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“Product Bases and Endomorphisms of Products of Integers” (Product Bases) is the higher dimension version of the author’s paper, “Endomorphisms and Product Bases of the Baer-Specker Group” (Endomorphisms), which was published in the International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, Volume 2009, Article ID 396475, 9 pages. Endomorphisms also may be accessed at http://www.scribd.com/doc/20021257/Endomorphisms-and-Product-Bases-of-the-Baer-Specker-Group.
The first draft of Product Bases was produced in early 2007, and a draft was made available to participants in the 1st Joint Meeting of the American Mathematical Society and the New Zealand Mathematical Society, held December 12-15, 2007, at Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand, where the author spoke on “Module-Building with Polynomials and Power Series”. Product Bases is the paper mentioned in Endomorphisms under “Generalizations” on page 8 of the latter paper.

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You are on page 1of 16

OF PRODUCTS OF INTEGERS

Copyright c ( 2007-2009 All Rights Reserved

E. F. CORNELIUS, JR.

College of Engineering and Science, University of Detroit Mercy,

Detroit, MI, USA 48221-3038

Email: efcornelius@comcast.net, frankcornelius@alum.mit.edu

Abstract

Let C(/. N) denote the /-tuples of nonnegative integers N. The endomor-

phism ring of the group of all integer-valued functions on C(/. N) is isomorphic

to the ring of /-dimensional row-…nite in…nite matrices over the integers. The

product bases of that group are represented by the multiplicative group of in-

vertible elements in that matrix ring. In particular, all endomorphisms of the

Baer-Specker group are multiplication by row-…nite in…nite integral matrices.

All products in the Baer-Specker group are characterized, and a lemma of Lás-

zló Fuchs regarding such products is revisited.

1. Introduction

The integral root basis + = ¦j

n

(r) : : ÷ N¦ of the group of integral poly-

nomials Z[r] was introduced in [CS07] as j

0

(r) = 1, j

n+1

(r) = j

n

(r)(r ÷ :)

for : _ 0. In [CS08] this basis was extended to a basis of the group of inte-

gral polynomials in / variables, Z[A

k

], which then was used to construct the

group of formal power series with respect to the extended integral root basis,

Z[[A

k

]]

<

= ¦

P

m2C(k;N)

a

m

j

m

: a

m

÷ Z¦. The integral root basis has the

property that the valuation map · : Z[[A

k

]]

<

÷ Z

C(k;N)

de…ned by ·1(b) =

1(b), 1 ÷ Z[[A

k

]]

<

, b ÷ C(/. N), is a monomorphism, the image of which is the

group of multinomial points, '1(/. N) · Z

C(k;N)

.

A principal result of [CS08, Theorem 5.4] is that Z

C(k;N)

has a subset / =

¦c

m

: m÷ C(/. N)¦ and '1(/. N) has a subset ( = ¦

m

: m÷ C(/. N)¦ which

satisfy:

(1) For all a, m÷ C(/. N),

m

(a) = j

m

(a).

(2) Each 1 ÷ Z

C(k;N)

has a unique representation of the form 1 =

P

m2C(k;N)

/

m

c

m

: /

m

÷ Z.

(3) Each o ÷ '1(/. N) has a unique representation of the form o =

P

m2C(k;N)

c

m

m

: c

m

÷ Z.

1

(4) For all : ÷ C(/. N),

m

= j

m

c

m

where j

m

is a positive integer.

(5) Let m = (:

0

. . . . . :

k1

), n = (:

0

. . . . . :

k1

) ÷ C(/. N). If :

i

_ :

i

for 0 _ i _ / ÷1, then from (4), j

m

[ j

n

.

The structure of Z

C(k;N)

´'1(/. N) also was described in [CS08, Theorem 5.4]

and a test for inclusion in '1(/. N) was formulated in [CS08, Theorem 5.7].

From such observations evolved the de…nition of a product basis. Let l =

¦n

m

: m÷ C(/. N)¦ be a subset of Z

C(k;N)

. If each expression

P

m2C(k;N)

/

m

n

m

,

/

m

÷ Z, represents an element of Z

C(k;N)

, the set of all such elements forms a

subgroup of Z

C(k;N)

, denoted

Q

m2C(k;N)

'n

m

`, which is called a product in

Z

C(k;N)

. If the representations

P

m2C(k;N)

/

m

n

m

, /

m

÷ Z, are unique, then l is

said to be a product basis of

Q

m2C(k;N)

'n

m

`. The principal objective of this

paper is to characterize products and product bases in term of endomorphisms

of Z

C(k;N)

.

Abelian group notation and terminology are standard [F70 & 73]. N denotes

the nonnegative integers and C(/. N) the /-tuples of nonnegative integers for the

positive integer /. Elements of C(/. N) are denoted by bold lower-case letters,

m, n, etc. C(/. :) · C(/. N) denotes all /-tuples with entries < :, : ÷ N

+

,

the positive integers. Z denotes the ring of integers. The group of all functions

from C(/. N) to Z is denoted Z

C(k;N)

. Although Z

C(k;N)

is in fact a ring under

pointwise multiplication, that fact is merely noted here.

Let P = Z

C(1;N)

= Z

N

=

Q

N

Z, the group of all integer sequences, known as

the Baer-Specker group [B37, S50]. Although it is true that Z

C(k;N) ~

= P

k ~

= P,

there is a de…nite di¤erence when attempting to …t polynomials. For exam-

ple, no permutation of the sequence (1. 0. 0. 0) can be generated by an integral

polynomial in one variable, because in any such permutation (a

0

. a

1

. a

2

. a

3

), the

expression a

0

´6 ÷ a

1

´2 + a

2

´2 ÷ a

3

´6 can never be an integer, a prerequisite

for such generation. However, all arrangements of (1. 0. 0. 0) indexed by the ele-

ments of C(2. 2) can be generated by integral polynomials in 2 variables. [CS08,

Section 2]. Groups are studied from the perspective of Z

C(k;N)

for that reason,

so that this paper is a continuation of [CS08].

