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[G.R. No. 120465. September 9, 1999] WILLIAM UY and RODEL ROXAS, petitioners, vs. COURT OF APPEALS, HON.

ROBERT BALAO and NATIONAL HOUSING AUTHORITY, respondents. Facts: Petitioners William Uy and Rodel Roxas are agents authorized to sell 8 parcels of land. Petitioners offered to sell the land to NHA for a housing project. On February 14, 1989, NHA passed a resolution approving the acquisition of said lands, and pursuant to this the parties executed Deeds of Absolute Sale. However, only 5 out of 8 lands were paid for by NHA because of a report from DENR that the remaining area is located at an active landslide area and are therefore not conducive for housing. On November 22, 1991, NHA issued a resolution canceling the sale of the remaining lands and offered P1.225 million to the landowners as daos perjuicios. On March 9, 1992, petitioners filed a complaint for damages against NHA and its general manager Robert Balao. The RTC declared the cancellation to be justified, but awarded the amount offered by NHA. The Court of Appeals affirmed the decision, but deleted the award. Issue: Whether the petitioners are real parties in interest Held: Petitioners claim that they lodged the complaint not in behalf of their principals but in their own name as agents directly damaged by the termination of the contract. Petitioners in this case purportedly brought the action for damages in their own name and in their own behalf. An action shall be prosecuted in the name of the party who, by the substantive law, has the right sought to be enforced. Petitioners are not parties to the contract of sale between their principals and NHA. They are mere agents of the owners of the land subject of the sale. As agents, they only render some service or do something in representation or on behalf of their principals. The rendering of such service did not make them parties to the contracts of sale executed in behalf of the latter. Since a contract may be violated only by the parties thereto as against each other, the real partiesin-interest, either as plaintiff or defendant, in an action upon that contract must, generally, either be parties to said contract. Petitioners have not shown that they are assignees of their principals to the subject contracts. While they alleged that they made advances and that they suffered loss of commissions, they have not established any agreement granting them "the right to receive payment and out of the proceeds to reimburse [themselves] for advances and commissions before turning the balance over to the principal[s]."