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“Product Bases and Endomorphisms of Products of Integers” (Product Bases) is the higher dimension version of the author’s paper, “Endomorphisms and Product Bases of the Baer-Specker Group” (Endomorphisms), which was published in the International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, Volume 2009, Article ID 396475, 9 pages. Endomorphisms also may be accessed at http://www.scribd.com/doc/20021257/Endomorphisms-and-Product-Bases-of-the-Baer-Specker-Group.
The first draft of Product Bases was produced in early 2007, and a draft was made available to participants in the 1st Joint Meeting of the American Mathematical Society and the New Zealand Mathematical Society, held December 12-15, 2007, at Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand, where the author spoke on “Module-Building with Polynomials and Power Series”. Product Bases is the paper mentioned in Endomorphisms under “Generalizations” on page 8 of the latter paper.

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OF PRODUCTS OF INTEGERS

E. F. CORNELIUS, JR.

Detroit, MI, USA 48221-3038

Email: efcornelius@comcast.net, frankcornelius@alum.mit.edu

Abstract

phism ring of the group of all integer-valued functions on C(k; N) is isomorphic

to the ring of k-dimensional row-…nite in…nite matrices over the integers. The

product bases of that group are represented by the multiplicative group of in-

vertible elements in that matrix ring. In particular, all endomorphisms of the

Baer-Specker group are multiplication by row-…nite in…nite integral matrices.

All products in the Baer-Specker group are characterized, and a lemma of Lás-

zló Fuchs regarding such products is revisited.

1. Introduction

The integral root basis < = f n (x) : n 2 Ng of the group of integral poly-

nomials Z[x] was introduced in [CS07] as 0 (x) 1, n+1 (x) = n (x)(x n)

for n 0. In [CS08] this basis was extended to a basis of the group of inte-

gral polynomials in k variables, Z[Xk ], which then was used to construct the

group of formalP power series with respect to the extended integral root basis,

Z[[Xk ]]< = f m2C(k;N) am m : am 2 Zg. The integral root basis has the

property that the valuation map v : Z[[Xk ]]< ! ZC(k;N) de…ned by vf (b) =

f (b), f 2 Z[[Xk ]]< , b 2 C(k; N), is a monomorphism, the image of which is the

group of multinomial points, M P (k; N) ZC(k;N) .

f m : m 2 C(k; N)g and M P (k; N) has a subset G = f m : m 2 C(k; N)g which

satisfy:

P (2) Each f 2 ZC(k;N) has a unique representation of the form f =

m2C(k;N) bm m : bm 2 Z.

m2C(k;N) cm m : cm 2 Z.

1

(4) For all m 2 C(k; N), m = pm m where pm is a positive integer.

(5) Let m = (m0 ; : : : ; mk 1 ), n = (n0 ; : : : ; nk 1 ) 2 C(k; N). If mi ni

for 0 i k 1, then from (4), pm j pn .

The structure of ZC(k;N) =M P (k; N) also was described in [CS08, Theorem 5.4]

and a test for inclusion in M P (k; N) was formulated in [CS08, Theorem 5.7].

fum : m 2 C(k; N)g be a subset of ZC(k;N) . If each expression m2C(k;N) bm um ,

bm 2 Z, represents an element Q of ZC(k;N) , the set of all such elements forms a

C(k;N)

subgroup of Z , denoted m2C(k;N) hum i, which is called a product in

P

ZC(k;N) . If the representations m2C(k;N) bm um , bm 2 Z, are unique, then U is

Q

said to be a product basis of m2C(k;N) hum i. The principal objective of this

paper is to characterize products and product bases in term of endomorphisms

of ZC(k;N) .

Abelian group notation and terminology are standard [F70 & 73]. N denotes

the nonnegative integers and C(k; N) the k-tuples of nonnegative integers for the

positive integer k. Elements of C(k; N) are denoted by bold lower-case letters,

m, n, etc. C(k; n) C(k; N) denotes all k-tuples with entries < n, n 2 N+ ,

the positive integers. Z denotes the ring of integers. The group of all functions

from C(k; N) to Z is denoted ZC(k;N) . Although ZC(k;N) is in fact a ring under

pointwise multiplication, that fact is merely noted here.

Q

Let P = ZC(1;N) = ZN = N Z, the group of all integer sequences, known as

the Baer-Specker group [B37, S50]. Although it is true that ZC(k;N) = Pk = P,

there is a de…nite di¤erence when attempting to …t polynomials. For exam-

ple, no permutation of the sequence (1; 0; 0; 0) can be generated by an integral

polynomial in one variable, because in any such permutation (a0 ; a1 ; a2 ; a3 ), the

expression a0 =6 a1 =2 + a2 =2 a3 =6 can never be an integer, a prerequisite

for such generation. However, all arrangements of (1; 0; 0; 0) indexed by the ele-

ments of C(2; 2) can be generated by integral polynomials in 2 variables. [CS08,

Section 2]. Groups are studied from the perspective of ZC(k;N) for that reason,

so that this paper is a continuation of [CS08].