2. k-Dimensional In…nite Integral Matrices And Their Operations

A /-dimensional in…nite integral matrix is a function ' : C(/. N)C(/. N) ÷

Z, the value of which at (i. j) ÷ C(/. N) C(/. N) is written as '(i. j). The

group of all /-dimensional in…nite integral matrices is denoted ´

Z

(/. .), with

addition being de…ned pointwise.

1 ÷ ´

Z

(/. .) is said to be row-…nite if, for each i, 1(i. j) = 0 for all but

…nitely many j; i.e., if for each i, there exists l

i

such that 1(i. j) = 0 unless j _ l

i

2

(at each of the / coordinates). A column-…nite matrix is de…ned analogously.

The group of all row-…nite matrices in ´

Z

(/. .) is denoted T´

Z

(/. .). T ÷

´

Z

(/. .) is said to be lower-triangular if T(i. j) = 0 unless i _ j. The group

of all lower-triangular matrices in ´

Z

(/. .) is denoted T ´

Z

(/. .). Clearly

T ´

Z

(/. .) · T´

Z

(/. .).

For 1 ÷ T´

Z

(/. .) and G ÷ ´

Z

(/. .), the product of 1 and G, denoted

1G ÷ ´

Z

(/. .), is de…ned as

1G(i. j) =

P

l2C(k;N)

1(i. l)G(l. j)

Under multiplication thus de…ned, T´

Z

(/. .) and T ´

Z

(/. .) are unital rings

with identity 1(i. j) = c(i. j), the Kronecker delta.

The j

th

column of ' ÷ ´

Z

(/. .) (or column j of '), denoted '(j), is the

function C(/. N) ÷ Z de…ned by '(j)(i) = '(i. j). Given i = ¦1

j

÷ Z

C(k;N)

:

j ÷ C(/. N)¦, the matrix with columns 1

j

is de…ned to be '

÷ ´

Z

(/. .)

such that '

(i. j) = 1

j

(i) = '

(j)(i), i, j ÷ C(/. N). A column operation on

' ÷ ´

Z

(/. .) is an operation of the following type:

(a) Multiply a column of ' by ÷1; for example, multiply the l

th

column

of ' by ÷1 to obtain '

0

÷ ´

Z

(/. .) satisfying '

0

(i. j) = '(i. j) for j = l and

'

0

(i. l) = ÷'(i. l) = ÷'(l)(i).

(b) Interchange two columns of '; for example, interchange columns l

1

and l

2

of ' to obtain '

0

÷ ´

Z

(/. .) satisfying '

0

(i. j) = '(i. j) for j = l

1

and l

2

and '

0

(i. l

1

) = '(i. l

2

), '

0

(i. l

2

) = '(i. l

1

).

(c) Add an integral multiple of one column of ' to another column of ';

for example, for any integer :, add : times column l

1

of ' to column l

2

of '

to obtain '

0

÷ ´

Z

(/. .) satisfying '

0

(i. j) = '(i. j) for j = l

2

, and '

0

(i. l

2

) =

:'(i. l

1

) + '(i. l

2

) = :'(l

1

)(i) + '(l

2

)(i). Subtraction is accomplished with

÷:.

1 ÷ T´

Z

(/. .) is said to be invertible if there exists G ÷ T´

Z

(/. .)

satisfying 1G = 1 = G1. It clear that such a G is a unique two-sided inverse, so

that 1

1

= G is well de…ned [C50, pp 21-25]. The set of invertible matrices in

T´

Z

(/. .) is denoted (L

Z

(/. .) and forms a group under matrix multiplication.

Proposition 2.1. If 1

0

÷ T´

Z

(/. .) is obtained from 1 ÷ T´

Z

(/. .)

through one of the column operations described in (a), (b) or (c) above, then 1

0

= 11 where 1 is obtained by performing the same operation on 1. 1 is both

row- and column-…nite and invertible.

3

Proof. Case (c) above; the others are far simpler. Suppose that for the

integer :, : times column l

1

of 1 has been added to column l

2

of 1 to obtain

1

0

÷ T´

Z

(/. .) satisfying 1

0

(i. j) = 1(i. j) for j = l

2

and 1

0

(i. l

2

) = :1(i. l

1

)

+ 1(i. l

2

) = :1(l

1

)(i) + 1(l

2

)(i). Let 1(i. j) = 1(i. j) for j = l

2

and 1(i. l

2

) =

:1(i. l

1

) + 1(i. l

2

) = :c(i. l

1

) + c(i. l

2

). Then 11(i. j) =

P

l2C(k;N)

1(i. l)1(l. j)

= (

P

l2C(k;N);l6=l

2

1(i. l)1(l. j)) + 1(i. l

2

)1(l

2

. j). When j = l

2

, this expression

becomes

0

@

X

l2C(k;N);l6=l

2

1(i. l)c(l. j)

1

A

+ 1(i. l

2

)c(l

2

. j) =

0

@

X

l2C(k;N);l6=l

2

1(i. l)c(l. j)

1

A

+ 0

= 1(i. j)c(j. j) = 1(i. j) = 1

0

(i. j).

When j = l

2

, the expression becomes

0

@

X

l2C(k;N);l6=l

2

1(i. l)1(l. l

2

)

1

A

+ 1(i. l

2

)1(l

2

. l

2

) =

0

@

X

l2C(k;N);l6=l

2

1(i. l)[:c(l. l

1

) + c(l. l

2

)]

1

A

+ 1(i. l

2

)[:c(l

2

. l

1

) + c(l

2

. l

2

)] =

1(i. l

1

):c(l

1

. l

1

)+ 1(i. l

2

) = :1(i. l

1

) + 1(i. l

2

) = 1

0

(i. l

2

).

It is clear that the inverse of 1 is the matrix which subtracts : times column

l

1

of 1 from column l

2

of 1. 1 and its inverse obviously are row- and column-

…nite.

