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1999 EUROPEAN HISTORY SECTION I Time—55 minutes 80 Questions Section 1 Di ections!

E"c# o$ t#e %uestions o incom&'ete st"tements (e'o) is $o''o)e* (+ $i,e su--este* "ns)e s o com&'etions. Se'ect t#e one t#"t is (est in e"c# c"se "n* t#en $i'' in t#e co es&on*in- o,"' on t#e "ns)e s#eet. 1. (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 5. /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 st"tes Ren"iss"nce #um"nism is & im" i'+ *e$ine* "s a curriculum based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history "n "nti e'i-ious & o- "m *e*ic"te* to t#e *est uction o$ t#e C#u c# "n " tistic st+'e t#"t &o t "+e* t#e *e& ",e* st"te o$ #um"n (ein-s " &#i'oso&#ic"' mo,ement t#"t em&#"si2e* t#e (e"ut+ o$ n"tu e " e'i-ious mo,ement t#"t "ttem&te* to m"3e C# isti"nit+ e'e,"nt to *"i'+ e4&e ience T#e Rom"n C"t#o'ic Counci' o$ T ent /1565715891 #"* "s its & im" + esu't " com& omise )it# P otest"nts to eunite C# isti"ns " &o'itic"' com& omise )it# t#e P otest"nt & inces o$ cent "' Eu o&e reform within the Catholic church and reaffirmation of Catholic doctrine t#e $i m eest"('is#ment o$ conci'i" &o)e o,e t#e &"&"c+ c e"tion o$ " ("'"nce o$ &o)e (et)een t#e &"&"c+ "n* t#e #e"*s o$ t#e - e"t C"t#o'ic

9. :"mi'+ e'"tions in )este n Eu o&e in t#e &e io* 150071;50 )e e -ene "''+ simi'" to mo*e n ones in t#"t (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 6. /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 the core of the family was nuclear t#e 'e-"' &o)e o$ t#e $"t#e o,e t#e $"mi'+ ste"*i'+ *ec'ine* *i,o ce on t#e ("sis o$ i econci'"('e *i$$e ences inc e"se* * "m"tic"''+ $"mi'+ c#"&e's< *i ecte* (+ $"t#e s< *omin"te* communit+ se ,ices c#i'* en 'e$t #ome "n* est"('is#e* se&" "te #ouse#o'*s soon "$te &u(e t+ A m"=o *i$$e ence (et)een C"',inism "n* >ut#e "nism e'"tes to c'e ic"' m" i"-e t#e &'"ce o$ )omen in societ+ emphasis on predestination in$"nt ("&tism mon"sticism

5. In t#e ei-#teent# centu +< t#e e$$ecti,eness o$ t#e Russi"n mon" c#+ )"s 'imite* (+ (A) the enormous land area of the country /01 t#e in*e&en*ent &osition o$ t#e O t#o*o4 c#u c# /C1 " unite*< e(e''ious no(i'it+ /D1 " & os&e ous mi**'e c'"ss 'oc"te* in $o ti$ie* to)ns /E1 " ne)'+ $ ee c'"ss o$ $o me se $s 8. Ho((es "n* Rousse"u )ou'* #",e "- ee* t#"t /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 " mon" c# #"s "(so'ute &o)e the state is based on a social contract t#e st"te o$ n"tu e is &e"ce$u' "n* #" monious &o'itic"' "ut#o it+ s#ou'* (e s#" e* (+ t#e mon" c# "n* e& esent"ti,es o$ t#e &eo&'e citi2ens #",e " i-#t to e,o't

;. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- (est c#" "cte i2es ei-#teent#7centu + : "nce =ust & io to t#e Re,o'ution o$ 1;89 @ /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 T#e economic st"tus o$ t#e &e"s"nt + )"s im& o,in- * "m"tic"''+. T#e " istoc "c+As &o)e #"* e o*e* com&'ete'+. T#e & i,i'e-es o$ t#e c'e -+ )e e *ec'inin-. The French monarchy was experiencing a deepening financial crisis T#e &" tici&"tion o$ t#e (ou -eoisie in 'e-is'"ti,e "$$"i s )"s inc e"sin- * "m"tic"''+.

