Attacks on Indian Calendar -Arun Kumar Upadhyay, 9437034172 1.

Attack on Indian civilization-Since start of British rule, 2 fold attack started on Indian civilization-(1) Destruction of technical books started with Alexander’s burning of Takshashila university in 326 BC and burning of Nalanda University in 1194 AD by Bakhtiyar Khilji continued, (2) Remaining text books were brought to Oxford etc where Boden Chair was set up in 1831 with declared aim of wiping out of Vedic civilization. English education created mental slaves in country who consider Ravenshaw as father of modern Oriya as he killed 35 lakh persons in 1865 by exporting 10 lakh tones of rice. But great scholars like Jagannath Dasa to Chanrashekhar Samanta were considered illiterate as they had not received BA degree from Ravenshaw college. 2. Opposition to Indian Calendar-For destruction of Indian history, most important action was to deny existence of any calendar or any king who had started any calendar against wishes and designs of the British history-destroyers. This move was started in 3 Presidency towns. Without any knowledge of calendar, all Indian calendars were declared un-scientific and move to modernize them started. In 1896, Shankara Balkrishna Dixit wrote History of Indian Astronomy where he described 14 Shakas but after that, he said that Shalivahana shaka was only Shaka and on that assumption Jyotirvidabharana was declared fake book, times of Aryabhata shifted 3240 years later, Varahamihira & Brahmagupta 690 years later. That was under pressure from Robert Sewel with whom he had to write another book Indian Chronology. Lawrence Dominic also wrote on Indian chronology in name of LD Swami Kannupillai. Similarly, Kenneth Abraham wrote Indian History named as K A Nilakantha Shastri to dupe Indians that these are the views of traditional pundits. 3. Panchanga Committee of 1929-To change Indian calendar, a Panchanga-samshodhan Samiti was formed by king Yashawant Rao Holkar of Indore in 1929 under Dinanath Chulet Shastri. He used Hansen Tables 1927 of Moon’s motion to calculate dates of ancient Vedic periods. Hansen table had a chart of decline in inclination of earth’s axis from 240 in 3000 BC to about 23.60 in 1920 AD. Prior to that, it had been oscillating from 22.50 to 26.50 since past about 2 lakh years as estimated by later researches. These figures cannot be used for inclination figures up to 570 as it was never more than 270. Naimisharanya near Lucknow was named show as it was the place of northernmost position of Sun (Tropic of Cancer) in past (Nemi = end of sun’s motion ends in this region). Another attempt was to find d efects in Indian calendar and there was a move to change it to purely solar calendar as a copy of Roman calendar. Pandit Ram Suchit Tripathy of Varanasi strongly protested attempts of changing Indian calendar system. Sri Dinanath Chulet wanted minor corrections to Moon motion and showed that Skanda Purana indicated variation in Lunar Tithi from 50 to 69

Ghatis ( Ghatis (

), whereas traditional calculations indicate variation from 54 to 65 ), standard average being 60 Ghatis.

4. Calendar Reforms Committee-Another attempt to change Indian calendar was made by Sri Jawaharlal Nehru by appointing a Calendar Reforms Committee in 1957 under Prof Meghnad Saha, who was famous for his Thermal Ionization theory and was considered for Nobel Prize also, but was ignorant of astronomy or calendars. As a secretary, Sri Gorakh Prasad, renowned mathematician was included who had written a textbook on spherical astronomy. But, being a knower of astronomy, he was disliked by chairman and Sri N C Lahiri of Bengal was made secretary. Sri Lahiri tried to fix Aayanamsha assuming that Chitra star was at 1800 at epoch time. However, there was error in calculating epoch by assuming that Varahamihira and Brahmagupta of Vikramaditya period were using Shalivahana Shaka starting about 90 years after death of Varahamihira. This is now called Chitra-pakshiya ayanamsha with epoch of 22-3-285 BC at 2117 IST when Chitra (Spica) was exactly at 1800. However, there were 4 major errors in approach-(1) Till, today it is not known what is the error or defect in Indian calendar. But we are eager to change it, basically as a copy of Roman calendar, based on sun only. (2) Roman calendar by Julius Caesar started in 46 BC had to start 7 days later than the order of Caesar to make it tally with start of Pauṣa month of Vikrama year 10. But now we are eager to copy it. (3) Moon controls mind ( ), so all our festivals are based on lunar tithis only except Sankr ānti dates based on sun position-basically to indicate change in food etc based on seasons. As lunar tithis were completely ignored, Rashtriya Shaka could not be followed for any festival. (4) There is approximate tally of actual civil calendar with mathematical at every stage. This has been indicated as a copy of remarks by Otto Neugebauer (Exact Sciences of AntiquityHarvard, 1957), nut not understood or followed in Indian context. Thus, Rashtriya Shaka Samvat is neither Rashtriya, nor Shaka (= basis of calculation) nor Samvat (festival dates). 5. Ayanamsha cycle-Perpendicular to earth orbit points to a direction called Pole or Kadamba. This has been called Nāka-svarga also. Axis of earth is inclined to it at an average of 240 (varying from 22.50 to 26.50) and makes a circle around it in about 26,000 years. This circle has been called Śiśumāra-chakra in Viṣṇu purāṇa (2/8). Śiśumāra is a poisonous insect like scorpion called Sismar in Persian. The star group looks like Śiśumāra with its tail bent. This motion is called Precession of earth axis. Due to its motion, the point in space where sun crosses in northward motion also moves in a circle, At this point, day and night are equal at all places on earth, so it is called equinox point. Hence the conical motion of earth axis is also called recession of equinoxes. Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa (1/2/9) calls that a Manvantara of 71 yugas = 26,000 years which was period from Svāyambhuva Manu till death of Bhagavān Kṛṣṇa or start of Kali on 17-2-3102 BC-