The corollary is immediate:

Corollary 2.2. If 1

0

÷ T´

Z

(/. .) is obtained from 1 ÷ T´

Z

(/. .)

through a …nite sequence of operations described in (a), (b) or (c) above, then

1

0

= 11 where 1 is obtained by performing the same sequence of operations

on 1. 1 is both row- and column-…nite and invertible.

For 1 ÷ T´

Z

(/. .) and 1 ÷ Z

C(k;N)

, the matrix-vector product of 1 and 1,

denoted simply 11, is de…ned as 11 : C(/. N) ÷Z, 11(i) =

P

l2C(k;N)

1(i. l)1(l).

Each such 1 induces an endomorphism of Z

C(k;N)

. A product in Z

C(k;N)

,

Q

m2C(k;N)

'n

m

`, is simply the image of such an endomorphism where the matrix

1 is constructed with columns n

m

, m÷ C(/. N).

Some of the results below can be proved through topological techniques.

Background material may be found in [BI01, BI96(1) & (2)] and the references

cited therein. For 1 = o ÷ Z

C(k;N)

, the distance between them, d(1. o), is de…ned

to be 2

n

, where : is the least positive integer for which there is an x ÷ C(/. :)

with 1(x) = o(x). d(1. 1) = 0, of course. It is easy to check that d is a metric

on Z

C(k;N)

, which comports with the product topology on Z

C(k;N)

, when Z is

discrete.

4

Z

C(k;N)

is a separable metric space having as a countable dense subset those

functions 1 which are 0 outside some C(/. :

f

), :

f

÷ N

+

. This countable

dense subset also is a free subgroup, which is denoted by (/); (1) = ·

P, the sequences of integers which are 0 after a while. (/) has a standard

basis, ¦c

j

(i) = c(i. j) : i, j ÷C(/. N)¦, which also the standard product basis for

Z

C(k;N)

. Finally, Z

C(k;N)

is a complete metric space in which Cauchy sequences

eventually become constant pointwise.

The important aspects of this topology are that all endomorphisms of Z

C(k;N)

are continuous and are determined by their values on (/) and hence by their

values on the standard basis. As a result, with each element 1 in the endo-

morphism ring of Z

C(k;N)

, 1:d(Z

C(k;N)

), is associated a unique element '

f

÷

´

Z

(/. .), given by '

f

(i. j) = [1(c

j

)](i), i, j ÷ C(/. N). Recall that each 1 ÷

T´

Z

(/. .) acts on Z

C(k;N)

to produce an endomorphism of Z

C(k;N)

,

(1o)(i) =

P

l2C(k;N)

1(i. l)o(l) for o ÷ Z

C(k;N)

.

Because 1 is row-…nite, the sum reduces to

(1o)(i) =

P

l2C(k;n

i

)

1(i. l)o(l) where :

i

÷ N

+

.

The immediate goal is to prove the converse—that every endomorphism of

Z

C(k;N)

takes this form.

3. Product Bases And Endomorphisms

Analyses of the endomorphisms of Z

C(k;N)

demonstrate that its products

all stem from T ´

Z

(/. .) and its product bases from (L

Z

(/. .). Of particular

interest is the fact that every endomorphism of P is nothing more than multi-

plication by a row-…nite matrix, and every product basis of P is produced by

an integrally invertible matrix.

Theorem 3.1. Every endomorphism of Z

C(k;N)

is induced by the action

of a /-dimensional row-…nite in…nite integral matrix.

Proof. Let 1 ÷ 1:d(Z

C(k;N)

), and let '

f

÷ ´

Z

(/. .) be de…ned by '

f

(i. j)

= [1(c

j

)](i), i, j ÷ C(/. N). Suppose that '

f

is not row-…nite; i.e., suppose there

are i and distinct j

i

÷ C(/. N) such that '

f

(i. j

i

) = 0, i ÷ N. De…ne o ÷ Z

C(k;N)

by o(m) = '

f

(i. j

i

) if m = j

i

, i ÷ N, and o(m) = 0 otherwise, for all m÷

C(/. N). Further, for : ÷ N

+

, de…ne o

n

(m) = o(m) for m÷ C(/. :) and o

n

(m)

= 0 for m ÷ C(/. N)`C(/. :). By design, o

n

converges to o, so that 1(o

n

)

must converge to 1(o). Now o

n

=

P

l2C(k;n)

o

n

(l)c

l

=

P

ji2C(k;n)

o

n

(j

i

)c

ji

=

P

ji2C(k;n)

'

f

(i. j

i

)c

ji

so that 1(o

n

) =

P

ji2C(k;n)

'

f

(i. j

i

)1(c

ji

) and

[1(o

n

)](i) =

X

ji2C(k;n)

'

f

(i. j

i

)[1(c

ji

)](i) =

5

X

ji2C(k;n)

'

f

(i. j

i

)'

f

(i. j

i

) =

X

ji2C(k;n)

'

f

(i. j

i

)

2

.

Now [1(o)](i) = lim

n!1

[1(o

n

)](i) = lim

n!1

P

ji2C(k;n)

'

f

(i. j

i

)

2

. Since

[1(o)](i) ÷ Z, it is not possible that an in…nite number of the '

f

(i. j

i

) are

nonzero; i.e., '

f

must be row-…nite.

To see that '

f

acts on Z

C(k;N)

to produce 1, it su¢ces to check agreement on

the standard basis of (/). For i, j ÷ C(/. N), ('

f

c

j

)(i) =

P

l2C(k;N)

'

f

(i. l)c

j

(l)

=

P

l2C(k;N)

[1(c

l

)](i)c(j. l) = [1(c

j

)](i).

Corollary 3.2. (i) The endomorphism ring of Z

C(k;N)

, 1:d(Z

C(k;N)

), is

isomorphic to the ring of /-dimensional row-…nite in…nite integral matrices,

T´

Z

(/. .).

(ii) The automorphism group of Z

C(k;N)

, ¹nt(Z

C(k;N)

), is isomorphic to

(L

Z

(/. .), the multiplicative group of invertible matrices in T´

Z

(/. .).