8. T#e 1896 Bo'',e ein /P ussi"n customs union1 )"s *esi-ne* to *o )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in-@ /A1 C e"te " common cu enc+ /01 Ac#ie,e n"tion"' uni$ic"tion /C1 P omote Eu o&e"n co'oni"' e4&"nsion (D) Create an enlarged trading area /E1 S'o) t#e const uction o$ "i' o"*s

THE CADE >A?SE
OR< THE SACRI:ICE O: THE PEASANT TO THE HARE.

9. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- (est summ" i2es t#e &oint o$ t#is 1865 c" toon "(out C e"t 0 it"inAs -"me '")s@ /t#e ) itin- on t#e s)o * s"+s FAcco *in- to t#e >")G1 /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 T#e -"me '")s s#ou'* (e en$o ce* on'+ (+ t#e 3in-. T#e &unis#ment $o ,io'"tin- t#e -"me '")s s#ou'* (e en$o ce* mo e i-o ous'+. The game laws are un!ust and reflect outdated social distinctions En$o cement o$ t#e -"me '")s & otects "nim"'s $ om o,e #untin-. Po"c#in- -"me in ,io'"tion o$ t#e '") is ) on-.

10. T#e e,o'ution in un*e st"n*in- t#e n"tu e t e"tment "n* & e,ention o$ in$ectious *ise"ses )"s '" -e'+ *ue to t#e *isco,e ies o$ /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") D" )in Hu4'e+ "n* ?"''"ce He *e < C#"te"u(n"n*< "n* *e St"e' Co(ine"u< C#"m(e '"in< "n* Niet2sc#e :ontene''e< Di*e ot< "n* * A'em(e t #enner, $ister, and %asteur

11. FI "ccuse t#e )" o$$ice o$ #",in- 'e* " ,i'e c"m&"i-n in t#e & ess in o *e to mis*i ect &u('ic o&inion "n* co,e u& its sins.G FI "ccuse t#e $i st cou t7m" ti"' o$ #",in- ,io'"te* "'' #um"n i-#ts in con*emnin- " & isone on testimon+ 3e&t sec et $ om #im.G T#e %uot"tion "(o,e (+ Emi'e Bo'" )"s ) itten to /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") & otest "-"inst t#e t i"'s o$ t#e H"co(in -o,e nment *u in- t#e Rei-n o$ Te o *e$en* N"&o'eon "$te #is *e$e"t "t t#e 0"tt'e o$ ?"te 'oo & otect t#e e&ut"tion o$ Cene "' *e C"u''e *u in- t#e Secon* ?o '* ?" c#"''en-e t#e (e#",io o$ t#e : enc# " m+ *u in- t#e Iic#+ e-ime in t#e Secon* ?o '* ?" attac& the actions of the French military during the Dreyfus Affair

THE DEC>INE O: 0IRTH RATES IN ENC>AND AND ?A>ES. :RANCE< CERDANY< AND S?EDEN< 186071919 INSERT CRAPH HERE

15. (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1

T#e m"=o e"son $o t#e &"tte n s#o)n in t#e - "&# "(o,e is parents' decision to ha(e smaller families " *ec'inin- st"n*" * o$ & en"t"' c" e $o & e-n"nt )omen " *ec e"se in t#e m" i"-e "te o$ )omen inc e"se* use o$ (i t# cont o' &i''s t#e s& e"* o$ in$"ntici*e

19. JT#e A''ie* "n* Associ"te* Co,e nments "$$i m< "n* Ce m"n+ "cce&ts< t#e es&onsi(i'it+ o$ Ce m"n+ "n* #e "''ies $o c"usin- "'' t#e 'oss "n* *"m"-eK.."s " conse%uence o$ t#e ?" .G —T e"t+ o$ Ie s"i''es< 1919 ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- (est st"tes one &u &ose o$ t#e t e"t+ c'"use "(o,e@ /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") To -i,e t#e >e"-ue o$ N"tions t#e &o)e to im&ose economic "n* mi'it" + s"nctions To & o,i*e " ("sis $o inte n"tion"' *is" m"ment t"'3s To encou "-e in*e&en*ence $o Eu o&e"n co'onies To inc'u*e Ce m"n+ in t#e &e"ce ne-oti"tions To !ustify large reparations payments from )ermany

16. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- is t#e (est *esc i&tion o$ t#e con*ition o$ C e"t 0 it"inAs n"tion"' econom+ in t#e 1950As@ /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 A ene)e* & os&e it+ in t#e t "*ition"' m"nu$"ctu in- in*ust ies Inc e"se* n"tion"' )e"'t# "s " esu't o$ mountin- e4&o t o$ 0 itis# -oo*s A stagnant manufacturing sector and a widening gulf between rich and poor Dis'oc"tion ( ou-#t "(out (+ " s#i$t $ om m"nu$"ctu in- to "- icu'tu e A esu -ent n"tion"' & os&e it+ c"use* (+ inc e"se* )o 3in-7c'"ss )e"'t#

15. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- (est summ" i2es N"2i "ims in t#e s+stem"tic 3i''in- o$ mi''ions o$ He)s "'on- )it# '" -e num(e s o$ communists< *is"('e* &eo&'e< C+&sies< #omose4u"'s< He#o,"#As ?itnesses< "n* soci"'ists@ /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 18. /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 To $u'$i'' t#e te ms o$ t#e N"2i7So,iet P"ct To eliminate allegedly inferior and undesirable peoples To & e,ent t#ese &eo&'e $ om co''"(o "tin- )it# t#e A''ies To meet t#e *em"n*s o$ t#e Ce m"n e'ecto "te To & e,ent t#e est o$ t#e ci,i'i"n &o&u'"tion $ om *e$ectin- to t#e A''ies Du in- t#e 1950As m"n+ ?este n Eu o&e"n count ies e4&e ience* " si-ni$ic"nt ise in t#e unem&'o+ment "te st ict -o,e nment"' cont o's o,e t#e si2e o$ $"mi'ies a rapid increase in the birth rate isin- mo t"'it+ "tes *ue to *ete io "tion in #e"'t# c" e "cute &o,e t+ *ue to " se ies o$ $oo* s#o t"-es

1;. T#e "(i'it+ o$ e'"ti,e'+ sm"'' Eu o&e"n $o ces to con%ue t#e &o)e $u' A2tec "n* Inc"n em&i es c"n (e "tt i(ute* to "'' o$ t#e $o''o)in- ELCEPT /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") '"c3 o$ immunit+ to Eu o&e"n *ise"ses "mon- A2tec "n* Inc"n &eo&'es su&e io Eu o&e"n mi'it" + tec#no'o-+ ine$$ecti,e *e$enses o$ A2tec "n* Inc"n cities in*i-enous &eo&'eAs '"c3 o$ $"mi'i" it+ )it# #o ses successful "uropean missionary acti(ity

18.

A*,oc"tes o$ no t#e n #um"nism (e'ie,e* )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in-@

(A) The fusion of Christian and Classical ideals pro(ides the best definition of (irtuous conduct /01 T#e con,entions o$ om"ntic 'o,e en#"nce soci"' es&ect $o )omen. /C1 E*uc"tion "n* sc#o'" s#i& s#ou'* (e e%u"''+ o&en to men "n* )omen. /D1 T#e ne) &oetic $o ms< suc# "s t#e sonnet< cou'* (e use* to " ticu'"te t#ei (e'ie$s. /E1 Po'itic"' i-#ts s#ou'* (e e4ten*e* to "'' men. 19. T#e - e"t scienti$ic *isco,e ies o$ t#e si4teent# "n* se,enteent# centu ies 'e* Eu o&e"n sc#o'" s to (e'ie,e t#"t /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 e,e +t#in- in n"tu e "n* societ+ o&e "te* in )"+s simi'" to t#ose o$ " 'i,in- o -"nism the uni(erse was orderly and operated according to fixed rules e'i-ious t "*ition $o me* t#e ("sis $o "'' scienti$ic t ut#s "n* "ssum&tions t#e e4&e iment"' met#o* )"s "n un e'i"('e ,e#ic'e $o scienti$ic in%ui + on'+ t#"t )#ic# cou'* (e seen "n* e4"mine* )"s e"'

