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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Element 1:- Health and Safety Foundations


cciden t !efinition:An unplanned, uncontrolled event which led to, or could have led to loss Incident"Near miss: An accident that results in no apparent loss !an#erous occurrences: An accident not resulting in personal injury reportable to the enforcing authority $or% related ill-health: Harm to a workers health caused by their work Ha&ard:- Something with the potential to cause harm Ris%:- The likelihood that harm will occur and the severity of the harm $hy mana#e health and safety 'oral( )e#al( Financial Reduced accidents Reduced loss through damage to e uipment Reduced absenteeism Reduced insurance premiums !mproved morale !mproved company reputation Reduced fines, Reduced compensation claims !ncreased likelihood of securing business )a*:- Civil and Criminal ims:Civil:- to compensate an injured party for loss as a conse uence of an accident or ill health Criminal:- To punish and deter individuals"#rganisations from behaving in a way that society has decide is unacceptable Criminal liabilities %nforcement notices & !mprovement notices & 'rohibition notices & Appeals against notices & %mployment tribunals (%T) & 'enalties for failure to comply

Enforcement notices Appeals To an %mployment Tribunal within *$ days The appeal+ Suspends the operation of an improvement notice +ut !oes not suspend the operation of a prohibition notice $ *

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

,rohibition notices &,orkplace activity & !nvolves or will involve -risk of serious personal injury &!mmediate effect &.an relate to a system of work, e uipment, workplace or a person ,rosecution Summary offences (minor) & /ormally heard in magistrates court & 0a1imum fine *2,222 (s* 3 4) & 0a1imum fine 5,222 (s6) !ndictable offences (serious) & Serious or repeated offences triable in crown court & 7nlimited fine, imprisonment or directorship dis ualification Em-loyer to -rovide Safe place of work and safe access and egress Safe systems of work Safe plant and e uipment !nformation, !nstruction, Training and s upervision Safe and competent fellow workers Fault )iability There was a duty of care owed to the injured party8 The duty of care was breached (/egligence) The breach cause the injury or loss Hidden costs of accidents 9ost Time %1tra wages, overtime payments, temporary workers Sick pay :ines 9egal costs .laims ;amage to e uipment Repairs to plant and e uipment 'roduction delays 9oss of contracts !ncreased insurance premiums 9oss of business reputation

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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision Sources of Information Internal Risk assessments 'olicies !nspection reports 0edical records Health and safety committees 'lant registers Safety advisors E.ternal =overnment bodies /ational safety organisations Suppliers and manufacturers !nternational standards .onsultants and specialists !nsurance companies

Successful 'ana#ement Systems /HSG 012 12 ,olicy:- Health and safety aims of the organisation, health and safety objectives and management commitment 32 4r#anisin#:- .ompetence, commitment and control, .o3operation, .ommunication 52 ,lannin# and Im-lementation:!dentify ha>ards, assess risks, and decide how risks can be eliminated or controlled8 Sets standards against which performance can be measured8 62 'easurin# -erformance:?e used as a means of determining the e1tent to which health and safety policy and objectives are being implemented and should be both reactive and proactive8 12 Revie*in#:- Analysing data gathered through monitoring to see whether performance is ade uate 02 udit:- Systematic critical e1amination of each stage of an organisations management systems and procedures

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Element 3:- ,olicy


$hat is a health and Safety -olicy:prevent or reduce loss in an organisation8 A business plan for safety to

4b7ectives of -olicy:to protect people from injury and ill3health, comply with legal re uirements and avoid prosecution and manage health and safety on a cost effective basis8 5 Elements of -olicy 12 Statement of intent:A statement establishing the importance of health and safety in the organisation and providing targets and objectives for improvement 32 4r#anisation:organisation 52 The roles and responsibilities of everyone in the

rran#ements:T he arrangements for effective planning, organisation, control, monitoring of the organisations health and safety

