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EUROPEAN HISTORY SECTION I 80 Questions Directions: Each of the uestions or inco!"#ete state!

ents $e#o% is fo##o%e& $' fi(e su))este& ans%ers or co!"#etions* Se#ect the one that is $est in each case an& then fi## in the corres"on&in) o(a# on the ans%er sheet* +* ,artin -uther initia##' critici.e& the Ro!an Catho#ic church on the )roun&s that it /A0 su""orte& "riests as re#i)ious teachers /10 s"onsore& trans#ations of the 1i$#e into (ernacu#ar #an)ua)es /C0 re&uce& the nu!$er of sacra!ents (D) used indulgences as a fund-raising device /E0 for!e& c#ose associations %ith secu#ar ru#ers 2* 3Re#i)ion su""#ies the "rete4t an& )o#& the !oti(e*5 This state!ent %as a conte!"orar' characteri.ation of /A0 the #aunchin) of the S"anish Ar!a&a /10 the e4ecution of Char#es I /C0 the "ostin) of the Ninet'6fi(e Theses /D0 ne% re#i)ious or&ers such as the Ursu#ines an& 7esuits (E) Spanish and Portuguese expansion in the New World 8* Durin) the )reat %itchcraft "ersecutions of the si4teenth an& se(enteenth centuries9 those !ost often trie& as %itches %ere /A0 'oun) )ir#s /10 'oun) $o's (C) older women /D0 !e!$ers of the c#er)' /E0 !e!$ers of the aristocrac' :* Durin) the ear#' In&ustria# Re(o#ution9 the #ea&in) in&ustr' %as the !anufacture of /A0 stee# ( ) textiles /C0 !achine too#s /D0 e#ectronics /E0 che!ica#s

.* The "aintin) of Na"o#eon sho%n a$o(e "ortra's hi! as %hich of the fo##o%in)< /A0 /10 /C0 (D) /E0 A chi(a#rous hero A co!"assionate hu!anist A co!"etent $ureaucrat !n imperial ruler A ruth#ess !i#itar' con ueror =* In On the Origin of Species9 Char#es Dar%in a&&resses the /A0 $ases of the 1ritish constitution /10 nee& to "rotect en&an)ere& s"ecies fro! e4tinction (C) transmutation over time of plant and animal life /D0 effect of )ra(it' on the or$its of "#anets /E0 ine(ita$#e &isa""earance of hu!an $ein)s >* ?hich of the fo##o%in) %as a !a@or &e!o)ra"hic chan)e in ?estern Euro"e $et%een +8.0 an& +A+:< (!) ! dramatic shift of population to ur"an areas /10 A ra"i&#' increasin) $irth rate /C0 A ra"i&#' increasin) &eath rate /D0 A "ronounce& tren& to%ar& #ar)er fa!i#ies /E0 A !arBe& &ec#ine in e!i)ration 8* ?hich of the fo##o%in) is one of Si)!un& Creu&Ds !ost si)nificant contri$utions to 20th6centur' thou)ht< /A0 S"ontaneous affection is har!fu#* ( ) #nconscious ps$chological energ$ is sexual energ$% /C0 Drea!s are unre#ate& to %aBin) thou)ht* /D0 Ca!i#' #ife has #itt#e to &o %ith !enta# i##ness* /E0 Each in&i(i&ua#Ds "ersona#it' is "re&eter!ine& $' )enetic characteristics* .

. 6 =. +A=> +8F ++F +8F +8F ++F +.i "art'Ds i&ea# ro#e for 3Ar'an5 %o!en in Eer!an'< (!) &he$ were to "e mothers' wives' and homema(ers% /10 The' %ere to ser(e in e ua# nu!$ers %ith !en in state an& "art' $ureaucracies at a## #e(e#s* /C0 The' %ere to en@o' econo!ic "o%er e ua# to that of !en* /D0 The' %ere to ha(e no "o#itica# or #e)a# ri)hts* /E0 The' %ou#& $e a reser(e !i#itar' force9 a(ai#a$#e for front#ine &ut' %hen there %as a shorta)e of !a#e so#&iers* ++* AEE CO. 6 +: 06.F +.)% . :.F AF The ta$#e a$o(e su""orts %hich of the fo##o%in) state!ents< /A0 In the +8:0Ds the !a@orit' of 1ritons &i& not #i(e "ast fifteen 'ears of a)e /10 The 1ritish infant !orta#it' rate %as #o%er in +8:+ than in +A=> /C0 The a(era)e a)e of 1ritons at first !arria)e %as #o%er in +A=> than it %as in +8:+ /D0 The chan)e in the a)e co!"osition of the 1ritish "o"u#ation $et%een +8:+ an& +A=> resu#te& "ri!ari#' fro! e!i)ration (E) &he average age of the ritish population was higher in )*+.: 8. 6 2: .. 6 :: 2.POSITION OC THE 1RITISH POPU-ATION +8:+ :F .F 8F +2F +=F 22F +8F +. 6 8: +.A* On the !a" a$o(e9 the sha&e& state is /A0 Po#an& /10 Hun)ar' /C0 Ereece (D) Ser"ia /E0 1u#)aria +0* ?hich of the fo##o%in) $est &escri$es the Na.F A)e in Years o(er =. 6 . than in )-.