Z, the value of which at (i; j) 2 C(k; N) C(k; N) is written as M (i; j). The

group of all k-dimensional in…nite integral matrices is denoted MZ (k; !), with

addition being de…ned pointwise.

F 2 MZ (k; !) is said to be row-…nite if, for each i, F (i; j) = 0 for all but

…nitely many j; i.e., if for each i, there exists li such that F (i; j) = 0 unless j li

2

(at each of the k coordinates). A column-…nite matrix is de…ned analogously.

The group of all row-…nite matrices in MZ (k; !) is denoted FMZ (k; !). T 2

MZ (k; !) is said to be lower-triangular if T (i; j) = 0 unless i j. The group

of all lower-triangular matrices in MZ (k; !) is denoted T MZ (k; !). Clearly

T MZ (k; !) FMZ (k; !).

For F 2 FMZ (k; !) and G 2 MZ (k; !), the product of F and G, denoted

F G 2 MZ (k; !), is de…ned as

P

F G(i; j) = l2C(k;N) F (i; l)G(l; j)

Under multiplication thus de…ned, FMZ (k; !) and T MZ (k; !) are unital rings

with identity I(i; j) = (i; j), the Kronecker delta.

function C(k; N) ! Z de…ned by M (j)(i) = M (i; j). Given = ffj 2 ZC(k;N) :

j 2 C(k; N)g, the matrix with columns fj is de…ned to be M 2 MZ (k; !)

such that M (i; j) = fj (i) = M (j)(i), i, j 2 C(k; N). A column operation on

M 2 MZ (k; !) is an operation of the following type:

of M by 1 to obtain M 0 2 MZ (k; !) satisfying M 0 (i; j) = M (i; j) for j 6= l and

M 0 (i; l) = M (i; l) = M (l)(i).

and l2 of M to obtain M 0 2 MZ (k; !) satisfying M 0 (i; j) = M (i; j) for j 6= l1

and l2 and M 0 (i; l1 ) = M (i; l2 ), M 0 (i; l2 ) = M (i; l1 ).

for example, for any integer n, add n times column l1 of M to column l2 of M

to obtain M 0 2 MZ (k; !) satisfying M 0 (i; j) = M (i; j) for j 6= l2 , and M 0 (i; l2 ) =

nM (i; l1 ) + M (i; l2 ) = nM (l1 )(i) + M (l2 )(i). Subtraction is accomplished with

n.

satisfying F G = I = GF . It clear that such a G is a unique two-sided inverse, so

that F 1 = G is well de…ned [C50, pp 21-25]. The set of invertible matrices in

FMZ (k; !) is denoted GLZ (k; !) and forms a group under matrix multiplication.

through one of the column operations described in (a), (b) or (c) above, then F 0

= F E where E is obtained by performing the same operation on I. E is both

row- and column-…nite and invertible.

3

Proof. Case (c) above; the others are far simpler. Suppose that for the

integer n, n times column l1 of F has been added to column l2 of F to obtain

F 0 2 FMZ (k; !) satisfying F 0 (i; j) = F (i; j) for j 6= l2 and F 0 (i; l2 ) = nF (i; l1 )

+ F (i; l2 ) = nF (l1 )(i) + F (l2 )(i). Let E(i; j) = I(i; j) for

Pj 6= l2 and E(i; l2 ) =

nI(i; l1 ) + I(i; l2 ) = n (i; l1 ) + (i; l2 ). Then F E(i; j) = l2C(k;N) F (i; l)E(l; j)

P

= ( l2C(k;N);l6=l2 F (i; l)E(l; j)) + F (i; l2 )E(l2 ; j). When j 6= l2 , this expression

becomes

0 1 0 1

X X

@ F (i; l) (l; j)A + F (i; l2 ) (l2 ; j) = @ F (i; l) (l; j)A + 0

l2C(k;N);l6=l2 l2C(k;N);l6=l2

When j = l2 , the

0 expression becomes 1

X

@ F (i; l)E(l; l2 )A + F (i; l2 )E(l2 ; l2 ) =

l2C(k;N);l6=l2

0 1

X

@ F (i; l)[n (l; l1 ) + (l; l2 )]A + F (i; l2 )[n (l2 ; l1 ) + (l2 ; l2 )] =

l2C(k;N);l6=l2

It is clear that the inverse of E is the matrix which subtracts n times column

l1 of E from column l2 of E. E and its inverse obviously are row- and column-

…nite.

through a …nite sequence of operations described in (a), (b) or (c) above, then

F 0 = F E where E is obtained by performing the same sequence of operations

on I. E is both row- and column-…nite and invertible.