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Contents of rran#ements Section Risk assessments :ire policy %vacuation procedures Safe systems of work 'ermits to work :irst aid policy ;isplay screen policy 0anual handling policy Ha>ardous chemicals policy :ork truck policy +enchmar%in#

dvanta#es !dentifies key performance indicators %nsures monitoring procedures are effective :eeds in to the continuous improvement cycle !dentify normal practice amongst similar business Avoid making mistakes by learning from others =enerate management focus =ains confidence of the stakeholders

Challen#es of benchmar%in# Selecting a company with similar activities Assuring accuracy of data 7sing common definitions Accessing data =aining commitment

'ana#ement issues to benchmar% Health and safety policy Staff roles and responsibility 'lans and strategies which can be measured Risk assessments Type of training 0onitoring, 'roactive and reactive 4

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Revie* of ,olicy Accidents !ncidents /ew e uipment /ew staff /ew technology /ew premises .hanges in legislation Accident investigation %nforcement action 'rosecution .ompensation claims 'eriodic review Ineffective -olicies /o management commitment /o objectives set to implement policy Health and safety not given priority Resources not provided to implement action Aims and intentions not understood by personnel Too much emphasis on employee responsibilities /o measurement that objectives are being met 0anagement unaware of their health and safety role /o management training

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Element 5:- 4r#anisin# for Health and Safety


!uties of Em-loyers A safe place of work Safe work e uipment and substances !nformation, !nstruction, Training and Supervision ,elfare provisions %mergency procedures .onsultation with employees ;o not charge employees for health and safety measures !uties of Em-loyees ;o not endanger themselves and others .o3operate with their employer .onsult with %mployer Report dangerous situations to %mployer !uties of !esi#ners( 'anufacturers and Su--liers %nsure e uipment is safe and without risks when being used %nsure substances are safe and without risks when being used .arry out any necessary tests 'rovide information Take reasonable steps to provide further information if new serious risks appear Res-onsibilities of Safety dvisors ?e properly trained and ualified 0aintain ade uate information systems ?e able to interpret the law applying to their organisation %stablish and maintain procedures for reporting, investigating, recording and analysing accidents and incidents ?e able to present their advice effectively Relationshi-s outside the or#anisation The enforcing authority :ire"rescue service !nsurance companies .ontractors %1ternal consultants A

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision %ngineers % uipment manufacturers and suppliers .lients and customers The police 0embers of the public The media

Clients duties to *hen *or% bein# done b y Contractors To consider the risks to their own employees from the work The risks to the .ontractors employees from the .lients activities Risks to the public and others from the work Contractors duties To consider the risks to their own employees from the work The risks to the clients employees from their activities Risks to the public and others from the work To follow clients rules and procedures 'ana#ement of Contractors Select a suitable contractor 'lanning the job .ontrolling contractors on site .hecking contractors work Review contractors performance Selectin# a suitable Contractor %1perience of the type of work and industry Suitable references %nforcement record Safety management such as 'olicy, risk assessments etc8 Accident and ill3health data 0embership of trade"professional bodies .ompetence and training of employees Arrangements for selection of sub3contractors Arrangement for ongoing liaison with clients

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Element 6:- ,romotin# a ,ositive Health and Safety Culture


+enefits of a -ositive culture !ncreased levels of compliance with rules and procedure !ncreased staff morale Reduced staff complaints Reduced staff turnover Reduced absenteeism Reduced sickness and accident rates Ne#ative culture Cob insecurity Reorganisation 'oor e1ample set by management 'oor management decision making !nade uate supervision 'oor working conditions Internal influences on Health and safety .ompetence .ommitment and control .o3operation .ommunication 'roduction"service demands E.ternal Influences on Health and Safety Society e1pectations 'olitical priorities 9egislation and enforcement /ational or !nternational agencies 'ressure groups !nsurance .ompanies ,orkers unions Stakeholders %conomic conditions 8o im-rove culture Senior management commitment #wnership of health and safety at every level %ffective communication and consultation Training for all levels of employee Shared perception of risks Standards of acceptable behaviour 9earning from e1perience through monitoring and review ?alance between health and safety and production $2