Proof. For 1 ÷ 1:d(Z

C(k;N)

), 1 ÷ '1 is a ring isomorphism with

T´

Z

(/. .), which maps ¹nt(Z

C(k;N)

) isomorphically onto (L

Z

(/. .). The row-

…niteness of the elements of T´

Z

(/. .) ensures that all sums are …nite and that

matrix multiplication is associative.

Corollary 3.3. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the matrices

of (L

Z

(/. .) and the product bases of Z

C(k;N)

.

Proof. Let ¦n

m

: m÷ C(/. N)¦ be a product basis for Z

C(k;N)

, and let

¹ ÷ ¹nt(Z

C(k;N)

) be de…ned by [¹(1)](m) = a

m

for 1 ÷ Z

C(k;N)

, when 1 =

P

m2C(k;N)

a

m

n

m

, a

m

÷ Z. The uniqueness of expression of the elements of

Z

C(k;N)

in terms of the product basis guarantees that ¹ is an automorphism.

By Corollary 3.2(ii), ¹ corresponds to a unique element of (L

Z

(/. .). The

converse is clear.

Corollary 3.4. If l is a subgroup of Z

C(k;N)

with product basis l =

Q

m2C(k;N)

'n

m

` and j = ¦n

m

: m÷ C(/. N)¦, then the matrix with columns

n

m

, '

, is row-…nite and l = '

Z

C(k;N)

.

Proof. The mapping + : Z

C(k;N)

÷ l _ Z

C(k;N)

de…ned for 1 ÷ Z

C(k;N)

by

1 ÷

P

m2C(k;N)

1(m)n

m

is an endomorphism of Z

C(k;N)

, so according to The-

orem 3.1, it is induced by a row-…nite matrix '

satisfying '

(i. j) = [+(c

j

)](i)

for all i, j ÷ C(/. N), and '

Z

C(k;N)

= l. Now +(c

j

) =

P

m2C(k;N)

c

j

(m)n

m

= n

j

, so that [+(c

j

)](i) = n

j

(i) = '

**(i. j) for all i, j ÷ C(/. N), demonstrating
**

that '

= '

.

6

4. All Products In Z

C(k;N)

Are Generated By Lower-Triangular Matrices

Recall that when / = 1, C(/. N) reduces to N and Z

C(k;N)

reduces to Z

N

,

the Baer-Specker group P. Further, T´

Z

(1. .) reduces to the familiar ring of

2-dimensional row-…nite in…nite integral matrices. With this understanding, a

product in P is just a product in the sense of Fuchs [F73, p 164].

Lemma 4.1. Every product in P is generated by a lower-triangular matrix,

the columns of which form a basis of the product.

Proof. Let 1 ÷ T´

Z

(1. .). The proof proceeds by transforming 1 via

column operations into a lower-triangular matrix T satisfying TP = 1P. Since

1 = 0 is trivial, assume 1 = 0. Let n ÷ 1P, 0 = n = (n(0). n(1). ...)

t

, where t

denotes transpose, and suppose n = 1r for r = (r(0). r(1). ...)

t

÷ P.

If row 0 of 1 consists entirely of 0’s, simply set 1

1

= 1, 1

1

= 1, and r

1

=

r and proceed to the next step. Otherwise, perform column operations on the

nonzero elements of row 0 of 1 to produce a new matrix 1

1

in which 1

1

(0. ,) =

0 for all , 0. This is tantamount to …nding the gcd of the elements in row 0,

columns , _ 0 of 1. Perform the same column operations on 1 to produce 1

1

,

so that 1

1

= 11

1

with 1

1

an invertible row- and column-…nite matrix. Since 1

= 1

1

1

1

1

, n = 1r = 1

1

(1

1

1

r). Set r

1

= (r

1

(0). r

1

(1). ...)

t

= 1

1

1

r so that n =

1

1

r

1

.

If 1

1

(1. ,) = 0 for all , _ 1, simply set 1

2

= 1

1

, r

2

= r

1

, and 1

2

= 1 and

proceed. Otherwise perform column operations on the nonzero elements of row

1 in columns , _ 1 of 1

1

to produce a new matrix 1

2

in which 1

2

(1. ,) = 0 for

all , 1. As before, this is tantamount to …nding the gcd of the elements in

row 1, columns , _ 1 of 1

1

. 1

2

(i. 0) = 1

1

(i. 0) for all i; i.e., column 0 of 1

2

is

the same as column 0 of 1

1

.

Perform the same column operations on 1 to produce 1

2

, so that 1

2

=

1

1

1

2

with 1

2

an invertible row- and column-…nite matrix. Note that since no

operation was performed on column 0 of 1

1

, none was performed on column 0

of 1. Moreover rows 0 of 1

1

and 1 remained unchanged (because of 0 entries),

so that 1

2

(0. 0) = 1 and the rest of the row 0 and column 0 entries of 1

2

are 0.

Thus the same is true of 1

1

2

. Since 1 = 1

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

, n = 1r = 1

2

1

1

2

(1

1

1

r

0

) =

1

2

(1

1

2

r

1

). Set r

2

= 1

1

2

r

1

so that n = 1

2

r

2

. Because row 0 of 1

1

2

is 1. 0. . . .,

it follows that r

2

(0) = r

1

(0).

Suppose that after : 1 iterations, row-…nite matrices 1

1

, . . . , 1

n

and

invertible row- and column-…nite matrices 1

1

, . . . , 1

n

and r

1

, . . . , r

n

÷ P have

been obtained, such that

7

(a) 1

n

(i. ,) = 0 for all , i, 0 _ i _ : ÷ 1; i.e., the matrices 1

n

are

becoming increasingly lower-triangular.

(b) 1

n

(,) = 1

n1

(,) for 0 _ , < : ÷1; i.e., after the :

th

iteration, rows

and columns < : do not change.

(c) 1

n

= 1

n1

1

n

= 11

1

1

n

.

(d) 1

n

(i. ,) = c(i. ,) = 1

1

n

(i. ,), 0 _ i < :÷1, , ÷ N; and 0 _ , < :÷1,

i ÷ N; i.e., the 1

n

’s and their inverses are becoming increasingly diagonal with

1’s down the diagonal, tending toward the identity matrix.

