cg Eyos of ihoMan

Behind iho Gun
-. :

The Aeroplane
Spies Out P


Opposing Forces
ivcs trie istance


S-i- y..



Germany's terrible Zeppelin dirigibles. Garros chose that wa 'The Zeppelin dirigible Is the most destruetive engine of warfare the world has ever known Some twenty-seve- n nf them can carry tons of Thnt would
nitro-glycerl- n.









new chapter Is being written e the hlstorv of war. The charges of massed bodi. of e men the heroes behind the pun. the examples of individual bravery in war are disappearing War still kills, war still has her heroes, but the men who fought at Austerlitz. Waterloo and Sedan would not recognize the lighters of today. The greatest change doubtless has come to the man behind the gigantic sun No longer does he aim at a charging enemy, cutting his fuse to

to the Gunner, Who CfK,..-Figures by Triangu- lation How to Hit a Mark He Cannot See $







ner can figure again and try another shot. With a man high In the air H is not difficult to find the enemy in a few shots. In addition to the aviator, men far ahead in the field or on a hilltop can estimate the distance for the men and tell them how to shoo: They use an instrument vllcii the telemeter. Manned b two officers the telemeter Is an ingenious automatic which computes the ranges It may be a few hundred feet or a few miles away from the guns



T "n mrJ






discovered that the "Langley Iiw," the only supposed law of flight original with Langley, was ibsolutely Wrong. This law was that the moro rapid the (light of a plane through the air. the lets will be the power required to advance and support iL They demonstrated that on the contrary, as In the case of all other vehicles, the faster a flying machine goes, the more power it requires By systematic laboratory experiments they worked out accurato and ompleto tables of air pressures, w hich enabled them to build wings of far greater effldeni y than any previous! designed. They worked the theory of air propellers and w ere able to build effii lent propellers based on their calculations Finally, they mad: the great achievement of devising a novel system of control by warping the wings of tho machine. It was this device that made air flight practical, and all machines arc using it today. The priority of the Wright Invention of this system of control has been upheld by the United States Court of Appeals and by the highest courts of Germany and France. The Wrights began their experimental work in 1900. As has been indicated, they found tnat a large share of the pretous experiment il determinations of laws affecting lllghts were wrong, and they had to work virtually everything out afresh by the most protracted and delicate laboratory methods. By 1302 they were making successful gliding Mights which became so prolonged they remained in the air for more than a minute. The next year their machine made Its lirst night under power. But it took rive more years of most exacting work, calling for brlllliant imagination, combined with extraordinary mechanical

supplemented the fruit upon the breakfast table. The season for mangoes was Just beginning. The donor of the rupee made inquiry and was informed by tho waiter that he had gone to the market and purchased them with "part of mas- ter's gift." Spanish waiters are more nearly Oriental in the matter of courtesy than those of the European coun-trlemore accessible to the hur-rie- d American tourist, and tho Jap- is are the most intolerable of Astatic waiters because they are tho most importunate tipseekers and keep up B constant harassment in the form of unnecessary fawning. An American wrestling with the difficulties of the Spanish language approached from an angle of weeks study preliminary to A - ks' visit to Spain, attempted to z e the topically American order: Two fried eg. The words lor egg? and grapes In Spanish are somewhat similar, and the order received by the waiter was. Two fried grapes. -nor.' said the waiter without betraying the least surprise at the unusualn-s- s of the order, "grapes are not yel in season in Honda. The senor has perhaps come from where summer is more ad- ini ed, It la still cool in the mountains." Imagine if you ean the same courteous consideration from a smart American waiter whose method is to overawe the un- sophisticated the better to make sure of taking tribute! "Au contraire," as we say In tho Corn Belt, there is the sleek bowing Japanese who gets the traveler's goat, as-- well as to get his gripsack. before his heels have hit the sta- lion platform and without "by our
e, Algi-clras.