P of F and f ,

denoted simply F f , is de…ned as F f : C(k; N) ! Z, F f (i) = l2C(k;N) F (i; l)f (l).

Each such F induces an endomorphism of ZC(k;N) . A product in ZC(k;N) ,

Q

m2C(k;N) hum i, is simply the image of such an endomorphism where the matrix

F is constructed with columns um , m 2 C(k; N).

Background material may be found in [BI01, BI96(1) & (2)] and the references

cited therein. For f 6= g 2 ZC(k;N) , the distance between them, d(f; g), is de…ned

to be 2 n , where n is the least positive integer for which there is an x 2 C(k; n)

with f (x) 6= g(x). d(f; f ) = 0, of course. It is easy to check that d is a metric

on ZC(k;N) , which comports with the product topology on ZC(k;N) , when Z is

discrete.

4

ZC(k;N) is a separable metric space having as a countable dense subset those

functions f which are 0 outside some C(k; nf ), nf 2 N+ . This countable

dense subset also is a free subgroup, which is denoted by (k); (1) =

P, the sequences of integers which are 0 after a while. (k) has a standard

basis, fej (i) = (i; j) : i, j 2C(k; N)g, which also the standard product basis for

ZC(k;N) . Finally, ZC(k;N) is a complete metric space in which Cauchy sequences

eventually become constant pointwise.

The important aspects of this topology are that all endomorphisms of ZC(k;N)

are continuous and are determined by their values on (k) and hence by their

values on the standard basis. As a result, with each element f in the endo-

morphism ring of ZC(k;N) , End(ZC(k;N) ), is associated a unique element Mf 2

MZ (k; !), given by Mf (i; j) = [f (ej )](i), i, j 2 C(k; N). Recall that each F 2

FMZ (k; !) acts on ZC(k;N) to produce an endomorphism of ZC(k;N) ,

P

(F g)(i) = l2C(k;N) F (i; l)g(l) for g 2 ZC(k;N) .

P

(F g)(i) = l2C(k;ni ) F (i; l)g(l) where ni 2 N+ .

ZC(k;N) takes this form.

all stem from T MZ (k; !) and its product bases from GLZ (k; !). Of particular

interest is the fact that every endomorphism of P is nothing more than multi-

plication by a row-…nite matrix, and every product basis of P is produced by

an integrally invertible matrix.

of a k-dimensional row-…nite in…nite integral matrix.

= [f (ej )](i), i, j 2 C(k; N). Suppose that Mf is not row-…nite; i.e., suppose there

are i and distinct ji 2 C(k; N) such that Mf (i; ji ) 6= 0, i 2 N. De…ne g 2 ZC(k;N)

by g(m) = Mf (i; ji ) if m = ji , i 2 N, and g(m) = 0 otherwise, for all m 2

C(k; N). Further, for n 2 N+ , de…ne gn (m) = g(m) for m 2 C(k; n) and gn (m)

= 0 for m 2 C(k; N)nC(k; n). By P design, gn convergesPto g, so that f (gn )

must converge to f (g). Now gn = l2C(k;n) gn (l)el = ji 2C(k;n) gn (ji )eji =

P P

ji 2C(k;n) Mf (i; ji )eji so that f (gn ) = ji 2C(k;n) Mf (i; ji )f (eji ) and

X

[f (gn )](i) = Mf (i; ji )[f (eji )](i) =

ji 2C(k;n)

5

X X

Mf (i; ji )Mf (i; ji ) = Mf (i; ji )2 :

ji 2C(k;n) ji 2C(k;n)

P

Now [f (g)](i) = limn!1 [f (gn )](i) = limn!1 ji 2C(k;n) Mf (i; ji )2 . Since

[f (g)](i) 2 Z, it is not possible that an in…nite number of the Mf (i; ji ) are

nonzero; i.e., Mf must be row-…nite.

Pcheck agreement on

the standard basis of (k). For i, j 2 C(k; N), (Mf ej )(i) = l2C(k;N) Mf (i; l)ej (l)

P

= l2C(k;N) [f (el )](i) (j; l) = [f (ej )](i).

isomorphic to the ring of k-dimensional row-…nite in…nite integral matrices,

FMZ (k; !).

(ii) The automorphism group of ZC(k;N) , Aut(ZC(k;N) ), is isomorphic to

GLZ (k; !), the multiplicative group of invertible matrices in FMZ (k; !).