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision ,ersonal factors that mi#ht -lace an individual at #reater ris% of harm *hile at *or% 'oor attitude 9ow motivation 'hysical capabilities 'oor perception of risk ;rugs or alcohol problems Age related factors 0edical problems 9evels of training and e1perience

ttitude:- 8he tendency to res-ond in a -articular *ay in a #iven


situation Factors that affect attitude ?ackground 'ersonality %1perience Training .ompetence 'eer group pressure 0anagement actions .ulture of the organisation

,erce-tion:- 8he *ay that -eo-le inter-ret and ma%e sense of


-resented info rmation Factors *hich may affect -erce-tion The nature of the ha>ards 'revious e1perience #ver familiarity :eeling of being in control 9evel of training 'eer group pressure .onfidence in others ability 'ersonal characteristics

'otivation:- 'otivation is the drivin# force behind the *ay a -erson


acts in order to achieve a #oal $hat motivates -eo-le Reward :ulfilment Cob satisfaction Recognition 'eer approval Threat of ;iscipline $$

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision $hy -erson may fail to com-ly *ith safety -rocedures 9ack of motivation 7nrealistic working procedures 9ack of management commitment #ver familiarisation Repetitive work leading to boredom 'eer group pressure !nade uate supervision :atigue and stress 9ack of information, training and consultation Cob insecurity Human Error causes Slips 9apses of attention 0istakes Diolations

Reducin# human error Skilled competent workers ,ell motivated employees .lear roles and lines of responsibility Ade uate levels of supervision .lear information and instructions ;rug and alcohol prevention policies =ood environmental conditions e8g8 lighting, noise etc8 Avoiding monotonous work ?reaks to avoid fatigue

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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision ,romotin# Safe behaviour ;iscipline Reward !nforming :acilitate safe behaviour Train

Com-etence
Sufficient 9no*led#e( 8rainin#( e.-erience and any other :ualities to carry out their functions Com-etence Enowledge Skills %1perience Training Recognition of limitations Chec%s to assess com-etence Fualifications 9evel of training 0embership of professional"trade organisations 7ndertaking written or practical assessments Seeking references or recommendations $hen is trainin# needed #n recruitment (!nduction) #n the job training Transfer /ew e uipment /ew technology /ew systems of work or system changes Induction 8rainin# -ro#ramme content Health and safety policy .ulture of organisation :ire precautions %mergency procedure ,hat accidents to be reported How to report accidents Ha>ards of the workplace ;rink and drugs policy :irst aid precautions ,elfare provisions

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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision dditional 8rainin# /ew processes /ew e uipment Accidents"incidents %nforcement action /ew legislation Result of risk assessment /ewly promoted Refresher training )evels of su-ervision 'ersons skills and ualifications %1perience of the work involved Age 'ersons attitude and aptitude /ature and comple1ity of the task %mployees communication skills Any special needs they may have Factors *hen -re-arin# a tal% on Health and safety 3!dentify the training needs 3 !dentify the training objectives 3The target audience, knowledge, skills etc8 3Training methods, lecture, video etc8 3 How to evaluate effectiveness of training 3/umber of trainees 3Time available 3Training aids re uired 3Suitability of training facilities, room si>e etc8 3.ourse rules and administration +arriers to communication 8he -erson e;#; Sensory impairment 9earning difficulties !ne1perience 9ack of motivation 8he deliverer e;# 8 Too much jargon, language or dialect Ambiguity of the message Too comple1 message 9ack of feedback 8he -lace e;# 8 High noise levels !nterference from ''% ;istractions $@

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

'ethods of communication Team briefings Safety committee meetings Health and safety representatives 0emoranda Tool bo1 talks /ewsletters Standards"codes of practice ,ork instructions 'osters /otices %lectronic notice boards Safety policy !nduction and other training