(e) r

n

= 1

1

n

r

n1

, n = 1

n

r

n

; i.e., n is always in the image of 1

n

.

(f) r

n

(i) = r

n1

(i), 0 _ i < : ÷1; i.e., after the :

th

iteration, the row

elements < : of the r

n

’s do not change.

If 1

n

(:. ,) = 0 for all , _ :, simply set 1

n+1

= 1

n

, 1

n+1

= 1, and r

n+1

=

r

n

. Otherwise, perform column operations on the nonzero elements of the :

th

row in columns , _ : of 1

n

to produce a new matrix 1

n+1

in which 1

n+1

(:. ,)

= 0 for all , :. Because no operations are performed on columns 0-(:-1),

1

n+1

(i. ,) = 1

n

(i. ,), i ÷ N, , = 0, . . . , : ÷1; i.e., columns 0-(:-1) of 1

n+1

are

the same as columns 0-(:-1) of 1

n

.

Perform the same column operations on 1 to produce 1

n+1

, so that 1

n+1

=

1

n

1

n+1

with 1

n+1

an invertible row- and column-…nite matrix. Note that since

no operation was performed on columns 0-(:-1) of 1

n

, none was performed

on columns 0-(:-1) of 1. Moreover, rows 0-(:-1) of 1

n

were not changed (be-

cause of 0’s), and the same is true of 1 and 1

1

n+1

. (i) As a result, 1

n+1

(i. ,)

= c(i. ,) = 1

1

n+1

(i. ,), i < :, , ÷ N, and , < :, i ÷ N. Since 1

n+1

=

1

n

1

n+1

= (11

1

1

n

)1

n+1

, 1 = 1

n+1

1

1

n+1

1

1

1

, n = 1r = 1

n+1

1

1

n+1

1

1

1

r

= 1

n+1

(1

1

n+1

r

n

). (ii) Set r

n+1

= 1

1

n+1

r

n

so that n = 1

n+1

r

n+1

. (i) and (ii)

imply that r

n+1

(i) = r

n

(i), i = 0, . . . , : ÷1.

The Cauchy sequence r

n

converges to some r

0

÷ P because P is a complete

metric space. Since all endomorphisms of P are continuous, the sequence 1

n

(r

j

)

converges to 1

n

(r

0

) for each :. Because of (b) and (f), the convergence is

uniform. The Cauchy sequence of matrices 1

n

thus obtained converges to a

lower-triangular matrix T and Tr

0

= n so that TP _ 1P. From (b) it follows

that TP _ 1P and so TP = 1P.

It may, of course, happen that some of the diagonal terms of T are 0 so that

the …rst nonzero entry in a column may be below the diagonal. Should that

occur, the …rst nonzero entry in the next column will be in a lower row. If T

has only …nitely many nonzero columns, the result is elementary. If all columns

of T are nonzero, it is clear that an in…nite linear combination of its columns

can be 0 only if all coe¢cients are 0, so that the columns of T form a product

basis.

Remark 4.2. From the results in Section 3, a row-…nite matrix can be

classi…ed as epic or monic if the endomorphism which it induces is epic or monic,

8

respectively. (1) If 1 ÷ T´

Z

(1. .) has a 0 row :, it cannot be epic because

c

m

cannot be reached. If it has a 0 column :, it cannot be monic because c

n

is in

the kernel. Here 1 = ¦c

i

: i ÷ N¦ denote the usual basis of · P; 1 is also the

standard product basis of P. (2) Similarly, if a row (column) of 1 is a multiple

of another row (column), then 1 cannot be epic (monic). (3) T ÷ T ´

Z

(1. .)

is invertible (2-sided) over the rationals if and only if each diagonal entry is

nonzero [C50, pp 19-20 ]. T is integrally invertible if and only if each diagonal

entry = ±1.

Lemma 4.3. T ÷ T ´

Z

(1. .) is epic if and only if each diagonal entry is

±1.

Proof. If each diagonal entry of T is ±1, then T ÷ (L

Z

(1. .) and so is epic.

Conversely let n = (n(0). n(1). ...)

t

be a nonzero element of P, where t denotes

transpose. To solve Tr = T(r(0). r(1). ...)

t

= n, induct on :. Let T

n

= (T[i. ,]),

i, , = 0, 1, . . . , :. If : = 0 and T(0. 0) = ±1, then T(0. 0)r(0) = n(0) is not

solvable in general. If T(0. 0) = ±1, then r(0) is uniquely determined. Suppose

that the diagonals T(:. :) = ±1 for : = 0, 1, . . . , :, and suppose further

that T

n

(r(0). .... r(:))

t

= (n(0). .... n(:))

t

is uniquely solvable, (r(0). .... r(:))

t

= T

1

n

(n(0). .... n(:))

t

. Express T

n+1

=

T

n

0

T(: + 1. 0)... T(: + 1. : + 1)

so

that T

n+1

(r(0). .... r(:). r(: + 1))

t

=

T

n

(r(0). .... r(:))

t

P

j=n+1

j=0

T(: + 1. ,)r(,)

, with some

abuse of notation for the sake of simplicity. Now by the induction hypothe-

sis, (r(0). .... r(:))

t

= T

1

n

(n(0). .... n(:))

t

uniquely. Thus the only solution to

P

j=n+1

j=0

T(: + 1. ,)r(,) = n(: + 1) must come from T(: + 1. : + 1)r(: + 1) =

n(: + 1) –

P

j=n

j=0

T(: + 1. ,)r(,), which is impossible in general unless T(: +

1. : + 1) = ±1.

Invertible lower-triangular in…nite integral matrices may therefore be char-

acterized as follows:

Theorem 4.4. For T ÷ T ´

Z

(1. .) the following are equivalent:

(1) T is epic.

(2) T(i. i) = ±1 for all i ÷ N.

(3) T ÷ (L

Z

(1. .).