(१/२/९)-

३६

३७

ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण (१/२/२९)-त्रीिण वषष शतान्येव षििवषाषिण यािि तु। दिव्यः संवत्सरो ह्येष मािुषेण प्रकीर्त्तितः॥१६॥ त्रीिण वषष सहस्रािण मािुषािण प्रमाणतः। त्रत्रशिन्यािि वषाषिण मतः सप्तर्त्तषवत्सरः॥१७॥ षत्रववशित सहस्रािण वषाषिण मािुषािण तु। वषाषणां युगं ज्ञेयं दिव्यो ह्येष िवि ः स्मृतः॥१९॥ Matsya purāṇa, chapter 273 further specified that 43 yugas passed till Vaivasvata Manu and then 28 yugas till Kali beginning- मत्स्य पुराण, ऄध्याय २७३ऄिात्रवश समाख्याता गता वैवस्वतेऽन्तरे । एते िेवगणैः सा ं िशिा ये ताि् ििबो त॥७६॥ चत्वाररशत् त्रयश्चैव भिवष्यास्ते महात्मिः। ऄविशिा युगाख्यास्ते ततो वैवस्वतो ह्ययम्॥७७॥ We observe a planet or star with reference to fixed stars-that is called Sidereal position or Nirayana in sanskrit. But calculation of sun rise as per latitude is done by spherical triangle with edge at equinox point. For that, we add Ayanāmśa = difference between siereal zero & equinox in degrees (amśa). Such position is called Sāyana as Ayana is added. Distance between sidereal zero and equinox point is called Aayanāmśa. Seasons vary as er this point, so it is called Tropical position. However, historic cycle is based on glacial cycle of about 24,000 years. Milancovich theory of 1923 calculates it as joint effect of precession cycle of 26,000 years in reverse direction and apogee cycle of 1,00,000 years. This is a cycle of 21,600 years1/21600 = 1/100000 + 1/26000 Actual glacial cycle is closer to 24,000 years figure taken in India, with two parts of 12,000 years each. First part starts 4 yugas in descending order of Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara, Kali of 4, 3, 2, 1 parts. This is Avasarpiṇī. Next half Utsarpiṇī has yugas in ascending order. Here, long term cycle of 312000 years of apogee is merged with precession cycle1/24,000 = 1/26,000 + 1/312,000 In this cycle, glacial floods have always occurred in Avasarpiṇī Tretā and glacial ice in Utsarpiṇī Tretā. Due to taking of 24,000 years cycle instead of 26,000 years precession, there is a long term correction in cycle of 12,000 years for each half, stated by Brahmagupta & Bhāskara-2, both to be from long antiquity (Āgama-pramāṇa). Thus, effective precession is in 7200 year cycle as per calculation of Sūrya-siddhānta having values of + 270 to -270. Now, the precession is only 240, so we have to wait for about 400 years to think of a correction of zero point. 6. Other disputes-(1) Sidereal vrs Tropical-There is no dispute in real sense. Any observation by eye or telescope has to be sidereal, but calculation is from tropical positions. (2) Geocentric Vrs Heliocentric-There is unnecessary dispute about these two systems and some persons interpret that Indian concept was geo-centric motion of planets. Even astronomers describe like this without understanding method of calculation. Here also, all observations are from earth, more correctly from surface rather than geo-centre. But Planetary orbits are calculated from elliptic orbits around sun. For calculation of sun or moon position, method will be same. We calculate earth from its orbit round sun, then from earth, sun will look in opposite direction (1800 away). For other planets, we have to calculate 2