$ritten Communication dvanta#es !isadvanta#es ,ritten record .an be referred to .an convey comple1 ideas 'rovide analysis 0any people in different locations .an clarify or confirm oral :orms basis of contracts

0ay not be read To comple1 and jargon Time to produce and e1pensive Tends to be formal and distant ;oes not provide feedback ;ifficulty to modify ;oes not allow for e1change of views Attitude

4ral communication dvanta#es !isadvanta#es ;irect .lose physical pro1imity Allows for interchange 'rovides instant feedback 0ay be more effective Allows for contribution

/o written record ;ifficult to control 0ay reduce the uality of decision making through lack of time Attitude

Factors to con sider in -resentation of health and safety tal% The purpose of the talk The audience The training style /umber of trainees The time available The skills re uired by trainer Training aid re uired The suitability of the training facilities8 $5

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

,osters dvanta#es 9ow cost :le1ible ?rief 7sed to enforce written instructions .onstant reminder !isadvanta#es /eed to be changed on regular basis 0ay become soiled 0ay be defaced .an become out of date 0ay be seen as trivialising matters 0ay alienate people 'rovide no feedback

Safety Re-resentatives ri#hts /I)4 Convention2 C111 Have access to all parts of the workplace To be able to communicate with workers 'rotection from dismissal 'rotection from other prejudicial measures To contribute to the decision making process :ree to contact enforcement agencies .ontribute to negotiations in health and safety matters =iven appropriate training =iven reasonable time to e1ercise their health and safety functions Safety Committees #enda Study of accident"incident statistics %1amination of audit reports Reports from enforcing authorities Reports from workers representatives Assist in the development of policies"procedures 0onitoring the effectiveness of training 0onitoring safety communications 'rovide link with the enforcing authority Effective Safety Committees Right number of members Right mi1 of members Ade uate authority Right knowledge and e1pertise =ood communications Suitable level of formality $4

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision !nput from outside specialists 9imited individual input !dentified and agreed priorities /o trivia Ineffective Committee o--osite of above

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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Element 1:- Health and Safety Ris% ssessment


Ha&ard:- Somethin# *ith the -otential to cause harm Ris%:- )i%elihood that harm *ill occur and the severity of the harm Suitable and Sufficient ?e proportionate to the level of risk %nsure that all aspects of work activity are covered Take account of the way the work is organised !dentify the significant ha>ards and risks %valuate the risks !dentify control measures %nable priorities to be set Residual risk low Com-etence of Ris% ssessor %1perience and training in risk assessment techni ues Enowledge of process or activity Technical knowledge of the plant or e uipment =ood communication and report writing skills Ability to interpret legislation and guidance 'ossess right atitude Enows limitations 1 Ste-s to Ris% ssessment !dentify the ha>ards ;ecide who might be harmed and how %valuate the risks and the e1isting precautions Record the findings Review the assessment and revise if necessary Identifyin# ha&ards Task observation Accident, ill3health or near miss data ,orkplace inspections Cob safety analysis 9egal standards Hierarchy of Control %liminate Reduce !solate .ontrol ''% ;iscipline $A

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

$hen assessment should be revie*ed After an accident"incident /ew e uipment .hanges to e uipment, plant, process .hanges in personnel .hanges in legislation Result of monitoring or audit Action by enforcing authority /ew information becomes available $hy youn# -ersons at ris% 9ack of e1perience and"or training ?ody not fully developed 0ore likely to take risks Respond to peer group pressure ?e over enthusiastic Ris%s to <oun# $or%ers Their physical condition The workplace 'hysical, ?iological and chemical ha>ards The work e uipment The organisation of work and processes Health and safety training Ris%s to Ne* and e.-ectant mothers %rgonomic 0anual handling %1tremes of temperature 'ersonal protective e uipment Radiation .hemical agents ?iological ha>ards ,orking conditions Ris%s to disabled *or%ers Reduced mobility for access and egress Ability to access welfare facilities Reduced sensory ability e8g8 speech, hearing or eyesight Reduced ability to lift, carry or move objects %rgonomic ha>ards

