competition aeroplanes have been constructed spoedler, bigger, more dependable. Their radius of action has Inoreased. They can carry moro weight. More Important thnn this, army aviators have been developed. at greatcoat of life, In France especially, who have obtained firm and sure knowledge of the possibilities ot the new arm. These experiments have had great weight with our Government. Spurred by the remarkable strides of European Governments In building up Immense aeronautlo fleet for military and naval uses the United State Government Is making serious efforts to obtain a formidable corps of aeroplanes for the army and navy. Tbore are ten such machines In servloe y in the Amerloan army and navy. The army has seven, the navy three. The fact that England ha sixteen aeroplanes already In service, has ordered 111 and Is preparing to build 150 mote, and the fact that France will have at least S50 machines In the air by July 1, 1011, with the prospect of buying 800 mors, has led the Washington authorities to make a determined fight In Congress to obtain appropriations by whloh a fleet of at least fifty aeroplanes may be launched In the present year. Since the Government purchased the first machine from the Wright brothers at a cost of S23.000 the Signal Corps, which controls army , aviation, has bought eleven other machines at prices ranging from $3,500 to 17,600. Aeroplanes have cheapened as factories multiplied. Of these five wore only lately ordered and are to be dellvored within the next two or three montlis. Out of an appropriation of $125,000 which was granted by Congress for aeronautlo work a balance of $05,000 remains, with which three or four other machines will probably be purchased within the next few weeks. The larger part of this appropriation has necessarily been expended in conducting the army aviation school for tho training of army officers and enlisted men at Col lege Parle, Md., In the summer and at Augusta, Ga.. In the winter. The ma chines which went to Augusta last Octo ber will bo returned North on April 1, when tho five now machines will be added as they are delivered. The navy, which hesitated to take up aviation until its practicability was clearly demonstrated by the army, Is now making considerable progress with the limited means provided. Of ita three machines one Is a hydroaeroplane of the Curtiss type. Handled by Lieut. T. O. EUysori and Lieut. J. H. Towers, it has made a number of valuable demonstrations in long distance flights over land and water, landing and rising without assistance. The first noteworthy Ilignt or this ma chine was made from the summer aviation school of tho navy, which was established at Annapolis last August, down Chesa peake Bay to Hampton Itoads ana return. Of the two other machines one is a Curtiss and tho other a Wright biplane. Naval authorities are convinced of their practicability for use as scouts for warships at sea. Seoretary of tho Navy Meyer and CaDt. W. I. Chambers, tho Utter in charge of the navy aeronautlo division, are endeavoring to build up the naval flying squadron as rapidly as possible, with theobject or having ono aeropiana on eaon battleship, cruiser and collier. This will require more than fifty machines. Their value, it is snucipaiea, wouia oe Insooutlngtrorkintlmeof war. Equipped with wireless (and experiments In wlrelese- in from aeroDl&nee have neon remaraaoiy successful) they would afford valuable means of communication Detween aquaa-roand Independent ships and In report-i- n the movement of the enemy.










Italy First to Demonstrate the Practical Use of the


Aeroplane as a Military Weapon Nations Arming Their Aerial Fleets Progress With s in the American Navy.

OnJy a few year mo, whn Wilbur md Orrilla Wricht, the flrst of the bird-mewere lifting themselvea unsteadily In the air In their flrat crude machines, romantlo dreamers Imagined what the battlns of the future would be. They dreamed of battles In the oloud. whirling fleets of aeroplanes attaoklng mammoth dirigibles, and themselvea attacked by squadrons of fleet sir destroyers. The dreamers were scoffed at as dreamers have been slnoe the world began, but their dreams are coming true. Warfare has not yet o limbed to the

Aeroplanes In military equipment aro as necessary now as destroyers of the sea. Flying squadrons are likely to become, in the opinion of military experts, an important national weapon of offence and defenoe. As to whloh will be the more valuable, dirigibles or heavier than air machines, that is a question that will not be Anally settled for a few years. Hoth have their uses. As soouta the aeroplanes have proved already their superiority. It Is an established fact. When the Italian army debouohed on olouds, but the aeroplane and the dirigible the coast of Tripoli and faoed unknown have become an Indispensable adjunct dangers in the desert the aeroplane nt the military establishments of all great oame really into Its own as a-- workable, nations. Italy owes part of the success practical arm of military service. Tho of hor campaigns In Tripoli to the value Italian aviators took the air, swooped or Hying men os scouts. far into the interior, located with easo France, which has taken the lead in bodies of Turks and Arabs In distant developing the 'fourth arm' of warfare, oases, mapped the country, dropped a has already found aeroplanes Indlapen-- few bombs for moral effect and scudded bia In the great annual manoeuvres back with their reports. With scarcely Oermany, relying mostly on her Immense a failure the Italians were able to know dirigibles, Is rapidly assembling fleets in advance what move the enemy was of aeroplanes. This country, somewhat making. Surprises and ambushes were tardy in recognizing the possibilities of made practically impossible. the heavier than air machine for military It has not yet been demonstrated, purposes, has nevertheless used the however, vwhother the aeroplane is as to advantage on the Mexican bor- valuable as the dirigible as a means of der and Is preparing to train army and attack. A heavier than air rnachino, navy officers in aviation and to acquire which must fly swiftly or fall, can moro urge numbers of flrlns machines. easily appraooh its target: but it has It Is no longer Impossible to Imagine little time to direct its dinchnrro battles in the clouds. The possibility bombs. On the other hand, a dirigible of on invading fleet of aeroplanes hovering can slow up, and evon hover, over Its point over Paris and dropping tremendous of attack. It can carry a greater weight of "iploMlves has seriously engsged ths bombs and can drop a greater weight. It ttntlon of the Frenoh War Department. can gaugo and maintain a given altitude I'lann for resisting such an, Invasion and with greater accuracy and can keep w dtroylng the invaders are worked ltsolf level and diminish Its vibration, thuo o'lt with as much precision as theoretical gMng a better opportunity. for accurate eombita on land or sea. The race between shooting. Tho dirigible is the more useful peat nations in building battleships and a a means of transport. Aeroplanes are m augmenting armies bids fair to be being constructed now that can carry wUnaWsd by the competition to axes! 'a dosaa men, but the great Zeppelins la air fleets, c uenaaay eaauy
ma-chl- nis

