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1.0 1.

CONCRETE Scope This.sectioncoversthe supply of materialsfor concrete, designof concrete mrxes, qualrtycontrol of concrete,mixing, nansporting,placing and Curingofconcrete, and testingof concrete The stand-ar{ of materials and workmanship shall not be inferior to the recommendations of the current: o BritishStandard 8110: Structural Useof Concrete o British Standard Codeof PracticeBS 8007 1987:Designof Concrete Skuctures for Retaining Aqueous liquids. . Appropriate MalaysianStandards approved by the S.O.

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Unlessotherwise specified, all reinforced concrete for retainingaqueous liquidsshall with BS 8007 and shall be of GradeC40 designed to iesist Classj Sulphate 1o-qll Conditions asdefinedin BS 5238:Part I Table7. 1,2 ConcreteProductionat the Site At the colnmencement of the Contractthe Contractorshall submit for the approvalof the S.O. a method statementdetailing with regard to the requirementiof this Specification his proposalfor the organiiationof concreting activit-ies at the site. The methodstatement shall,include the following items:(a) '.=J O) (c) (d) (e) (0 Plantproposed; Laying of concrete productionfacility; Proposed methodof organisation of the concrete production facility; for concrete andconcrete Qualitycontrolprocedures materials: Methodof transport andplacingof concrete; Striking times for formwork andprocedure for temporarysupportof beams and slabs.

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1.3

Test Certificates Unlessotherwisedirectedby the S.O.,manufacturer's test sheets shall be supplied with each consignmentof cementand admixturecertifying compli*r. #tt ttt" relevantstandard. Th; Contractor shall also submit to the S.O. certificatesof calibrationfor the weighingand dispensing equipment on the concrete batchmixing plant,certifiedtest results for all tests carried out on aggregate, water, fresh concieteand hardened concrete, all asspecified.

1.4

Aggregate Samples Prior to the commencement of the frial mixesof concrete the Contractor shallsubmit for approvalsamples 50 kg in weightof eachaggregate which he proposes to use.

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The source of each aggregateshall be clearly marked on the container of each sample. Certified test results demonstratingcompliancewith the relevant quality standard shall be submittedat the sametime. Samples approvedby the S.O. strattremain preserved at site for reference. Recordsof Concreting An accurateand up to date record showing dates,times, weatherand temperature conditions when various sectionsof the works are concretedsha-llbe kept by the Contractor and shall be available for inspeclio1 ihali also ltre S.O.The Contractor -b_V recordthe resultsof all testsof concrete-and shaliidentifr th;r; *il;r;tlt theparrs of the works of which the samples materialis representative.

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For each gradeof concrete, the Contractorshall submit to the S.O.o not laterthan twenty-four hours after concreting,a daily return of the numberof barches mixed,the numberof batchesandtotal volume of concrete placed,the numberof batches wasted or rejectedandthe weightof cement used. The return shall also include specific details of each location in the works where concreteis placed, togetherwith the grade of concrete, total volume of concrete placedand the numberof batches usedfor eachlocation.

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1.6

ConcreteMixes A1th. col4lnertcement of the works the Contractor shall designa mix for eachgrade of concrete which will be required for usein the works andshallsubmitfuIl detallsof the mix designs to the S.O. for his approval. Each, mix designshall be according to the lequirements ofBS 5328.

r.7

ConstructionJoints and Lifts The Conhactorshall submit to the S.O. for his approval,as soon as is practicable after the acceptance of his tender and not tess tfran-three weeks fefore the commencement of concreting, drawingsshowinghis proposals -lifts for placing concrete on which the_position of all construction joints and shall be stown. No concretingshall be starteduntil the S.O. has approvedthe methodof placing,the joints and the lifts. The construction and form of the construction joints n_os-tti,ong shall be locatedso asto impair the strengthof the structure. Rebates,_keys ol notchesshall be formed and waterstops insertedas the S.O. may require.The position of construction joints andthe sizebf formworkpanelsshallbe so coordinated that wherepossiblethe line of any construction joint ioincides with the line of a formwork joint and that in 4ny caseall construction joint lines and formworkjoint linesuppeu, asa regularanauniform ,.ri"r. For all exposed horizontaljoints andpurposelyinclinedjoints, a uniformjoint shall be formedwith a battenof approved dimensions to give a straightandneatjoint line.

1.8

Cement The cementusedfor any pafticular mix shall comply with whicheverof the following standards is relevant:OrdinaryPortlandcementBS 12 Sulphate-Resisting Portlandcement BS 4027 PortlandPulverised-Fuel Ash cement MS lZ27 Portland Blastfurnace Cement MS 1389 For.waterretainingstructureso the cement usedshall be a blended cement comprising ordinary portland cementfrom an approvedsourceand conformingto ss iz ano containing 25Y2,bymass,of pulverised fly ash(PFA) to the requiremintof MS 1227, or containing50Yo, by mass,of groundgranulated blastfumacedslag(GGBS)to the requirement of MS 1389.The cementusedshallbe an approved Urand'ofMalaysian manufacfure unlessotherwise approved.

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In additionto the requirements for soundness of cementgiven in the relevant British Standardfor the type of cementbeing used,the cementshall also be testedfor soundness in accordance with ASTM Cl5l-77'standard TestMethodfor Autoclave Expansion of PortlandCement'. The expansion of the cementbar resultingfrom this testshallnot exceed 0.8percent. ttte Co"ttactor shall provide from eachconsignment of cementdelivered to the site suchsamples asthe S.O.may requirefor testing. Any cement which is, in the opinion of the S.O.,lumpy andpartially setshallbe rejected andthe contractor shallpromptly removesuchcementfrom the site.Cement whichhasbeenstoredon the sitefor more than forth days and cementwhich in the opinion of the S.O. is of doubtfulquality shall not be usedin the y:rfr unlessit is ietestedand the test resultsshowthat it compliesin all respects with the relevant standard. 1.9
-i

Storage of Cement Immediatelyupon arrival al the site,cementshallbe storedin silos designed for the purposeor in dry weather-tight and properlyventilatedstructures with ioorc raised 500 mm above ground level with adequate provision to prevent absorptionof moisture.All storagefacilities shall be subjectio upproroul by the S.O.and shall be suchasto permit eachaccess for inspection and identification. Eachconsignment of cementshall be kept separately andthe Contactor shall usethe consignmJnts in the orderin which they arereceived. Cement of differenttypesand from differentsources shall be kept in clearlymarked separate storage facilities.Cementdelivered to the site in drumsor bagsprovidedby the supplier or manufacturershall be storedin the unopened drumsor bagsuntil used in the works. Any cementin drums or bags which have been openedon the site shall be used immediatety or shallbe disposed of,

1.1,0

Aggregates Aggregates for concrete shallbe obtained from an approved soluceandshallconform with the requirements of BS 882. Sampling and testing of aggregates shall be carried out as requiredby S.O in accordance with the requirements of the appropriateclausesof BS 812. Water absorptionof aggregates when tested in accordance with the standardprocedure prescribed in Part2 of BS 812,shallnot exceed 3ol0.

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The aggregates to be suppliedshall not give rise to any alkali reactionwith the cement,whethersilica or carbonate. Potentialreactivityor otherwiseof aggregates shallbe determined in accordance with ASTM C2Bg.
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In addition, the soluble chlorid"s .a1d sulphatescgntent of the aggrqgates shall be suctrthat the concretemix as a qhole gomplieswith the qpgc!fiedlimits of,salt content. Testsfor chlorides-and sulphates andfor potentialalkali reactionshall be carriedout whenrequiredby the S.O. : Notwithstanding any provisionscontained herein,limestone aggregates shall not be usedin underground andwater retainingstructures. 1. 1 1
v_.J

Storageof Aggregates The Contractorshall provide meansof storingthe aggregates at eachpoint where concrete is madesuchthat : (i) Each nominal-size of coarseaggregate and fine aggregate shall be kept separated at all times; Contamination of the aggregates by the groundor otherforeign mattershall be effectivelyprevented at all times; Eachheapof aggregate shallbe capable of drainingfreely.

(iD

(iii)

The Contractorshall ensurethat gradedcoarseaggregates are tipped, storedand removedfi"omstorein a manner that doesnot cause segregation. Wet fine aggregate.shall not be useduntil, in the-opinion of the S.O.,it hasdrained to a constant and uniform moisture content of thJ fine aggregatecontinuously and adjusts the amounts of fine aggregateand addedwaterln *"tr batch of concrete mixed to allow for the watercontained in the fine aggregate. If necessary to meetthe requirements of this clause, the Contractor shallprotectthe heaps of fine aggregate against inclement weather.

:=.

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I.t2

'Water Water for washing aggegatesand for mixing concreteand curing shall be cleanand free from harmful matter and shall satisfythe recommendations in the Appendixto BS 3148. When requiredby the S.O.the Contractor shalltake samples oi th" water being used for which it is proposed to use for mixing concreteand test them for quality, including determiningthe concentration of sulphates and chlorides, which shall be suchthat the concrete mix as a whole complieswith the specified limit for saltcontent
^ ttt , r

1. 1 3

Admixtures Admixtures shall meanmaterialadded to the concretematerialsduring mixing for the purpose of alteringthe properties of the concrete mix. Admixturecontainingcalciumchlorideshallnot be used. Admixturesshall not be usedunless the S.O.hasgiven his prior approvalin writing tor each instance.Both the amountaddedand the methodof use shall be to the -approval of the S.O.who shallaisobeprovidedwith tfrefofio*i"girf"r."tir; ; (i) (ii) (iii) The typical- ?moqnt added and the detrimental effects if any, due to an increase or decrease in this amount; The chemicalname(s) of the main activeingredient(s) in the admixture; Whetheror not the admixtureleadsto the entrainment of air whenusedat the amountthe manufacturer recommends.

Any approvedadmixture shall conform to whichever of the following standards is appropriate:- Air entraining admixtures BS S075partz - Waterreducingadmixtures BS 5075part I admixtures - Retarding BS 5075part 1 - Fly ashand raw or calcinednaturalpozzolans for useas a mineral admixtureASTM

c 618

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l. t4

Test Equipment The contractorshall furnish all equipmentand materialsnecessary for collecting samples.andcarrying out field laboratory testson materials for concrete andon fresh andhardened concrete. Laboratory equipment shall'be housed in a suitable laboratory 'fibld builtling on the site, vvhich shall alSo'incbryoiatespaCe for storage' of test equipment,and for curing of concrete test cubesin an orderly mannerso that they are readily accessible for testing on the due date.The contractorshall also furnistrall weights, containers and other equipment necessary for testing the weight-batching equipment for concrete materials andthe dispensers for admixtures.

1.15

Grades of Concrete

Grades of concrete for usein the work shallbe asshownin the tablebelow:vt

Characteristie strengthat 28 days (N/sq.rnm)

Minimum cement content (kg/cum)

Maximum free water/cement ratio

c45 c40 c35A** c30 c25 c20


--.d

2fr'
20 20 20 20 20 20

45 40 35 30 25 20 15

350 325 325 275 250 225 205

550 550 400* 5s0 550 550

0.55 0.55 0.55** 0.65 0.70

cl5
t

5s0

Maximum cemenicontent400 kg/m3 whereOPC or cement containing GGBS is used.Maximumcement content 450 kgim3 wherecement containin!'pFAis used. Maximum free water cementratio is 0.55 where OPC or cementcontaining GGBS is used. Maximum free water cement ratio is 0.50 where ,.*"ni containing PFA is used.

t{<

t<** Blende'd cement comprising Portland cement andPFA or PFA asspecified - 7/37-

Concreteglade is that number which represenlsits 28 day Characte i- ic streieth expressedin N/sq.mm Characteristic strength is that valueof cubecrushing strength belowwhichnoneof all test results fail. This condition shall be deemedto be satisfiedwhen test results complywith the'specified teit igquirements. Maximum free water/cement ratios shall be based on aggregates being in a surfacedry condition. 1.16 FreeWater/CementRatio In designingand establishing mixes of concrete for any part of the works 4pproved the contractor shall keep shictly within the limitations on free water/cement ratios which may be shownon the drawingsor expressly statedelsewhere as applyingto concrete for particularpartsof the works. l.l7 Limits of Salt Content No concreteshall contain more than the following total quantitiesof substances expressed aspercentages by weightof cement:(a) For mixescontaining ordinaryPortland cement to BS 12 : Total watersolublechlorides 0.4%(aschlorideions)

(b) For mixescontaining cements complyingwith BS 4027: Total chlorides0.2%(aschlorideions) (c) For mixesusedfor pre-stressed (all cement concrete types): Total chlorides0.1%(aschlorideions)

-)

(d)

i:ffitffi::luble sulphat es 4.vyo(as so3 ions)

Testsshallbe carriedout in accordance with the following standards :o o o r Chlorides in aggregates ASTM D l4l I Sulphates in aggregates BS 1377Testg Chlorideion in mixing waterASTM D Sl2 Sulphates in mixing waterASTM D 516

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The worl5abilityof eachgr-ade OfcAncrete shatlbe such'thbt,ratirft ;compagtion can be obtainedwhen the concreteis placed and vibrated and that there is no tendency to segregate when it is handled, transportea *d tt td;rtil;; "ornpurt.a which the contractorproposes to useinfie ryorks For reinforcedconcrete,_the compacting factor,detennined by the methoddescribed in BS 1881, shall not be less than 0.85 nor greaterthan 0.92. For unreinforced concretethe compactingfactor shall be not greaterthan 0.85. Wherepumpingof concrete is permitted,the compacting factormay be increased to 0.95,providedthat the conditions In any caseno pumpedconcrete shall be usedfor all waterretainingi:*-:Ted. strucfures. 1.19 Designof ConcreteMixes Eachmix designshallbe suchthat :

(D

The aggregate shall comprise both fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. The size of coarse aggegateshallbe 20 mm or 40 mrn asapproved by T*;1* the S.O. The cementcontentshallnot be belowthe minimumspecified for the gradeof concrete. The ma;cimumfree water/cement ratio shall be the maximum water/cement ratio when the aggregate is saturated but surfacedry. The mixes shall be designedto produce a targetedmean concretecube strength at 28 days after manufacture and shail be greater than the characteristic strengthat 28 daysby a margin of at leasil0 N/sq.mmfor Grade15 and 15N/sq.mm for Grade20,25,30,35A, 40and 45. Where sufficient data can be producedby the contractorto show that the standardof acceptance for characteristicshength can be maintainedusing a lower margin, the mix may be redesigned to have such reducedmargin. Sufficient data shall consistof cube test results from at least 40 ,.ouLt. batchesof concreteproducedover a sameplant under similarcupr*irion. The reducedmargin shall be 1.64 times the standard deviationoi the test rezults considered,but not less than 5 N/sq.mm for Grade 15 and 7.5 IWsq.mm for Grades 20,25,30,35A 40and45.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

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For any concretecontainingadmixtures, the strengths shall not be lessthan those specified but the mixes for the gradeof concrete shallbe separately designed to take account of the effectsof the admixtures, andshallhaveseparate tial mixesmaaeand tested.