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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Element 0:- ,rinci-les of Control in Health and Safety


General ,rinci-les of ,revention Avoid the risk e8g8 eliminate the ha>ard or task %valuate risks which cannot be avoided .ombat risks at source Adapt the work to the individual Adapt to technical progress Replace the dangerous by the less dangerous ;evelop a coherent prevention policy =ive collective measures priority over individual measure General Hierarchy of Control %liminate Reduce !solate .ontrol ''% ;iscipline +enefits of ,,E #ften low cost .an be used as short term measure 'ortable for worker away from base ;isposable ''% reduces risk of infection $hy ,,E used as last resort ;oes not eliminate the ha>ard ;oes not reduce the ha>ard #nly protects the wearer Always fail to danger 0ay introduce new ha>ards Relies on worker to use it 0ay not be worn correctly !t may be uncomfortable ,orn for only part of task of shift ,rong si>e 7sed when damaged /ot properly maintained 0anagement may not enforce wearing

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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Selection of ,,E ,hat are the ha>ardsG Type of e uipment 0ade to suitable standards .omfort .ompatibility Storage Training .ost Factors affectin# the *earin# of ,,E :it Health of worker 'eriod of use .omfort 0aintenance Training !nterference 0anagement commitment 'eer pressure 'ain ty-es of ,,E Head protection %ye protection :oot protection Hand and arm protection ?ody protection Respiratory protection Safety Si#ns 'rohibition (.ircular, Red, white background) ,arning (Triangular, Hellow black edging) 0andatory (.ircular, ?lue white symbols) Safe .ondition (=reen, ,hite symbols) Safe Systems of $or%:A step by step procedure for carrying out a task safely, identifying the ha>ards, assessing the risks and the precautions needed to eliminate or reduce the risks8 Factors"!evelo-in# safe systems of *or% $) Select the task to be studied *) !dentify the ha>ards <) ;evelop the safe system looking at+3 0aterials"% uipment"%nvironment"'eople @) !mplement system 5) 0onitor the system

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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision ,ermit to $or%:!s a formal written procedure re uiring written confirmation that certain actions have been carried out to eliminate or control risks before a specific high risk activity is carried out $here ,ermits needed .onfined spaces %lectricity Hot work .old work 4-eration of ,ermit to $or% !dentify the task (,here and when) !dentify the ha>ards 9ist the precautions to eliminate or reduce the ha>ards Additional precautions Time limits !ssue by competent person Receipt by person in charge of work .ompletion .ancellation Confined S-ace:!s any space where there is a specified risk of serious injury from ha>ardous substances or conditions within the space $hat are the s-ecified ha&ards in a confined s-ace :ire or e1plosion 9oss of consciousness due to increased body temperature 9oss of consciousness due to asphy1iation ;rowning Asphy1iation due to free flowing solids Confined s-ace e.am-les:- Cellars( E.cavations( Se*ers( Silos( 8an%s(=ats voidin# entry 0odify confined space so entry not re uired Have work done from outside ,recautions for *or%in# in a confined s-ace 'ermit to work .ompetent staff Appoint a supervisor !solate %nsure suitable si>e of entry =as purging Dentilation Regular testing of the atmosphere **

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision Special tools and lighting ''% .ommunications 9imit working time %mergency procedures )one $or%er Ha&ards to be considered ,ork location Type of work The e uipment 0anual handling Se1 of the worker %mergency facilities 9ack of Training 9ack of Supervision 9imited communication ,recautions for lone *or%ers !nformation on ha>ards Training to deal with ha>ards Regular contact Supervisors regularly visiting Automatic warning devices .heck the worker has returned home ''% %mergency action if worker becomes ill First- id:recovery aim is to preserve life, prevent deterioration and promote

ssessment for first-aid re:uirements The nature of the work and the si>e of the organisation 'ast history and accident type The nature and distribution of the workforce Remoteness of site from emergency medical services The needs of travelling, remote or lone workers %mployees working on shared sites Absence of first aiders due to holidays etc8 .ompliance with legal re uirements