With France and Oermany In a spirited contest for the mastery of the air, with dominion


England rapidly preparing to back her of the sea with a powerful equipment of air scouts, with Italy giving the flrat aotual and practical demonstration of the uses of aeroplanes In warfare, It is especially interesting to summarize what the United States bos done and Is planning to do in the use of the 'Fourth
Arm." The United States Government first Intorcsted itself In aviation back in 1809, when Samuel P. Langlcy was conducting his experiments on the Potomao River. But an unluoky serios of accidents brought the Langlcy experiments Into ridicule and Congress refused to appropriate money for further trials. In December, 107, after the Wrights hod proved that flying was something no man could laugh at, tho War Department advertised specifications for an aeroplane to be used in military service. Tho advertisement showed, as has been pointed out by Henry" Woodhouno, that the authorities at Washington luid a thorough knowledge of the aeroplane and a lucid conception of Its pouslbllitloH. The Department wanted a machine that could bo quickly and easily assembled, that would curry two persons, fly at least 125 miles at a speed of more than thirty-si- x miles nn hour and that should be designed to ascend in any country "that mlKht bo encountered In Hold sorvloo. The Wright brothers worn tho only ones to submit a complota mnchlno and fulfil, the requirements, The first trials, made by Orvllle Wright at Fort Myer, 1808, resulted In a record flight of 1 hour 14 minutes so seconds. The Wright ma-U- m which. fuiOlkd ttooootUOou tai







August, 1000, was the old type Wright biplane, which had a spread of 40 feet, a 25 motor, front elevntor and nkld.4 instead of wheels. Tlio flights mado during tho teat ut Fort Myer Included a flight of 1 hour ?0 minutes 30 soconds nnd ono of 1 hour 23 minutes 20 seconds with Lloul. Frank P. Lutim

as pasongor.

The conditions set by tho United Rtntes (lovernmont In tho specification of formed tho standard by which most Judged aeroplanes Governments for military work until tho close of Ml, vbau tto Itemo mlUtary oou-1007-10-

petition took place. Sixteen French miles nnd either drop fifteen pound bomb constructors, among thorn Blerlot, Henri on vulnerable places, like military or Farman, Nlouport, Volsln and Puulhan, civil centres, arnenals or ships, or dyna-mit- o bridges, railroads or bases of supall oolobrated flying men, put forwurd thirty-fou- r machlnos, monoplanes nnd plies. It was demonstrated that mabiplanes. The rcnult of tho comotltlon chines with ono man could curry 300 provisions or went far to place tlio aeroplane firmly poumta of ammunition, mail nt high speed to any point within as a noccssary branch of military a radlui of 300 miles. Speed had Increased to upward of 100 All of theso things convinced military miles an hour. It was shown that ait exports that military taotlcs had been aeroplane was capable of starting from revolutionized; that where warring naheadquarters with two offlcera . and tions onoe depended solely on artillery, seventy-fiv- e pounds of explosives and Infantry and cavalry, now another am fly to aoy potat vithla a radlua of I7t must bo, uaed. Biao that remarkable

mander. U. B. N director of target prao-tlc- e and engineering competitions, fin da another practical uie for aeroplane aa a navy adjunct "At the present time, saye Commander Craven, "tho aeroplane can be used to extend the range of vision of the fleet, but when operating beyond tho sight of Ita base, the parent ship or land marln, it k hampered for scouting purposes by U:k for the deterof navigational faollltles mination or oourse and poaWon- it u nrobable that these will come, and with them will also oome a vast increase in the value of the aeroplane as a naval scout. As a station from which to obaenw and oorreot the fall of shot the aeroplane will be of service, particularly where long range. Indlreot, high angle firing is used, as In the case of a bombardment. The hydroaeroplane, which is aa Amorlcan development, and which may bo launched from a vessel and alight In the water alongside after a trip aloft, further CoftJinu' on 7tMlA