1..20

Trial Mixes As soonasthe S.O.hasapproved eachof the concrete mix designs, two batches from a trial mix for eachgradeshall be produced in latoratory using cementand surface dry aggregates known to be typical of the proposed sourceof supply.The proposed mix proportions of eachgradeshallbe approved only if both batches havethe correct cementcontentan$ frry cementratio at or below the maximumvalue for the Yll"t proposed degree of workability. When mix proportionshave been aBproved by the S.O., three further batchesof concrete for eachgradeshall be madeat site underfirll scaleproductionconditions Titg the sarnemixing time and handlesby meansof the same plant which the proposes Contractor to usein the works. The proportions-ofcemgnt,aggregates and water, shall be carefully determined by in accordance with the contractor's approved mix design, and sieve analyses Y.tqhl shall be pade, by the method described in BS 812, of fine aggregate and each nominalsizeof coarse aggregate used. The compacting factor of 'each batch of each trial mix shall be determined immediatelyafter mixing by the methoddesqibed in BS 1881 and shall not be outside the limits specified in clause 2.3.18. compression test cubesfrom eachof the threebatches shall be made Jhg. 1j0 * by the Conkactorin the presence of the S.O.from eachtrial mix. The cubesshallbe made,cured, stored and tested at 28 days after manufacturein accordance with the methoddescribed in BS 1881.If the average valueof the compressive strength of the nine cubest*:1 from any tria! mix is lessthan target mean strength uid in th. mix designor if any individual cubetest resultlhe faUsbetow 85% of the targetmean strength,the Contractorshall redesignthat mix andmakea further trial mix ind setof testcubes. A full scaletestof the workability of eachtrial mix of eachgradeof concrete shallbe madeby the contractorin the presence of the S.O. The trial mix of eachgradeof concrete shallbe batched, mixed andthentransported a representative distanJe in the mannerthat the contractorproposes to batch,mix ana tr;rp;; th. .""*.*.;;;; batches shall be.placed and in trial mouldsboth ior reinforcedJal mass "o-puoLd concretewith dimensionstypical of the works in accordance with the procedures described in later clauses, the sided of the mouldsbeing capableof being stripped - 10/37

placed in theworks. Afterdiscarding tnr ntri uiirh;;;;;;'ril;r..t.

iiol ru*,

without undue disturbance placedtherein,The sidesof the moulds of the concrete shall be strippedafter the concrete hassetand the workabilityjudgedby the surface appearance and compaction obtained. If the workability test shows that the workability requiredis not attained for any trial mix for any gradeof concrete, the trial mix shall be re-designed by the Contractor aqd a further full scaleworkability test undertaken for that trial mix. The re-designof the concrete mixes and the making and testing of trial mixes of concreteshall be repeated for eachgradeof concrete until trial mixes of concrete havebeenestablished which meetthi specifiedrequirements and havethe required workabitityasdemonstrated in the full rrut. *ottuUifity t.rGrcttU.i "U"r. : If at any time during the construction of the worksthe S.O.approves a change in the sourceof cementor aggregate or if the gradingof the aggregate altersto suchan extent that the fraction of aggregate retainedon any sieve cannotbe maintained within two percentof the tgd g*ity of fine and coarse aggregate whenadjusted as specifiedfor samplingand testingof aggregates, then furthertrial mixesof concrete shallbe made,testedandapproved for use. t.2l Material Batching All cementusedin the manufacture of concreteshall be measured by weight either with an approvedweighing machineor by making the size of eachbatchof concrete suchasto requirean integralnumber of complete bagsor drumsofcement. For concrete of Grades20,25,30, 35A 40 and45, the fine aggregate andthe several nominal sizes of coarseaggregates shall be measured singly or cumulativelyby weightusingweight-batching machines. For concrete of Grade15,-the fine andcoarse aggregate shallbe measured separately eitherby weight usingweight-batching machines or6y volumein gauge boxes. Weight-batchingmachines shall provide facilities for the accurateconhol and measurement of the aggregates eithlr singly or cumulatively and shall be capable of immediateadjustment b.V-se-r.nlskilled operators in order to permit variationsto be madeto the mix. All_weighdialsshallbe easilyvisible from the placeat which filling andemptyingof the hoppers is controlled. Every concrete mixing machineshallbe fitted with a deviceto measure added water by weight_ and shall be so construcled that the water inlet and outlet valves are interlockedso that either one of thpm cannotbe openedunlessthe other is fully closed. The weighing device shall be provided with an overflow with a crosssectionalareaat least four times that of the inlet pipe and with its discharge point clear of the mixing plant. The entirewater systemshall be maintainedfree of leaksat all times and'themeasuring deviceshallbe fitted with a drain pipe which allowsthe - tI/37-

'-J

full quantity of water being measured to be drained off for checking the measurement. The outlet arrangement of the measuring device shall be such that betweenfive and ten percentof the water entersthe mixer beforethe other materials and further five to ten percentof the water entersthe mixer after the other materials. The remainder of the water shall be addedat a uniform ratewith the othermaterials. The watermeasuringdeviCe-shalt UeieaAiti aa3uitaUte-ss ttratAa:quantit)'oi*"i.r. added to the mixer can,if necessary, be variedfor eachbatch. Where volume batching is permittedby the Specification, gaugeboxes shall be soundlyconstructed of timber or steelto containexactlythe volume of the various aggregates requiredfor one'batchof eachmix. They shall haveclosedbottomsand shall be clearly m#ked with the mix and aggregate for which they areintended. Whencalculating theisizeof the gauge:box for fine aggregate, an allowance shall be made.folthe-Uutting gf ft" fine aggregale due to th-e-arierage amountof moisture contained in the stockpiles on the site.Beforethe contractor puts any gaugebox into useon the site he shall obtainthe approval of the S.O.of the sizeandconstruction of suchgauge box. Any admixtureswhich may be used shall be measured separately in calibrated dispenseis. All mixing andbatchingplantsshallbe maintained free of setconcrete or cement and shall-be clean before commencingmixing. The accuracyof calibration of any weighing plant, water measuringplant and admixturedispenser, shall be checked beforecarryingout trial mixes,beforemixing concrete for inclusionin the work, after each serviceor adjustment to the mixing plant, and in any caseat least once per month.

L.22

Mixing Concrete Concreteshall be mixed in batchesin plant capableof combiningthe aggregates, cementand water (including admixtures,if any) into a mixture uniform in colour and consistency, andof discharging the mixturewithout segregation. On commencing work with a cleanmixer, the first batchshall containonly half the normal quantity of coarseaggregate to compensate for the adhesionof the other materialsto the drum. The moisture contents of the aggregatesshall be determined before the commencement of eachday'sc-oqc-reting aid at suchintervalsduringeachday* *uV be necessary. The Conhactorshallmakedueallowance for the watelr containldin the aggregates when determiningthe quanlity of water to be addedto eachmix, and shall adjustthe amountof water addedto eachmix to maintainconstant the approved free water/cement ratio of the mixed concrete. - 12/37 -

*)

L.23

Ready-MixedConc(ete
Ready-mixed concrete. shall usedin any part of the works without the S.O.'s 1ot b-e written approval,which may be withdrawnat any time. : . : ', :

The Contactor shall satis$ the S.O. that ready-mixed concretecomplieswith the Specificationin all respects, addthat the manufacturing and delivery reiourcesof,the proposedsupplier are adequate to ensureproper and timely completionof each concreting operation. The specifiedrequirements as to the sampling,trial-mixing testingand quality of concreteof various gradel shall apply equallyto ready-miied concrete wtrich shdt furthermore be madeanddelivered in accordance with BS 532g:'l9gl. Any additionalfacility, whi-ch the S.O.may requirefor the supervision andinspection of the batching,mixing and transporting of ready-mixed conireteshallbe allowedto be usedafter45 minutesof initial rnixing.
vlj

r.24

High Alumina Cement The compositionof high aluminacementshall comply with B.S. 915 part Two. It shall consist of a minimum of 32% of alumina *i ttr. minimum compressive strengths of mortarcubesat oneandthreedaysshallbe 4}N/sq.mm and48 f.ilrq.-* respectively. High alumina cement shall be refrainedfrom being used in structuralconcrete includi-Ilqfoundationsas a substantialreductionsin strengthsis observed underthe vulnerable tropicalconditions.

r.25
.*)

Preparing for Concreting lefory placing concrete the contractor shall remove from the surface of the foundationsor previously placed concrete, all oil, loose fragmentsof rock, earth, mud,timber andotherdebris,andstanding water,to the satisfaitionof the S.O. Wherespecifiedand elsewhere as ordered by the S.O.,the excavated surfaces shall be prepared asspecified underconcrete protection.

1.26

TransportingConcrete Concreteshall be conveyedfrom the mixer to its place in the works as rapidly as possibleby methods which will preventsegregation or drying out and.nr*. thut th.

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concreteis of the requiredworkability at the time of placing. If segregation has nevertheless occurred in any instance, the materials shallbe re'mixed or rejected. I.27 PlacingConcrete : , ' '

.:

Concrete s.hall plu:-.dandcompacted b-e beforethe initial sethasorrurr"a *d, io *y event,not laterthan45 minutesfrom the time of mixing. Whenpneumatic placersare used,if the end of the placerpipe is not equipped with an energy absorbingdevice, it shall be kept as close to-the work as'piacticaUte. Mortar or waterusedat the beginningor end of a run shallbe discharged outside the formwork..
i'

Y::fyf,]I,:,|:.d,,th".19 concrete dunng to assistcompaction. Mortar andwaterusedat the beginning Pt?91n9 or endor a run shallbe discharged outside the formwork. r.28
Concretingin Hot Weather In hot weathero the contractorshall take stepsto ensurethat the temperature of ,the as gfaged. shall not exceed32 deg. c and that the ::Ti"r: temperature attained duringsettingdoesnot exceed -*i*"--irt;*; 70 deg.c. this, the contractor. shallprovide sunshades over stockpiles of aggregate, l"_-":T"Y. cementsilos,mixing waterjank-s andpipelinesandin additionshalicarryouiifrr-f"ri and as necessary other of the following procedures which shall be submitted to the S.O.forapprov-al: (D Cool the mixing water and replacepart of the water by chippedice. The ice -' shallbe completely meltedby the time mixing is completro. Spray clean cool water over the aggregate stockpiles. The Contractorshall carry out regular tests on the aggregates to rnoo. that concenhationsof allow for suchspiaying.

of the:upply,pipe shalt bekeptimmersed in the

:'

(ii)

d.o notrise-io unaccepable tevels, *d;;;;;;th;; Tlp,Pr:_r :i.:ht:liqes morsture content determinations
(iii) (iv) Shade or wet outsideof the formwork.

Apply a fine moisture (fog) spray of clean cool water to shadedareas immediately prior to placingconcrete. Pourconcreteatnight.

(v)

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Compaction All concreteplaced in-situ shall be compacted with power driven internal type vibratorssupplemented by hand spading and tampingeicept as otherwis. upprou.a by the S.O. The vibrators shall at all times be adequate in number,amplitide and poyer to compact the concrsteproperly and quictiy throughout the wilole of the volume being compacted.Sparevibrators shall be readily on hand in case of breakdown Vibrators shall be insertedinto the uncompacted concretevertically and at resular intervals. the concrete is in a layer abovefreshly compicted. .Wh:1. Tc-gTpacted concrete the vibrator shall be allowedto penetrate vertically for abouti00 tn- ioto the previous layer. In no circumstances shall vibrators be allowed to come into contact with the reinforcementor formwork nor shall they be withdrawn quickly from the massof concretebut shallbe drawnback slowly ,o u, not to leavevoids. Intemal type.vibratorsshall not be placedh ft9 concrete in a randomor haphazard m.SITer be movedfrom part of the work to another nor shallconcrete by means ofthe vibrators. The duration of vibration shall be limited.to that requiredto producesatisfactory compaction without causingsegregation. vibration rhujl ;;;Jr;;;i;lontinued atterwateror excess grouthasappeared on the surface.

jl

r30

Attendance of Steelf ixer and Carpenter During the concretingof all reinforcedconcrete,including prestressed concrete, a competent steelfixer andcarpenter shallbein attendance otieactrconcreting g*g,'to ensurethat the reinforcement,formwork and embedded fittings arekept in p"oiitioli as work proceeds.

1. 3 1
I

Curing of Concrete Concrete shall be cured.byprotecting the surface from the effectsof sunshine, drying winds, fros! rain, rynning watgr oimechanical damagefor a;;i"** p;;ll-;? four dayswhenthe cementusedin the concrete portlandr.;;; is sulpliate-resisting Portland Pulverised-FuelAsh cement or Portland gt*t nr*ir. C.*mt. Th; protectiontldl after completionof placingUy on. !-" appliedas soonaspracticable or moreof the following methods asapproved by the S.O.: qa) (b) By water sprays in continuous operation; By covering with hessianor- similar absorbentmaterial, or sand, kept constantlv wet:

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(c)

After tholo_u8h wetting,by coveringwith a layer of waterproof fabric kept in contactwith the concretesurface. By the application of an approved non-staining liquid curingmembrane which is eitherself-removing or easilyremovedfollowing curingperiodand which hasa 75o/o moisture retentionstandard. The'liquid shall be - - ipplied -Tr---- to formed surfaces immediately afterstrippingthe formwork.
tr : ., ,. ,. , ,. . .

(d)

Liquid curingmembrane (d) shallnot be usedon ClassUl surfaces wherelaitance is removedand aggregate exposed provide to a satisfactory bond placing for lo P. nrnnerconcrete ormortar soreeds or on surfaces wherethe S.O.is of the opinionthat the appearance of the concrete surface will be affected. 1.32
1

ConstructionJointi joint is definedasajoint in the concrete A construction introduced for convenience in constructionat wh]ch^spgcial measures are taken to achievesubsequent continuity without provisionfor furtherrelativemovement. Concretepll9d-to form the face of a construction joint shall have all laitance removedandthe largeaggregate exposed prior to theplacingof freshconcrete. The laitanceshallwherever practicable be removed whenthe concrete hassetbut not hardened bf the concretesurfacewith waterunderpressure or brushingwith ;ntu|1tq wire sufficient to remove_theouter mortar skin and exposethe large 1 ,b*tl, aggregate without being disturbed.Where the laitancecannotbe removeddueio concrete, the wholeof the concrete surface formingthejoint shallbe |*9"TTU 9{qt treatedby high pressure rlatel jet, sandblasting,use of a needlegun or a scaling hammerto removethe surface laitance. Before concretingis resumed, all loosematteron the existing shall - -------- surface e concrete be removed andthe surface slightlywetted.