+2* 3In confor!it'9 therefore9 to the c#ear &octrine of the Scri"ture9 %e assert9 that $' an eterna# an& i!!uta$#e counse#9 Eo& has once for a## &eter!ine&9 $oth %ho! he %ou#& a&!it to sa#(ation9 an& %ho! he %ou#& con&e!n to &estruction*5 The i&ea e4"resse& in the "assa)e a$o(e is !ost c#ose#' associate& %ith the theo#o)ica# (ie%s of /A0 Eras!us /10 Po"e -eo G /C0 Tho!as .* ?hich of the fo##o%in) %as an i!"ortant conse uence of the E#orious Re(o#ution of +=886+=8A< (!) 2imits were put on the power of the English monarch$% /10 The franchise %as e4"an&e& to !e!$ers of the #o%er c#asses* /C0 Crench inf#uence in En)#an& %as e4"an&e&* /D0 Ro!an Catho#icis! %as reintro&uce& into En)#an&* /E0 En)#an& )aine& contro# of S"anish co#onia# "ossessions in the Ne% ?or#&* +=* /A0 /10 (C) /D0 /E0 The Russian %oo&cut a$o(e /a$out +=A80 s'!$o#i.e& $' .< The re(o#t #e& to the e!anci"ation of the Eer!an serfs* The re(o#t %as or)ani.2.artin -uther to $reaB "a"a# "o%er in the Eer!an states* The "easants %ere su""orte& $' Crench ar!ies &urin) the re(o#t* The re(o#t %as the first in Euro"e in %hich econo!ic e)a#itarianis! %as a !a@or ra##'in) &he revolt resulted from a com"ination of new religious ideas and peasant demands% "oint* +:* ?hich of the fo##o%in) e4"#orers9 sai#in) un&er the f#a) of Portu)a#9 reache& the %est coast of In&ia in +:A8 after roun&in) the Ca"e of Eoo& Ho"e an& crossin) the In&ian Ocean< /A0 7ohn Ca$ot ( ) 0asco da 1ama /C0 1arto#o!eu Dias /D0 A!eri)o Hes"ucci /E0 Cer&inan& .2:6+.a)e##an +.es Peter the EreatDs (ictor' o(er the S%e&es in the Ereat Northern ?ar e#i!ination of the CossacBs as a "o#itica# force %ithin Russia imposition of Western values on the 3ussian no"ilit$ initiation of the "artition of Po#an& stru))#e %ith his son9 A#e4is9 for contro# of Russia .ore (D) /ohn Calvin /E0 I)natius -o'o#a +8* /A0 /10 /C0 /D0 (E) ?hich of the fo##o%in) is true of the Eer!an PeasantsD Re(o#t of +.