Translated by Herman Bernstein

The cicadas were screnralng. It sounded us though thousands of metallic strings wero Btretchcd In the thlok foliage of tho ollvo trees; the wind stirred tho hard loavos which toucliod the strings, and tills light contact filled the air with a hot, Intoxicating nolso. Tliat was not an yot the music, btit It seemed as If invisible hands worn tuning hundreds of Invisible harps, nnd you were waiting Intently all along oxpectlng that soon a

called coral fish because It Is to be found where tlio corals are, in tho deep eea; It Is a very pretty fish. 'And we went out, expecting nothing butBUoccss. My father was a strong man, an experienced fisherman, but Just before that time ho had been ill; he had a pain in his chest, and his fingers were spoiled by rheumatism; ho had worked outside on a cold winter day und thus contracted the fisherman's dlseaso. "This is a very cunning and malicious wind, this wind which is blowing at us so gently from tho shore, pUHlitng us quietly out Into tho sea; there tho wind approaches you unobserved and suddenly rushes upon you as though you had olTended It. The bark Is torn from its anchor and Is carried away by the wind, which sometimes capsizes tho boat, and you find yourself In the water. All this Is done In

moment of sllonco would sot In, and then a hymn to tlio sun, to tho slcy and the sea would resound poworfully. The wind was blowing, the troos were shaking nnd they seemed to move down from the mountain toward tho sea, swaying their tops, The waves wero beating measurodly and dully against tho rocks by the shoro; tho sea was all marked with live whlto spots, as though innumerable flocks of birds had corao down upon its blue surfaco! they wero all floating in one direction, disappearing, diving into tho depth, then appearing again and hissing softly. And at tho horizon two vessels, their sails lifted high, wnro also swaying, resembling gray birds in the distance; and all this, reminding one of along, half forgotten dream, did not look like real WeAtnll. Toward night n strong wind will be blowing," said tho old fisherman, sitting in the shade of tho rocks, upon tho pebble atones. The breakers washed out on the rocks fragrant seaweeds, red, golden and green; tho seaweeds were withering in tho sun, upon the hot rocks; tho salty air was filled with tho 6harp odor of iodine. Frizzled waves wero rolling upon the shoro one after another. Tlio old fisherman looked like a bird, with his small, compressed face, tils hooked noso nnd his round and no doubt very sharp cyos.whlch wero almost hidden in the dark wrinkles of his ekin. The fingers of his hands wero crooked, thin and hard. 'About fifty years ago, RIgnor, said the old man, falling into tho tune of the rustling of tlio waves and tho sound of the cicadas, 'there was onco just such a gay and melodious day as this, when everything was laughing and Blnglng. My father was 40 years old, I was 10, and in lovo; you know that is lnovitable at the age of 10 and when the sun shines brightly. "Guldo, lot us go for coral fishes,' said ray father the coral fish, Signer, is a very fine, tasty fish, with pink fins; it Is

one moment; you have no tlmo to scold, or to pronounce tho name of Ood you are whirled and driven out Into tho distance. A murderer Is moro honest than this wind. Hut then, human beings are always moro honest than the clomcnts. "Yes, It was Just such n wind as this that hit us about four kilometers from the shoro quite near, ns you see. It struck us unexpectedly, like a coward and' a scoundrel. 'Ouldo,' said my father, seizing tho oars with his disfigured haiids, 'hold un tight, Ouldo! Oet tho anchor, quick! "Hut whllo I was handling tho anohor something struck my father n blow, with the oar on his chest; tho oars were torn from his hands, nnd ho dropped to the bottom of tho boat unconscious. I had no tlmo to help him; our boat could be capsized nt any Becond. At first It was all done very rapidly; when I sat down nnd took tho oars wo wero carried somewhere, surrounded by water dust; the wind was clipping off tho crests of the waves, sprinkling us llko a priest, only with groator earnestness and not at all for the sako of washing our sins away. "This Is very serious, my son,' said my father when he cntno to himself again and looked in tlio direction of the shore. 'That will keep on for aoroo tlmo.' "When you nro young you do not belleTO In danger so easily. I tried to row; I did everything that was necessary to do on sea in a dangerous moment, when this wind, the breath of evil demons, was kindly digging up a thousand graves and was singing n requiem free of charge. "Sit still, Ouldo,' said my father, smiling and shaking the water from his head. What's the uso of digging tho sea with matches? Save your strength, my son, or they will be waiting for you at home In

when death threatened us every minute? I was terrified; It was for the first (time that I saw tho son so Infuriated and I felt so powerless. I cannot say whether It was then or later, while recalling those hours, I experienced a sensation which Is nllvo In tho memory of my hoart "I can see my fnther as If he wereallve Ho sat there on tho bottom of tho bark, outspreading his sick nrms, clutching tho sides of tho boat with his lingers; his hat washed uway; tho waves woro falling on his hoad nnd on his shoulder, now on his right nnd now on his Joft, now beating In front of him and now behind him; he shook his head, sniffed the air, and from time to time shouted to me. Drenched, ho became email, but his eyes were very large from fright, and perhaps, from pnln. I think It was from pain. "Listen!' he shouted to me. 'Sh, do you hear me?' Somotlmes I answered: "I hoar you!' "Itomember, think only of fne good n


wllll' I answered. never spoken land. He was cheerful but It always seomod to
Ho had