1.32

Dimensions and Surfaces of FinishedConcrete Workmanship in formworkandconcreting shallbe suchthat concrete shallrequireno making good,surfaces compacted, gerfectly smooth*J;th;;;;;ffi;;;. leing Concrete.surfaces fo1 various classes of *for-.d and formed i*irftli .rrall in the any event not exceed the maximumpermittedtolerance which shall be as shownin the table below except where expr-ssly statedotherwisei" ir,, sfiif;;;;; Drawings. In the table "line and level" and "dimension"shall meanthe lines, levels and crosssectional dimgnsions shownon the Drawings. - 16/37 -

Surface irregularities shallbe classified as "abrupt"or "gradual". Abrupt irregularities include,but shall not be limited to offsetsand fins caused by displaced or misplaced formwork,looseknotsandotherdefects in formworkmaterials, and shallbe tested by direct measurement. Gradualinegularitiesshall be testedby meansof a straight, template for'planesurfaces or its suitable equivalent for curvedsurfaces, the template being3.0 m long for unfonnedsurfaces and 1.5m long for formedsurfaces. Maximumtolerance (mm) in: Class,of finish U1 Line and levol
Abifupt, irieEularitv Gradual.l irresularitv

U2 U3 F1 F2 F3

+/.12 +/ -6 +l :6 +/.12 +/ -6 +l -3

+1.-6 +/ -3 +l -3 +l -6 +l -6 +l -3

+12, -6 + 1)'
-6

+6/ -6

1.33

Unformed Surfaces Finishes to unformedsurfaces of concrete shallbe classified as Ul, rJz,rJ3,spaded, or 'bonded concrete'or such other specialfinish as may be particularlyspecified. the concrete stratt Uefi;i.il;;-'cf-.tir uf . ]frere the glqg of finish is not specified, ClassUl finish is the first stagefor ClassU2 and U3 finishes and for a bonded uniform plain or :.tf"r?. 91Tr,u2 lnish shall be a leveledand screeded, "g."r,:T ridged finish, which (unless it is beingcgnv:{qd_to ClassY21U3 or bonded concrele) shall not be disturbe'd in any way after the initial set and during the period of cunng, surplusconcretebeing struck off immediatelyafter compaction.Where a bonded concrete surfaceis specified, the laitanceshallbe removedfrom the ClassUl finish surfaceand the aggregate exposed while the concrete is still green.A spaded finish shallbe u^tyfrtt freg voids and brought to a reasonably uniform appearance by {ro1 theuseof shovels asit is placedin the works. ClassU2 finish shall be produced by manualor mechanical floating of the concrete surfaceafter the initial sethastakenplaceandthe surface hashardened suffrciently. The concrgtg be worked no more than is necessaxy produce to u'*ifot* $alt 'sandpaper' finish free from screed marks. ClassU3 finish shall be a hard smoothsteel-trowelled finish. Trowellins shall not commence until the moisturefilm has disappeared and the concreteh; tt*J.orJ sufficiently to prevent oxcesslaitance from being worked into the surface. The surfaceshall be trowelled underfirm pressure andleft free from trowel marks. The addition'of dry cement, mortaror water will not be permittedduring any of the aboveoperations. - t7/37 -

The Contractorshallpreparesample panels1000mm x 500mm of-concrete with an exposed aggregate finish for inspection andapproval by the S.O.at the site. 1.34 Building in Plant and Grouting- in Wherever possible, pipesandotheritemsof plantpassing throughconcrete structures shall be installedand connected to the remainder of the pipeworksystem : to ensure ' propernt, ana$Ut te boilt'into the structure as*orii pror^.rdr. Wherethis procedureis impracticabledue to programme o, otfrerrequirementsn holes shallbe formedfor the items of plantto allow themto be built:in lateraftercomplete installationof the plant, , , In no cas-e shatlindividualpipesof a complicated pipeworksystem including,flanged j?itt. be built into concrete structures beforeaccurate fit of the whole system canbe checked afterthe complete installation. Where holes are formed theseshall be of size arid shapesuffrcientto permit ploper placing and compactionof concreteo, grout. rt;;i"*r ;iil;-f"l;fti.ll"b" treated to producea'bonded'surface beforeinstallation of plant. Before grouting-incommences the plant shall be adequately supported in positionto preventmovementor d4mage during grouting-in Concreteyse-d fo1 buildinglil shall be qf the s44e gradeas concreteof the member into which the plant is being built, exceptthat the mix shall also incorporateran Concreteused for water retaining structufesshall be non shrink in natureto enswe watertightness. Concrete, mortar and grout shall be carefullyplacedand compacted aroundthe plant to avoid damaging or moving the plant. 1.35 Structural Pre-CastConcrete Structuralunits of pre-castconcrete shatl be manufactured in the gradeof concrete and to the sizesand details shownon the Drawings.The concreteshall comply in every aspectwith the provisionsof the Contractwhethersuchunits aremanufaitured on the site or obtained from othermanufacturers.

approved e*p*iing additiveis-ud inaccoii gr *itft tttr'**u-Lit".ilutt4ri{,fii;:

- L8/37 -

All cement, aggregate andothermaterials for pre-cast concrete unitswith faces which areexposed eitherinternallyor externallyshallbe from the samesources throughout. Exposed surfaces of the units shallbe uniformin colourandin texture. Formwork and unformed surfacesfor pre-castconpreteunits shall comply wittr ttre requirements for F3 formed surfacesand U3 unformed surfacesexcept that the dimensionalvariationsshall not exceedthe valueslisted below, unlessotherwise detailed on the Drawings. Length+/-6 mm Cross-secti on +/6 mm eachdirection Straightness 6 ryqr (deviationfrom intendedline) Flatress, 3 mm (deviationfrom a 1.5 m straightedgeplaced in any position on a nominallyplanesurface) Squareness when consideringthe squareness of a corner, the longer of the two adjacent sidesbeing checked shallbe takenasthe baseline, andthe shortersideshall not vary in its distance from the normal so that the differences between the greatest andthe shortest dimensionexceeds 6 mm. Whenthe nominal angleis otherlhan 90 degrees, the includedanglebetween the checkline shallbe variedaccordingly. on any nominallyplane surface shall not be more than 6 mm from T*itl any corner. the planecontaining the otherthreecorners. The positionsof individual connecting bolts, bolt holes,projectingsteeland other devicesin any associated group(eg.thejoint of two pre-cast units) shall be within 3 mm of their true position in the $oup in which they are cast.The locationof any suchgroup shall be within 6 mm-of iis true positio; in tfre uniri" *hi;il;i;-;i providedthat such deviationdoesnot adversely affect the proper assembly of the whole structure. The Contractorshall submit to the S.O. for approval,full details of his proposed methodof carryingout all operations connected wittr tile manufacture ana assemUty of precast concrete strucfural members, including: o A descriptionof the types of castingbed, mould and formwork for the various typesof members; o The procedure for concrete casting andthe methodof curingthe concrete; o The procedurefor transporting, handling,hoisting and placing of eachtype of pre-cast structural member; o Full details of temporary supportsnecessary to ensureadequatestability during erection, dueaccount be takenof construction loads,includingwind. - L9/37 -

1.36

Installationof Pre-CastConcrete Units

.,

,: ,,' ,

At all stagesand until completionof the work, pre-castmembers shall be adequately protectedto preserveall permanentlyexposedsurfaces,arises and architectural features. The protectionshallnot markor otherwise disfigurethe concrete. jointed and fixed in accordance A11 units shall be laid, bedded, with the lines,levels andotherdetailsshownon the Drawings. jointing for packingshall consistof one part of volume ordinary Pty:pu.-k mortar Portlandcementand two andhalf partsby volumeof fine aggregate passing a I mm sieve.The mortar shall be mixed with ottty sufncientwatJr-to"-uffu theiraterials stick together when being moulded in the hands. The mortar is thoroughly compacted Any pre-castconcretestructural memberwhich is found to be cracked, damaged or otherwiseinferior in quality,eitherbefore or after erectionshall be rejectedand replaced by the Contractor. 1.37 Prestressed Concrete The Contractor shall submitto the S.O.for approval his proposed methodof carrying out all operations connected with pre-stressed concretework and his proposals'for handling,hoistingandplacinga positionanypre-cast pre-stressed concrete *ritr. Pre-stressed concrete pre-cast work whether or castin-situ shallbe as detailed on the Drawings and the Contractorshall provide full details of his proposed methodof carryingout all operations connected with pre-stressing including:- ' (a) Designof concrete mix (b) Descriptionof concrete casting andcuringoperations (c) Procedure for pre-stressing and methodof checkingand recording the pre-stress, wire extensionand anchorage slip. (d) Procedure for handling,hoistingandplacingof anypre-cast units. (e) Grouting of ducts All tendons,duct forming devices,anchorages and other components shall be kept free of mud, oil (exceptwater solubleoil appliedfor protection),paint, retarderi, looserust, or other foreignmatter.They shall be placedwith a tolerance of +/-3 mm in concrete dimensions of 300mm of lessor * 6 mm in concrete dimenlionsover300
mm. I

-20/37 -

. o

Not lessthan 95%by weightpassing a 19mm BS sieve; Not morethan 5%by weightpassing a l0 norn BS sieve.
t' : . '

The proportion of aqglegate,cement and water shall be determinedby trial mixes by the Contractor starting with a cement: aggregateparticles ratio.of one to eight by volume. : The trial mix shall be considered suitable when all the aggregateparticles are coated with a film of cement grout. The water content shall be just adequate.ihe concrete when placed shall contain no layers of laitance. \r No-fines concreteshall not be mixed bv hand. Vibration shall not be used to compact the concrete. Three test cubes of no-fines concrete shall be made of each hial mix. The minimum crushing strength of the chosenmix shall be 3 N/sq,mm at 28 days.

1.40

Pre-CastConcreteProducts (a) Pre-ca$concrete productsshallwhereappropriate be conskucted in aocordance with British Standards asfollows,beinghydraulically pressed wherepossible : Typeof Ilnit Standard Concrete blocksBS 6073: pt I : 1981 Concrete kerbs,etc.BS 7261 :part I : 1990 Concrete flags BS 7263: pt 1 : 1990 Concrete sils gS SO+Z Concrete lintels BS 5977 The concrete shall comply in every aspect with the provisions of the Specificationwhethe, ,u.h products* on *e rf" ^*iuzutr.a "r "b"f; from othermanufacturers.

- 2r/37-

(b) Interlockingconcrete pavingshallincludesupplyandlayingof pavers, preparation of surface, supplyof sandandcasting of edgereshaintbeams. The pavers shall comply with the requirement of MA 20, Specification for concrele. seeln3ntal Units, published by the Concrete Masonry .faving Association of Australia. 1.41 Samplingand Testingof Aggregate :. The Contractor shallsample andcarryout a mechanical analysis of the fureaggregate andeachnominalsizeof coarse aggregate in useemployingthe methods described in BS 1881at leastoncein ,u.t *rrk *h.r, concreting is inlrogress andat suchmore frequentintervalsasthe S.O.may require. The gradingof all aggregates:shall be within specified limits and shouldttrefraction of aggregate retained ol *t sieve.difflg"T corre-spondiy frali-on of aggregate t" in the approvedmix by more than 2Yoof the total quantity of fine *J-ro*r" aggregate, S.O may instruct the ,contractor to alter the relative proportions of the aggregates in the mix to allow for suchdifference.

r.42

Samplingand Testingof Concrete The Contractor shall provide the equipmentnecessary to determinethe compacting factorof freshlymixed concrete at eachplacewhereconcrete is beingmadeandshaii determinethe compactingfactor of the freshly mixed concreteby the method described in BS 1881on eachdayor asthe S.O.may direct. For each gradeconcrete, works test cubesshall be madewhenever requiredby the S.O.but not lessfrequently thanasfollows unless particularly otherwise specified:for concrete of onesetof cubes per 25 cu.m Grades 25,30,354, 40 or partthereof per day; concreted for concrete ofone setofcubesper50 cu.m Grades15 or 20 or part thereofconcreted per day Eachsetof cubes(six cubes per set)shallbe madefrom a singlesample takenfrom a randomly selectedbatch of concrete.Three cubes shall be tested 7 days after manufactureand threecubes28 daysafter manufacture.

-22/37 -

1.43

Compliance wit:h SpeciliedRequirements ^ Theconcrete shallbe deemed satisfactory providedthat . (D The average 28 daysstrength determined from any groupof four consecutive' setsof threetestcubes exceeds thespecifiedcharacteristic strength by-notless than 7.5 */:O:T* for Grade15 concrete and 10N/sq.mmfor Grades20,25, 30,35Aand40. The average of eachset of threetest cuberesultsis greater that 1007o of the specifi ed characteristic strength.

(ii)

If only onesetof threqcuberesultsfails to meetthe second requirement, thoseresults may be considered to represent only the particular batch of concretefrom which the cube.s were taken, provided that the averagestrengthof the group satisfiesthe first requirement; i : If more ft* o-1. set of three cube results in a group fails to meet the second requirement or if the average strength of any groupof four consecutive setsof three test cubesfails to meetthe first requirement then all the concrete in all the batches represented by all such cubes shall be deemednot to comply with the strength requirements.

1.44

Non-Compliance Whenthe average strengthof four setsof threeconsecutive test cubesfails to meet the first requirement, no further concrete from that mix shall be placedin the work andthe contractorshall establish the cause of the failure andapply suchremedies as are necessaxy. The Contractorshall demonstrate by trial mixes and test cube results that the revisedmix is in accordanee with the specifiedrequirements. The Contractor shallwithin 24 hoursof the dateof testmakeproposals for aseement wiJhthe. action to be in respect of any .oori.ti represente? by test 1.9.^*o* cyb-gs wh]chfaiJto meeteitherof-taken the requirements. proposals These may includl, but shallnot be limited to, cuttingandtestingcores. Concrete which is ultimatelyfoundnot be complywith anyof the requirements ofthe Specification shall be rejected and shallbe brokenout andreplaced oi otherwise dealt with asagreed with the S.O.

-23t37 -

1.45

Cutting and Testingof Core Samples

1.46

InspectionProcedures Beforeany concreteis placed, the Contractor shall carry out an inspection to en5.ure that all preparations arecomplete, includingtheprovisionof the necessary equipment and,Personriel, and shall ensure t-hat suf;ficient materials areavailable to complete,the I rworkppposed. : '.'.'