orbits-one of earth and the other of the planet to be observed. Smaller of these two orbits is called Śīghra (faster) and larger orbit is Manda-paridhi (slower circumference). First we assume that the orbit is circular as all planetary orbits are almost circular. For such orbit speed of planet is constant and it is called Mean (madhyama) planet. Then we calculate position in elliptical orbit in two steps-(a) Position in eccentric orbit-orbit centre displaced at focus of orbit, (b) Then position in elliptical orbit is calculated which is called true planet (spaṣṭa graha). Position in eccentric circle is calculated by an infinite series and each series is again expanded by infinite series for true position. Indian texts have explained this by geometric method also which is exact-use of infinite series gives approximate position. For 2 orbits, the planet is assumed to be at center of smaller orbit. When we see sun, we see it as a disc. All points are not calculated, position of centre of disc (almost circular) is called position of sun. Similarly, inner planets mercury & venus are on a slightly bigger disc of their orbits, and their mean position will be same as mean position of sun-both are stated as same in Sūrya-siddhānta and all other texts. Vice versa, if we see earth from mercury, mean position of earth will be same as mean position of sun (its center). This does not mean that we care calculating mercury centric orbit. Similarly, mean position of mars, Jupiter, Saturn from sun will be same as mean position from earth. This does not mean that we are assuming geo-centric orbit. Then we have to calculate variations in two orbits which is explained by Lyapunov equation in 2 variables. First, we correct the position for smaller orbit instead of its center. This is called S (Śīghra-phala). As we do not know exact position in other orbit, we apply only half correction S/2. Then half of Mannda-phala correction (M/2) is applied twice. Then for the third position, we apply full S. Ratio of two orbits is called Śīghraparidhi as fraction of 3600 taken as larger orbit. This ratio is correct as per modern measures, which shows that not only heliocentric orbits were known, their correct size also was known. Manda-paridhi is correction for eccentricity of orbit. (3) Solar Vs lunar months-Concept of month is based on moon motion only, so moon is called Māsa-kṛta in Vedas or Mahatab in Koran, i.e. maker of month. Since moon completes 12 synodic cycles (phase cycles-motion with respect to sun), there are 12 months in solar year also, and 1/12 part of circle is called Rāśi (sign). There are about 30 axial rotations of earth in a lunar month, so there are about 30 days in month and for equal months there will be 360 days in year. So, circle is divided into 360 degrees. Concept of month is based on moon only, but some persons against Indian calendar claim sole authority of Vedas and declare lunar month as anti-Vedic or Rākṣasī. For calculation, both are used. First, we calculate solar months, or exact time of samkrānti in terms of civil days from an epoch. Then, we calculate lunar months, which are named as per samkrānti of sun. When no samkanti falls in a solar month, it is called Adhika-māsa (extra month) attached to previous month. It

usually comes after 31 or 32 months. By this mechanism, we match center of lunar month less than 15 days away from samkrānti time. (4) Start of year-For 4 quadrants of circle, we can have 4 starting points of year or of day. (a) Civil year starts from the month when sun crosses equator in north motion-that is called Viṣuva (zero difference in day & night, or zero latitude). Then moon is on opposite side of sun on full moon day in Chitrā star, so it is Chaitra month. All months, lunar or solar, are named after the star occupied by full moon in that month. (b) In time of Kārttikeya (15,800 BC when Pole shifted away from Abhijit), year started from Varṣā (rains), so it was called Varṣa. A country also bound by Varṣa-parvata is a single zone of rain system (monsoon), so that country is Varṣa. Then sun is at north end (Nemi) of its motion, so the year starting with rains is called Nemi-calender still used in Mithila whose first king was son of Ikṣvāku called Nimi, whose eyebrows were always open. Sun is eye of world, north & south ends of its motion on earth surface are upper & lower ends of eye opening. The zone where Nemi occurred in different eras is called Naimīṣāraṇya (near Lucknow). (c) Southern end of sun position is called Ariṣṭa-nemi as it is coldest time in north hemisphere. Then, nights are longest here, so that month Mārgaśīrṣa is called black month or Kṛṣṇa-māsa (Chrismas)( १०/३५). This year is called Divya-varṣa as day length (dyu) increases after its start. (d) At start of civil year, we have Vasanta (spring) nava-rātra. At opposite end when sun crosses equator in south motion, there is Śarat (Autumn) nava-rātra. (e) Reignal years of king start with Bhādra śukla 12 or Vāmana-dvādaśī when Vāmana Viṣṇu took control of 3 lokas of Indra back from Bali. This is called Anka system, still used in Orissa. If a person becomes king in Chaitra month, then period up to Bhādra śukla 12 is not counted. First Bhādra śukla 12 is counted as zero (śūnya), so this day is also called Sunia. (f) Another start of year was from Punarvasu observed by Devas, so this star was ruled by Aditi, mother of Ādityas( १/८९/१०). Their year ended when sun was in star of Aditi and again new year started from that. Thus year (samvatsara) was born of Aditi and it gave birth to Aditi (Punarvasu). Till today, Ratha-yātrā of śrī Jagannātha occurs when sun is in Punarvasu star (at least one of the main or return yātrā) (5) Start of month-For mathematical calculation of adhika-māsa, it always starts with new moon, i.e. bright half. But Vikrama-samvat starts with dark half (kṛṣṇa pakṣa) as season had shifted back by 1.5 months in 3000 years after Kali beginning. (6) Start of day-Mid-night is always at same time on all places of same longitude, so mathematical day starts from that. However, people wake up at sun-rise and start daily routine, so civil day starts with local sunrise. For observing stars/planets, day starts with sunset. For shadow of sun & Pitar karma, day starts at noon. 7. Continuity of Calender-Indian calendar is continuous since 29102 BC-