The following lemma is a generalization of Lemma 4.1.

Lemma 4.5. Every 1 ÷ T´

Z

(/. .) can be triangularized in the sense

that there exists 1

0

÷ T´

Z

(/. .) satisfying 1

0

[(i. i). (j. ,)] = 0 for all i. j ÷

C(/ ÷1. N). i < , ÷ N, and 1

0

Z

C(k;N)

= 1Z

C(k;N)

.

Proof. De…ne 1

ij

÷ T´

Z

(1. .) for i. j ÷ C(/ ÷ 1. N) and i. , ÷ N by

1

ij

(i. ,) = 1[(i. i). (j. ,)]. As in the proof of Lemma 4.1, there exists T

ij

÷

9

T ´

Z

(1. .), obtained by performing column operations on the 2-dimensional

matrix 1

ij

, which satis…es T

ij

P = 1

ij

P. For i. j ÷ C(/ ÷ 1. N) and i. , ÷ N,

de…ne 1

0

[(i. i). (j. ,)] = T

ij

(i. ,). Since each T

ij

is lower-triangular, it is clear

that 1

0

[(i. i). (j. ,)] = 0 for all i < ,.

To see that 1

0

is row-…nite, …x (i. i). T

ij

(i. ,) = 0 for all , i; i.e., T

ij

(i. ,) =

0 for only …nitely many ,, namely , = 0. . . . . i. For each such ,, there are only

…nitely many j where 1[(i. i). (j. ,)] = 0. Thus, since the entries of each T

ij

were obtained from those of 1, for each (i. i), only …nitely many T

ij

(i. ,) = 0,

so 1

0

÷ T´

Z

(/. .).

Finally, to see that 1

0

Z

C(k;N)

= 1Z

C(k;N)

, let 1 ÷ Z

C(k;N)

. For i ÷ C(/÷1. N)

and i ÷ N, (11)(i. i) =

P

j2C(k;N)

1[(i. i). j]1(j) =

P

j2C(k1;N)

P

j2N

1[(i. i). (j. ,)]1(j. ,)

=

P

j2C(k1;N)

P

j2N

1

ij

(i. ,)n

j

(,), with n

j

÷ P de…ned by n

j

(,) = 1(j. ,) for j ÷ C(/÷

1. N) and , ÷ N. Since T

ij

P = 1

ij

P, there exists r

j

÷ P satisfying T

ij

r

j

= 1

ij

n

j

or, for i ÷ N, (T

ij

r

j

)(i) = (1

ij

n

j

)(i); i.e.,

P

j2N

T

ij

(i. ,)r

j

(,) =

P

j2N

1

ij

(i. ,)n

j

(,),

so that (11)(i. i) =

P

j2C(k1;N)

P

j2N

1

ij

(i. ,)n

j

(,) =

P

j2C(k1;N)

P

j2N

T

ij

(i. ,)r

j

(,) =

P

j2C(k1;N)

P

j2N

1

0

[(i. i). (j. ,)]r

j

(,) =

P

j2C(k1;N)

P

j2N

1

0

[(i. i). (j. ,)]o(j. ,) = (1

0

o)(i. i) when o ÷ Z

C(k;N)

is de…ned as

o(j. ,) = r

j

(,) for j ÷ C(/ ÷1. N) and , ÷ N.

In the Proof of Lemma 4.5, notation has been abused for the sake of sim-

plicity, but attention to each index set should clear up any confusion.

A principal result is the following

Theorem 4.6. Every product in Z

C(k;N)

is generated by a lower-triangular

matrix, the columns of which form a basis of the product.

Proof. By induction on /. Lemma 4.1 establishes the case / = 1, so the

result holds for some /. Let 1 ÷ T´

Z

(/ + 1. .) so that 1Z

C(k+1;N)

is a

product in Z

C(k+1;N)

. 1 = 0 is trivial so assume that 1 = 0. Per Lemma

4.5, triangularize 1; i.e., …nd 1

0

÷ T´

Z

(/ + 1. .) such that 1

0

[(i. i). (j. ,)] =

0 for all i, j ÷ C(/. N), i < , ÷ N, and such that 1

0

Z

C(k+1;N)

= 1Z

C(k+1;N)

.

When i = 0, by the induction hypothesis, there exists T

00

÷ T ´

Z

(/. .) such

that T

00

Z

C(k;N)

= 1

0

[(i. 0). (j. 0)]Z

C(k;N)

, where by 1

0

[(i. 0). (j. 0)] is meant the

matrix G

0

÷ T´

Z

(/. .), de…ned as G

0

(i. j) = 1

0

[(i. 0). (j. 0)] and similarly

below; again notation is abused for the sake of simplicity. De…ne 1

1

÷ T´

Z

(/+

1. .) as follows:

For all i. j ÷ C(/. N) and i. , ÷ N.

1

1

[(i. i). (j. ,)] =

T

00

(i. j) if i = 0 = ,

1

0

[(i. i). (j. ,)] otherwise

10

Observe that 1

1

[(i. 0). (j. 0)] = 0 unless i _ j, and that 1

1

Z

C(k+1;N)

= 1

0

Z

C(k+1;N)

= 1Z

C(k+1;N)

.

When i = 1, by the induction hypothesis, there exist T

10

and T

11

÷ T ´

Z

(/. .)

such that

T

10

Z

C(k;N)

= 1

1

[(i. 1). (j. 0)]Z

C(k;N)

and T

11

Z

C(k;N)

= 1

1

[(i. 1). (j. 1)]Z

C(k;N)

.

De…ne 1

2

÷ T´

Z

(/ + 1. .) by:

For all i. j ÷ C(/. N) and i. , ÷ N.

1

2

[(i. i). (j. ,)] =

8

<

:

T

10

(i. j) if i = 1 and , = 0

T

11

(i. j) if i = 1 and , = 1

1

1

[(i. i). (j. ,)] otherwise

Observe that 0 = 1

2

[(i. 0). (j. 0)] = 1

2

[(i. 1). (j. 0)] = 1

2

[(i. 1). (j. 1)] unless i _ j,

and that 1

2

Z

C(k+1;N)

= 1

1

Z

C(k+1;N)

= 1

0

Z

C(k+1;N)

= 1Z

C(k+1;N)

.