+>* Cou"#es in ear#' !o&ern Euro"e )enera##' "ut off !arria)e unti# the' %ere9 on a(era)e9 in their !i&6 to #ate t%enties $ecause /A0 se4ua# !aturation %as &e#a'e& unti# the !i&6t%enties $ecause of "oor nutrition /10 the' %ere concerne& a$out scarcit' of housin) (C) the$ needed to ac4uire land or learn a trade "efore the$ could support a famil$ /D0 the custo!s an& !ores of a societ' &o!inate& $' re#i)ion "ro!ote& se4ua# restraint /E0 #a%s "rohi$ite& !arria)e %ithout "arenta# "er!ission $efore the a)e of !a@orit' +8* 3The #a% is the e4"ression of the )enera# %i##* A## citi.ens ha(e a ri)ht to concur either "ersona##' or $' their re"resentati(es in its for!ation* The #a% shou#& $e the sa!e for a##9 %hether it "rotects or %hether it "unishes*5 The uotation a$o(e is a for!u#ation of the i&eas of /A0 Cre&ericB the Ereat ( ) /ean-/ac4ues 3ousseau /C0 A&a! S!ith /D0 Con&orcet /E0 Ho#taire +A* .e& re#i)ion Re@ection of the institution of !arria)e !dvocac$ of social and economic planning Re(o#utionar' o(erthro% of the e4istin) or&er Pro!otion of !ass "o#itica# "arties ?hich of the fo##o%in) state!ents accurate#' &escri$es the Na"o#eonic Co&e< It %as Euro"eDs first %ritten #a% co&e* It "re"are& the %a' for the 1our$on Restoration* It institutiona#i.ation of )o(ern!ent Eenera# 2+* The #ists of )rie(ances9 or cahiers de doléances9 $rou)ht $' the !e!$ers of the Estates6 to Hersai##es in +>8A ca##e& for /A0 the i!!e&iate o(erthro% of -ouis GHI /10 uni(ersa# a&u#t suffra)e (C) tax e4uit$ /D0 the se"aration of church an& state /E0 rene%a# of "ro(incia# an& cit' charters 22* /A0 /10 (C) /D0 /E0 28* /A0 /10 /C0 (D) /E0 ?hich of the fo##o%in) %as a co!!on the!e a!on) nineteenth6centur' Uto"ian socia#ists< Su""ort of or)ani.e& the corvée* 5t protected private propert$ and the authorit$ of hus"ands within the famil$% It &eter!ine& the sha"e of Euro"ean )o(ern!ents unti# the Cirst ?or#& ?ar* .a&a!e &e Po!"a&our9 !istress of -ouis GH9 $eca!e the center of "u$#ic attention $ecause of her /A0 e4tensi(e charit' %orB a!on) the Parisian "oor ( ) participation in politics and use of the monarch$ for personal gain /C0 "ro"osa# for refor!in) the econo!ic structure of the !onarch' /D0 ro#e in the re$ui#&in) of the center of Paris /E0 %ritin)s for the Enc'c#o"e&ia an& other En#i)hten!ent "u$#ications 20* /A0 /10 /C0 (D) /E0 ?hich of the fo##o%in) %as )enera##' su""orte& $' the !ercanti#ists< Cor!ation of ne% )ui#&s Destruction of factories Creation of a uni(ersa# !onetar' stan&ar& Development of colonies Decentra#i.

onet is associate& %ith the $e)innin)s of the artistic !o(e!ent Bno%n as Ro!anticis! 5mpressionism Rea#is! Da&ais! Cu$is! 2=* 3No "ru&ent !aster of a fa!i#' e(er atte!"ts to !aBe at ho!e %hat it %i## cost hi! !ore to !aBe than to $u'* If a forei)n countr' can su""#' us %ith a co!!o&it' chea"er than %e ourse#(es can !aBe it9 $etter $u' it fro! the! %ith so!e "art of the "ro&uce of our o%n in&ustr'*5 The uotation a$o(e %as use& to @ustif' /A0 the esta$#ish!ent of Uto"ian socia#ist co!!unities in ear#' nineteenth6centur' Ereat 1ritain ( ) free trade in earl$ nineteenth-centur$ 1reat ritain /C0 the socia# #e)is#ation "ro"ose& $' 1is!arcB in #ate nineteenth6centur' Eer!an' /D0 Euro"ean i!"eria#is! in Africa in the #ate nineteenth centur' /E0 econo!ic inte)ration of Centra# an& Eastern Euro"e in the ear#' t%entieth centur' 2>* After unification in the #ate nineteenth centur'9 the ne% state of Ita#' face& a## of the fo##o%in) EGCEPT /A0 hosti#it' fro! the Hatican /10 an ine uita$#e ta4ation s'ste! /C0 a continue& rift $et%een the north an& the south /D0 hea(' )o(ern!ent &e$t (E) a la"or shortage 28* ?hich of the fo##o%in) %as a resu#t of EinsteinDs "u$#ication of the s"ecia# theor' of re#ati(it' in +A0.ar4 an& Crie&rich En)e#s asserte& that techno#o)' %as e(i# an& %ou#& $rin) !ore sufferin) than $enefits to the %orBin) c#ass capitalism was a necessar$ stage of economic and social development a socia#ist re(o#ution %as !ost #iBe#' to occur in Russia the )oa#s of nationa#is! an& socia#is! %ere inse"ara$#e the %orBin) c#ass %as so o""resse& that it %as una$#e to he#" itse#f C#au&e .* /A0 ( ) /C0 /D0 /E0 In The Communist Manifesto /+8:809 Iar# .a4 P#ancB %as &is"ro(e&* /10 The acco!"#ish!ents of Pierre an& .e of the $ureaucrac' elimination of the old olshevi( elite an enhance& So(iet i!a)e a$roa& .es Euro"ean art an& #iterature in the +A20Ds< 6uestioning of accepted values and practices A re@ection of atheis! an& socia#is! A reaffir!ation of hu!an $eaut' an& )oo&ness A resurrection of Hictorian sensi$i#ities an& st'#es A&herence to c#assica# ru#es of co!"osition The "ur)es carrie& out in the So(iet Union &urin) the +A80Ds resu#te& in the "rotection of i&eo#o)ica# &i(ersit' %ithin the Co!!unist "art' i!"ro(e!ents in !i#itar' "re"are&ness a &ecrease in the si.2:* /A0 ( ) /C0 /D0 /E0 2.arie Curie %ere ren&ere& o$so#ete* (C) asic assumptions of classical ph$sics a"out space and time had to "e revised% /D0 Nations of the %or#& i!!e&iate#' $e)an an intensi(e research effort to create an ato!ic $o!$* /E0 Ph'sicists concentrate& on &e(e#o"in) a !etho& of tra(e#in) faster than the s"ee& of #i)ht* 2A* (!) /10 /C0 /D0 /E0 80* /A0 /10 /C0 (D) /E0 ?hich of the fo##o%in) $est characteri.< /A0 The uantu! theor' of .