"Yes, J remember his wot fnco, which was dear to mo, nnd his enormous eyes; they looked nt mo seriously, with love, nnd by their oxprosslon 1 know that I was not destlnod to perish that day. I was afraid, but I know that I would not perish that day, "Our boat was, of course, capsized: We woro both In tho seething water, In the foam which blinded us, nmld tho dark waves which hurled our bodies nnd struck them against tlio bottom of our Imrk. Wo had tied to tho seats all that could be tied; wo hold tho roiies In our hands; we know that wo would not bo torn away from our bark whllo thoro was any strength left in us, but It was hard for us to keep nbovo tho surfaco. 'Sovoral times ho or I was thrown against tho keol of tho boat, but wo woro immediately washed o(T. Hut tho worst of ull was that our heads woro rolling, that wo woro deaf and blind, that our eyes nnd our ears wero covered with water nnd that wo swallowed very much of it. "That lasted very long, seven hours; to me like that on then tho wind suddenly changed, blowing nnd kindhearted, heavily toward the shoro, and wo wero me that he looked carried along toward land. Then I was

moved with inexpressible swiftness. Swaying, they moved toward us as If ready to fall upon our heads; the white waves hurlod our bodies, our boat cracked llko a nut under tho hool of a boot; I was torn away from tho boat; I saw tho dark ribs of tho rocks, which seemed ns sharp ns knlvos; I saw my fathor's head high nbovo mo, then abovo tho nails of those devils; ho was found a fow hours later with a broken spina and a broken skull. Tho wound on his hoad was large, ho wis terribly disfigured, but his face was cloan und calm nnd his eyes woro tightly
clewed. "I? Yes, I was also considerably battered. I was carried out on shoro unconscious. Wo reached land beyond Amnlll, a strange

his bare, bronze colored skull, stronclv: It Is nil true, my dear Signor! Tho people aro such as we want to boo them, If we look nt them with kind eyos it will bo nood for us. ns well ns for them; thoy will become Btlll hotter, nnd we tool That

is plalnl" The wind was growing ever stronger, tho waves wero becoming higher, sharper and whiter; birds appeared on tho son, hastily flying into tho distance, nnd tho two vessels with tho high sails had disappeared beyond tho bluo lino of tho


horizon. Tho steep shores of tho island woro covered with the foam of tho waves ns with embroidery; tho bluo water wns splashing placo, but of courso there wero our turbulently, nnd tho cicadas wero screamjieople, also fishermen; such nccldents ing unceasingly nnd passionately. do not surpriso them, but make them kind hearted. People who lend a llfo of danger H. aru always kind hearted "I think that I am unable to toll you 'JIIK CIUIIJHK.S ! PAilMA, my father exactly ns I feel, to toll noout A largo of peoplo gathered upon that which I have kopt in my heart for the small crowd square in front of the railroad flfty-on- o years; that requires special peoplo prewords, perhaps even special songs, but station at Genoa; working were also many we aro plain people, like fishes, and wo dominated, but thero dressed, well fed peoplo. At the head nnnot speak as beautifully and as ex- - well of tho crowd wero tho members of tho municipality; over tholr heads tho heavy city banner, skilfully embroidered with Bilk, was waving and beside it were the particolored flags of the working people's organizations. Tho gold of tho tassels, fringes nnd cords was glittering, the silk wan rustling liko a choir singing softly, tho people wero In a solemn, triumphant frame of mind. Over tho crowd, upon a tall pedestal, stood tho handsome figure of Columbus, the dreamer, who had Buffered much he believed, and who conquered

crowd, rushing toward them, "Kvvlva Garibaldi!" exclaimed the children , making their way Into tho crow.l llko a gray wedgo and dlsappearin. among tho peoplo. In tho windows of tho hotels, upon t j,0 roofs of the houses handkerchiefs ,.rn waving, quivering like white IiIkIh mt, exclamations and n shower of flowers r, from thoro upon the heads of thy pepiq below. All nssumed n holiday air; nil hc.-)rl animated nnd tho gray marble to havo brightened up hero und thero. Tho banners wero swaying, hats nr.d flowers were flying In the nir; over ihe heads of tho grown people children's heads rose; tiny, dark llttlo hand were moving, catching flowers nnd responding to greetings, nnd the unceasing, mighty shouting stili hung in the nir:

"VIvallSoclnlNmol" Evvlva Itnllal" Almost nil tho children were taken up In nrms; they now sat upon tho shoulder of tho grown people, or wero pressed to tho broad chests of stern, mustachrd men; tho music could hardly bo heard amid the noise, laughter and exclamations. Women wero bustling about, selecting those of tho arrivals who still remained unclaimed and they shouted to one another: You take two, Annlta?"
"Yes. And you also?" "And one for lame Margarita." Thoro was gny excitement everywhere; holiday faces, moist kind oyes, nnd hers nnd there tho children of tho strikers wero already munching bread. "In our days wo did not think fo thM said an old man with bird like fcatuits and n black cigar in his teeth. "And yet it is eo simple." "Yes, it is so simple and so sensible." Tlio old man took the cigar from hit mouth, looked at it nnd shook off the asl.i with a sigh. And then, noticing near hi u two children from Parma, apparently brothers, he looked at them sternly. They also looked at him seriously. Ho pulled his hat down over his eyes and stretched out his arms. The children pressing close to each other, retreat-- d with a frown. Suddenly the old man sat down on the ground and crowed likfl a rooster very loudly. The children buret into laughter, stamping their bars feet upon tho cobblestones; the old man got up, adjusted his hat and apparently feeling that he had dono all that wns necessary, walked off with uncertain Bteps. A hunchbacked nnd gray haired woman with face or a witch and with coarso gray hair upon her bony chin stood at the foot of the statue of Columbus and wept, wiping her red eyes with the corner of her faded shawl. Dark nnd misshapen, she seomed strangely alone amid the agi-

"The green waves tossed our little boat as children toss a ball; they looked at us, they rose over our heads, thoy roared, they shook us; wo fell into deep graves, we rolled on their white crests nnd the shore was running away from us evor further nnd further, nnd the shore too, seemed to danco like our little bark. Then my father said to me: "'You may perhaps return to land, but not II Usten. I will tell you about fishes ' and'nbout work "And he began to tell me all he knew about tho habits of the different kinds of fishes, whore, when and how best to catch them. "'Perhaps we had better pray, father?' I suggested when I realized that our affairs wero In Imd shape. We were like a pair of rabbits amid many white hounds gnashing their teeth nt us. "Ood sees evorythingl' he said. 'If He sees everything Ho knows that people, created for the earth, are now perishing at son, and that one of them should transmit to his eon what he, the father, knows. It is not prayer but work that the oarth and humad beings need; God understands



"And havinar told me all ha lm knnt work, my father began to tell me how it is necessary io live. "Is this the time to teach me?' I asked. 'You did not do that on londl' "On land I did not feel that death-wa- s' ao near me.' The wind howled Uke a beast and plashed the waves; my father had to shout so that I could hwir htm nnrl y


Never reproach n man, thinking that there Is more bad In him than good. Think that there Is more good in him and It will bo bo. People givo that which is as uea or them.- Of course, that was not said nt once, but vou know it was nttnml nn mand; we were tossed from wave to wave, ana l neard these word through tho water dust, now on ton of t at the foot of the waves. The wind Jenr- neu away many or me words Iwrore they reached me, and there was much that I could not understand. Signor, waa that a time for studying.

better than vou and nn onn xmnm thnn that will lie rlghtl Nobloman and lisher- man, priest and soldier, they are all the some, and vou are lust n nli . member of tho community as all the

"Always behave as If there were none



NOT I presslvejy as we should Uke to. We always feel and we know more than we can say. "My father, In the hour of death, realizing that he could not avoid it, was not frightened, did not forget about me, his son, and found strength and tlmo to tel me nil that he regarded as impottant. I years and I have lived now slxty-sove- n can tell you that all he taught me was correct 1" The old man took off his cap, which had been red, nut which was now of a brownish color; drow his pipe out of it, and bending

open me sarcastically and distrustfully , overjoyed and I exclaimed: that I waa to him still a mere child. I "Hold onl' felt offended at times youth la so proud "My father also shouted something, and egoistic but I understood only n few, words: His exclamAtlnnA must hnn iiVw4nrl "It will break ' my fear; that Is why I still remember all "He was thinking of tho rocks, but tills- bo clearly." they wero still bo nwny, I did not The old fisherman was sile ni for a while, belie vo him. Hut ho knew thing Iwlter looked nt the white sea, smiled and said, than did. Wo wcr carried along amidst winking: tho mountains of water, clinging liko Having watched people, I know. Signor. snails to our boat, considerably bruised is that to remember to understand, and by it, exhausted and benumbed. That the more you understand the more good lasted n long time, but whon wo noticed you will see it is so, believe mol the dark mountains on shoro things

because ho believed. Ho now looked down upon tho people as though saying with his marble lips: "Only thoso who believe are victorious."' At his feet, around tho pedestal, tho musicians placed their brass trumpets, and tho brass glittered in the sun like gold, Tlio concave heavy morblo structuro of the railroad station, with outstretched wings, as It wero, seemed to desire to embrace tho peoplo. Fro m the port came tho heavy puffing of tho steamboats, the clanking of chains, whistles and shouting; It was quiet upon tho square, the air was stifling, nnd all was flooded with warm sunshine. On tho balaonles and In the windows of tho houses stood women in brlghtdresses, with flowers In their hands, and neo." them wero tho figures of children, llko flowers, In holiday attire. The engine, approaching the station, whistled tho crowd quivered: several crumpled hats flow up in the air like blackbirds; the musicians took up their trumpets, certain middlo aged seitbus men, adjusting their coats, came forward, turned their faces toward tho crowd and said something, brandishing their bands to the right and to the loft.. The crowd retreated slowly and heavily, tated crowd. forming a brood passageway on the A dark haired Genoese woman, dancing street. as sho walked. led a little boy 7 years "Who are they meeting?" old. who wore wooden shoes and a gray "The children from Parma! hnt which reached down to his shoulders. There was a strike at Parma. The He shook his llttlo head from tlmo to tlmo employers did not yield; the working peo- In order to push his hat back, but it kept ple were In distress, and now they took falling over his face; then the woman their children, who had begun to starve, grabbed It from ills head nnd wnvlpe and sent them to their comrades in Genoa. It high in tho air sang something nnd A stately procession of email peoplo laughed; tho little boy looked nt her, was coming from beyond the columns of his head thrown back, all in smiles then the railway station; thoy were half dressed ho jumped up. trying to catch the hnt and in their rags thoy looked like somo and then both disappeared. strange, shaggy beasts. They walked, A tall man with n leather apron, with holding each other by tho hand, five in large bare arms, held a llttlo girl of 0 upon a row very small, dust covered, ap- his shoulder nnd ho spoke to the woman parently fatigued. Their faces wero who walked bcaldo him, leading a red grave, but their eyes shono brightly nnd haired llttlo boy by the hand: "Do you understand? If this should with animation, and when tho muslo played for them the hymn of Garibaldi tnko root It will bo hard to defeat us. a smile of pleasure rippled over their Eh?" And ho laughed loudly, heavily nnd triumphantly, nnd throwing his thin, sharp and hungry llttlo faces. Tho crowd greeted tho people of the llttlo load up in tho blue air ho exclaimed "Kvvlva Parma-a!- " future with a deafening shout; tho banners bend loforo them, tlio brass roared, Tho peoplo wnlkcd away taking tho deafening nnd blinding tho children; they children nlong with them; upon tho square wero somewhat dazed by this reception, remnlned crushed flowers, candy wrapand for u second they retreated, but sud- pers nnd tho noblo fleurn nf tin. denly they somehow stretched them- discovered tho New World. selves, formed ono liody and with hunAnd from tho streets, as from lingo dreds of voices shouted: trumpets, cams tho boautirul, cheerful "Viva Itnllal" exclamations of tho people who wera Long live young Parma!" roared the going toward a now life.