Proceeding in this fashion, obtain 1

n

÷ T´

Z

(/+1. .) and T

ij

÷ T ´

Z

(/. .)

with these properties: For i, j ÷ C(/. N) and i, , ÷ N,

(a) T

ij

Z

C(k;N)

= 1

n1

[(i. i). (j. ,)]Z

C(k;N)

, : _ i _ ,;

(b) 1

n

[(i. i). (j. ,)] = 0 unless (i. i) _ (j. ,) for i, , _ :; and

(c) 1

n

Z

C(k+1;N)

= 1Z

C(k+1;N)

.

Then as in Lemma 4.1, lim

n!1

1

n

= T uniformly and TZ

C(k+1;N)

= 1Z

C(k+1;N)

with T ÷ T ´

Z

(/ + 1. .).

By use of the foregoing methodology, the following readily can be proved:

Proposition 4.7. Let T ÷ T ´

Z

(/. .).

(1) These are equivalent: (i) T is epic; (ii) T(i. i) = ±1 for all i ÷

C(/. N); (iii) T ÷ (L

Z

(/. .).

(2) T is monic if and only if T(i. i) = 0 for all i ÷ C(/. N).

11

5. In…nite Matrix Examples And Counterexamples

The next examples and counterexamples illustrate results from Section 4 and

further illustrate some of the pitfalls and limitations of working with in…nite

matrices. They are not new but continue to be discussed in various contexts.

[BM05, sec 2]; [CC-CS01, p 437]; [BI96(1), pp 189-191].

As before, the elements of P are viewed as column vectors and 1 = ¦c

j

: , ÷

N¦ denotes the usual basis of · P; 1 is also the standard product basis of

P. The same symbol 1 is used for the matrix with the c

j

as columns, i.e., the

identity matrix. The same liberty is taken with other bases and their matrices.

Example 5.1. 1

1

= ¦c

0

+ c

1

+ . . .+ c

i

: i ÷ N¦ also is a basis of ,

having matrix

1

1

=

0

B

B

B

B

B

@

1 1 1 1 ...

0 1 1 1 ...

0 0 1 1 ...

0 0 0 1 ...

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

C

C

C

C

C

A

Because the matrix is not row-…nite, 1

1

cannot be a product basis of P.

Example 5.2. 1

2

= ¦c

0

, c

i

– c

i1

: i ÷ N

+

¦ also is a basis of , having

matrix

1

2

=

0

B

B

B

B

B

@

1 ÷1 0 0 ...

0 1 ÷1 0 ...

0 0 1 ÷1 ...

0 0 0 1 ...

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

C

C

C

C

C

A

Note that 1

2

is not lower triangular.

Example 5.3. Let 1 ÷ P denote the column vector having all entries =

1 and let 1

3

= ¦c

0

+ c

2

+ . . .+ c

i1

–1 : i ÷ N

+

¦. Note that 1

3

is not a basis

of ; indeed, no element is even contained in . The accompanying matrix is

12

1

3

=

0

B

B

B

B

B

@

0 0 0 0 ...

÷1 0 0 0 ...

÷1 ÷1 0 0 ...

÷1 ÷1 ÷1 0 ...

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

C

C

C

C

C

A

The following relationships hold:

1

1

1

2

= 1 = 1

2

1

1

1

2

1

3

= 1

Observe that although both 1

2

and 1

3

are row-…nite and even pure independent,

1

2

is not monic (1 is in the kernel), and 1

3

is not epic (c

0

is not attained). In

particular, (1

1

1

2

)1 = 11 = 1, but 1

1

(1

2

1) = 1

1

(0) = 0, so that multiplication

is not associative. Despite the fact that 1

2

P = P, 1

2

nevertheless cannot serve

as a product basis for P. The problem, of course, is that 1

2

is not invertible

in T´

Z

(/. .). Restriction to multiplicatively associative matrix rings helps

eliminate much of this in…nite matrix pathology [C50, pp 19-22].

In the proof of Lemma 4.1, although the columns of the resulting lower-

triangular matrix T obviously are independent, T nevertheless may be singular,

as illustrated by 1

3

above. Moreover, it may not be the case that that the

products 1

1

1

n

in that proof will converge to a row-…nite matrix, as further

illustrated by 1

2

. Even though 1

2

itself is not monic, the resulting lower-

triangular matrix 1, which results from column operations on 1

2

, is monic.

6. Fuchs’ Lemma 95.1 Redux

Products in P were introduced in [F73] by beginning with a countable subset

¦r

n

: : ÷ N¦ · P, with no condition other than that all sums of the form r

=

P

1

n=0

:

n

r

n

be well de…ned. This, of course, means that the in…nite matrix

with columns r

n

must be row-…nite. Lemma 95.1 in [F73] then was stated as

follows:

Let A be a product in P. There are elements a

n

÷ P and integers

/

n

(: ÷ N) such that P =

Q

1

n=0

'a

n

` and A =

Q

1

n=0

'/

n

a

n

` where

(«) /

n

[ /

n+i

if /

n

= 0 for all :, i _ 0.

The goal was to establish a product analog of the well known result for stacked

bases of free groups of …nite rank [F70, Lemma 15.4]. However, a counterexam-

ple has been produced [G81].

Perhaps another approach is to utilize the weaker de…nition of stacked bases

found in [CG70], which does not require divisibility as in («). From Lemma

13

4.1, there would be no loss of generality in assuming that the r

n

÷ P form a

lower-triangular matrix.

Lemma 695.1. Let

Q

1

n=0

'r

n

` be a product of in…nite rank in P, let o

=

P

1

n=0

'r

n

` , and let o

**be the pure subgroup which the r
**

n

generate. Then

there exist a product basis of P =

Q

1

n=0

'a

n

` and positive integers /

n

(: ÷ N)

such that

Q

1

n=0

'/

n

a

n

` =

Q

1

n=0

'r

n

` if and only if there exist stacked bases of

o and o

such that the matrix 1

formed by the basis of o

is invertible and

the matrix 1 formed by the basis of o satis…es 1P =

Q

1

n=0

'r

n

`.

Proof. If ¦a

n

: : ÷ N¦ is a product basis of P, then the a

n

’s are pure

independent. If ¦/

n

: : ÷ N)¦ are positive integers, then

Q

1

n=0

'/

n

a

n

` is a

product in P and if o =

1

n=0

'/

n

a

n

`, then o

=

1

n=0

'a

n

` so that ¦/

n

a

n

:

: ÷ N¦ and ¦a

n

: : ÷ N¦ are stacked bases for the respective subgroups of P.

The matrix formed by the a

n

’s is in (L

Z

(1. .) by Corollary 3.4; the matrix 1

formed by the r

n

= /

n

a

n

certainly satis…es 1P =

Q

1

n=0

'r

n

`.

Conversely, let

Q

1

n=0

'r

n

` be a product in P, let o be the subgroup of P

which the r

n

’s generate, and let o

**be the pure subgroup which they generate.
**

Suppose there are stacked bases ¦/

n

a

n

: /

n

, : ÷ N¦ of o and ¦a

n

: : ÷ N¦

of o

; because o

**´o is torsion, all /
**

n

’s must be positive. Suppose further that

the matrix formed by the a

n

’s is invertible; then the a

n

’s are a product basis of

P and

Q

1

n=0

'/

n

a

n

` is a product in P. Finally, if the matrix 1 formed by the

/

n

a

n

’s satis…es 1P =

Q

1

n=0

'r

n

`, the proof is concluded.

Remark 6.2. (1) If

Q

1

n=0

'r

n

` is a product in P and ¦a

n

: : ÷ N¦ is

a basis of the subgroup generated by the r

n

’s, the matrix formed by the a

n

’s

may not be row-…nite. See examples 1 and 1

1

in Section 5 above. (2) In

Section 5, although all positive multiples of the basis elements in example 1

2

will yield subgroups of P with stacked bases and even though 1

2

P = P, 1

2

cannot serve as a product basis for P. (3) As previously noted, the lower-

triangular matrix T, obtained from the column operations in Lemma 4.1, may

be singular. However, Nunke [BI96, p 199] has shown that every endomorphic

image of P is either free of …nite rank or isomorphic to P itself. In the latter

case, there then exists monic 1 ÷ T´

Z

(/. .) satisfying 1P = TP. Column

operations will, of course, reveal matrix rank, …nite or in…nite.

All products in P may therefore be characterized as follows:

Theorem 6.3. Every product in P is generated by a lower-triangular

in…nite integral matrix, the rank of which determines whether the product is

free of …nite rank or isomorphic to P.

7. Obiter Dicta

14

Although the methods employed and results ontained in this paper and [CS07

& 08] could be extended to more complex structures, e.g., to …nite and countably

in…nite sequences of polynomials in a countably in…nite number of variables,

and to some larger cardinals/ordinals, e.g., along the lines of the earlier works

of Zeeman [F73, Corollary 94.6] (see also [F70, Theorem 43.2]) and the more

recent ones of Eda [E83(1) & E83(2)], the author does not envision that such

extensions will render results signi…cantly di¤erent from those already attained.

References

[B37] Baer, R., Abelian groups without elements of …nite order, Duke Math. J.

3 (1937) 68-122

[BI96(1)] Blass, A. & Irwin, J., On the group of eventually divisible integer

sequences. In: Abelian groups and modules, Arnold, D. M. & Rangaswamy, K.

M., eds., Lecture Notes in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Marcel Dekker, Inc.,

182 (1996) 181-192

[BI96(2)] Blass, A. & Irwin, J., Baer meets Baire: applications of category

arguments and descriptive set theory to Z

@0

. In: Abelian groups and modules,

Arnold, D. M. & Rangaswamy, K. M., eds., Lecture Notes in Pure and Applied

Mathematics, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 182 (1996) 193-202

[BI01] Blass, A. & Irwin, J., Free subgroups of the Baer-Specker group, Comm.

Algebra 29(12) (2001) 5769-5794

[BM05] Bartosiewicz, Z. & Mozyrska, D., Observability of row–…nite countable

systems of linear di¤erential equations, http://katmet.pb.bialystok.pl/mat.barz/

Infsys4.pdf (2005)

[C50] Cooke, R. G., In…nite Matrices and Sequence Spaces, McMillan, London

(1950)

[CC-CS01] Camillo, V.; Costa-Cano, F. J. & Simon, J. J., Relating properties

of a ring and its ring of row and column …nite matrices, J. Algebra 244 (2001)

435-449

[CG70] Cohen, J. M. & Gluck, H., Stacked bases for modules over principal

ideal domains, J. Algebra 14 (1970) 493-505

[CS07] Cornelius, E. F., Jr. & Schultz, P., Polynomial points, J. Integer Se-

quences 10 (2007) Article 07.3.6

15

[CS08] Cornelius, E. F., Jr. & Schultz, P., Multinomial points, Houston J.

Math. 34(3) (2008) 661-676

[E83(1)] Eda, K., On a Boolean power of a torsion free abelian group, J. Algebra

82(1) (1983) 84-93

[E83(2)] Eda, K., Almost-slender groups and Fuchs-44 groups, Comment. Math.

Uni. St. Paui., 32(2) (1983) 131-135

[F70] Fuchs, L., I In…nite Abelian Groups, Academic Press, New York & London

(1970)

[F73] Fuchs, L., II In…nite Abelian Groups, Academic Press, New York &

London (1973)

[G81] Goldsmith, B., A note on products of in…nite cyclic groups, Rend. Semin.

Mat. Univ. Padova, 64 (1981) 243-246

[S50] Specker, E., Additive gruppen von folgen ganzer Zahlen, Portugaliae

Math. 9 (1950) 131-140

16

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