After completionof this inspection the work shall be offered for inspection by the S.O.,sufftcienttime being allowed for inspection and correctionof any defects. no c91c1etg shall be placed-until the S.O.-has inspected and approved the surfaces upon which the concreteis to be placedthe formwort< andthe reinforcing steel. S1.1" requiredby the S.O. the Contractorshall institute a 'pour card' systemin *T*:9ar$ is.-"d-t ouJfor eachlift of concrete and is initialed by the Contractor indicating that the q.O. inspections have been carried out. Td 'pour The card' shall include spaces to identifu the concretebeing placedand to completionof the by the Contractorand S.O. oflne followir.rg inspeqlions Itftp ltems:
I

a o a a

o a

Preparation of surface on which concrete is to be placed; Formwork; Reinforcement; Readyfor concrete placing; Inspection after removal of formwork (any remedial work shall be agreedand noted); Curingprocedures; Completionof remedialwork (if any)

-24137 -

t.47 Where required all structuralconcretein conlactwith the ground shall be protected *." of the methodsspecified below,Unlessotherwise specified or detailed on the P Drawing, in-situ concrete surfaces which areto be.protected shall haveeitherIJ2 or F2 finish asappropriate. (a) Prefabricated membrane tanking: The membrane shall be preformedconsisting of 1.5 mm thick rubber/bitumen compound formulatedfor use in hot climates, backedwith 0.3 mm thick PVC sheet. The membrane joints to itself at overlaps shall adhere with watertight and to con*ete surfaces prepared wjth ;ui l;fi#;;;***4.The membrane and primer shall be applied in accordance with the manufacfurer's instructions to horizontal, inclinedandverticalsurfaces. brinfine concrete praene{, th; membranesha[ ue applied, 1l"r \ .ha1 bitumen face downwards, and shall extendat least 150 mm beyondthe outer limits of the structure. As soonas the membrane hasbeenappliedand before any reinforcementor structural concreteis placed, the membraneshall be covered by a sand/cement screed 50 mm thick, extending overthe wholearea of the base of the structure.The membraneprojection of 150 mm shall be temporarily protectedwith a layer of board as specifiedbelow to prevent mechanical damage. After the concretestructurehal b;en constructed up to groundlevel and curing is completed,the surfaceswhich will be in contactwith ttre ground,or as detailedotherwise on'the Drawings,shallbe primedwith the materialsupplied by the membranemanufacturer.The vertical membraneshall be bondedonto the projectionof the ba;e.lembraneandterminated in a chase at the top. Fillets andreinforcingshipsshallbe used. Completedareasof vertical membraneshall be protectedfrom mechanical damageduring backfill operations by 12 mm ttict cardboard, fibre-boardor chipboard secured with suitable adhesive or by concrete block-work. (b) Made-in-placemembrane tanking : As an alternativeto prefabricatedmembrane taking on horizontal surfaces, the contractor may propose to design, supplyandinstalla made-in-place membrane of bitumenasphalt concrete laid on a tack coatplacedon cleanoriginalground. ,25/37 -

The bitumen asphaltconcreteshall comprisebifumenor asphaltand coarse and nne aggregares. The Contractor shall demonstrate to the S.O. by testing, by trial and by experience that made-in-place membrane tanking exhibits characteristics which are,in allrespect equalto or betterthan prefabricated membrane tanking.The system shallbe :. o o o o Waterproofduringlife of protected structure; Robustduringpreparation for concreting; Durableduringlife of structure; Flexiblein differentialsettlement; Incompressible underweightof structure.
'.'

Made-in-place membrane tanking may be used in place of blinding concrete provided that the conhactorshall also have demonstrated to the S.O. the ' pructicaUitity of this system by testing, by trial andby exp( . )nence. Vertical or sloping concrete surfacesshall be protected by prefabricated membraneranking as speciflted which shall overlap and adhereto made-inplacemembrane tankingovera width of l50mm.
.l

The emulsionshallbe a rubber-rich bituminous emulsionsuitable for usein hot climatesimd capable of building up a film with minimum dry thickness of 1.0 which impermeable is to waterpenetration mm, andpossessing a high degree of flexibility. A priming mixture shallbe madeby thoroughlymixing I part emulsion with 6 partsfresh water. coats otherthan priming coat shall not be diluted.

- 26/37

Application ratesshall be as follows or as necessary to build up a minimum dry film thickness of 1.0mm.: Coat

'HorizOntal : Verticil I

rst (priming) 2nd 3rd


Lst(priming)) 2nd 3rd
4th
..h

7 L 1.5 7 7 2 2

Over-coating shall take place as soon as the previouscoat has dried. Immediatelythe finpl coat has been applied to vertical surfaces, bitumenizedbuilding paper shall be appliedto the fresh emulsionand pressed into closecontactover the whole areaof the protection. Horizontal and vertical surfacesshall be protectedfrom mechanicaldamageduring subsequent construction work by screed or boarding asspecified fot *r*Ui*r;."kid.-" (d) Polyethylene sheet250 micron polyethylene sheetshall be placedagainst vertical or sloping surfacesof excavatedground before placing concretedirectly against such srufaces. Backfilling with sandagainstprotectedsurfaces shall be carriedout in sucha mannerthat protection the is not damaged. Nevertheless, if suchdamage occurs, the damage sn*t U madegoodto the satisfaction of the S.O. 48 ConcreteProtectionProcedures Details of concrete^ protection shall be shown by the contractoron the preliminary *olq"g drawings.Suchdetailsshall includecornersoverlaps, brick or boardprotection and details for curves faces,etc. Concrete protectionsystems proposed for use in the wgrks,.sh{lbe demonstrated by the Contractor beforerot-irri* to the S.O.for approval of preliminaryworking drawingsshowinguseof suchsystems il'tttr works.

Basesto take machineryand associated pipework shall be constructed in fair faced concrete to the dimensions shownon the upptorreO machinery drawingsor asordered by the S.O.The mountingsurface of the baseshallbe steel.floated to true andlevelplanes. The structuralconcreteon which the bases:are to be erectedshall be prepared by hacking and cleaningoff. Basesshall be tied to the structuralconcretewith vertical reinforcement. Horizontal rginforyement shall also normallybe providedat the level of the pocketsfor the holding downbolts. ,' Bolt pocketsand lead-insfor grout shall be formed by a meanswhich shall havethe approvalo_f the SrO,P.glys,f:n: formerswitl not be permitted, Whereexpanded metalis usedasa formerit shallbe left in. Whenthe machineryhas beenerected the bolt pocketsshall on approvalof the S.O.be completelyfilled using *i"ry: of 2 partsof gemlnt to 3 partssharpsandby volume 3 with sufficient watei to form a thick creamyconsistency: The machineryshall be run underthe supervision of the contractor and witnessed by the S.O. after the grout has hardened. When so directedthe Contractorshall completi the between the top of the concrete andthe underside qoyting operatiol by frlling the space of the machinery baseplate. ppy-""jwi.tt No separate complying-ig,rh"provision of this clause andall !e ya$e.fol costshallbe deemed to be includedelsewhere in the Bill of Quantities. 1.50 Measurement of In-Site Concrete For concreteplaced in-site separate measurements shall be made of plain or mass(i.. unreinforced)concreteand of reinforcedconcretefor each of the specifiedgrades of concrete. In-situ concrete and all work in connection therewithas specifiedshall be valuedby the lneasurement of only suchitems as aro set forth in the Bill of Quantities. Exceptwhere expressly shown to the contrary, forrnwork (excluding formwork for horizontal joints) and steel reinforcement construction shall be measured separately from and in additionto, measurement of concrete placedin-situ. Measurement of formwork and of steel reinforcement shall be as providedin clauses 2.4.14 and 2.5.12 respectively. UnformedsurfacefinishesclassU1, U2 andU3 and spaded finish shall notUe measured for payment.

- 28t37 -

(i)

Any pu{pose madehole or opening which hasan average cross-sectional arealess than 1600sq cm or whichhasa volumeof 0.1 cu metreof less; Any. Portiot rebates,-channels, pipes, ducts or the like wJrose'.rorr9f 9.!11r, sectional areain 1000sqmm or less; Any chamfer100mm wide or lesson the splay; The spaceoccupied by any steelreinforcement, rails,joints or the tike embedded in the concrete. Building paperor other protectionof foundationsurfaces, whereorderedby the S.O. shall be measured as the net areaso protected andno measurement shallbe madeof lapsor joints.
: J Ia

(ii) (iii) (iv)

Concretetelting shail be' separately measurement only if and to.thelextentthal itemsfor testsareprovidedin the Bill of euantities. 1.51 Measurement of Form Openingof Build in plant Paymentfor form openingor build in plant shall be madeat the rate per openins tendered. The rate shall include the cost of handling,provision of fatse **t *i l?b9-ry necessaryloforming openingor building in at the required position.The rate shallbe measured according to the openingsize. 1.52 Measurement of Grouting Back The Opening Paymentfor grouting back the opening shall be made at the rate per opening tendered. The rate shall includethe costof handling,provisionof falsework,iuUo*] marerlaland equlpment necessary to complete groutthe gap.The groutshallbe either ordinaryPortlandCementor Non'shrinkgrout.The rate shallbe ireasured accordine th. ope.1i1e size.The work could only be considered complete after it haspassei P thewatertightness test.

-29t37-

1.53

Measurement'of Pre-CastConcrete

'

Items for Pre-11t concreteshall includethe manufacture and fixing in the worksof thepre-cast units andall works in connection therewithasspecified. Pre-cast concreteshall be measured as fixed in the works by numbersof units. bv volume, by area or by length as indicatedin the Bill of Quantities. Measurement (exceptwhereby numbers)shall includethe space joints occupied by between units but not by bedding.Otherwise all measurement shallbe net exceptthat no deduction shall be madein respectof any purposeformedhole, duct or thl Hkewhich hasan average cross-sectional arealessthan2500sq.mm. senarate measuremenl for-payryent shallbemadein respect of formwork,surface )o. j.oggles, jointing, p?ddld_91 the_ dowets,. gri",, like for pre-cast linrorcemenl, concrete unless separate itemsareexpressly providedin the Bill of Quantities. Pre-cast pre-stressed concrete and all work in connection therewithas specified shall vclu3d by the measurement of only such items as provided are in the Bill of le Quantities. 1.54 Sizes and Sequence of Concretepours Beforecommencing concreting the Contractor shall submitfor approvalhis detailed proposalsfor the sequence of placing concreteand the positions of vertical and joints. Theproposals horizontalconstruction shallcomplywith the following :Where.limitations in lengthsof floor or roof slabsthat may be castwithoutjoints in any direction are stated on the Drawings, the slabs shall be subdividedbv joints into panelsof dimensions construction not exceeding the stated limit on lenetll. The panelsshall be separately concreted in one continuois operationand n paners shallbe panels ;;;; in adjacent tr ;i.#;;;r ;,;. "o "on.rrt"drr'tiithr
--J ----

limitationsi1 ylil that may be castwithoutjoints arestated on the Yh*: lene{{rs.9f Drawings tr.1 be divided into segments not exceeding the statedmaximum *fll joints which arecontinuous by vertical joints with the floor andextend the full l.gtt of the walls in an unbroken alignment. Each segmentLbove the top of the wall feight and the top the-wall shall be castin a seriesof lifts eachof a lengthand l"g:h 9{ heightto be approved by the S.O. Alternates.eSmentl in a lift shall be concreted and an interval of 7 daysshall elapse beforethe intervening segments in the same lift areconcreted. At eachjoint rebates shall be formedto receivesealingcompounds as shownon the Drawings.

- 30/37 -

Each segmentof the wall footing and haunchdefinedby the floor and wall joints shall be concretedin one continuousoperation. Segmentsshall be concreted

*fffit:ltff:

* interval of at least days shall elapse before intervening segments

i.sa

ci.u"i"gt; wdiltaining Structures


All waterretainingstructures shallon completion, be carefullycleaned asfollows:(a)

The structureshall be clearedof all debrisand shall be brushed down on all intemal faces with a stiff broom while still dry, and all resultingdebris removed; all associated reservoirpipework shall be cleanedin accordance with the specification requirements. The structureshall then be flooded with approximately75 mm of cleanwater and the whole of the intemalfacesshall be carefullybrushed down with stiff brooms,usingthe water continuously until all facesareclean;the watershall then be drainedoff, and the walls and floors hosedand flushedwith clean wateruntil perfectlyclean.

o)

1.56

Testingof Water RetainingStructures As soonas possibleafter completionof waterretainingstruotures but not beforethe concretehas attainedits specified28 day,strengththey shall be testedfor water tightness by filling with waterup to the designed top water level. The rate of filline shallbe reasonably constant and shallnot exceed 2 m ofdepth in 24 hoursexceptin the caseof small structures wherea higher rate may be aliowedby the Contractor. After filling the structure shallbe allowedto standfull (beingtoppedup asnecessary) for at least72 hours,for absorption of waterby the concreteto tut . pL., at the end of which period the level shallbe accurately noted.The structure shallthenbe tested

fora fi*ther period ofatleast zzrrours i+sffi;l"ii;;


(i)

;;;;;;;;.h

structures as agreed) andshallbe accepted aswatertightif :-

il;;i;;

No leaksor damppatches on the backsof walls arediscernible dwins period of the test (if the backsof walls are wettedby rainfall or any otherciuse the test must be delayeduntil they are dry for at leastT} hours).In the caseof individual parts of being testedindependently, the division walls ,a,structure alsomustbe watertight The floor underdrainage systemof the structtre (if any) remainsdry, or the flow in it beforethe test is not increased asa result of frliing the structurewith water:

(iD

-31/37 -

(iiD

During the 72 hour testperiodreferred to above the lossof waterby evaporation shalt be determined by measurement of the lossof water'froma shallowwatertighttray of 0.4 sq.min areacontaining not lessthan75 mm depthof waterandpositioned to float on the surfaceof the water in the structure. The roofs and manholecovers of the closedreservoirsshall be testedfor watertightness beforethe laying of any roof membrane by general observation from within the reservoirfor damppatches or leaksover a periodof heavyandprolonged rain but shouldsucha suitableoccurrence fail to happen, the roof and fittings shallbe hosed downvigorouslyandthis shallbe repeated in sucha way asto keepthe roof wet for 3 successivedays. to9.f.*9 fittings.shallbe deemed satisfactory for water-tightness if thereare no T.h" discemibleleaksor damppatches from insidethe reservoir. Remedial measures and retesting shallbe carriedout at the Contractor's expense until satisfactory. Shoutdany parts of the structurefail the abovetests in any respect,the Contractor shall immediatelytake stepsto ascertain the natureand positionr oi any defects or leakages, shall empty the structure, and remedythe defeits in an approved manner. Note that a damppatch appearing on the outsideof the wall must 6e rectifiedfrom tF watgl face,a,r-egair makingthe outerfaceonly watertightshall not be approved; this applies to bobbinholesalso. the remedialw.ork in an approved manner, the testingand JF.t !ra1beencompleted ifnecessary rectificationshallbe repeated until a satisfactory testis achieved. If necessary, in extreme casesof lack of water-tightness, the structure or anymember or sectionof a memberthereofmay be rejected. Any expense in materials(includingthe supplyof water),plant labourand all other costs including overheadsand profit involved in the satisfactorywater-tiehtness testing.ofdJ waterretainingstructures in the works shallbe inciudedin tie rates E entered by the Contractor in the Bill of euantities. Any costs,incurredby the Contractor in remedialor replacement work necessary to achieve the satisfactory testingshallbe entirelyat the.*p.n.. of the Contractor. 1.57 Disinfectionof lYater RetainingStructures Disinfection of water retaining structures shall be carriedout by the Conhactorafter theseskuctureshavepassed the water-tightness test.