a@or Protestant an& Ro!an Catho#ic #ea&ers of the si4teenth centur' con&e!ne& the Ana$a"tists $ecause Ana$a"tists /A0 re@ecte& the 1i$#e as the source of re#i)ious 6 truth /10 fa(ore& )o(ern!ent enforce!ent of !ora#it' (C) advocated a complete separation of church and state /D0 restore& the "ri(i#e)es of the c#er)' /E0 trie& to reconci#e Protestant an& Catho#ic teachin)s . /10 a Eer!an co!!unist in +A2A /C0 a S"anish anarchist in +A8= /D0 a 1ritish Tor' in +A8> (E) a C7ech dissident in )*+* 88* /A0 ( ) /C0 /D0 /E0 Renaissance hu!anis! &re% its !ain ins"iration fro! re#i)ious asceticis! classical languages and literature the curricu#a of !e&ie(a# uni(ersities "o#itica# refor!s of the Ho#' Ro!an E!"ire the i&eas of DanteDs Inferno 8:* .8+* (!) /10 /C0 /D0 /E0 The "ur"ose of the 1ritish "oster sho%n a$o(e %as to shame a"le-"odied men into volunteering for militar$ service encoura)e fathers to re!ain at ho!e %ith their chi#&ren &iscoura)e en#ist!ent $' %hite6co##ar %orBers co!!e!orate those %ho ha& &ie& in the Cirst ?or#& ?ar hi)h#i)ht the &ifferences $et%een the Cirst an& the Secon& ?or#& ?ars 82* 3**** %e are for a socia#is! that is "ro"er to a hi)h#' &e(e#o"e& countr' an& is &e(oi& of those re"u#si(e features i!"ose& u"on our countr' $' a han&fu# of narro%6!in&e&9 &o)!atic9 "o%er6hun)r' careerists an& unscru"u#ous &es"ots* ?e ha(e no reason to assu!e an anti6So(iet attitu&e insofar as the So(iet UnionDs interna# "o#ic' is concerne&* ?e o$@ect on#' to $ruta# interference in the affairs of other nations*5 This "assa)e ref#ects the attitu&e of /A0 an Ita#ian fascist in +A2.

8.us#i!s an& 7e%s %ere $e#ie(e& to hin&er the econo!ic &e(e#o"!ent of S"ain /D0 S"anish .ation /E0 Terracin) 8A* /A0 /10 /C0 (D) /E0 The #on)6ter! effect of the Thirt' YearsD ?ar on the Eer!an states %as to restrict -utheranis! to southern Eer!an states initiate a #on) era of "eace an& ra"i& econo!ic reco(er' encoura)e unification devastate the 1erman states9 economies increase the "o%er of the Ho#' Ro!an E!"eror .us#i!s an& 7e%s %ere "rotecte& $' forei)n "o%ers hosti#e to S"ain 8=* /A0 /10 /C0 /D0 (E) 8>* (!) /10 /C0 /D0 /E0 RenJ Descartes K Crancis 1acon contri$ute& to scientific &e(e#o"!ent in the se(enteenth centur' $' !aBin) o$ser(ations of "#anetar' !o(e!ents "erfectin) the !etric s'ste! con&uctin) e4"eri!ents a$out )ra(itationa# forces intro&ucin) #o)arith!s articulating theories of the scientific method The #ea&ershi" of the Dutch re(o#ts /+.us#i!s an& 7e%s in S"ain $ecause (!) 8erdinand and 5sa"ella were hostile to religious faiths other than Christianit$ /10 Cer&inan& an& Isa$e##a feare& that if the' &i& nothin) !an' Christians %ou#& #ea(e S"ain /C0 S"anish .* Cer&inan& an& Isa$e##a su""orte& the e4"u#sion or con(ersion of .==6+=:80 sou)ht a## of the fo##o%in) EGCEPT an alliance with the English Catholics the en& of the in uisition the en& of e4cessi(e ta4ation the e#i!ination of the ru#e of forei)n officia#s an a##iance %ith Crench Protestants 88* 3The "asturin) stocB is a##o%e& in "eace to eat u" the foo& on the "astures to its ut!ost #i!its9 thus the stocB returns !ore a!"#e "rofit to the far!er* In !ana)in) ara$#e #an&s9 the far!er &eri(es other so#i& a&(anta)es9 such as securit' a)ainst tres"ass an& a&o"tion of correct cro" rotation*5 The ei)hteenth6centur' 1ritish uotation a$o(e is a @ustification for %hich of the fo##o%in)< (!) Enclosure of common lands /10 Stri" far!in) /C0 Sharecro""in) /D0 Co##ecti(i.us#i!s an& 7e%s outnu!$ere& Christians in !ost #ar)e cities in the Bin)&o! /E0 S"anish .