FMZ (k; !), which maps Aut(ZC(k;N) ) isomorphically onto GLZ (k; !). The row-

…niteness of the elements of FMZ (k; !) ensures that all sums are …nite and that

matrix multiplication is associative.

of GLZ (k; !) and the product bases of ZC(k;N) .

Proof. Let fum : m 2 C(k; N)g be a product basis for ZC(k;N) , and let

C(k;N)

A

P 2 Aut(Z ) be de…ned by [A(f )](m) = am for f 2 ZC(k;N) , when f =

m2C(k;N) am um , am 2 Z. The uniqueness of expression of the elements of

C(k;N)

Z in terms of the product basis guarantees that A is an automorphism.

By Corollary 3.2(ii), A corresponds to a unique element of GLZ (k; !). The

converse is clear.

C(k;N)

Q Corollary 3.4. If U is a subgroup of Z with product basis U =

m2C(k;N) hu m i and = fu m : m 2 C(k; N)g, then the matrix with columns

C(k;N)

um , M , is row-…nite and U = M Z .

Proof.

P The mapping : ZC(k;N) ! U ZC(k;N) de…ned for f 2 ZC(k;N) by

C(k;N)

f !

7 m2C(k;N) f (m)um is an endomorphism of Z , so according to The-

orem 3.1, it is induced by a row-…nite matrix M satisfyingP M (i; j) = [ (ej )](i)

for all i, j 2 C(k; N), and M ZC(k;N) = U . Now (ej ) = m2C(k;N) ej (m)um

= uj , so that [ (ej )](i) = uj (i) = M (i; j) for all i, j 2 C(k; N), demonstrating

that M = M .

6

4. All Products In ZC(k;N)

Are Generated By Lower-Triangular Matrices

the Baer-Specker group P. Further, FMZ (1; !) reduces to the familiar ring of

2-dimensional row-…nite in…nite integral matrices. With this understanding, a

product in P is just a product in the sense of Fuchs [F73, p 164].

the columns of which form a basis of the product.

Proof. Let F 2 FMZ (1; !). The proof proceeds by transforming F via

column operations into a lower-triangular matrix T satisfying T P = F P. Since

F = 0 is trivial, assume F 6= 0. Let y 2 F P, 0 6= y = (y(0); y(1); :::)t , where t

denotes transpose, and suppose y = F x for x = (x(0); x(1); :::)t 2 P.

x and proceed to the next step. Otherwise, perform column operations on the

nonzero elements of row 0 of F to produce a new matrix F1 in which F1 (0; j) =

0 for all j > 0. This is tantamount to …nding the gcd of the elements in row 0,

columns j 0 of F . Perform the same column operations on I to produce I1 ,

so that F1 = F I1 with I1 an invertible row- and column-…nite matrix. Since F

= F1 I1 1 , y = F x = F1 (I1 1 x). Set x1 = (x1 (0); x1 (1); :::)t = I1 1 x so that y =

F1 x1 .

proceed. Otherwise perform column operations on the nonzero elements of row

1 in columns j 1 of F1 to produce a new matrix F2 in which F2 (1; j) = 0 for

all j > 1. As before, this is tantamount to …nding the gcd of the elements in

row 1, columns j 1 of F1 . F2 (i; 0) = F1 (i; 0) for all i; i.e., column 0 of F2 is

the same as column 0 of F1 .

F1 I2 with I2 an invertible row- and column-…nite matrix. Note that since no

operation was performed on column 0 of F1 , none was performed on column 0

of I. Moreover rows 0 of F1 and I remained unchanged (because of 0 entries),

so that I2 (0; 0) = 1 and the rest of the row 0 and column 0 entries of I2 are 0.

Thus the same is true of I2 1 . Since F = F2 I2 1 I1 1 , y = F x = F2 I2 1 (I1 1 x0 ) =

F2 (I2 1 x1 ). Set x2 = I2 1 x1 so that y = F2 x2 . Because row 0 of I2 1 is 1; 0; : : :,

it follows that x2 (0) = x1 (0).

invertible row- and column-…nite matrices I1 , . . . , In and x1 , . . . , xn 2 P have

been obtained, such that

7

(a) Fn (i; j) = 0 for all j > i, 0 i n 1; i.e., the matrices Fn are

becoming increasingly lower-triangular.

(b) Fn (j) = Fn 1 (j) for 0 j < n 1; i.e., after the nth iteration, rows

and columns < n do not change.

(c) Fn = Fn 1 In = F I1 In .

(d) In (i; j) = (i; j) = In 1 (i; j), 0 i < n 1, j 2 N; and 0 j < n 1,

i 2 N; i.e., the In ’s and their inverses are becoming increasingly diagonal with

1’s down the diagonal, tending toward the identity matrix.