m m m

Continued from Eleventh Page.

regular military status, their names to be inuorporaiea in ine Army Keglster while In tho service. Already several offloors havo applied and when an nmple number of applications shall havo been received tho officers will bo called to Washington for examination. It is intended to accept about two dozen, who will bo assigned at onoe to the Col lego Park school for raining. Gen. Allen hopes to build up within a year a



as a naval adjunct." The naval authorities favor the hydroaeroplane because of its adaptability for use on either land or water. This machine, which was constructed at the Curtiss plant In Hammondsport, has been thoroughly tried out. The full development of the marine aeroplane which flies like a swallow and floats like a duck, has robbed flying of ltagravestdangera nnd placed it among the pleasures which may be enjoyed by the sportsman without Incurring more than an ordinary amount of risk, ' Q. F. Campbell-Wooan authority on aviation, believes that America's Interest lies In the development of the flying invention whloh is peculiarly hers, the hydroaeroplane. Meyer, Secrotary while convinced of tho practicability of aeroplanes for naval sorvico, prefers to wait before ordering n large fleet until experiments in aeroplane motors and wireless outfits have been , aeroplane completed. "When the Department is satisfied that the development has advanced sufficiently to Justify Issuing these machines to ships of war as a part of their equipment," said Secretary Meyer, "a few will be Issued to the fleet for a thorough study of their usefulness and of tho measures required for further improvement." i Brlg.-OeJames Allen, U.S.A.. ohief signal ofiloer of the army, who has charge of armv aviation, has found the progress of his work Impeded to a great extent by lack of Bufflolont officers to handle the machines already on hand. Owing to the limited number of officors In tho Signal Corps nearly all thoso employed In aviation work havn been obtnlned from other brandies of the sorvlcn. Owing to the hazards nf tho gamo only officers who volunteered their norvlces havo been detailed for this work. Aviation, though, Is popular in thonrroy. Applications from moro than 200 officers have been received by ',(lon. Allen, but flon. Wood, Chief of .Staff, has declined to release them from their regular stations owing to tho shortage of officers in tho army, (leu, Allen is now communicating with the militia nrgani.atintiH of Now York uad other StateH, seeking officors
. d, i n.

Increases the possibility of the aeroplane

stopwatch apparatus to measure the forward speed of an aeroplane. Then he was prepared to dovelop the bomb dropping device. Tho bombs used in the experiments weigh eighteen pounds and can be placed with remarkable Bure- -

ness, even when the aeroplane Is speeding at sixty miles an hour. Work has been successful nlso In developing signal apparatus for aeroplano use. Wireless messages sent by tho Morse code were readable at n distanco of sev

eral miles. The possibilities of the wireless aro believed by the army Blgnal man to ha illimitable. Wliat France intends to do as regards l, military nvlatlon Is set forth by Gen. ono of Franco's authorities, In the


fleet of twenty-fou- r aeroplanes. His plan is to divide tho corps Into three battalions of two companies each, four machines to a company. In each company hn would have nlno officers, twelve enlisted men. a property sergeant, clerk, cook nnd assistant cook, eaoh machine to bn under the;charge of a Captain nnd ono Lieutenant. He would have each battalion commanded by a Major and attended by a surgeon. Capt. Charles D. Chandler, tlm pioneer aeronaut of tho army, was placed In charge of the aviation corps at College Park last summer. Ho had with him In his school Capt. Paul Heck, Lieuts. loulois, Kennedy, Arnold and Milling ami a num-Ixof other young officers. With the of tho death of Lieut. Selfridgo, who was killed In tho fall of an aeroplane while flying with Orvillo Wright in ono of the preliminary noceptanco trials nt Fort Myer in tho fall of 1008, thero has been no Berlous accident In American army and navy aviation work. There have been a fow minor accidents. Lieut. Kennedy was recently hurt, but not and Capt. Heck has had a fow
ir Borl-ousl- y,