PERCENTAEE INCREASE IN THE POPU-ATION OC EER.ANY9 +8+=6+A+: :0* The !a" a$o(e $est su""orts %hich of the fo##o%in) state!ents< /A0 Re#i)ious affi#iation e4"#ains the )ro%th in "o"u#ation* /10 I!!i)ration to the ?estern He!is"here &eci!ate& the "o"u#ation of centra# Eer!an'* /C0 The Cranco6Prussian an& Austro6Prussian %ars #eft Eer!an' &i(i&e& an& &e"o"u#ate&* (D) &he population of industrial regions grew most rapidl$% /E0 The inf#u4 of Russians an& Eastern Euro"eans !a&e Eer!an' the #ar)est !u#tinationa# state in Euro"e* :+* /A0 /10 (C) /D0 /E0 The Prussian (ictor' o(er Austria in +8== resu#te& in intensifie& efforts $' the 1ritish to &efeat the Prussian ar!' the )reater in(o#(e!ent of Austria in Eer!an "o#itica# affairs the consolidation of Prussian authorit$ among North 1erman states "o"u#ar u"risin)s in Austria a)ainst Prussian interference an a##iance $et%een Russia an& the Otto!an E!"ire a)ainst Austria :2* Durin) the nineteenth an& t%entieth centuries9 the first Euro"ean countr' to e4"erience a &ra!atic &ecrease in its $irth rate %as (!) 8rance /10 Ita#' /C0 Russia /D0 S"ain /E0 Eer!an' :8* /A0 /10 /C0 /D0 (E) In the +A80Ds one of the effects of the Ereat De"ression in Euro"e %as a reconci#iation $et%een co!!unists an& fascists in Crance a stren)thenin) of efforts to faci#itate internationa# tra&e a rise in the "ro&uction of consu!er )oo&s the increase& effecti(eness of the -ea)ue of Nations in internationa# re#ations the "roadening of popular support for the Na7i part$ in 1erman$ .

artin -uther $e#ie(e& that the !ost i!"ortant ro#e for a Christian %o!an %as to !inister to the sicB an& "oor "reach the %or& of Eo& in church on Sun&a' "ecome a wife and mother #ea& a #ife &e(ote& "ri!ari#' to "ra'er an& conte!"#ation teach rea&in) an& %ritin) in a re#i)ious schoo# 7ohn Ca#(in esta$#ishe& the center of his refor!e& church in -'on -on&on ?itten$er) 1eneva 1ase# The "ri!ar' "ur"ose of the Peace of Au)s$ur) /+..::* ?hich of the fo##o%in) %as a !a@or achie(e!ent of So(iet societ' &urin) the Ihrushche( 'ears< (!) Soviet space successes exceeded those of the #nited States% /10 The Ci(e6Year P#ans achie(e& their )oa#s* /C0 The (ir)in #an&s "ro)ra! resu#te& in So(iet a)ricu#tura# se#f6sufficienc'* /D0 Construction of ne% housin) units e ua#e& that of the Unite& States* /E0 Press censorshi" %as en&e&* :.0 %as to en& the %ars $et%een the Ha"s$ur)s an& the Ha#ois end the civil war "etween 2utherans and 3oman Catholics in the 1erman states en& the Thirt' YearsD ?ar create $etter tra&e re#ations a!on) Eer!an "rinces faci#itate &i"#o!atic re#ations $et%een the Ho#' Ro!an E!"ire an& the Otto!an TurBs :8* The Scientific Re(o#ution o(erturne& the acce"te& i&eas of %hich of the fo##o%in)< (!) !ristotle /10 Hesa#ius /C0 Co"ernicus /D0 Ea#i#eo /E0 Euc#i& :A* ?hich of the fo##o%in) $est e4"resses Ho#taireDs (ie%s concernin) re#i)ion< /A0 Catho#ics shou#& o$e&ient#' fo##o% the &ictates of the "o"e* /10 Protestants shou#& $e e4c#u&e& fro! Crench )o(ern!ent ser(ice* /C0 Re#i)ious unit' is fun&a!enta# to en#i)htene& !onarchies* (D) :rgani7ed religion perpetuates superstition and ignorance% /E0 Criticis! of re#i)ious &octrines an& authorities shou#& $e con&e!ne&* .0* The re"ea# of the 1ritish Corn -a%s in +8:= %as !ost stron)#' o""ose& $' /A0 factor' o%ners /10 %a)e #a$orers (C) wealth$ landowners /D0 re#i)ious &issenters /E0 sho"Bee"ers .* /A0 /10 (C) /D0 /E0 :=* /A0 /10 /C0 (D) /E0 :>* /A0 ( ) /C0 /D0 /E0 ..