(e) xn = In 1 xn 1 , y = Fn xn ; i.e., y is always in the image of Fn .

(f) xn (i) = xn 1 (i), 0 i < n 1; i.e., after the nth iteration, the row

elements < n of the xn ’s do not change.

xn . Otherwise, perform column operations on the nonzero elements of the nth

row in columns j n of Fn to produce a new matrix Fn+1 in which Fn+1 (n; j)

= 0 for all j > n. Because no operations are performed on columns 0-(n-1),

Fn+1 (i; j) = Fn (i; j), i 2 N, j = 0, . . . , n 1; i.e., columns 0-(n-1) of Fn+1 are

the same as columns 0-(n-1) of Fn .

Fn In+1 with In+1 an invertible row- and column-…nite matrix. Note that since

no operation was performed on columns 0-(n-1) of Fn , none was performed

on columns 0-(n-1) of I. Moreover, rows 0-(n-1) of Fn were not changed (be-

1

cause of 0’s), and the same is true of I and In+1 . (i) As a result, In+1 (i; j)

1

= (i; j) = In+1 (i; j), i < n, j 2 N, and j < n, i 2 N. Since Fn+1 =

1

Fn In+1 = (F I1 In )In+1 , F = Fn+1 In+1 I1 1 , y = F x = Fn+1 In+11

I1 1 x

1 1

= Fn+1 (In+1 xn ). (ii) Set xn+1 = In+1 xn so that y = Fn+1 xn+1 . (i) and (ii)

imply that xn+1 (i) = xn (i), i = 0, . . . , n 1.

metric space. Since all endomorphisms of P are continuous, the sequence Fn (xj )

converges to Fn (x0 ) for each n. Because of (b) and (f), the convergence is

uniform. The Cauchy sequence of matrices Fn thus obtained converges to a

lower-triangular matrix T and T x0 = y so that T P F P. From (b) it follows

that T P F P and so T P = F P.

It may, of course, happen that some of the diagonal terms of T are 0 so that

the …rst nonzero entry in a column may be below the diagonal. Should that

occur, the …rst nonzero entry in the next column will be in a lower row. If T

has only …nitely many nonzero columns, the result is elementary. If all columns

of T are nonzero, it is clear that an in…nite linear combination of its columns

can be 0 only if all coe¢ cients are 0, so that the columns of T form a product

basis.

classi…ed as epic or monic if the endomorphism which it induces is epic or monic,

8

respectively. (1) If F 2 FMZ (1; !) has a 0 row m, it cannot be epic because

em cannot be reached. If it has a 0 column n, it cannot be monic because en is in

the kernel. Here E = fei : i 2 Ng denote the usual basis of P; E is also the

standard product basis of P. (2) Similarly, if a row (column) of F is a multiple

of another row (column), then F cannot be epic (monic). (3) T 2 T MZ (1; !)

is invertible (2-sided) over the rationals if and only if each diagonal entry is

nonzero [C50, pp 19-20 ]. T is integrally invertible if and only if each diagonal

entry = 1.

1.

Conversely let y = (y(0); y(1); :::)t be a nonzero element of P, where t denotes

transpose. To solve T x = T (x(0); x(1); :::)t = y, induct on n. Let Tn = (T [i; j]),

i, j = 0, 1, . . . , n. If n = 0 and T (0; 0) 6= 1, then T (0; 0)x(0) = y(0) is not

solvable in general. If T (0; 0) = 1, then x(0) is uniquely determined. Suppose

that the diagonals T (m; m) = 1 for m = 0, 1, . . . , n, and suppose further

that Tn (x(0); :::; x(n))t = (y(0); :::; y(n))t is uniquely solvable, (x(0); :::; x(n))t

Tn 0

= Tn 1 (y(0); :::; y(n))t . Express Tn+1 = so

T (n + 1; 0)::: T (n + 1; n + 1)

Tn (x(0); :::; x(n))t

that Tn+1 (x(0); :::; x(n); x(n + 1))t = Pj=n+1 , with some

j=0 T (n + 1; j)x(j)

abuse of notation for the sake of simplicity. Now by the induction hypothe-

sis, (x(0); :::; x(n))t = Tn 1 (y(0); :::; y(n))t uniquely. Thus the only solution to

Pj=n+1

j=0 T (n + 1; j)x(j) = y(n + 1) must come from T (n + 1; n + 1)x(n + 1) =

Pj=n

y(n + 1) – j=0 T (n + 1; j)x(j), which is impossible in general unless T (n +

1; n + 1) = 1.

acterized as follows:

(1) T is epic.

(2) T (i; i) = 1 for all i 2 N.