Bfelg ian

Institution Whose Inmates Are Under Little Restraint- - Recoveries Much Above

the Average of British Hospitals
Tho most remarkable Insane colonv waiting for tho booking office to open; he, in tho world Is probably that nt Gheel too, llko so many others, was "not quito in Belgium. Tho system In vogue there all there," nnd this wns ono of his daily consists in no restraint, but that of kindly customs. I bellovo n ticket or somo kind surveillanco except in dangerous cases. was given hlra, and ho walked away quito Tho colony Is in a village surrounding the patients in this queer colony n church dedicated to St. Dyniphe, tho nro nil known to the inhabitants; and their idiosyncrasies indulged with n kindly patroness of tho Insane. Tho insane patients ore not referred tolerance as far as Is posslblo. "My guide, too, seemed quito. amused to as mad. Always they are "the sick," when I expressed n of accidents, tho malndes. They aro boarded in the seeing that tho station fear and lines, both of homes of the Inhabitants In order that thoy tho tram and railway, nio open. I found may enjoy tho freedom nnd Intercourse out afterward that thero had been up t ill of family life, tho bonofit of which Is one then but four fatal accidents to tho patients on tho railway at Gheel, ono of of the fundamental ideas of tho system. which wns duo to a sudden lit suicidal Nearly every house in tho colony contains mania. Epileptic patients, byoftho way, ono or two "malades- "- more than two not seem to improve hero, und in twenty being allowed by tho medical authority years, out of no fewer than 3,000, only onco had thoro over been an attempt on llfo, In chief. that not n serious one. "This fact makes a visit to Gheel some- and "It must not, howovor, bo thought what weird," Bays n writer In the Queen. tho dangerous patients nro allowed that per"Ono constantly moots patients and never fect freedom at Gheol. On tho oontrury, theso kept in aro under restraint tho knows whether ono is speaking to a sano where they aro cared for by tlio person or not. As I was takon round Hospice, swoot faced Haws do Charlto kindly by tho wife of n nurso I was very prob- Hut confinement is only resorted tn in ably tnUon for tho newest arrival in tho thoso coses whoru It ia absolutely necessary. colony. "The history of tho Syslemo Helgo Is "Among Gheel's mentally afflicted nonu- Interesting, nH tho treatment of tho insane kit Ion are people f rom all parts of Europe in the manner sketched is purely Ilelgiiui hugl.ind, Franco, Holland und llolgium both In Its inception luid its realization, all sond patients here. My guldo kept it has been copied by other European ... ,, pointing out to mo n patient in tho strcot, . ..t..w.,1, ,,..tu, (.nullum or a house whom dwolt ono or moro of tho ago. years colony has leen in Tho bomo malades, existence at Gheol as such slnoo the begin"A woman standing horo, a man walking ning of Instcentiiry, though legend places thoro, an old mun with a scytho returning Its origin very earlv Indeed, "It has beon visited by nil tho great from harvesting nil woro allunes, but nil wero enjoying perfect freedom, walking mental specialist!) of Europe, who have, of courso, found fault with it, but havo, about llko tho rest of tho world, working nevertheless, often taken hints from It. if they liked, or resting if they liked, It consisted, at my visit, of about S.ixm though nil wero known und looked on malades, out of which number nu nveiafo , sequenti-ntcdonly sixty wero of about with kindly commiseration tlio nick in rest onjoying perfect liberty, as 1 havo mind If not In body. above. stated "In tho railway station I noticed a man "Tlio system originated at first in a walking up and down Tory impatiently' question of cost. 'Wo are not rich enough



Gen. Allen deplores tho lack of advancement In aviation bemuse of n Inolt of


foi Mrvleo.

of War Stlmson

has approved a plan by which tlm re. quired number of officers who volunteer may tako oxamluatlmiH nnd bo accepted for tho burvico on army pay and with a

Although tho United States was the first nation to recognize tho neroplano for military purpones nnd carried out tlm imicini uovornineiH test ot nn aeroiirt plane," says (Ion. Allen, "yet such has been tho phenomenal progress In this science ami art that this country has been left far behind In securing practical equipment nnd organization for tho tmo of this indispensable) adjunct to war." Tho United States Is not so far behind, however, in technical experiments of tho utmost importance. The results of theso havo In somo eases been kept secret, War Department words. It. E, K;ott, formerly a First Lieutenant of Coast Artillery, has invented a device for dropping bombs which Is regarded by army observers as a complete success. Mr. Scott first designed a toloscopo