50. 0+ t#e '"te se,enteent# centu +< )itc#c "$t t i"'s "n* e4ecutions #"* *ec'ine* in )este n Eu o&e in &" t (ec"use o$ /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 &o&u'" u& isin-s "n* &e"s"nt esist"nce "-"inst &e secution - o)in- $eminist & otest "-"inst &e secution o$$ici"' c#u c# e=ection o$ t#e conce&t o$ )itc#es increased disbelief among elites in the concept of witches " *ec'inin- num(e o$ )omen & "cticin- mi*)i$e +

51. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- is "n "ccu "te c#" "cte i2"tion o$ En-'"n* in t#e &e io* 18887 1;15 @ /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") A Pu it"n t#eoc "c+ An "(so'ute mon" c#+ A *emoc "c+ & "cticin- e'i-ious to'e "tion A me c#"nt e&u('ic inc e"sin-'+ un*e Dutc# *omin"nce A constitutional monarchy controlled by an aristocratic oligarchy

55. A*"m Smit#As An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations "*,oc"te* " s+stem o$ /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 59. /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 im&e i"'ism free trade & otecti,e t" i$$s soci"'ism me c"nti'ism ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- (est *esc i(es t#e enc'osu e mo,ement@ A s+stem o$ #i-# t" i$$s e ecte* (+ P#i'i& II o$ S&"in A mi'it" + m"neu,e *e,e'o&e* (+ Hen + I o$ En-'"n* The fencing of common farmland in "ngland for pri(ate use A net)o 3 o$ im& o,e* o"*s "n* ( i*-es T#e e ection o$ " $o ti$ie* 'ine (et)een : "nce "n* Ce m"n+

56. T#e est"('is#ment "n* - o)t# o$ St. Pete s(u - *u in- t#e e" '+ ei-#teent# centu + )"s &" t o$ Pete t#e C e"tAs "ttem&t to *o )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in-@ /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 St en-t#en #is "''i"nces )it# t#e 0"'tic st"tes Im& o,e e'"tions )it# t#e O t#o*o4 c#u c# *ema&e *ussian institutions to be as effecti(e as those in western "urope Re*uce t#e #i-# cost o$ -o,e nment in t#e o'* c"&it"' o$ Dosco) Discou "-e $u t#e Russi"n e4&"nsion e"st)" * into Asi"

55. F. . . it must (e 'o,e o$ $"t#e '"n* t#"t -o,e ns t#e st"te (+ &'"cin- (e$o e it " #i-#e o(=ect t#"n t#e usu"' one o$ m"int"inin- inte n"' &e"ce< & o&e t+< &e son"' $ ee*om< "n* t#e 'i$e "n* )e''7(ein- o$ "''. :o t#is #i-#e o(=ect "'one< "n* )it# no ot#e intention< *oes t#e st"te "ssem('e "n " me* $o ce.G T#e %uot"tion "(o,e (est e$'ects )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in-@ (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 58. /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 +ationalism :eu*"'ism Democ "c+ Im&e i"'ism Deism T#e m"in &u &ose o$ t#e )omenAs m" c# to Ie s"i''es in Octo(e 1;89 )"s to & o,i*e t#e N"tion"' Assem('+ "n* t#e 3in- )it# " *ec'" "tion o$ su&&o t & otest t#e sei2u e o$ >ouis LII "n* D" ie7Antoinette (+ t#e N"tion"' Cu" * & esent t#e )omenAs conce ns to D" ie7Antoinette ensure the &ing's support for the Declaration of *ights and cheap bread for %aris & otest t#e '"c3 o$ e& esent"tion $o )omen in t#e N"tion"' Assem('+

5;. In t#e &e io* (et)een 18;1 "n* 1916< Eu o&e"n -o,e nments e-" *e* &u('ic e*uc"tion $o t#e m"sses "s im&o t"nt & im" i'+ (ec"use it )ou'* /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 *iscou "-e emi- "tion to t#e Ne) ?o '* ensu e t#"t c#i'* en ecei,e* com& e#ensi,e e'i-ious inst uction ensu e t#"t '"(o e s )e e in$o me* &" tici&"nts in t#e union mo,ement pro(ide society with well,informed and responsible citi-ens 'e"* to )om"n su$$ "-e