(3) T 2 GLZ (1; !).

that there exists F0 2 FMZ (k; !) satisfying F0 [(i; i); (j; j)] = 0 for all i; j 2

C(k 1; N); i < j 2 N, and F0 ZC(k;N) = F ZC(k;N) .

Fij (i; j) = F [(i; i); (j; j)]. As in the proof of Lemma 4.1, there exists Tij 2

9

T MZ (1; !), obtained by performing column operations on the 2-dimensional

matrix Fij , which satis…es Tij P = Fij P. For i; j 2 C(k 1; N) and i; j 2 N,

de…ne F0 [(i; i); (j; j)] = Tij (i; j). Since each Tij is lower-triangular, it is clear

that F0 [(i; i); (j; j)] = 0 for all i < j.

To see that F0 is row-…nite, …x (i; i). Tij (i; j) = 0 for all j > i; i.e., Tij (i; j) 6=

0 for only …nitely many j, namely j = 0; : : : ; i. For each such j, there are only

…nitely many j where F [(i; i); (j; j)] 6= 0. Thus, since the entries of each Tij

were obtained from those of F , for each (i; i), only …nitely many Tij (i; j) 6= 0,

so F0 2 FMZ (k; !).

C(k;N)

Finally, to see that F0 ZP = F ZC(k;N) , let f 2 C(k;N)

PZ P . For i 2 C(k 1; N)

and i 2 N, (F f )(i; i) = F [(i; i); j]f (j) = F [(i; i); (j; j)]f (j; j)

j2C(k;N) j2C(k 1;N)j2N

P P

= Fij (i; j)yj (j), with yj 2 P de…ned by yj (j) = f (j; j) for j 2 C(k

j2C(k 1;N)j2N

1; N) and j 2 N. Since Tij P = Fij P, there exists P xj 2 P satisfying P Tij xj = Fij yj

or, for i 2 N, (Tij xj )(i) = (Fij yj )(i); i.e., Tij (i; j)xj (j) = Fij (i; j)yj (j),

P P j2N P Pj2N

so that (F f )(i; i) = Fij (i; j)yj (j) = Tij (i; j)xj (j) =

j2C(k 1;N)j2N j2C(k 1;N)j2N

P P

F0 [(i; i); (j; j)]xj (j) =

j2C(k 1;N)j2N

P P

F0 [(i; i); (j; j)]g(j; j) = (F0 g)(i; i) when g 2 ZC(k;N) is de…ned as

j2C(k 1;N)j2N

g(j; j) = xj (j) for j 2 C(k 1; N) and j 2 N.

In the Proof of Lemma 4.5, notation has been abused for the sake of sim-

plicity, but attention to each index set should clear up any confusion.

matrix, the columns of which form a basis of the product.

result holds for some k. Let F 2 FMZ (k + 1; !) so that F ZC(k+1;N ) is a

product in ZC(k+1;N) . F = 0 is trivial so assume that F 6= 0. Per Lemma

4.5, triangularize F ; i.e., …nd F0 2 FMZ (k + 1; !) such that F0 [(i; i); (j; j)] =

0 for all i, j 2 C(k; N), i < j 2 N, and such that F0 ZC(k+1;N) = F ZC(k+1;N) .

When i = 0, by the induction hypothesis, there exists T00 2 T MZ (k; !) such

that T00 ZC(k;N) = F0 [(i; 0); (j; 0)]ZC(k;N) , where by F0 [(i; 0); (j; 0)] is meant the

matrix G0 2 FMZ (k; !), de…ned as G0 (i; j) = F0 [(i; 0); (j; 0)] and similarly

below; again notation is abused for the sake of simplicity. De…ne F1 2 FMZ (k+

1; !) as follows:

For all i; j 2 C(k; N) and i; j 2 N;

T00 (i; j) if i = 0 = j

F1 [(i; i); (j; j)] =

F0 [(i; i); (j; j)] otherwise

10

Observe that F1 [(i; 0); (j; 0)] = 0 unless i j, and that F1 ZC(k+1;N) = F0 ZC(k+1;N)

= F ZC(k+1;N) .

When i = 1, by the induction hypothesis, there exist T10 and T11 2 T MZ (k; !)

such that

T10 ZC(k;N) = F1 [(i; 1); (j; 0)]ZC(k;N) and T11 ZC(k;N) = F1 [(i; 1); (j; 1)]ZC(k;N) .