to build tho big establishments you have in England, ' the Medecin-Directctold mo. The second nnd most important ono wiiB tho desire for a moro humane treatment of tho 's'ck in mind,' as they hold that shutting them up only irritates them ami increases tho malady. It is calculated that each lunatic costs us in England 175. In Gheel the cost varies from 300 francs to 2,000 francs per mi$100), tho sum paid dependto lium ($o ing on tho position of the family of the alienated. "Tho colony Is under the direction of a Under him are six specialists, who llvo in separate houses, but am not allowed any privato practice. Tho total salaries amount to about $11,300, whllo in a London asylum theso amount to about $l2,ono. "The Medflcin-Dlrocteinspects tho colony at least onco a year. The members of the permanent commltteo, in two series, each pay a visit once a year. Tho doctor In charge of tho sections visits incurables nt least onco n month, whlie those who show nny signs of euro are visited onco 11 week. "In addition thern nro seven gardes, who must visit nil tho patients of their section at least twlco n month, whllo two others charged with thu hydro-pathl- o service, and another garde com- pleto tlm sorvico of surveillance. In addition to this, if necessary, other visltH aro paid, the Incurables being visited in all about 45(i times a year, those who g'vo any sign of recovery being seon moro often than this, Daily reports to the director and meetings at ills house, to receive instructions keep him nu courant with everything and every one in tho colony. Amusements nre arranged for tho patients in tho winter. "As tlio result of tlio system. It may bo of Interest to mention that the death rato has averaged ubout 1 per cent, during the nnst few years, whllo in England ami WufeH tho rate has boon 7 per cent, for tho past ten years. With regard to recoveries, In Gheel these have been 10 nor cent, nt least slnco 1880, while In the two countries nbovo mentioned 10 per oent., I understand, has boon the average.
MiVleein-Dlreeteur. 11

Bulletin of tho Aero Club of America. "Ihe 'fourth arm, hays Gen. Honnal, "will play a very Importmt part in tlmo of war. Tho sum of 3l,50.l,0d0 francs, which has been judged Indispensable for military nvlatlon in 1012. may seem exaggerated to laymen and to peoplo who have llttlo knowledge of tho cost of establishing n now organization, but tho wholo world will ngroo that It Is absolutely n minimum sum when they learn that this year wo will need 3:iS aeroplanes for the army, new and soli dly constructed; hangarH in sufficient nunberH, nlso solidly constructed; pilots in number over 500 nnd workers nnd assistants nnd general administrators for tho now element, .'the fourth nrm.' Tho projects of orcan- Izatlon submitted to tho Minister of War last Juno provided that In 101,1 tho French army would havo 000 aeroplanes nnd pilots, assistants nnd material corre-


tho aeroplanes. A rough comparison of tho strength in aeroplanes this year of five great nations is as follows:

!tlmatr. Aeroplanes. ..

Ae ropInr




?os M

150 .wo




Unite! States.


inni'i It


certainty. " What England's preparations nro army aviation may be surmised from the British army estimate of 1012-1Lord Haldano's memorandum shows that tho Government is beginning to leading paciflctstsortho day," sayr G.F realize tho' needs of Its fourth arm. Tho Campboll-Woo- d of tho Aero Club of War Office is to spend 308,000 on America. "In fact, because of its It. The navy estimates nro expected to war potentialities the development show a substantial amount for tho same of air navigation itself is frowned on by purpose But oven then tho British total many of them. The opinion will be will bo far behind tho French oxnondl- - hazarded that, tho gamo of war being turo of 1,280.000. in itself a sensolessthlngand oneinciloe- England will build on Salisbury Plain tlve of how vorv VOUthflll tYn tmmnn a Joint school for nrniy nnd nnvy officere. race really is, It Is extremely likely that Having learned to tly theso will iv win oe mmio imposstuio uy tno at sipuruto nrmy and nnvy estabcharactor thnt man's genius lishments. IMbllc opinion has had weight wl.l clvo It aeos hefnrn mnnl.lnH will ! in pressing the British Government to- iircpared to listen to tho grownup logic- of ward a realization of the possibilities of disarmament."
3. spo-vlatl- .o

of war: "Tho General will say 'Find if a certain column of three nrms is marching from Metz to Verdun over tho routo which passes over Tell mo ull about It; what elements It Is composed of, what its slzo is and where tho advance body was at 10 o'clock.' Under theso conditions ho can base his plans with
Mors-hi-Tou- r,

Gen. Honnal deplores tho loss cf llfo resulting from nvlatlon experiments In Franco nnd suggests thnt a prizo of 0 francs bo offered for a safety apparatus that will work. Ho behoves that French ingenuity would foIvo that greatcft of all aviation problems In slsmonths. Tlio General presents this picturoof tho actual workings of tho neroplano corps in tlmo

Even tho Sick Man of Europe Is going for mt1ltniv nvlntlnn KVmi. m,nfha j ago when Italy decided thntTrlnoll should neiong to nor nnd sent over aeroplanes to drop bombs on Turks nnd Arabs, Turkey protested to tho Powers. But th Powers gave no satisfaction. Then Turkey decided sho would buy aeroplanes, send them to Tripoli nnd drop IximlM on tho Italians. Sho sent flying machines nnd nviatcr to Tripoli by way of Egypt, but in Egypt they wero held up. Tho Egyptlnn Gov eminent decided that neroplanea Instruments of war, and refused to them parts tho frontier. Tho aviator are now at tho Heliopolls uerodromo ne,v Alexandria flying for tho mnuscmei of the natlvoB. Acoording to tho late; ' news from Constantinople Turkoy nor piuna 10 gei logotncr a lleot or 250 aeroplanes. What the outcome of all this preparation and oxpenso will bo no man can ye forotell. Somo pooplo think that nen planes may mako war impossible. "Tho charnotor that warfuro will nr sumo na it enters hirther into tho noria. ago now dawning luis been consldei .. with gravo misgivings by many of tli

Italy has kept her aviation strength pretty carefully masked. It is supposed that sho has developed her fourth arm to n point equal to that at least of England's, nnd tho use sho has already mads of it in Tripoli Is woll known.

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