58. FIn"smuc# "s t#e e-ime< (ec"use o$ its i-i*it+< )i'' $in* it inc e"sin-'+ mo e *i$$icu't to "ise in*ust i"' out&ut< it is o(,ious t#"t t#e st"n*" * o$ 'i,in- in m"n+ secto s o$ ou societ+ m"+ (e t# e"tene*.G T#e st"tement "(o,e )"s most 'i3e'+ ) itten (+ " contem&o " + o(se ,e o$ /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 : "nce "$te t#e *e"t# o$ Ro(es&ie e N"2i Ce m"n+ "$te t#e &u -e o$ t#e SA /sto mt oo&e s1 ?este n Eu o&e *u in- t#e 1988 stu*ent e,o'ts the .o(iet /nion at the time of Bre-hne( C e"t 0 it"in "t t#e time o$ D" -" et T#"tc#e

59.

A m"=o -o"' o$ En-'is# C#" tists in t#e 1860As )"s /A1 e%u"' *ist i(ution o$ )e"'t# /01 & otecti,e t" i$$s $o $" m & o*ucts /C1 )" )it# : "nce /D1 "(o'ition o$ t#e mon" c#+ (") the (ote for all men

RICHT >EC IN THE 0OOT AT >AST.
CARI0A>DI! FI: IT ?ONAT CO IN< SIRE< TRY A >ITT>E DORE PO?DERG

90. (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1

T#e 1880 c" toon "(o,e i''ust "tes )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in-@ )aribaldi presenting liberated 0talian territory to 1ictor "mmanuel C" i("'*i e&'"cin- C",ou "s Iicto Emm"nue'As & inci&"' "*,ise C" i("'*i "s3in- $o mo e "mmunition $ om Iicto Emm"nue' to #e'& $ ee sout#e n It"'+ N"&o'eon IIIAs mi'it" + su&&o t $o C" i("'*i T#e com&'ete uni$ic"tion o$ It"'+< inc'u*in- Rome

91. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- (est *esc i(es t#e e'"tions#i& o$ t#e )este n Eu o&e"n )o 3inc'"ss to o -"ni2e* e'i-ion in t#e '"te nineteent# centu +@ /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 Rene)e* "n* st en-t#ene* (+ e'i-ious e,i,"'ism St en-t#ene* (+ c#u c# su&&o t $o unions 2ea&ened, especially in highly industriali-ed ?e"3ene*< es&eci"''+ in I e'"n* So'i*i$ie* "n* st"('e

95. T#e ne) &#+sics c"use* muc# scienti$ic cont o,e s+ in t#e e" '+ t)entiet# centu + & im" i'+ (ec"use it /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 'e* to t#e use o$ 47 "+s $o me*ic"' *i"-nosis ins&i e* t#e $i st "ttem&ts to (ui'* "n "tomic (om( &'"ce* Ce m"n+ "t t#e $o e$ ont o$ $un*"ment"' scienti$ic ese" c# challenged traditional notions of causality, time, and space s#o)e* t#"t Co* cou'* not inte ,ene in t#e uni,e se e4ce&t s&i itu"''+

99.

T#e 1951 Ce m"n * ")in- (+ Ceo -e C os2 s#o)n "(o,e e$'ects t#e

(A) reaction against capitalism and war profiteering following the First 2orld 2ar /01 coo&e "tion (et)een in*ust i"'ists "n* t#e )o 3in- c'"sses *u in- t#e :i st ?o '* ?" /C1 #i-# 'e,e' o$ su&&o t $o t#e N"2is "mon- Ce m"n c"&it"'ists /D1 e$$o ts (+ t#e -o,e nment to & o,i*e "ssist"nce to t#e e'*e '+ "n* t#ose un"('e to $in* )o 3 /E1 #i-# 'e,e' o$ se'$7consciousness "n* so'i*" it+ "mon- t#e Eu o&e"n )o 3in- c'"sses "$te t#e :i st ?o '* ?" 96. /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- occu e* *u in- St"'inAs :i st :i,e7Ye" P'"n@ T#e e4ecution o$ t#e Rom"no,s T#e int o*uction o$ )omenAs su$$ "-e T#e est"('is#ment o$ t#e Ne) Economic Po'ic+ The li3uidation of the &ula&s as a class T#e So,iet in,"sion o$ Po'"n*

95. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- #"* t#e - e"test in$'uence on t#e )o 3 o$ t#e : enc# Su e"'ist &"inte s in t#e &e io* (et)een t#e :i st "n* Secon* ?o '* ?" s@ (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 Freudian psychology Ru'es o$ &"intin- *e,e'o&e* *u in- t#e Ren"iss"nce Se,enteent#7centu + Dutc# '"n*sc"&e &"inte s Nineteent#7centu + t#eo'o-ic"' s&ecu'"tion T#e c'e"n< s#" & 'ines o$ A$ ic"n " t

98. As *esc i(e* in t#e T e"t+ o$ Rome /195;1< t#e Eu o&e"n Economic Communit+ most c'ose'+ esem('e* /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 " mi'it" + "''i"nce " $e*e "' $o m o$ -o,e nment "n inte n"tion"' cou t o$ '") a tariff union " communic"tions co &o "tion

9;. Ies"'ius "n* ot#e si4teent#7centu + &#+sici"ns< )#o m"*e im&o t"nt cont i(utions to me*ic"' 3no)'e*-e< #"* )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- in common@ /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") A e"'i2"tion t#"t mic osco&ic in$ection c"use* *ise"se A #e",+ e'i"nce on #os&it"'s to t e"t se ious in=u ies Mno)'e*-e o$ " & imiti,e s+stem o$ ,"ccin"tion An"tomic"' 3no)'e*-e ("se* on *issection o$ "&es A willingness to challenge )reco,*oman medical authority

98. /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 99. /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1

?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- is t ue o$ Cust",us A*o'&#us o$ S)e*en@ He )"s " *e,out Rom"n C"t#o'ic. 4e was a ma!or participant in the Thirty 5ears' 2ar He *e$e"te* t#e Russi"n " m+ "t t#e 0"tt'e o$ 0o o*ino. He est"('is#e* C"',inism "s t#e S)e*is# st"te e'i-ion. He set u& "n o -"ni2"tion to me*i"te inte n"tion"' *is&utes. T#e m"=o * ")("c3 o$ t#e o&en7$ie'* /t# ee7$ie'*1 "- icu'tu "' s+stem )"s t#"t it e'ie* on in*i,i*u"' $" min- met#o*s it & o#i(ite* t#e commun"' use o$ o4en "n* ot#e $" m "nim"'s e(ery year a substantial portion of the land was not planted insects e-u'" '+ *e,"st"te* t#e c o&s "n* in$ecte* t#e #e *s t#ie,es )e e "('e to ste"' c o&s e"si'+

60. 0+ t#e e" '+ se,enteent# centu +< )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- Eu o&e"n n"tions )"s t#e - e"test comme ci"' &o)e in Eu o&e@ /A1 En-'"n* /01 : "nce (C) The +etherlands /D1 S&"in /E1 S)e*en 61. /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 Histo i"ns "tt i(ute t#e F&o&u'"tion e4&'osionG o$ t#e ei-#teent# centu + & im" i'+ to t#e e'imin"tion o$ c#i'*#oo* *ise"ses a more abundant food supply t#e )i*es& e"* int o*uction o$ &i&e* )"te "n* se)e s t#e e "*ic"tion o$ c#i'*(i t# $e,e ne) s"nit" + & oce*u es in #os&it"'s

65. t#e /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1

T#e - ou& most se,e e'+ c itici2e* in t#e )o 3s o$ Io't"i e< t#e : enc# &#i'oso&#e< )"s En-'is# &eo&'e : enc# mi**'e c'"ss Ce m"n &e"s"nt + *oman Catholic clergy It"'i"n u'in- c'"ss

69. T#e Rom"ntic mo,ement in '"te7ei-#teent#7 "n* e" '+7nineteent#7centu + Eu o&e )"s c#" "cte i2e* (+ (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 66. /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 reaction against the principles of the "nlightenment contem&t $o o -"ni2e* e'i-ion "n inte est in science "n* tec#no'o-+ " ,ie) o$ t#e n"tu "' )o '* "s " Fm"c#ineG im&o t"nt *isco,e ies "(out &'"net" + motion N"&o'eonAs & im" + "im in est"('is#in- t#e Continent"' S+stem )"s to unite t#e Ce m"n st"tes en* t#e mi'it" + t# e"t $ om Russi" & o,i*e ne) -o,e nments in : enc#7occu&ie* te ito ies destroy )reat Britain's economy c e"te " t" i$$7$ ee 2one t# ou-#out Eu o&e