8

< T10 (i; j) if i = 1 and j = 0

F2 [(i; i); (j; j)] = T11 (i; j) if i = 1 and j = 1

:

F1 [(i; i); (j; j)] otherwise

Observe that 0 = F2 [(i; 0); (j; 0)] = F2 [(i; 1); (j; 0)] = F2 [(i; 1); (j; 1)] unless i j,

and that F2 ZC(k+1;N) = F1 ZC(k+1;N) = F0 ZC(k+1;N) = F ZC(k+1;N) .

with these properties: For i, j 2 C(k; N) and i, j 2 N,

(b) Fn [(i; i); (j; j)] = 0 unless (i; i) (j; j) for i, j n; and

(c) Fn ZC(k+1;N) = F ZC(k+1;N) .

with T 2 T MZ (k + 1; !).

(1) These are equivalent: (i) T is epic; (ii) T (i; i) = 1 for all i 2

C(k; N); (iii) T 2 GLZ (k; !).

(2) T is monic if and only if T (i; i) 6= 0 for all i 2 C(k; N).

11

5. In…nite Matrix Examples And Counterexamples

The next examples and counterexamples illustrate results from Section 4 and

further illustrate some of the pitfalls and limitations of working with in…nite

matrices. They are not new but continue to be discussed in various contexts.

[BM05, sec 2]; [CC-CS01, p 437]; [BI96(1), pp 189-191].

Ng denotes the usual basis of P; E is also the standard product basis of

P. The same symbol E is used for the matrix with the ej as columns, i.e., the

identity matrix. The same liberty is taken with other bases and their matrices.

having matrix

0 1

1 1 1 1 :::

B0 1 1 1 ::: C

B C

B ::: C

E 1 = B0 0 1 1 C

B0 0 0 1 ::: C

@ A

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

matrix

0 1

1 1 0 0 :::

B0 1 1 0 ::: C

B C

B ::: C

E 2 = B0 0 1 1 C

B0 0 0 1 ::: C

@ A

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

Example 5.3. Let 1 2 P denote the column vector having all entries =

1 and let E3 = fe0 + e2 + : : :+ ei 1 –1 : i 2 N+ g. Note that E3 is not a basis

of ; indeed, no element is even contained in . The accompanying matrix is

12

0 1

0 0 0 0 :::

B 1 0 0 0 ::: C

B C

B 1 1 0 0 ::: C

E3 = B C

B 1 1 1 0 ::: C

@ A

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

E1 E2 = E = E2 E1 E 2 E3 = E

Observe that although both E2 and E3 are row-…nite and even pure independent,

E2 is not monic (1 is in the kernel), and E3 is not epic (e0 is not attained). In

particular, (E1 E2 )1 = E1 = 1, but E1 (E2 1) = E1 (0) = 0, so that multiplication

is not associative. Despite the fact that E2 P = P, E2 nevertheless cannot serve

as a product basis for P. The problem, of course, is that E2 is not invertible

in FMZ (k; !). Restriction to multiplicatively associative matrix rings helps

eliminate much of this in…nite matrix pathology [C50, pp 19-22].

In the proof of Lemma 4.1, although the columns of the resulting lower-

triangular matrix T obviously are independent, T nevertheless may be singular,

as illustrated by E3 above. Moreover, it may not be the case that that the

products I1 In in that proof will converge to a row-…nite matrix, as further

illustrated by E2 . Even though E2 itself is not monic, the resulting lower-

triangular matrix E, which results from column operations on E2 , is monic.

fxnP: n 2 Ng P, with no condition other than that all sums of the form x

1

= n=0 sn xn be well de…ned. This, of course, means that the in…nite matrix

with columns xn must be row-…nite. Lemma 95.1 in [F73] then was stated as

follows:

n 2 P and integers

1 1

kn (n 2 N) such that P = n=0 han i and X = n=0 hkn an i where

( ) kn j kn+i if kn 6= 0 for all n, i 0.

The goal was to establish a product analog of the well known result for stacked

bases of free groups of …nite rank [F70, Lemma 15.4]. However, a counterexam-

ple has been produced [G81].

found in [CG70], which does not require divisibility as in ( ). From Lemma

13

4.1, there would be no loss of generality in assuming that the xn 2 P form a

lower-triangular matrix.

Q1

PLemma 695.1. Let n=0 hxn i be a product of in…nite rank in P, let S

1

= n=0 hxn i , and let S be the pure

Q1subgroup which the xn generate. Then

there existQa product basisQof P = n=0 han i and positive integers kn (n 2 N)

1 1

such that n=0 hkn an i = n=0 hxn i if and only if there exist stacked bases of

S and S such that the matrix F formed by the basisQof S is invertible and

1

the matrix F formed by the basis of S satis…es F P = n=0 hxn i.

independent. If fkn : n 2 N)g are positive integers, then n=0 hkn an i is a

product in P and if S = 1 n=0 hkn an i, then S =

1

n=0 han i so that fkn an :

n 2 Ng and fan : n 2 Ng are stacked bases for the respective subgroups of P.