- 32/37 -

The structureshall be emptied.The internal surfaces of the walls, the internalsurface of the roof, the internal and externalsurfaces of atl pipes and specials insidethe structure, and all other surfaces insidethe structure shall be vigorouslybrushed and flushedwith jets of clear,cleanwateruntil all foreign materials, gnt dirt and which may have accumulated thereonare removed. All water and materialaccumulated in the cleaningoperation shallbedischarged or otherwise removed from the structure. The Conlractorshall provideevidence to the satisfpction of the S,O.thatthe chlorine proposed dosage joint for sterilisation will not adversely affect sealant materials. Chlorinationshall be carriedout by Method 1 or Method 2 as set out below. The Contractorshall submit details of his proposed methodof working to the S.O. for approval beforecommencing disinfection ot*y structure. Method I The structure. shall then be filled th: overflow level wi$ potablewater to which P enoughchlorineis addedto provide a free chlorineresidualthroughout the structure of not lessthan 10 mg/l at the end of the appropriate retentionperiod.This shallbe not less than 6 hours when the water entering the structure has been chlorinated uniformly by gas-feed equipment or chemical pump or not lessthan 24 hourswhen the structure has been filled with water which has been mixed with calcium

withinthestructure. Theprocedure setoutin 1ry..::H"11.-:t.rggiu1hypochlorite AWWA C652shall


be followed. At the end of the retentionperiod the free chlorineresidualshatlbe reduced to not more than 2 mgll by draining and refilling or blendingwith potablewaterhavinga low chlorine concentration, after which the water within the structure shall be sampledto determinethe free chlorineresidualand for bacteriolosical analvsis to check for the absenceof coliform organismsof faecal origin. If th; ;;itr *. unsatisfactorythe structureshall be drainedand the disinfection procedureshall be repeated. The costsof anyrb-testing shallbe borneby the contractor. Mefhod 2 A solution of 200.mg/l available. chlorineshall be applieddirectly to all surfaces of the structurewhich would come into contactwith water by suitabiebrushes or spray equipment. The disinfected surfaces shall remainin contatt with the strongctrtorinl solutionfor at least30 minutesafter which potablewater shall be admitti and the structure shallbe filled andtested for bacteriological quality asin Methodl. 1.58 Chlorin e B earing Solution/lVlixturefor Disinfection The chlorine bearing solutior:/mixtureshall be preparedusing clear, cleanwater and ---chlorine,eitherasliquid chlorine,calciumtrypoctrtorite or sodlumhypo.hlod;.

- 33/37 -

Calcium hypochloritegranules, brokento a size not exceeding 0.6 mm ma:rimum dimension, may be pouredinto the structure from an opening or placedinsideon dry surfaces prior to the introduction of flowing water.They shallbe so positioned that a currentof water circulatingaroundthe structure shalldissolve themduringthe filling

:n::'"1 Sodiumhypochloriteshallbe appliedto the waterentering the structure by means of


a chemicalfeed pump, or shall be appliedby hand-pouring into the structureand allowingthe inflowing waterto providethe desired -i*irrg. 1.59 SealingC.ompouhds Sealingcompounds joints shallbe hot appliedbituminous for horizontalconstruction sealantscomplying with the requirements of BS 6213. Sealing compounds for joints shall be bituminousputty of a quality vertical and inclined construction approved by the S.O.'sRepresentative. Both sealingcompounds shall be capable of expandin-g to ll0% of their orisinal thickness betweenparallel faces,without ,.p*ution. Horizontal floor joints and vertical and inclinedjoints to be filled with the sealing compound shall first be thoroughly cleanedand dried and an approvedprimer compatiblewith the sealingcompoundshall be applied.Each primer and sealing shall be appliedin accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations :o*poTdfor tropicalclimates. Sealing compoundsfor expansionand contraction joints shall be polyuretane or polysulphide liquid polymer sealantscomplying with BS 6213 obtuned from approvedmanufacturers. The sealingcompoundshall be capableof expanding to 133% of its original thicknessbetweenparallel faces without extruding and of contracting to 67%oof its originalthickness without separation.

-34t37

joints to be filled with the sealingcompound Expansion andcontraction shallfirst be thoroughly cleanedand dried and an approvedprimer compatiblewith the sealing compoundshall be applie!. Both primer and sealing_compound shallbe appliedin accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations for tropicalclimates. 1.60 Joint Fillers Jointfilleisha1leithercorkjointfillerorce1lularjointfiller.
.:,

Corkjoint filler shall be waterproofand rotproofand shall not extrudeas a resultof compression. Cork joint filler shall compressto less than 50%o of its original thickness with immediate recovery to 80%or moreof its originalthickness. CellularSointnU., shall be preformed joint frllr. *aa, from f"* low-compression rubber.Cellularjoint filler ihall recoverto its original thickness after eachloading andunloading. 1.61 Waterstops
t,

Waterstops shall be1f3bbe1 or PVC and shall_U: o{a type and manufacture approvedby the S.O. The Contractorshall carefully follow the manufacturer's inskuctions in any work involvingthe incorporation of waterstops into structures. Waterstops shall be fully continuous when laid and site joints shall be limited to simplebutt joints which are to be madewith the manufacturer's fusingjig. A careful checkshall be made on all joints after completionto ensurethat no imperfections exist. Waterstops shall be secwely held in position by the formwork or by meansto be approvedby the S.O. and the concreteshall be carefully worked around the waterstops to ensurethat they are completely embedded and that no air pockets will exrst.

1.62

MovementJoints Movement joints are definsd as all joints intended to accommodate relative movementbetwe^en udjory"F parts of a structure, provision being made _special wherenecessary fbr maintaining joint. the watertightness of the The Conhactor shall comply with the instructionsof manufacturers jointing materials of proprietary and shall, if requiredby the S.O.,demonstrate that thJjointing materialslan be applied satisfactorily.

The Contractorshall submitto the S.O.for his approval, as soonaspracticable after the acceptance of his Tenderandnot lessthanthreeweeksbeforethe commencement of concreting, detailsof his proposals for the installationof waterstops. Theseshall show wherejoints are to be locatedand detailsof the intersections and changes of joint to a scale that position shows the of any or shape of any moulded j:::ijl"" jointing on Site shall be confinedto the making of butt joints in As far as possible straightruns of waterstops. Whereit is agreedwith the S.O.that it is necessqry to makean intersection or change of directionor anyjoint. Otherthan a butt joint in a joint intersection straightrun, on Site, a prefabricated or changeof directionpiece shallbe madeandsubmitted to suchtestsasthe S.O.may require. Flexible waterstops shall be fully supported in the formwork,free of nails and clear of reinforcement andotherfixtures.Damaged waterstops shallbe replaced andduring concreting careshallbe takento placethe concrete so that waterstops do not bendor distort.
The surface of set concrete in a movement joint : shall, where specified on the ..

Drawings,be paintedwith two costsof bitumin-ous paint and freshcbncrete shallbe placedagainstit only when the paint is dry. Expansion joints shall be formedby a separating joint filler. stip of approved preformed ;;; ;;' ;;;;^* .n, Drawings.At ar joints wherea caulking grooveis formed,immediatelyprior to caulking,the grooveshall be wire brushed, and.lgo;g removed air. After the Td bl9*t out by compiessed groovehas dried it T"T."."1 shall be primed and caulkedwith approved jointing compound appliedin accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. At all caulkedioints.the faceof the caulkingstrip and25 mm width of concrete on eithersideshall6epainted with two coatsof paint havingthe same baseasthe caulkingcompound 1.63 Structriral Tests The S.O. may, if required,call for loadingtest on the structure, and for floors,roofs and similar structures. The test load shallbe up to l%times the designsuperimposed loadfor tlre areas to be tested. The testload shallnot be appliedwithin t+ daysof tn. castingof the appropriate.concrete, andtemporary timber supports, in caseof failing, mustbe immediately available. The test shall be satisfactoryifuponremovalof that load the residualdeflectiondoes not exceedone quarterof the maximum deflection after 24 hours loadine.If the t-..:d"ul deflection exceeds this amount,the test is to be repeated and iiresidual deflectionis as above,this may be considered satisfactory. ill *"*uremeni ;; levelsof the second testareto be entirelyindependent of the first test.

- 36137 -

TheS.O.may deem testsnecessary because :(a) Sitemadetestcubesfailed to attainspecified strensths. e!rv'6rrrr' (b) Shutteringwasp*-uturliy;.;;il:(c) Overloading occurred during stagesof constructionor while concretewas
(d) Concrete wasimproperlycured. (e) Any othercircumstances attributed to alleged negligence by the contractor.
A

(D Any otherreason.

,1" loadingtest be.Tld" wholly or in part for reason(a), the test shall be at T irfor.reason (b) to (e) inclusive, then if the test be satisfactory ::Tt::1:]_1:y shall !i$; bereimbursed for the costof the test;if for reason (f) Contractor 11",:ottltuctor snallmakethe testandbe reimbursed for the costof same, whatever ttr. irrt result.

iuk"r,dory. y*$_"oncemed.b" or t.*ou.J ;i-r;;#r*"#,"'r"*or', 1l: this Specification,


or taKe suchremedial measures asthe s.o. mayinstruct, all at his

If the resultof the loadingtest be unsatisfactory the S.O.may instructthat the partof

detailed above, the. contractor shall take down ot ;;;;;i;ffi:il"i1i.'*orr.,

or that suchremedial measures shallu",ur.* r; il;;ii;;;ork; secure. If the test was madefo1 o1e or more of the reasons "rto (e) inclusive, (a) as own cost.

*,t,

-J i l J | -

SECTION 10. PILING WORKS

1 0 .1

GENERAL

Setting out shallbe carriedout fromthemaingrid of the proposed structure. Immediately before installation of the pile, the pile positionshallbe markedwith suitable identifiable pins,pegsor markers, : For a pile cut-offat or abovegroundlevelthe maximumpermitted deviation of the pile cenhe from the centre point shownin the Drawings shallnot exceed 75mmin anydirection. For a pile level an increase in the verticallytolerance is permitted up to I in 75 from ::r:qqtt:*.ground the finishedpile. The Contractorshall, if orderedby the Fngineerextractandreinstallanypile which hasdeviated out of position or alignmentby morethan the specifiedlimit, or alternativelythe substructure shallbe modifiedto the approval of theEngineer. The costof suchextraction-and reinstallation" or any exha cost in the designandconstruction of a modifiedfoundation shallbe bomeby the Contractor,il in the opinion of the Engineer suchextrawork hasbeenmade necessary duetb the incompetency and/ornegligence of the Contractor. The Contractorshall submit to the Engineerhis proposedprogramme for the executionof the piling work at leastseven daysbeforecommencement of the work. ln addition, the Confractor shall inform the Engineer daily of the programme of piling for the followingworkingday and shall give adequate of his.intentionto work outsidenormalworkinghours,if this has loji"1 already beenapproved by theEngineer. The Contractor shall keeprecords of eachpile installedand shallsubmittwo signedcopies of to the Engineernot later than noon of the next working day after the pile was lt.:"..t":otds installed. 1 0 .1 . 1 0 .1.1.

GENERAL nnquREnnnivrs FoR ToLERANCES


Setting Out Settingout shall be carriedout usingthe dataand reference pointsas shownon the Drawings. Immediately before installation of the pile positionshall be markedwith suitableidentifiable pins,pegsor markers.

10.1.2.

Position For a pile cut off at or abovegroundlevelthe morimumpermitted deviation of the pile centre from the centrppoinls shownon the Drawingsshall not exceed75*T in any directi-on.For a pile cut offbelow groundlevel an increase in this toleranceis permittedin accordance with subSection 10.1 .3 and 10.1 .4 hereinbelow

10.L3.

Vertically The maximumpermitteddeviationof the finishedpile form the verticalis I in 75.

s10I

10 .1.4.

Rake The piling rig shall be set and maintainedto attain the required rake. The maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the specified rake or the rake shown on the Drawings is 1 in

25. 10 .1.5. ForcibleCorrections Forcible'conebtions to concretepiles shall not be permitted. ForCibleConectionimay be permittedin othertypesof piles if approved by the S.O. However, no forciblecorrections shall be madeto piles which havedeviated beyond the permissible limits specified in Sub-sections 10.1, 10.1.3 and10.1.4 above. i 0.1.6. PtlcsOut of AlienmentorPosition The Contractor shall,if ordered by the S.O.,extract andreinstallanypile whichhasdeviated out of positionor alignment by mdrethanthe specified limit, or alternatively the substructure shall be modifiedto the approval of S.O. The costof suchexfraction and reinstallation or anyextra costin the designandconstruction of a modifiedfoundation shallbe borneby the Contractor if in the opinionof the S.O.suchextraworkshavebeenmadenecessary dueto the errorand/or negligence of the Contractor.

10.r.7.

Records The Contractor shallkeeprecords of the installation pile asrequired of each by theS.O.andshall sSbmi^t two-signed copiesof theserecords to the S.O.not laterthanat noonof thenextworking dayafterpile hasbeeninstalled.The signed records shallform partof the records for theWorks. Any unexpected drivingor boringconditions shallbenotedin therecords.

s l0 - 2

r0.2. r0.2.1.

BORED CAST.IN-PLACE PILES

t0.2.2.

Materials i'i

10.2.2.r. Concrete andReinforcement


: The concrete andreinforcement to be usedandworkmanship for boredcast-in-sifu pilesshallbe as specified. rlder the relevantsections of this Specification.The gradeof concrete and the detailsof reinforcement to be usedshallbe asshownon theDrawings.

t0.2.2.2. Permanent Casinss


Permanent casings *hich fOr--partofthe designed pile shallbeasspecified in theDrawings.
' i

r0.2.2.3. DrillingFlirid

'

Drilling fluid material,bentonite, shall comply with Specification No. DF CPa of the Oil Companies Materials Association or its equivalent. A certificateshall be obtainedby the Contractor from the manufacturerof the bentonite powder, showing the propertiesof each consignment delivered to the site. This certificate shallbe made available to the S.O.on request. Bentonite shall be mixed thoroughlywith clean fresh water to makea suspension which will maintainthe stability of the pile excavation for the period necessary to place concrete and completeconstruction. Preparation of the suspension shall comply with the manufacfurer's instniCtions Where..ylile or chemicallycontaminated groundwateroccurs,special precautions shallbetaken plehydratethe bentonitein freshwaterto renderit suitable p 19Aiff the lentgnite suspension 9r in all respects for the consfuctionof piles.-

10.2.3.