S .a

left hydroaeroplane sailing alongside a battleship, fpper right A gunner and his weapon, shi iwing the w mechanism of the piece. Center Setting out
on-derf- ul

r. from a Lower n left aviator in air Lower riht A wrecked ae ropla ne.

explode a few hundred yards away. He rights today at an enemy he cannot ic. When he Is killed St is by an unseen foe, a terror out of the sky. The aeroplane nnd the r gun are responsible. The man in the aeroplane Is the eye of the runner. Although he may not actually sail over the enemy and drop bomb.-- , down on him he can spy him from afar On a high tower or a high build-on- e can see many miles. The aviator flies many times higher than the highest building, All he has to do k to soar like u bird and make a survey of the country From his vantage point he can map out the line of advance, even though he rise only above his own fortifications. From his vantage point he can the distance and signal the (runners how far to shoot The Runner of today figures out by trlangulalion how far the enemy is away and how fur to elevate the muzzle of his gun. Then be shoots. If he overshoots or undershoots '.he i.i'man observes It and makes a quick report by signal The cun- high-Poweestl-mate

The telemeter finds their distance from Ihe target. The officers find the range They have a chart, covered with numbered squares Their range falls, say, in square '25-2" The guns are signaled to lire on square "26-2" The gunners look at their chart, a duplicate of the other, and elevate and train their gun to that range. The sun is fired. The officers with the telemeter watch its effect If the range is wrong they correct It Slid wigwag another square to the guns. AEROPLANE DEVELOPED
6. 0.




The last decade has seen the development of the aeroplane. It was first thought of sorioj.sly less than twenty eart, ago. Langley's plane driven by steam flew first In 1S9G. Now tho first heroes of the air have given their lives in battle. Tho first report of an air man being killed in battle was when it was reported that Roland Garros had died i.immin" a Gorman dblglble dpt. H. B- Wild, veteran American aviator, knew Garros well Speaking ot



The fate of Palanl Garros, who made a deliberate sacrifice Of his own If o to destrp) the German army dirigible and send Its crew to death, confirms the nost terrifying suspicions Gormuny has over dared to entertain concerning the organization and purpose Of the aerial corps of the French army. As 1 recall II now, there are fifteen of theso men, each pledged to give his life Just as Garros did to avenge the ancient enemy of the trlCOlor, Germany. ' I got my first tip as to the real purpose of the'FYencb Hying corps at Belmont Park, N' V., In lain. I eras flying there at the first International aero meet ever held in America. One nlfrht Charles K. Hamilton. Israel Ludlow, John klolasaat, Garros and another or two of the boys were silting in the Hotel Astor chatting about avlati-i- n in general. Ludlow, poor fellow, just had recovered from a full which paralyzed He was him from tho hips down. on crutches. He had been telling us that if he had obeyed his wife and

him. he said:

kept out of tho flvliic game he would have been a well man. Then I remarked that my wife had been after me to get out of It. "Meantime Garros was sitting, no. sas in? a word. Someone asked him If he was lovesick. IRR4 s PROMISED l TO LE xi WIFE. '"Whether I an or not. I shall never marry.' said he. 7 have a ervlca to perform for France and when I die T shall leave no wife.' "Then the conversation veered around, as it inevitably doe,s when there are Frenchmen In t hi- crowd, to military neroplaning "To filers French personal achievement always Is n secondary consideration Their first thought always is. How can they render hlow up an army. There Is Just on Service to France" Arid that is the way to get them That Is for an Mine a saying. How can they deal aeroplane to ram their gas bag' It destruction to Germany? is Impossible for an aeroplane to 'Iiuring the conversation Garros fly over them and drop explosives on them, .is his been suggi-stedmade this remark, which struck for me. an aeroplane travels too fast. My feats all are for the glory 'The only way Is for the aeroof France. plane to get up In the air. where All my experiments gun range from the dlrlgihlo is ob-have an ultimate end. Some day I intend to wreck every Zeppelin Gertired by UlS gas bag. and do the ' many ever had It spiral right Into the balloon I means sure death to the aviator, but "Roland and were good friends, I met him in Frenchmen end 'he next time tho patriotism of Paris where I was doing some exknows no limits. Thus France with Ger-maaeroplanes vanquish flying, we will had more hibition her talks with hei dirigibles, or i miss His statements amazed me. I quesmy guess." tioned him for details, and was told some things I could scarcely PIONEERS OF AVIATION But in the light of Garros's RKC M LED BY WAR, feat they must bo so. Tho war and the use of aeroof the i was told how some planes recalls the history of aviamost widely known aviators France tion. Recently the ouestion was has, known tho worl over for il.vcl ;i.-- to the re:il in.cntor of dare-devwork, are in the service Credit ha been given of the French Government and each to OrvlUe ami Wilbur Wright by tho has made a solemn promise to glvo his life should the occasion arise, Smithsonian Institution. The death of Lillenthal, tho Gerjust as Garros did. in wrecking experimenter, In 1896. Ilrst man enemy tho of turned the attention of the Wright "Among tho number I can call to brothers to the problem Of air flight Andrew mind are Itene Barrier, and thoy read everything thut had Houpert, Reno Simon. Wegman, been published on thj subject. The first Vedinl and Beaumont. Langley's "Experiments In I three men I know personally, Aerodynamics," But they soon have flown with all the others All cwn experiproved by their exhibit the sume Interpld spirit of ments that his scientific work on patriotism as did Garros, if occathis subject was so full of errors sion offers they will go to their ax to bo of little value In particudeaths Just as Garros did, and do It. lar, his tables of air pressures, along as they say. 'for the glory of With all other tables then published, France.' Further, they proved erroneous There is Just one way to do up
' th-se. th-ir i il

trenin?. before their mar bine was really perfected suffUiently to be to tho Submitted for purchase United states Government, It would certainly be ironical If a sentimental Interest in Langley's pioneering work should blind people to what is perhaps the most remarkable Inventive work of a generation done by Wilbur and Wright.
Or-vil- le

bending double In assumed servil- with the casta In his poeket and it. nothing left to chance. The Jap- anese boast their westernization. which Is Americanization and some- times Improve upon the methods Uiey begin bj imitating! The New Powder Bag. Chicago girls are not carrying their powder rags in their stockings any more. Since tho slit skirt mode, when it was found thut even yellow backed bills, If they were many of them. spoiled the symmetry of a woman's ankle, there has had to be made an- Other place for the makeup" which n today find so necessary. all w Con.--, quently, some bright manu- facturer of leather goods has put out the "tango boxes' or leather vanity case. It is a little, almost square box. of colored leather, and It Is held by a short strap across the top The Inside Is lined w iih satin, with places lor small hund glass, comb. nail tile nnd orange slick. Hp stick. rouge and powder. A Mttle change pari of this paraphernalia. There remains still loom for the handkerchief. The fashion Is, spreading. Stanog- raphers. tango yueens and society wvono :i all have th erssw

leave' gallops off to the hotel, where he deposits the baggage, collects the tip from the clerk, who set? It down on the appro. i, hlng patron's bill of particulars and bows himself off.






In Furope there j.s, assuredly, a more general effort among waiters to earn the tip and earn the good will of the guest. This is doubly true in Asia, because Asia has u.t yet been less corrupted by the rich traveler who measures his pleasure In ligures relating to gross outlay and Is ostentatious in hit wholly selfish liberality. A leaf from the diary of an American traveler in the Orient of an Incident that throws light upon the manner in which tips are earned "East o' Suez." A rupee, tho equivalent ot thirty-thre- e and cents "American," was laid upon the table of the Grand Oriental Hotel in Colum-bo- , Celyon, as an earnest of good Intentions. The old Sinhalec wall er was told that in the event Of the service proving especially satisfactory there would be, at the end of the guest s visit, other rupees as a rew ard. Upon the following morning an inviting little basket of bed not mentioned In the menu.
one-third man-fOO-

Tips in Europe,

' B








f I

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful