodrigues deemedthe complaintwithout legal foundation. procedure extremely inopportune.3 Ibid. cit.129 Garcia Rodrigues Pais was then on his way to the town of Slo Paulo to arrange the interment of his father's remainsand the settlement of the latter's estate. he (Dom Rodrigo)couldno longersupportthe trialsof the journey.130 Mountains. were Rodrigoto sendfor theirwomenfolk. 1682. Young Paishad. doc. therefore.

5. cit. wrote that Manuel de Borba Gato. criticized Dom Rodrigo for the latter's asserted lack of interest in the proposed discoveries. On December 23. with the discoveryof the incredibly rich placer gold depositsof MinasGerais. made it clear that precious stones and metals were not to be found in places where some less expert people had mistakenly expected to find them. This content downloaded from 168. Pedro Taques de Almeida Pais Leme. April 29. the most serious attempts ever made to discover mineral wealth in colonial Brazil had come to a tragic and futile end. more chastenedin her expectations and pretty well disillusionedover the whole business of the mines. 1682.158 DoM RODRIGODE CASTEL-BLANCO its purposes could be expected. accusing him of concerning himself only with hunting parties for the provisioning of his table."' After almost ten years of effort. developed a charged atmosphere which led Borba Gato to such an excess of anger that he pushed the ill-fated Spaniard over a precipice. as described by Taques. 35 verso. the regent ordered Dom Rodrigo to return at once to Portugal. VI For the next decade the mother country. op. for he sought to avoid possible criminal prosecution by hiding in the then unexplored areas of the interior. The report is published in Varnhagen. Fernio Dias Pais's son-in-law.. whose aversion to the Spaniard is generally admitted. Dom Rodrigo was not fated to have the good fortune of discovering them. Few details are known of Dom Rodrigo's untimely death. however.'5 The letter. And 135 A.H. cit. though they were abortive through no fault of his own. The latter. in a sense. Codex 232. there seems to be no doubt th:t Dom Rodrigo's violent death may be directly or indirectly laid to Manuel de Borba Gato. A few years later he was to discover important gold deposits in Minas Gerais. in A. 162-163. 1683.C. 38 verso. Be that as it may. LO 10 das Cartas do Rio. 136 Letter of Duarte Teixeira Chaves to the regent. never reachedthe Spaniard. while marching on an unidentified road in the Sumidouro area. so well deserved. even after the apparent failure of Dom Rodrigo. Chaves wrote that three shots were fired. "Nobiliarchia paulistana. IV.118 on Mon. Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco was shot to death by unknown assailants. cited in the report of the Overseas Council. The envenomed relations between Dom Rodrigo and his followers had in the meantime reached a crisis.176. Yet those who had. Taques says. held on to slim hopes were at length to be rewarded before the seventeenth century was quite up. fo. 1682. Dom Rodrigo was shot to death by a man or men hidden in the brush. LO 10 das Consultas do Rio.. Codex 223.C. doc. 150. But his varied activities between the years 1673 and 1682. fo. According to the latter.H." pp.. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . too. 1673-1700. 1682. November 25. is at variance with the information contained in the letter of Duarte Teixeira Chaves. avowing the futile expenditure of money on the part of the royal exchequer as the reason for his action. Out of the misunderstanding. yet the expenseskept mounting up as the undertaking dragged out for months in the wildernessof the Sao Paulo hinterland. The manner in which Dom Rodrigo met death. an achievement which he. paid less attention to an El Dorado that so stubbornly escaped detection. seems to have been conscious of his guilt. On August 28.

118 on Mon.176. which death cut short. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he contributed in a measure to the focusing of attention on a part of Brazil where gold did in fact exist. But his contribution to the scientific search for El Dorado makes him eminently worthy of being remembered. The amazing figure of Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco has been more than once maligned by historians and chroniclers for reasons that need not be repeated here. Facsimileof the signature of Dom Rodrigo de Castel-Blanco (Courtesy of the Arquivo Hist6rico Colonial of Lisbon) This content downloaded from 168. The Catholic University of America. MANOEL DA SILVEIRA SOARESCARDOZO.5.MANOEL DA SILVEIRA SOARES CARDOZO 159 particularly through his Sabarabugi expedition.

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5. 17 Feb 2014 13:15:19 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .176.118 on Mon. 1749) Courtesy of THE THE OLIVEIRA LIMA LIBRARY CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA This content downloaded from 168.MAP OF BRAZIL By ROBERT VAUGONDY (Paris.

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