.+ "ri!ari#' as a "ri(ate su!!er resi&ence for the ro'a# fa!i#' !e!oria# to those %ho fou)ht in the Cri!ean ?ar cele"ration of ritish technological and economic dominance "erfor!ance ha## for !usica#s an& o"era !useu! for artifacts fro! Africa an& Asia .2* 1et%een +8>0 an& +A+:9 the hea(i#' in&ustria#i..one contro##e& $' one of the A##ies* The $oun&aries of Euro"ean nations %ere re&ra%n a#on) ethnic #ines* #nited States political and economic influence increased in Western and Southern Europe% .ones9 each .arBet* Eer!an' %as &i(i&e& into four .e& nations of ?estern Euro"e earne& the #o'a#t' of their citi.in) tra&e unions .+* /A0 /10 (C) /D0 /E0 The Cr'sta# Pa#ace9 sho%n a$o(e9 %as $ui#t in -on&on in +8.8* (!) /10 /C0 /D0 /E0 .:* /A0 /10 /C0 /D0 (E) The constitution of ?ei!ar Eer!an' he#"e& to un&er!ine the re"u$#ican for! of )o(ern!ent $' providing for rule "$ a single individual in cases of national emergenc$ fa(orin) the -eft o(er the Ri)ht in the "o#itica# s"ectru! co!!ittin) Eer!an' to su""ort a## &ecisions !a&e $' the ?or#& Court &en'in) so!e citi.* ?hich of the fo##o%in) &escri$es a !a@or &ifference $et%een northern hu!anists K Ita#ian hu!anists< /A0 Ita#ian hu!anists focuse& on hu!an inte##ect an& achie(e!ents9 %hereas northern hu!anists concentrate& on nature an& e!otion* /10 Ita#ian hu!anists focuse& on nationa# consciousness9 %hereas northern hu!anists re@ecte& "o#itics* /C0 Ita#ian hu!anists (ie%e& hu!an nature as corru"t an& %eaB9 %hereas northern hu!anists (ie%e& hu!an nature as )enera##' )oo&* /D0 1oth concentrate& on s"iritua# concerns9 $ut northern hu!anists a#so focuse& on secu#ar !atters* (E) oth loo(ed to classical sources' "ut northern humanists also emphasi7ed Christian sources% .arsha## P#an< Euro"ean co#onies in Asia an& Africa achie(e& in&e"en&ence* Eastern Euro"e @oine& the Co!!on .ens $' a## of the fo##o%in) EGCEPT /A0 e4ten&in) the ri)ht to (ote to a#!ost a## a&u#t !a#es /10 ac uirin) co#onies to "ro!ote econo!ic e4"ansion an& nationa# "ri&e (C) dividing farmland e4uall$ among peasants /D0 increasin) the a(ai#a$i#it' of "u$#ic e&ucation /E0 #e)a#i.ens the $asic ci(i# ri)hts of a !o&e! &e!ocrac' usin) co!"#icate& #e)a# #an)ua)e that fe% "eo"#e cou#& un&erstan& ?hich of the fo##o%in) %as a resu#t of the .

=* /A0 ( ) /C0 /D0 /E0 The s'ste! of intendants %as esta$#ishe& in se(enteenth6centur' Crance "ri!ari#' to e!"o%er the Crench no$i#it' implement ro$al policies locall$ !aBe the "easantr' return to the #an& co##ect ta4es fro! the to%ns i!"ro(e CranceDs a$i#it' to fi)ht forei)n %ars ..>* The ac uisition of %hich of the fo##o%in) territories &urin) the !i&6ei)hteenth centur' he#"e& to esta$#ish Prussia as a )reat "o%er< /A0 1ohe!ia /10 1a(aria /C0 1ran&en$ur) (D) Silesia /E0 Sa4on' .ation of oneDs o%n i&entit'*5 The %riters &escri$e& a$o(e %ere associate& %ith %hich of the fo##o%in)< /A0 The Renaissance /10 Rea#is! /C0 C#assica# #i$era#is! /D0 Uti#itarianis! (E) 3omanticism .A* /A0 /10 (C) /D0 /E0 The "rint a$o(e9 co!!e!oratin) the %o!enDs !arch on Hersai##es in Octo$er +>8A9 sho%s that #o%er6c#ass %o!en o""ose& the con(enin) of the Estates6Eenera# #o%er6c#ass %o!en %ere &efen&ers of the aristocrac' women helped the progress of the 3evolution %o!en %ante& to #ea(e their ho!es to @oin the %orB force %o!en su""orte& "acifis! an& the status uo .8* 3These %riters e4to##e&9 often in an e4a))erate& for!9 the e4"ression of hu!an e!otion an& the search for rea#i.