(1) Svāyambhuva Manu-29102 BC-In north or south motion, sun covers 1 zone in each month on earth surface called Vīthi (lanes in Book of Enoch, chapter 4 of Ethiopean version of Bible). These are at 12, 20, 24 degrees north & south of equator. Ref-Ṛgveda (1/164/13,12,13, 1/115/3, 7/63/2, 10/130/4), Atharva veda (8/5/19-20), Vāyu (Chap 2), Brahmāṇḍa (part 1, chap. 22) Viṣṇu (2/8-10) (2) Dhruva death- 27,376 BC-Dhruva samvatsara starts with him as per Bhāgavata purāŋa. (3) Dhruva samvatsara of 8100 years each passed till tart of Laukika era in 3076 BC. (4) Kaśyapa-17500 BC approx., King Pŗthu-17050 BC-Approx. (5) Kārttikeya-15,800 BC-Approx. (6) Vaivasvata Manu -13,902 BC. (7) Maya Calender-9,233 BC at Romaka Pattana-90 deg. West of Ujjain. (8) Ikṣvāku-1-11-8576 BC –Tamil tradition-Makara sankrānti day. (9) Paraśurāma-Kalamba samvat (Kadamba is north pole of ecliptic, kalamba is down point and means anchor of ship or port (e.g. Colombo). Kollam samvat is current in Kerala only and started with 824 AD Viṣuva smkrānti by omitting years in 1000’s. Thus Kalamba started after death of Paraśurāma in 6177 BC-(a) He was in 19th Tretā, (b) He was at least 9 generations before Rāma in time of king Mūlaka. (c) He had set up 21 republicsMegasthenes gives its period as 120 years. Birth of may be 120+35 years before that in 6332 BC. (10) Rāma was born on 11-2-4433 BC as per planet position in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bāla kāṇḍa. But no era in his name. (11) Yudhiṣṭhira period may be using Kalamba era as Paraśurāma is frequently mentioned. 4 eras started in his time- (a) Yudhişţhira-śaka-starts with his coronation on 17-12-3139 BC5 days after Bhīṣma expired on 22 December on start on north motion of sun. (b) Kali era started 36 years after that on 17/18-2-3102 BC Ujjain midnight when Śrī Kṛṣṇa expired. 2-2730 h/m/s after that Chaitra śukla 1 started. (c) 6 months 11 days (188 days) after that on 258-3102 BC, Jaya samvatsara started when Yudhiṣṭhira left for Abhyudaya, so it is called Jayābhyudaya-śaka used by Janamejaya in 2 land grants of Kedaranath and MuniBrindaraka on Tungabhadra bank in 89 year on Dipavali day. (d) Yudhiṣṭhira expired in kali year 25 when Laukika era started in Kashmir in 3076 C on Meşa-samkrānti. (12) Bhaṭābda of Āryabhaṭa is used by some in Kerala (birth in 327 Kali, or death ?). (13) Kauzad (Nāga) era started in 1954 BC after death of Śiṣunāga used in Burma stated in Life of Gautam Buddha by Rev. P Bigandet. Buddha nirvāṇa on 27-3-1807 BC in that era. (14). Mahāvīra was born on 11-3-1905 BC, but Vīra samvat starts in 527 BC on death of Kālakāchārya of Ujjain. He was called Vīra as he revived Jain texts & taught Kumarila Bhaṭṭa also for revival of Vedas.

(15) Śūdraka or Mālava-gaṇa samvat in 756 BC. Śākambharī śaka in 612 BC (Bŗhat samhitā 13/3), Śrī-Harşa śaka in 456 BC (Albiruni). This has been called 300 years of democracy by Megasthenes. (16) Vikrama-samvat-By Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain (82 BC-19 AD) on Chatra śukla 1, at Paśupatinātha, and on Kārttika śukla 1, at Somanātha. Month started with dark half. (17) Śālivāhana śaka in 78 AD from meṣa-samkrānti. He was grandson of Vikramāditya.

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