The matrix formed by the an ’s is in GLZ (1; !) by Corollary

Q1 3.4; the matrix F

formed by the xn =Qkn an certainly satis…es F P = n=0 hxn i.

1

Conversely, let n=0 hxn i be a product in P, let S be the subgroup of P

which the xn ’s generate, and let S be the pure subgroup which they generate.

Suppose there are stacked bases fkn an : kn , n 2 Ng of S and fan : n 2 Ng

of S ; because S =S is torsion, all kn ’s must be positive. Suppose further that

the matrix

Q1 formed by the an ’s is invertible; then the an ’s are a product basis of

P and n=0 hkn an i is Q a product in P. Finally, if the matrix F formed by the

1

kn an ’s satis…es F P = n=0 hxn i, the proof is concluded.

Q1

Remark 6.2. (1) If n=0 hxn i is a product in P and fan : n 2 Ng is

a basis of the subgroup generated by the xn ’s, the matrix formed by the an ’s

may not be row-…nite. See examples E and E1 in Section 5 above. (2) In

Section 5, although all positive multiples of the basis elements in example E2

will yield subgroups of P with stacked bases and even though E2 P = P, E2

cannot serve as a product basis for P. (3) As previously noted, the lower-

triangular matrix T , obtained from the column operations in Lemma 4.1, may

be singular. However, Nunke [BI96, p 199] has shown that every endomorphic

image of P is either free of …nite rank or isomorphic to P itself. In the latter

case, there then exists monic F 2 FMZ (k; !) satisfying F P = T P. Column

operations will, of course, reveal matrix rank, …nite or in…nite.

in…nite integral matrix, the rank of which determines whether the product is

free of …nite rank or isomorphic to P.

7. Obiter Dicta

14

Although the methods employed and results ontained in this paper and [CS07

& 08] could be extended to more complex structures, e.g., to …nite and countably

in…nite sequences of polynomials in a countably in…nite number of variables,

and to some larger cardinals/ordinals, e.g., along the lines of the earlier works

of Zeeman [F73, Corollary 94.6] (see also [F70, Theorem 43.2]) and the more

recent ones of Eda [E83(1) & E83(2)], the author does not envision that such

extensions will render results signi…cantly di¤erent from those already attained.

References

[B37] Baer, R., Abelian groups without elements of …nite order, Duke Math. J.

3 (1937) 68-122

[BI96(1)] Blass, A. & Irwin, J., On the group of eventually divisible integer

sequences. In: Abelian groups and modules, Arnold, D. M. & Rangaswamy, K.

M., eds., Lecture Notes in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Marcel Dekker, Inc.,

182 (1996) 181-192

[BI96(2)] Blass, A. & Irwin, J., Baer meets Baire: applications of category

arguments and descriptive set theory to Z@0 . In: Abelian groups and modules,

Arnold, D. M. & Rangaswamy, K. M., eds., Lecture Notes in Pure and Applied

Mathematics, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 182 (1996) 193-202

[BI01] Blass, A. & Irwin, J., Free subgroups of the Baer-Specker group, Comm.

Algebra 29(12) (2001) 5769-5794

systems of linear di¤erential equations, http://katmet.pb.bialystok.pl/mat.barz/

Infsys4.pdf (2005)

[C50] Cooke, R. G., In…nite Matrices and Sequence Spaces, McMillan, London

(1950)

of a ring and its ring of row and column …nite matrices, J. Algebra 244 (2001)

435-449

[CG70] Cohen, J. M. & Gluck, H., Stacked bases for modules over principal

ideal domains, J. Algebra 14 (1970) 493-505

[CS07] Cornelius, E. F., Jr. & Schultz, P., Polynomial points, J. Integer Se-

quences 10 (2007) Article 07.3.6

15

[CS08] Cornelius, E. F., Jr. & Schultz, P., Multinomial points, Houston J.

Math. 34(3) (2008) 661-676

[E83(1)] Eda, K., On a Boolean power of a torsion free abelian group, J. Algebra

82(1) (1983) 84-93

[E83(2)] Eda, K., Almost-slender groups and Fuchs-44 groups, Comment. Math.

Uni. St. Paui., 32(2) (1983) 131-135

[F70] Fuchs, L., I In…nite Abelian Groups, Academic Press, New York & London

(1970)

[F73] Fuchs, L., II In…nite Abelian Groups, Academic Press, New York &

London (1973)

[G81] Goldsmith, B., A note on products of in…nite cyclic groups, Rend. Semin.

Mat. Univ. Padova, 64 (1981) 243-246

[S50] Specker, E., Additive gruppen von folgen ganzer Zahlen, Portugaliae

Math. 9 (1950) 131-140

16

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