Borins Onerations

t0.2.3.L Diameter of Piles


djamgtq piles shall not be less than the specifieddesig4ed diameterat any level lhe _of throughout its length.

r0.2.3.2. Boring
Boring shall be carrieddownto the depthasrequiredanddirectedby the s.o. When deem'ed'necessary by the S.O.the Contractorshalltakc undisturbed soil samples while the pile is beingbored. The samples shallbe takento an approved Laboratory for testing. Sampling and all subsequent handling and testing shall be carried out in accordance with 8.S.5930.

s10-3

Piles shall not be boredcloseto otherpiles which haverecentlybeencastandwhich contain

;:::XT fi#rT,l**ete,
t0.2.3.3. Temporarv qrY r vrulrvr v4Jtrr6J
"ur,nn,

suchthata fiow of concrete could be induced fromor damaged

of approvedquality.or.an.afpfyed alternative methodshall be usedto ITl".rt? "i.|".g: maintain the stabilityof pile excavation whichmight'otherwise collapse. Temporary casingsshall be free from significantdistortion. They shall be of uniformcrosssection.throughout eachcontinuous length. Duringconcreting they shall be free from intemal projections and encrusted concrete which mightprevent the properformationof the pilesbeing

10.2.3.4.
Wherethe useof drilling fluid or a columnof wateris approved for maintainine the stabilitvof boring,the level of fluid or columnof waler in the excavation shallbe maintain-ed suchthaithe fluid pressure alwaysexceeds the pressure exerted by the soil and extemalgroundwaterandan aclequate temporary casing shallbe usedin conjunction with the method to ensure ttrestabiliW of the stratanear ground level until concrete has beenplaced. The fluid water level shali be maintained at a level not lessthan I metreabovethe levil of the externalgroundwater. ln the elent of a rapid loss of bentonite suspension or water from the piling excavation, the excavation shall be backfilledwithout delayandthe instructions of the S.O.shallbe obtained prior to resuming boringat the location. : 10.2.3.5.

spirrage a.dbiibod
All reasonable steps shallbe takento prevent the spillage of bentonite suspension or wateronthe site in areas outside the immediate vicinity of the boringoperations. Discarded bentonite water shallberemoved from the;rle withoutdelay. Thedisposalofbentonite watershallcomply with theregulations of theLocal ConhollingAuthorities.

r0.2.3.6. Pumping of Boreholes


Pumping from the borehole shallnot be permitted unless a casing hasbeenplaced intothe stable to preventthe further ingressof water in significantquantitiesfrom othersfratainto the :tt"P. boring, or, unlessit can be shown that pumpingwill not have a detrimental effect on the surrounding soil or its properties.

10.2.3.7. Continuityof Construction


in stablesoil,rruithout the useof temporary casings or othersupport, shallbe llt: _loytructe{ boredand concreted without delay to ensure that the soil characteristics are not-significantly altered.

10.2.3.8. Enlarqed of Pile Bases ..|t**:d pilebase shallnotbe.smaller than the_dimensions specified andshall beconcenhic T: wltf tle pile shaftd]aqeter. surface of the frustum forming the enlargement shall .A -sloping make anangle to thehorizontal of notless than550.
I

I0 '2 ,3.9,C l eanliness.ofF..ile.B ase s , . ] .

ffi

On completionof boring loose,disturbedor remoulded soil or fragments of rock shall be removed from the base of thepile. 10.2.3.10. Insnection For dry boreholes, eachhole shall be inspected prior to the placingof concrete in it. The inspections shall be carriedout from the groundsurHcein the casewherethe borehole diarn-eter is less than 750mm. Where the boreholediameterexceeds750mm,adequate equipment conforming to B.S. 5930shallbe provided to enable the Contractor andthe S.O.to descend into theborehole for thepurpose of inspection. For wet boreholes, i.e. holesfilled with drilling fluid or water,a suitable probeshallbe provided to ascertain the evenness andcleanliness of thepile base. 10.2.4. PlacineandReinforc6ment

10.2.4.1. Joints in Loneitudinal Bars :, Reinforcement shall be suchthat the full shength of the bar is effectiveacross thejoint andthe joint shall be madeso that there is no relativedisplacement of the reinforcement durins the construction of the pile andthe spacing of thereinforcing barsshallbe maintained in suchi*ut thatproperconcreting shallnot ULimpiOea. !0.2.4.2. Positions ofReinforcembnt Adequatespacer blocks,guidetubes,and lifting wires shall be providedso as to maintain the reinforcingsteelin thepositions asspecified.
t- '

Wheretemporarycasingsare employed, the longitudinalreinforcement shall exend at least 1.0 mehe below of the casings so that movement of the reinforcement ----during ------eexhaction ltre lo1top ofthe casing is minimised. 10.2.5. v Concreting Operotions \

10.2.5.1. Placing Concrete The method:f p]Tilg.Td theworkabilityof concrete shallbe suchthata continuous monolithic concrete shaftof thefull cross-section is formed. 10.2.5.2. Workabilitvof Coqorete The workabilityof the concrete shallbe determincd by the slumptestasdescribed in M.S.26, The suggested slumpdetailsfor typicalconcreting situations shallbe as specified in Tablel0.l below.The slumpshallbe measured at thetime of discharge into theborehbb. TABI/E 10.1- SLUMP RANGE FOR TYPICAL CONCRETING SITUATIONS Typical Conditions ' ofUse : SlumpRange " (mm)

Placed intowater-free unline4 bore. Widely spaced

s1 0 - s

75 to 125

is lessthan 600mm. Wherepile diameter , is to be placedby Whereconcrete - tremieunderwateror drilling fluid. ,

100 to 175

150to collapse

t0.2.5.3. Compaction
not be usef compa{ concrete unlessit canbe satisfiedthat theywill Internal vibrators .shall Jo not cause segregation or arching ofthe concrete. In Drv Borines 10.2.5.4. PlacineConcrete that the Appiwed'meu and bleeding'*d to ensurO shall be takento avoid,sggregation concrete at the bottomof the pile is not deficientin grout. ..: Wherepiles are vertical, concrete may be pouredthrougha funnel with a lengthof tube sothat extending the flow is directed anddoesnot hit reinforcement barsor the sideof the hole. Chutes piles piles For raking of small near the base large diameter. to shallbe employed for raking of diameter, an enriohedmix shall be used in the first few batchesof concreteto minimise segregation. 10 .2.5.5. Placine Concrete UnderWateror Drillins Fluid Concretl to be placed*{?, water drilllng fluid shall be placedby tremie unlessothenvise 91 approved andshallnot be discharged freelyintothewateror drilling fluid.
)

Beforeplacingconcrete, of silt or mgasures that thereis no accumulation shallbe takento ensure othermaterial at thebase of theboring. The hopperand pipe of the hemie shall be cleanand watertightthroughout. The pipe shall extend to the base of theboringanda slidingplug or barriershallbe placedin thepipeto prevent direct contactbetweenthe first chargeof concretein the pipe of the hemie and the water or drilling fluid. Thetemie pipe shallat all timespenetrate the concrete which haspreviously been placedand shall not be withdrawn from the concrete until the completionof concreting.At all quantrty times,a suffrcient of concrete shallbe maintained within the tremiepipeto ensure that the pressure from it exceeds that from the wateror drilling fluid. The internaldiameter of the fremiepipe shall not be lessthan 150mmfor concrete made with 20ry* aggregate andnot lessthan 200mmfor concrete madewith 40mm aggregate. The tremie pipe shall be so designed that extemalprojections are minimised, allowing the tremiepipeto pass.thrgug\,hj.t"qfot cage. without causingdamage or uplifting. The iniernalfaceof the ^tg tremiepipeshallbe freefrom projections.

i 1:
\ \

s10-6

1,0.2.6. Extractionof Casing 10.2.6,1. Workabilitv of Concrete


-TeTpglary casingsshall be extracted concretewithin them remainssuffrciently llrile-the workableto ensurethat the concrete is not lifted.
::..

10.2.6,2. Conciete:tevel
Whenthe casingis beingextuacted, a suffrcientquantityof concrete shallbemaintained within it to ensure that the pressure from externalwater,drilling fluid or soil is exceeded andthat the pile is neitherreduced in section nor contaminated. No concrete shallbe placedin theboringoncethebottomof the casing hasbeenlifted above the top of the concrete;it shall be placedcontinuouslyas the casingis extracted until the desired headofconcreteis obtained. Adequate precautions shall be takenin all cases whereexcess heads of wateror drilling fluid couldbe caused as the casingis withdrawn because of the displacement of wateror fluid by the concrete as it flows into its final positionagainst the wall of the pile shaft. Wheredouble areusedin the bori4g the proposed methodof worling shallbe with the approval ofthe |lsJngs

l..r

s.o.

il

14.2.6.3. Vibrating Extractors


The.useof.vibrating extractors-shall be.permitted subjectto the condifionthat work shall be carriedout in sucha manner andat suchtimesasto minimisenuisance anddisturbance. ,:

10.2.7.

Construction of Pile Heads

t0 . 2 . 7 . t . WaterLevels
In the event of the ground water level being higher than the requiredpile headcastingle-vel shown in Drawings, the Contractorshall submit his proposalsfor approvalprior to placing concrete. The. pile head shall not be Ieft below the groundwater level unlessapproved precautions aretaken.

10.2.7.2. CuttineandPreparation of Pile Heads


The top of pile shallbe.brought above the gu!-otrof the pile to permitall laitance andweak lhe c.on31ete to be removed andto ensure that it canbe properlykeyedinto the pile cap. Pile heads shallbe constructed to the details shown on theDrawings.

10.2.7.3. Temporary BackfillingAbovePile Casting Level


pile has beencast, boreremaining and shallbe carefully - shall be protected ' f::",,""lt T{ backfilledassoonaspossible with"tpty approved materials.

s10-7

10.3. 10.3.1.

PILE TES'TING TestPiles

10.3.2. Preliminary pile loadtestsshallbe carried out before the S.O.issues to the Contractor, in writin* instructionson the pite lengthandpile lengthcombinations for the manufacture andsupplyofthi piles' The Contractor shallnot proceed to manufacfure or supplythe piles until he hasreceived instructions _:----:JrrpurYvrrlur5UgvwrrvIrl]llgD.\-,'i.].. in writing to do so from the S.O. The lengths of thepilesfor thepreliminary loadtestsshallbedetermined by the S.O. 10.3.3. ProductionPile Lq4dfests
' : -.

Loadtestsshallalsobe caniedout duringthe installation of pilesfor thepermanent Works Such pileloadtestsshallberefenedtoasproductionpileloadtests. 10.3.4. TestinsProcedure

10.3.4.1. Preparatiqn of TestFile The pile head shall be cut off or built up to the necessary elevationand shall be capped appropriately to produce a bearingsurface perpendicular to the axisof the pile. Theanangement shallbe suchthatnoneof thetestloadis canieaby theground *aer tttr "up. 10.3.4.2. Methodof Loading Thetestloadshallbeappliedin oneof {re followrngwaysi i) by meansof a jack which obtains its reactionfrom kentledgeheavierttran the required load;

by means of ajact<which obtainsits reactionfrom tensionpiles or othersuitable anchors. : The load shallbe measured usinga calibrated loadgauge pressure andalsoa calibrated sauee in the hydrauli:.:y:t".:.The jack and loadgauge shallbe carefullyalignedso thai tfretoaa"aitiea is co-axialwith thepile. When method(i) is used,careshall be takepto ensure that the .*

ii)

closerthan 1.3mto the surface of thetestpile. Kentledge shafln6t be usedf"itrrti"g *trJpii* When methgd(ii) is used,all anchorpiles shall be at a distance of at leasJ three(3) oile shaft diameters from the testpile, centreto cenfte,andin no caseshallthey be lessth*; fidtlr; testpile. If th. alchol piles are to be permanentworking piles, their levels shall be observed rturine applicationofthetestIoadtoensurenoresidualuplifto'"*'

is ontheaxis of thepile. The nearest edge of the;tr;fi;td,h.1;;il.d;;'rd;#iil;;

of,gravity of thekentledse

s10-8

10.3.4.3. Measurement of Settlement


Settlements shallbe measured by useof a reference beamor wire supported independently of the loadtest pile, reactionpile or pilessupporting reaction loads. Settlements shallbe measured to the nearest 0.1mm for reference beamsor 0.5 mm for reference wires. The reference beam supports shall be locatedat least3 m from the loadtest pile, reaction pile or piles supporting The reference beamsor wires shall be protectedfrom the effect of temperature ;;H;"J.*"Us.

10.3.5.

Method of Testins l

1 0 . 3 . 5 . 1 .:_ General

Maintained Load Tests shall be conductedon test piles as selectedby the S.O. The loading tests shall be carried out in accordance with Sub-Section10.3.5.2.
I

When instructedor approvedby the S.O.,Constant Rate of Penetration Testsshall also be conducted on otherpiles. Thetests shallbe carried out in accordance with Sub-Secfion 10.3.5.3.
.i

Priorto the performance of anyloadtest,theConhactor shallsubmit to the S.O.for his approval. workingdrawingsshowingthe method andequipment he proposes to usein the performance of the load test and the measurement of settlements.Such submissions shall includedesipn calculations of lateral supportsor other methodsto be used in ensuringagainstbucklin!. Horizontal supportsto ensurebuckling stability shall be providedto the pile to be loaded whenever the ratio of the unsupported heightto the leastcross-sectional dimension is 20 or more. Horizontalsupportshall providefull support without restraining the verticalmovement of the pile in anyway.

1 0 . 3 . 5 . 2 .Maintained Load Test


Themaintained Load Testshallbecaniedout asfollows:i) the full test loadon a'pileshallbe twicethe design loadnotedon theDrawings anditshall be applied in twelve equal increments.At least two hours shall elapsebetween the additionof each.loadincrement, i.e. until the rate of settlement is reduced to lessthan 0.25mm/trour andslowingdown; the full test load shallbe maintained on the pile for at least48 hoursandsettlements shall be recorded at intervals of not morethan 12hours. Thetestpile shallthenbe unloaded in four equal incrementsat one hour intervalsuntil the full load is removed. Settlement readingl shall be madeimmediatelyafter and before every load increment is appliedor removed

iD

1 0 . 3 . 5 . 3 .Constant Rateof Penehation (CRP)Test


For eachqile lo3{.tesr: cyclesof pile loadingtestat a constant rateof penehation shallbe carriedout to a full test.fu:t loadequalto twicethedesigrload. The3te..of lo{hg slall!e suchthata constant rateof penetration is maintained throughoutthe testinsofarps is practicable. Therateof movement of eachpile to betested shallbe apriedupon with ttre S.o. priol to the start of the test. At leasttwelve readings of settiem.ntiil til;; corresponding loadsshallbe madein the loading process. After attaining.a test equalto twice the designload,the load shallgradually be released andat least four readingsof settlement and their corresponding loads shall bL made during the

s10-9

for theMaintained LoadTest,for each stage theperiod for whichtheloadwas of loading, loadandthe maximum settlement. These areto be plottedastime-settlement Hjhf"

ii) o;iill
10.3.7.

fi.;

ttarc

*a;a;*oiiouou*u,n*o,n.o*ion;',

Interpretation of TestResults The'S.O.'s,inle,ryretatiOn,.,and,conclusions on the test iesultsshall bb.fual. Unles'o-therwise ' , ' , specified, thepile sotested shallbe deemed ' to haveAiteOit:r,: : i) theresidual settlemeirt aftei iemoval dttre testloadexceeds , ror.:,t .. . 6 50mm; ii) ltretotal seff undgrtneWorkingLoadexc ed

.,

iii)

$il:ff;ffffiI;;xt:L*ffi,*#*-

maarexeeeai,rB o, oit0% orfn"

s10- 10

PILEWALL FORBORED SPECTFICATIONS

ll-.0- 9ENERAE.---.,, -''l-..,..,,-, 1. 1 PROJECTSPEGIFIGATIONS .2.0 CONTRACTOR'SRESPONSI 2,1 3;0


3;fl.