0Ds an& +8=0Ds resu#te& in the /A0 re&uction of o"en s"aces for recreation /10 i!"ro(e!ent of !i#itar' fortifications /C0 "re(ention of "o"u#ar u"risin)s in the cit' (D) destruction of much wor(ing-class housing /E0 concentration of "o"u#ation in the centra# area of the cit' =+* /A0 /10 /C0 (D) /E0 =2* /A0 /10 /C0 (D) /E0 ?hich of the fo##o%in) $est &escri$es -eninDs Ne% Econo!ic Po#ic'< The first s'ste!atic a""#ication of .usso#ini an& Hit#er can $e "art#' e4"#aine& $' Crance an& 1ritainDs ea)erness to coo"erate %ith the So(iet Union Crance an& 1ritainDs confi&ence in the -ea)ue of Nations Crance an& 1ritainDs &esire to !aintain forei)n "o#icies in&e"en&ent of the Unite& States the "elief that the terms of the 0ersailles treat$ were un.ar4ist "rinci"#es to the econo!ic #ife of a state The Cirst Ci(e6Year P#an for So(iet econo!ic &e(e#o"!ent A state "#an for the co##ecti(i.ust a )enera# #oss of faith in the effecti(eness of &i"#o!ac' =8* In ear#' !o&ern Euro"e9 %hich of the fo##o%in) !ost &irect#' un&er!ine& the )ui#& s'ste!< (!) Entrepreneurial expansion of manufacturing into the countr$side /10 The increase& &e!an& for "ro&ucts fro! the Car Cast an& the Ne% ?or#&9 such as s"ices an& si#B /C0 The i!"osition of hi)h tariffs on i!"orte& )oo&s /D0 The use of cre&it in $usiness transactions /E0 The e4"ansion of the su""#' of "recious !eta#s =:* The scu#"ture $' 1ernini sho%n a$o(e ce#e$rates /A0 a ne% interest in secu#ar the!es /10 -utheran (eneration of the saints /C0 the Ca#(inist cu#t of $eaut' /D0 the reconci#iation of the "a"ac' an& the En)#ish cro%n after the Counci# of Trent (E) Catholic 3eformation m$sticism .=0* The re$ui#&in) of Paris &urin) the +8.ation of a)ricu#ture ! compromise with capitalist economic principles An i!"ortant e#e!ent of -eninDs 3A"ri# Theses5 The Crench an& 1ritish "o#ic' of a""easin) .

=.a&ri& /D0 Eene(a /E0 ?arsa% >+* ?hich of the fo##o%in) %as an econo!ic "o#ic' of -ouis GIHDs finance !inister9 7ean6 1a"tiste Co#$ert< /A0 Raisin) !one' throu)h interna# tariffs /10 Encoura)in) internationa# co!"etition throu)h #o%er tariffs an& free6tra&e "o#icies (C) Esta"lishing detailed manufacturing codes to improve the 4ualit$ of 8rench export goods /D0 O"enin) CranceDs co#onies to forei)n !erchants an& tra&e .e& nations &urin) the Secon& ?or#& ?ar< /A0 The "ace of &isco(er' an& in(ention noticea$#' s#o%e&* /10 S"ecia#i.< E!anci"ation of the serfs -e)a#i.ation of the 1o#she(iB "art' Uni(ersa# suffra)e A free "ress &he creation of the Duma =A* ?hich of the fo##o%in) resu#te& fro! the c#ose re#ationshi" $et%een science an& )o(ern!ent in in&ustria#i.* 3I %i## a##o% that $o&i#' stren)th see!s to )i(e !an a natura# su"eriorit' o(er %o!anL an& this is the on#' so#i& $asis on %hich the su"eriorit' of !en o(er %o!en can $e $ui#t*5 The "assa)e a$o(e $est ref#ects the ar)u!ent of /A0 7ohn -ocBe /10 Tho!as Ho$$es (C) <ar$ Wollstonecraft /D0 7ane Austen /E0 E!i#' 1rontM ==* The "o#ic' of e4ten&in) the Crench Re(o#ution $e'on& CranceDs $or&ers %as !ost c#ose#' associate& %ith the /A0 Estates Eenera# /10 ro'a#ists /C0 Ther!i&oreans (D) 1irondin part$ /E0 Con(ention =>* /A0 ( ) /C0 /D0 /E0 =8* /A0 /10 /C0 /D0 (E) On %hich of the fo##o%in) &i& Ca(our an& Eari$a#&i a)ree< Once unite&9 Ita#' shou#& $e a re"u$#ic* 5tal$ should "e independent of foreign control% Ita#ian unit' shou#& $e achie(e& in one %a' on#'9 $' re(o#ution* The "o"e shou#& #ea& an' ne% Ita#ian state* Corei)n assistance %as necessar' to &ri(e Austria fro! Ita#'* ?hich of the fo##o%in) resu#te& fro! the Russian Re(o#ution of +A0.ation &ecrease&* (C) <uch scientific research "ecame financiall$ dependent on militar$ funding% /D0 Ce%er stu&ents %ere intereste& in scientific trainin)* /E0 The $enefits of scientific a&(ances %ere no #on)er uestione&* >0* After Constantino"#e fe## to the TurBs in +:.89 %hich of the fo##o%in) cities c#ai!e& to $e the 3thir& Ro!e5< (!) <oscow /10 1u&a"est /C0 .