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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Element >:- 'onitorin#( Revie* and udit of Health and Safety ,erformance
'onitorin# ctive 'onitorin# +enchmar%in# Takes key performance indicators and compares them e1ternally with similar organisations or industry standards $or%-lace Ins-ections A formal, structured e1amination possibly by a team of people of the working environment that identify ha>ards that are not controlled )imitations of ins-ections Some ha>ards are not visible Some ha>ards not always present 7nsafe practices not seen 8y-es of ins-ections =eneral workplace inspections Statutory inspections .ompliance inspections ,eo-le *ho carry out ins-ections 0anagers Supervisors Health and Safety advisors %mployee safety representatives %nforcement agencies Ins-ection Chec%list .ondition of processes and plant .ontractors %lectrical %nvironmental conditions :ire protection :irst aid Hand held tools Ha>ardous substances Housekeeping"cleanliness 9ifting e uipment 0anual handling 0achinery guarding *@

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision /oise etc8 Safety Sam-lin# A random e1ercise in which assigned observers walk in allotted timescale noting incidence of health and safety defects on pre3prepared sheets Safety 8 ours An unscheduled e1amination of a workplace to look for acceptable standards8 A tour can be carried out by a 0anager and demonstrates commitment to safety udit A thorough e1amination of the performance of the health and safety management systems, procedures8 Audits look at 0anagement systems, 'rocedures, Training, documentation such as safe systems, 'ermits to work, !nterview selected employees as well as e1amining the workplace8 Reactive 'onitorin# Accidents !ncidents !ll3health statistics /ear misses ;angerous occurrences .omplaints by workforce %nforcement action 'rosecutions .ivil claims

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Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Element ?:- Investi#ation( Recordin# and Re-ortin# of Health and Safety Incidents
Reasons to investi#ate accidents 'revent future accidents by identifying and eliminating the causes ;emonstrate concern about peoples health and safety !mprove worker morale !dentify weaknesses in management time 'revent business loses .ollate accident and ill3health data and identify trends ;efend criminal cases ;efend claims for compensation cciden t:- n un-lanned( un*anted event *hich results in a loss Incident /Near 'iss2:- n un-lanned( un*anted event that has the -otential to result in loss $hy consider near misses /ear misses indicate that the potential for serious accidents is present and by reacting to the near misses them will prevent them8 !f asked in e1amination e1plain ?ird triangle page A ;omino Theory+3 !t has been suggested that the events leading up to an accident are like a row of dominos and by removing dominos the accident will not occur8 ctions follo*in# ccident Immediate Treatment for injured personnel 0ake the area safe !nitiate emergency plan .ontact emergency services 'reserve scene for investigation 0ay have to notify enforcing authority Initial !dentify witnesses Report details to senior management Report details to insurance company )on#er 8erm ;ecide the depth of the investigation and select team =ather evidence at the scene !nterview witnesses %1amine documents Appoint specialists if necessary *4

Nebosh International General Certificate Revision

Com-osition of In vesti#ation team Supervisors and line managers from department where accident occurred A senior manager from another department Health and Safety professionals Specialists e8g8 %ngineers Representative of workers %mployee e1perienced in the work activity8 !irect"Immediate cause of an accident n un*anted( un-lanned event that results in a loss Root"@nderlyin# cause of an accident 8he failures in mana#ement systems or -rocedures that have led to the accident See -a#e 10 for for% truc% scenario e.-lainin# e.am-les of direct and underlyin# causes Reasons $hy records should be %e-t To prevent a recurrence 0onitoring purposes 9egal reasons #ccupational ill3health may take years to occur .ivil claims Re-ortin# of accidents Report to enforcing authority !njuries involving lost time ;angerous occurrences #ccupational diseases Information in Re-ort ,ho is injured person ,here the accident happened ,hen it happened ,hat happened ,hy it happened ;ocumentation %vidence Recommendations

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