3:2 3;3 3.4 3.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 7ro 8,0, 9,0, 10 . 0

10F5

SPECIFICATIONS FORBORED PILEWALL

SPECIFIGATIONS FORBORED PILEWALL 1. 0 GENERAL

The recommendations of BS EN 1536applyexcept whereconflict occurs thisSpecification shalltake precedence. The materials andworkmanship required by othersections of the contract specifications shallapply to boredpilewallconstruction except wheremodified, amended or excluded herein. 1.1 PR O J EGT S P E C IF IC A T IONS

ground (a) Design waterlevel: R.L.20.0m to 13,0m (b) Maximum allowable deflection of thewall: 50mm. 2.0 COI{TRACTOR'S RESPONSIBILITY FORCONSTRUCTION ANDDESIGN

The Contractor pileand propping shallconstruct elements of the type(s) and dimensions, having the qualities of materials andworkmanship, in the locations specified including anyotherincidentalworks necessary to ensure the safety performance andsatisfactory pitewattconstruction. of the bored TheContractor willbe provided withdrawings showing the pilewallsizes, lengths andreinforcement. The Contractor may propose alternative sizesand reinforcement details subject to the approval of the Engineer. For walls,assum,ptions relating to the wall propping systemand proposed construction sequence shownin the Engineer's drawings is for the Contractor's information only. The Contractor shallsubmit detailed drawings and calculations for his proposed wall propping system andconstruction sequence takinginto account Engineer's wall designwith respect to strength and stiffness or the Conlractor may propose an alternative subject to approval fromthe Engineer. The Contractor shallcarryout an independent check.to verify.that his propping system and construction sequences are compatible to the wallislab structural designand no structural elements are overstressed at any stageof the construction andon completion of the construction. The Contractor shall confirm,or otheruvise, that the permitted lateralwall deflection performance stated in this specification/contract drawingcan be achievedwith his proppingsystem and construction sequence. All such designand drawings shall be fully signedand endorsed by his Registered Professional Engineer. Thesoil.investigation report(s) furnished to the Contractor are onlyfor his information, no warranty is provided or implied in theiraccuracy and completeness, and are not intended to dictate construction methods or sequences. No responsibility is accepted by the Engineer or Employer for any opinions givenin or conclusions anyfactual or interpretative SiteInvestigation reports. The Contractor shallbe,deemed to haveinspected the sitewith regards to groundandgroundwater conditions applicable to his worksand to haveevaluated potentialLonstruct'ion problemi taking into account his_ own proposed methods and procedures. The worksshallbe carried out on the baiis of ground as foundand no additional costwill be paidfor handling hardmaterials or otherobstructions encountered during the installation of the contract works.

20F5

SPECIFICATIONS FOR BORED PILE WALL


.r. r ' : I l

2.1

METHOD STATEMENT

shallsubmita detailed (ii) At leasttwo week priorto commencement of the Worksthe Contractor plantand operations proposed givingfull detailsof the meJhods, materials, methodstatement shallinclude detailed involved in ihe construction of bored pile walls.The methodstatement The proposed propping sequence. and construction and calculations for his wall system drawings of stages induced in thewallsfor thevarious calculations shallinclude the forcesanddeformation statement of: construction. The method shallalsoinclude details (a) dimensions andreinforcement details. (b) the allowable rig/service cranepositions. surcharge, with any sketches of allowable (c) the methods of monitoring and checking the stability of the bore. properties (d) thetype,source, chemical and physical to be used. of the bentonite placing mixing, alg slurry. transporting equipment forthe bentonite {:) l!'r" cleaning andre-use of bentonite slurry. !0. (g) llt" the sequence andconcreting. of boring (h) the methods withthewall. of monitoring andchecking thetolerances associated properties, (i) the methods. highways, of.monitoring and.checking the stability of neighbouring ricesa.nd_ sen otherunderground structu.res. fi)themethodof'disposa|ofcontarninated.benioniteslurry. proposals have been Construction of temporary walls shall not commence untilthe Contracto/s accepted in writing by the Engineer. Unlessotherwise accepted by the Engineer, once the construction of walls shall be continuous excavation has commenced. Excavated boresor part boresshall not be left openat nightor during weekends. 3.0MONITORING DEVICES FORBORED PILEWALL The Contractorshall provide all instrumentation includingsupply, installation, maintenance, measurement and recording of monitoring devices necessary monitoring for the closeand continuous pile movements.and.stress of the conditions of bored and the walls, the adjacent structures, services b _ underground constructions. The Contractor shallsubmitthe monitored results in a timelymanner in hardcopyand softcopyto the Engineer for.revie*-. Thq.plot shouldinclude. prediction the Contraglor': and monitored results. The specific locations of monitoring devices shallbe approved by the Engineer. 3.1INCLINOMETERS The Contractor pile shallsupply and install at leastsix inclinometer measurement tubesin the bOreO wall. Thetubesshallbe secured to the steelreinforcement cagebeforethe cageis lowered intothe trench. The bottom end of thetubeshallbe sealed against intruslon of concrete or grout. The tube shallbe filledwith water and the top,end adequately coveredpriorto tremieconcreting of the boredpile. The Contractor shallrecordany movement of inclinometer tubesdailyor at suchintervals as may be agreed.
\ \

30F5

SPECIFICATTONS FORBORED PILEWALL

3.2STRAIN GAUGES

' .,

..

3.3PIEZOMETERS The Contractor shall supplyand installstandpipe piezometers. The installation shallincorporate a protective lockable coverand will extend to depthsrequired for proper monitoring of the watertable. The Contractor shallprovide the read-out unitandassist the Engineer in taking the reading dailyor at suchinterval as may be agreed. 3,4PRESSURE CELLS
:,:.

The Contractor shallsupplyif required pneumatic/hydraulic and install pressure cellsin the internal and external faces of boredpile wallsto recordthe waterand soit pressure actingon the structural elements. 3.5SETTLEMENT MONTTORTNG POTNTS The Contractor shall supplyand installsettlement markersat locations to be determined by the Engineer. Where markerson existing building has to be installed, this shall be approved Uy tfre i Engineer.
':

Markers in the groundshallbe steelrodsat least12mmin diameter. Theyshallbe driven at least1m into the ground.The Contractor.shall providepreciselevelto assistthe Engineer to take level readings on thesemonitoring points. 4.0ADJACENT PROPERTIES The Contractor's site procedures and. method of working shallat all timesbe such as to limitto a practical minimum settlement and lateral movement of the ground and buildings around the site.The Contractor shallsubmit to the Engineer ground the estimated movement behind the wallduring each stageof construction. No damage is to be caused to neighbouring structures or services. lf the Contractor is of the opinion that by any meansarisingfrom the Worksneighbouring property may be damaged this shallbe stated,in tenderand the extentand natureof the necessary protective or other temporary works .h.',t described therein.
.l

The. Contractor shallbe.respons.ible for anydamage or movement properties in adjacent including paved roads, areas, drains, services, buildings, street furniture, underground structures of any I typel
etc. Allowance shallbe.made for all ancillary treatment and all worksnecessary to ensure thatstability of roadways, adjacentstructures, servicesand underground constructions ind for all remedial works to m.akegood any damageto the satisfaction of the relevantAuthorityor ownerof the 1e9oef property andthe Engineer. 5.0SAFETY AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES The Contlagtor shalltake-allnecessary precautions to ensurestability of his boring, andthe safety of personnel.in, the.are3 of-operation.. He shall maintain, avaitable ior immediate use, a sufficient slurryto allowfor any suddenloss and ensurethe safetyof neighbouring siructures and ]:ff:ij:."

SPECIFICATIONS FORBORED PILEWALL

6.0SITECLEANLINESS and The Contractor of slurry of the Engineer, shallensure thatthe sitebe cleared to the acceptance thathis operations be conducted in sucha manner as to minimise anyspillage of slurry overthesite. 7.0OBSTRUCTIONS toolsfor its An obstruction is defined as material that requires chiselling, explosives, or pneumatic removal. Uponencountering and an obstruction, theContractor shallimmediately inform the Engineer agreethe method to remove the obstruction. 8.0DISPOSAL OF SPOTL process. Spoilshallbe separated fromthe slurryemployed in the excavation lt shallbe disposed of as quickly as possible to an acceptable dumpsite andin sucha manner thatspillage andannoyance areminimised. 9.0DISPOSAL OF SLURRY The Contractor is responsible for arranging his own sites for disposalof used bentonite or contaminated slurrythat is not suitable for re-use. With reference to the General the Specification, Contractor shall note that used bentonite or contaminated slurryis not classified as "Unsuitable Material", 1O.O RECORDS The following records shallbe keptfor eachpileandsuchrecords shallbe available for inspection by the Engineer within 24 hours of the completion of eachpile. (a) PileNumber; (b) Dates andtimes of start andfinish of pileboring; (c) Details of anyobstructions encountered andthetimespentin dealing withobstructions; (d) Dateandtimeof completion of cageplacement; (e) Dateandtimeof startand completion of pileconcreting; (f) A logof soiltypeencountered fromstartto finish of boring andwaterlevels; (g) Volume of concrete usedand time of any interruptions recorded in concrete supply wherethese exceed 15 minutes. (h) Date,place andtimeof slurry controltests andresults recorded; (i) Concrete testcubes, markings, dateandresults obtained on testing; of cagetypefor reinforcement; 0) Details (k) Quantiiy of slurry removed fromsiteandspoilremoved fromsiterecorded by date; (l) A graphof theoretical and placed concrete volumes withdepth.

SPECIFICATIONS FORBASEMENT WATERTIGHTNESS

::i: ','. 1.0 1.,1 WATERPROOFING OF BASEMENT STRUGTURE INSPECTIONS

10F3

SPECIFICATIONS FOR BASEMENTWATER]]GHTNESS

SPECIFICATIONS FORBASEMENT WATERTIGHTNESS 1.0 WATERPROOFING OF BASEMENT STRUCTURE

The Contractor shallbe completely responsible for the supply and proper instattation of the specified or approved waterproofing systemto makethe basement structures including R.C.retaining wails, basement slab, liftpits, andR.C.water tankwatertight. The basement structure shallbe designed for permanent waterretention groundwater for an external level of R.1.20.0m. The Contractor shallgivea ten (10)yearsguarantee for watertightness of the structure effective from the dateof completion of the wholeworks.The form of guarantee shallbe to the satisfaction of the Employer/Engineer. Waterproofing measures shallbe ableto accommodate lateral walldeflections, measured relative to position the as-built of the wallpriorto backfill. 1. 1 I N SP E C T ION S

The Contractor shallcarryout inspections to assess the waterlightness of the basement structure, Thewatertightness shallbe assessed afterthe ground at the backthe wallhasbeenfullybackfilled to finallevel, Thefollowing definitions applyfor thisSpecificatiorr: Damppatch: whentouched, a damppatchmayleave a slight filnrof moisture on the hand, but no droplets of wateror greater depthof wetness are lefton the hand.On a concrete surface a damppatchis discernible froma darkening of the colour of the concrete, Beading of water:beading of wateris the statein whichindividual droplets of water(heldby surface tension effects) formon the surface of the wallislab and adhere to the wall/slab. The waterbeadsdo notcoalesce witheachother. The beads remain stationary on the surface and do notflow. Weeping of water: weeping of wateris the statein whichdroplets of waterformon thesurface of the wall/slab and coalesce with other droplets. The coalesced water does not remain stationary on the wallsurface but instead flowsdownthewall. Criteria
Thewall/slab shall not be conaidered w followingcriteriaare not meti 1. No beadingof wateror greaterrates the wail/slab. 2_. P.rp patcheson the face of fire w the followingcriteriaare met: (i) the total areaof dampness front face; parcnor oampness ur, rr.,rnqrvrquar nas an areain excessof 0.1 m,.

20F3

spEctFtcATtoNs FoRBASEMENT W4TERT|GHTNESS Assessment of thewatertightness of the wall/slab shall takeplaceonlywhenthefilloutside thewall is completed to the finalrequired level.ln cases where the wallis not protected fromweather conditions, assessment of watertightness shalltakeplace onlywhenthefollowing weather conditions apply:

liil (iii)no rainfall hasoccurred in the 24 hours preceding the assessment.

3o'c; lll :l no !gmryrat11:,1:,??ro* direct,sunlight fallsgl a.lywallsurface being assessed for dampness;

The groundwater level, air temperature and weather conditions shall be recorded for each assessment, 1.2 R E P A I R The Contractorshallcarryout the repair of anyjointin the wall/slab, defect in thewall/slab or section of wall/slab thatis notwatertight presented according to th6criteria above. The method for repair shall be stated in the Contractor's method statementprior to the commencement of the Works.The Contractor shall includein the programme adequate time ior repair works. goodda.mag". sh.all.T3fg (suchas plaster, io all finishes paint, paneling, etc.) f,le,Qonjractor '' tiling, electrical or otherinstallations, or otherproperty, caused by waterleakage of dampness. Any repair carried out by the Contractor shallbe effective for the design lifeof thewall.

30F3

SUPER/sUPER WHITE
Wqferproofing Slu rry
in-depth woter-proofing ond protection : r permcnent scfive E gSlied *o pressure or non,pressure concrete r qpproved far pofoble urirfer contsct n gley or white
y.+ltPfl_qWIR cndVANDEX suprR wHtTE narure. gl?.olg 1lmitcr Whereas vANDEXSUPER isbossd grey on Forrlond cementvANDrxsuprn vV|-ure useswhire ofVANDEX$UpERopplyalso for l:.ryft_fliH,lgogent. Alltechnicsl.informorjon
vANDEX SUPER WHITE excepr forcolour, bulk density ondsetting time.' ' r-.!'*-

Frodwl

Eeacriplien

VANDEX suPfR is o surfcce-opplied mot'eriol which rvoterprooh ond protecrs concreto indepth. It consists.of.gtey qem6nt, or.whitePortlcnd speciqlly treobd quurlzsondqnd o VA|\DEX SUpER.iseupilied in powderform in ?Slsg flTf:io-:l$1e,chemicots. oogsund needs onlyto be mixed withwotErprlorlo opplicotion.