ation of societ' an& !assi(e %ar ta4es /D0 Eo(ern!enta# contro# of the econo!' /E0 The ra"i& )ro%th of !anufacturin) an& the &e"o"u#ation of the countr'si&e >=* The )ra&ua# &ec#ine of the Otto!an E!"ire %hich occurre& &urin) the nineteenth centur' create& the !ost serious &i"#o!atic an& "o#itica# tension $et%een %hich of the fo##o%in)< /A0 Austria an& Prussia ( ) !ustria and 3ussia /C0 Crance an& Prussia /D0 Russia an& Ereece /E0 Russia an& Prussia ./E0 Re&ucin) !i#itar' s"en&in) >2* 7ust as the rei)n of -ouis GIH of Crance is often cite& as an e4a!"#e of a$so#utis!9 the rei)n of 7ose"h II of Austria is often cite& as an e4a!"#e of /A0 #i$era#is! /10 theocrac' /C0 !ercanti#is! (D) enlightened monarch$ /E0 the &i(ine ri)ht of Bin)s >8* In se(enteenth6 an& ei)hteenth6centur' Prussia9 the Junkers su""orte& the !onarch' an& ser(e& in the ar!' in return for /A0 the ri)ht to se## their #an&s /10 contro# of an in&e"en&ent nationa# "ar#ia!ent /C0 to#eration of their re#i)ious &i(ersit' /D0 e4e!"tion fro! a## ta4es (E) virtuall$ a"solute power over their serfs >:* Prior to the e4"ansion of the factor' s'ste! &urin) the In&ustria# Re(o#ution9 %hich of the fo##o%in) contri$ute& to the increase in "ro&uction of !anufacture& )oo&s< /A0 I!"ortation of si#B an& cotton c#oth fro! the Car East /10 E4"ansion of the )ui#& s'ste! in ur$an centers (C) Expansion of cottage industries in the countr$side /D0 Cu#ti(ation of for!er#' fa##o% #an&s /E0 The co!"#etion of the rai#%a' s'ste! >.* ?hich of the fo##o%in) %as the !ost i!"ortant factor $ehin& the Price Re(o#ution of the si4teenth centur'< (!) Stead$ population growth and rising food costs /10 The !assi(e e!i)ration of Euro"eans to the Ne% ?or#& /C0 The !i#itari.

.ation of Africa an& -atin A!erica sto" #a$or !i)ration %ithin ?estern Euro"e coordinate industrial and agricultural policies of the mem"ers .>>* The sha&e& areas on the !a" of ear#' ei)hteenth6centur' Crance sho%n a$o(e re"resent /A0 #an&s contro##e& $' "easants re(o#tin) a)ainst feu&a# o$#i)ations ( ) territorial ac4uisitions during the reign of 2ouis =50 /C0 #an& contro##e& $' forei)n ru#ers %ithin the Bin)&o! of Crance /D0 Hu)uenot stron)ho#&s that sti## e4iste& after the re(ocation of the E&ict of Nantes /E0 for!er S"anish territories on the $or&er of Crance >8* ?hich of the fo##o%in) a&(ocate& an e(o#utionar'9 as o""ose& to a re(o#utionar'9 theor' of .a.ar4is!< (!) Eduard ernstein /10 H* I* -enin /C0 Rosa -u4e!$ur) /D0 7ose"h Sta#in /E0 -eon TrotsB' >A* .ini 80* /A0 /10 /C0 /D0 (E) A !a@or )oa# of the Euro"ean Econo!ic Co!!unit' %as to "ro!ote ethnic autono!' %ithin the !e!$er countries "re(ent the reassertion of Eer!an in&ustria#is! achie(e the in&ustria#i.etternich %ou#& ha(e $een !ost in s'!"ath' %ith the "o#itica# "hi#oso"h' of /A0 7ohn -ocBe /10 Ro$ert O%en /C0 Char#es Courier (D) Edmund ur(e /E0 Eiuse""e .

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