Aress of Applicolion

DeoPpltecl to either ?he pressure or nonpres$ure concrete foce{i.e.withor ugoinit wolerpressure!, VANDEX SUPER mcybeused.in coniunction withVANDEX PREMIX sepomte dois {see sheer). Typicoloreos of opplicotiori ore:
I I I

yANDqIqlPERcon beopplied tosllshuourolly sound concrere orold.trmoy - new

:
l

bqsementretoining walls concrete slobs etc.} {floor/rooflbolcony; construclionioinl* wf,lrr*l9ining slruclures

I r I t

swimmins.,{oools s"*og, ii;ohent plonts chonriels-bridges, elc.

Froper*iec

SUPER isoppliedro o concrerre surfoce fheocrivechemicqlscombine ryll:ivlN?EX thecopiltorytrocf rrbnninsolublecrysrolline :ltj::.:t::P-":n1n:iflu,r?psenrin comprexes. tnese crystols qndminor block thacopillories shrinkoqe croc[s inthe concre'* roprevenr onyturther woter ingress (even under presqur"j. However, tho vondexloyerwillsrillqliowthe pcssage oT*ot"iuopourrt,r.iughih* Jrru"rriJ{r.". rr," concrste willsriil beobt'_ro rnoddrioir io;6r.ds il;lrL"rur., 4:e1rhJ:1. VANDEXSUPER pmtects concreteogoinrtseo worer,wasteworer, qggressrveground chemicorsoruJiorri. vANDEx supER isopproveu"rdi rr" ioJ.nro"r .y.:A::{:""11in old istherefore suibble forrhe freorment ofwqter shrogo ronks, ::r:::t:r,.--y.:pl: retervolrS, Woter fOWerS, etd. VANDEX SUPER ondvANDEx supER w,HffF crenor decorafive moferiols.

$rrf*rco Freperotion

Allconcrete tobetreoled.with VANDEX supE& mustbe qn,op*n' cleun ondfiove copillarysysrern. Removeloibnce,d.irr, gr"or*,"h.by;;;;"f hilf,iriri**o,r,' fetting..wersondbhsringorwirebrushin{. nourtyconclteilrh;t#;fH;i;.i;;;; mu$bechosed out,rreqted withvANDEX 33T11grerc. suplRondfilledflush wtih vAt{DEX uNlMoilrARt . surfcces musr becorefully pr-r"r.r"a e#iotii*vonu** opplicction. The concretE surfoce must b" dqm;tunot wet.

YFV10/e2(P&BC)

sP/134

Itfilxlng

vANDEx SUPER ismechonicallyrnixed wih cleon wctertoo consisiencyof thickoilpoint.

Approximore mixrns rorio is0.bporrs ofworg..nc riO;il;6;;;iuy'*r-r"i.Mixonly osmuch m-orerio.l os con be io ,i*ru, olj ,rir-riii,r"fr"q*ntly. lf themixture "i"u "iir'ir
storfs tosetdo notoddmore *.t"r,'J*pfy;;r;."rb;;*orioUif iry.

Applilcafion

ondfrosi bycovering withpotyrh*.rt{,l"tiig, i:",*;f;ffiff5.0f#;*uo''"crsun,wind


VANDEX SUpER .r 5 oC. orremperorures below ff:j*_?:_pt_qpply VANDEX SUPER connot beused ssoncddiiive toconcrete or plosrers.
i

VANDEX SUPffi isdisrribureJin powder formthroul ondtrowelled intothe freshly ;h o sieve pruced concrere oncethrs hssreoched rnitior ser. Therreg"red sreqsshourd be lepr dompfu' o periodof fivedoysond }.:.tj::pent

j 3tril::llff f ;;;:ff4'whenuocoit'"ii'p".iii" ^llffi:?-:fi'J;i$T[i3;f; ufy powder conrirtency {br horizontol suifoces only}.Thespecifted omount of
Ll.":y-:tglfncy.ApplyvANDEXsupERinoneortuiocoorscccordingbspecificorion

Con*umplion

Concrere surfccer fo * *:.{^th$; One olV-ANDqX SUpER orO.7S lsTnf _coor jglloyea byoirs coor ofvANorx FReMri o-i'i .o-o ry*r. Brush or_sproy cppried. Y,:*:.fgrl_ing Sruggf:, inrernst.oncr#" wriru*il"J.Jwo coors of - -'
hardened concrete ordry sprin kled ond rrower oppried rJ'hurt, JJn.i"r" ;iliil;i;; ilffiffii (orrljructpnioiltsr V{N?EX,SU-PER qrt,s fs../.p?opplied insturryordrypowder "' -' med I orely p rior ro plocin g rh enexr Iifrlbov im fi !!1li$encr conc*'o' VANDEX ""n.i"r".' or drypowder supER ot r.2 kg/il,ippri6d.in.srurry ''*n.,mg consistencyirnmediotelypriorrroprocingtheouerilingcoi,lr"ru.tuu,-"'-'

. Brush orsproy cppt ieJ. ls{mz IlfllT_syXiR * 9,lf "::l'. concrere srobs. vANDEX su pER sr r .00 kg/mro$pliebinoneslurry coolo

Faclcuging
Sfcrqg6

25 kg PEJined poperbogs

mTfr:t"*

Ino dvploce.in unopened, undcrrrcged originolpocking, rhrlftifeislZ

TechnieulDnts

slcte S,ggregate Cblour Bulkdensity


Sellingtime

v.4illDEXSUFIn
povder cornsnf grey qpprox.l.25kg/l 6Ominutes

vAilDEXSUFE*WTII|E powder white opprox, I.20 kg/l 120-l 80 minules

dcto,ero qwrogas ofsererol terrs under logo*,o.1, flf . tunperufuFjlvrrrd.r,Vj qndporosiry of substroro moy'oiirsiihur" *oruo^

Heatrthondfafefy VANDEX SUPER WHTTE / SUPER contoins cemenf.

Tlgil|hr*atio{roo0bjrddIEEF, ca*F fitarsl bBkilnii&rioiri'tifr r

,*T:*_Ty^ylllgy:l,ytp.y4+iL-,F"j;Jl,i;";iJo'lui*1ur"sro iTfi omorioni,l"ose,ef err,cAlilrioft ;f . l-o.-rjrrrlerinf


"*ff gffHltffyfgimEo

l*itoling yANDEXsuren trreyosond shn. bieyj-;uycdusesensiti2qtion byskinconr*cl. Keepoulof reochofchildren.AvoidconhJii''rl.t'Jtii-,i"-a-#ffi;;il;ilcfwifheyes,

"i;;"iffi shca b0seessiutoutitrsB, dtdrounsttra* har lndtdrral

s:( ffi
vAilqqufrEBilTnifitflD POna4 Cli.{S0t Sdolfi urn$#Wau (0)326?30s| sroru,+ll !0)3I620.30s.iar.41 EmaftVan&x@ldrdercoodr ttsnrr.vendex,com

CONCRETE PROrEgfi ON AND 1fi/A?TRFROOf TI-IG


r49{Crl,fl Ph00e 5t Agr$0,Fix+fB{0XtSt Sgi55{t E"mtyarl*xgvadoxdb vww;vanCex.Oe

rqnqrycrruronann lloniislus::

VA}IDExilfiqLID l(bpdsm I o:90j?P:91$$s$rwGuz{wDreilbd


Pho{E 08702{l 6261, Fa$0S?0Al Bgil E+nai:info@radexroL* vrs1|,.verd$cco;uk u0D30r/0rf032

locAl"sarEs

YFU10/s2(P&BC)

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you canRELYon
WATEPROOFING CONCRETE AND CORROSION- PROOFIN G INGREDIENT

FOR SPECIFICATION

REOUIHEMENT: waterproofing, Integral damp-proofing and corrosionproofing of structuralconcrete, renders, toppings, etc. Suitable for use in all concrete structures subject to severedamp/wetconditions withoutapplication of separate membranesor tanking. Also waterproof toppings& renders,Enhanced durability in salt, acid or otheraggressive serviceenvironments. pressure/ / high hydrostatic - For extra heavy-duty severe conditions,see Data Sheet for Cementaid ,- EverdureCALTITE., PRODUCTTO USE:

DOSAGE: Concrete: 15litres of 3CCoercubicmetre of concrete olus1 to (or 1.5litre of SUPERPLASTET oer100Koof cement as recommended by Cement'aid techn'rbal staff). Toppings or Renders: 2 litres of 3CGper40kgof cement. per40kg 0.4litres SUPERPLASTET of cement. MIXADJUSTMENT: Thequantity of added waterwillneedto be reduced 1 litreforevery by approx. litreof 3CCandapprox. 10 litres for every litreof SUPERPLASTET the to retain same workability. EFFECTS: NOTE: prevents Powerfully Hydrophobic MatrixrM water ab_qorption and transmission of dampness. Provides performance. DRI damp{ree past.need Eliminates for plastic / waterproof sheet I memDranes, elc) Profoundly redubes waterabsorption to consistently lessthan1.5% at 7 daysagein fieldconcrete (BS1881:Pt.122:1983) protection Waterproofing & durability throughout the entire concrete mass. Siqnif icantlv enhanced 'to salt and durability with excellent reiistance chemicalattack. More than 45 years proven successfulperformance. Favourablymbdifies concrete strenoth. shrinkaoe andother kevorooerties. 3CCcan be det6cted in-wetconcrete 6y thb slight present. odourof ammonia Allowooodventilation particularly confined during workb, if sensitised. WHEHE RECOMMENDED: Covered or landscaped roofdecks polythene/membranes. Slabs ongrade to replace Medium-depth substructures / car-park basements (less pressure than 4 metres head). Deeper basements withsubstantial section thickness (>400mm). Concreteexposed to marine, salt or acid environments forenhance durability. Waterproof renders & toppings APPLICATION: CONTACTCEMENTAID FOR SUPPLY AND^APPLICATION SERVICE

.-- I

3CC
Hydrophobic Pore-blocking (HPl) Ingredient HOWTOSPECIFY: "All concrete (state sections) shall be integrally waterproofed by the inclusion in the mix of Cementaid 3CC Hydrophobic Pore-blocking (HPl) at the rate ot 15 litres per cubic lngredient metreof concrete.Cementaid SUPERPLATSTET or proven equivalent shall be added at the recommended rate. The water content of the mix shallbe reduced to preserve the specified slumpand achievea [water + 3CG]: cement ratio not greater than 0.45. The recommendedminimum Portland (GP) cementcontentof the mix shall be 335 Kg per cu.metre concrete (For blended cements, see Cementaid 3CC System Detailed Specification). Cementcontentstra[lbe statedon premixdockets];

-^ i

'1

NOTE: SCCprovides approx 15 minsretardation of set. Retarding admixtures should notbe usedunless extraretardation is required. Trial mixes prior should becbnducted to concreting to determine optimum mix. 3CC concrete becomes waterproof withinhoursof casting- Concretetest specirnens should be continuously covered/immersed to prevent premature moisture loss,untiltested.

lN$USTIi,ALpLOOR $PFCIflCATiOhJ$ . CONCRETf; WATfFIfROOFINA & COHRO$tON-PHOOT|NG AIMIXTUtIE$ . AfitiCOnn$$lON IMPREGNATION$ llll & $OLVENTpft$O$lNG . $lJFlFAfl[ T*tjfifi$fllN$ & DI,J$"1'PR*OFING RArll* l^tAIi$HNlNfi . RfTAIIDINS . {i[L $S|rJTROL A$HNT . MSRTAR Ai\.i$$AMpilSUR$E AI]M|XTUR*$. eic. i : i i i The information and recommendations li|erein are, as a resultof experience and testing, accurateto the best ol the sellefs knowledge, However, as the ule drrqurvsrruurlrutdllues surrounding.such uuttoutlulllg sucn uss use are nOI knownIO to Ine guarantee P,vPursu the Sellef, seller,lI it OOeS does nol not guafanlee produdt's not KnOWn warrantthe pfOdUCt'S or Waffant Of suitabitity Suitability in any tlg.q?:9.g ,r-.-: 1111!_._"itsyfnstTlce: particularinstanceand shall.notbe liablefor.any loss or damageconsequent upoh any use whatsolver unlessthe seller hal otherwise stipuldteO th6 tor a particularuse in writingsignedby a D'iector of tlre seiler. nrodyc!1 sujlaOlfitV

Performance Specification for Membrane-Free lmpermeabte structural concrete, conformingwith requirem"nt"for 3Gc Svstemquality concrete.
,_ 1 ,.

GUIDANCENOTE: The performance and the effective life of integral waterproofingcompounds can vary greatlywithin the industry.Therefore, an ingredient with an established,long-term history of successful use, such as that stated in clause (d) below, is an essentialcomponentin successful membrane-freedesign & construction. This specification is based on the known long-termperformance of one such ingredient, 3CC, continuouslyperformingin actualfield structuresup to 34 yearsold.
(SPECIFY All concrete AREAS)shallconform with all specified requirementsand the following: a) The OrdinaryPortland cementcontentof ttre
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contents of blended cements, consult Cementaid.)

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b) The concrete shall contain Cementaid Superplastet or equaland approved high d) "n range water reducer,such that the ii6e cement. aqqreqateor approvedwaterwiter / binder(w/b)ratioshaltnot excGd' reducinq admixture, usedby thecontractor to comply with the absorption and permeability requirements, mustbe shown c) The concreteshall containa time-proven by an independent authority to have had hydrophobic inoredient(Hl), such as performance no reduction in after field Cementaid 3CC, or proven equal and exposurefora minffi approvedin writing,in strict accordance with manufacturer's Detailed Technical e) The Engineer reserves the rightto require Specifications. the concreteas placedand cured in the actualstructure to complywith the water Prior to construction, trial mixes are to absorption and the permeability limits conducted under the supervision of the within 7 and placement, 28 days of engineer or his representative andwiththe respectively. The Contractor shall provide Hl manufacturer present,to confirmthat costings permeability for absorption and the proposed mix conforms with strength, testing by an accredited laboratory, and if w/b ratio, slumpandotherrequirementsi so required, samples shallbe takenduring The trialmix concrete shallfurtherhavea construction as directed by the Engineer. corrected30 minute water absorotion These samplesshall be testedas above of not qreater than 1.s"o/o,-l6it;;A-E;li and shallconform with the absorption and percent) as measured permeability by BS 1881:part requirements. The Engineer 122:1983except thatthe aqe at testshall further reseruesthe right to take cores be 7 days. The absorption fromthe structure test is to be to confirm compliance. conducted on cores taken from cubesor Admixturesmust contain no chlorides. cylinders as specified in the standard. Cast The supplier shallsatisfy the Engineer that specimens, 150mm x 75mm,mayalsobe any admixture or ingredient used, or their used for testing where approvedby the combination, does not detrimentally affect Engineer, in which instancea correction the strength or other properties of the factorwill not be appliedto the measured concrete. absorption result.

The trialmix concrete shallfurther havean average water permeabilitycoefficient whente.sted at 28 daysof notgreater than 1 x 10''' mis as measured by HDBTest Method for Coefficientof Permeability under3.0 kgf/cm'(1989)or an averaqe penetration depthnot qreater than20 mm as measured bv DIN1048: Part5: 1991.

YFVl0/92(P&BC)

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