65. ?#en C#" 'es D" )in &u('is#e* On the Origin of Species in 1859< #e use* t#e &# "se Fo i-in o$ s&eciesG to me"n )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in-@ /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 68. T#e (e-innin- o$ 'i$e on E" t# T#e o i-in"' "&&e" "nce o$ t#e s&ecies $i st *esc i(e* in t#e (oo3 o$ Cenesis T#e e" 'iest *isti''"tion o$ -ene " into s&ecies The transmutation of any species into another o(er time T#e *e-ene "tion o$ & im"' s&ecies into FT#e #isto + o$ "'' #it#e to e4istin- societies is t#e #isto + o$ c'"ss st u--'es.G

T#e %uot"tion "(o,e is $ om t#e ) itin-s o$ /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 Ro(es&ie e "n* D"nton S"int7Simon 6arx and "ngels D"'t#us 0ism" c3

A:RICA< 1916

6;. /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1

T#e s#"*e* " e"s on t#e m"& s#o)n "(o,e $o me* &" t o$ t#e co'oni"' em&i e o$ : "nce )ermany C e"t 0 it"in 0e'-ium Po tu-"'

68. T#e - o)t# in Eu o&eAs &o&u'"tion in t#e '"te nineteent# centu + c"n (e "tt i(ute* & im" i'+ to (A) falling mortality rates /01 " *ec'ine in emi- "tion /C1 " - o)in- t en* to)" * '" -e $"mi'ies7 /D1 $"''in- m" i"-e "tes in )este n Eu o&e /E1 &o&u'"tion - o)t# "tes t#"t )e e #i-#e in )este n t#"n in cent "' Eu o&e 69. /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- esu'te* $ om t#e S&"nis# Ci,i' ?" @ A- " i"n e$o m )"s c" ie* out in t#e S&"nis# count +si*e. T#e $o ces o$ t#e S&"nis# Secon* Re&u('ic )e e ,icto ious. T#e (o *e s o$ S&"in )e e e* ")n to inc'u*e te ito + $o me '+ #e'* (+ : "nce. S&"inAs te ito ies in A$ ic" )e e 'ost. An authoritarian regime was established in .pain

50. One o$ t#e $i st "ctions t"3en (+ Di3#"i' Co ("c#e, )#en #e (ec"me 'e"*e o$ t#e So,iet Union in 1985 )"s to /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 *ism"nt'e t#e communist s+stem in )#ic# #e no 'on-e (e'ie,e* propose a series of reforms designed to sa(e the failing communist regime &u -e &o'itic"' o&&onents in (ot# t#e So,iet Union "n* t#e E"ste n Eu o&e"n n"tions e4&"n* So,iet mi'it" + commitments in A$-#"nist"n "n* E"ste n Eu o&e st"m& out *emoc "tic mo,ements t# ou-#out t#e So,iet ('oc

51. In "**ition to t#e con%uest o$ t#e '"st Dus'im out&ost in S&"in "t C "n"*" "n* Co'um(usA ,o+"-e to t#e Ame ic"s< )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- occu e* in 1695@ /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") 55. (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 Is"(e''" o$ C"sti'e m" ie* :e *in"n* o$ A "-on. Po tu-"' )"s unite* )it# S&"in. T#e S&"nis# *e$e"te* t#e Tu 3s "t >e&"nto. T#e &'"-ue ( o3e out in S&"in. The #ewish population was expelled from .pain T#e E*ict o$ N"ntes issue* (+ Hen + II o$ : "nce *i* )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in-@ *ecogni-ed the rights of French %rotestants D"*e &u('ic t#e 3in-As con,e sion to Rom"n C"t#o'icism. Sett'e* t#e 0ou (ons on t#e : enc# t# one. O *e e* t#e S&"nis# out o$ : "nce. Announce* : enc# ent + into t#e )" (et)een t#e S&"nis# "n* t#e Dutc#.

59. T#e in*i,i*u"' )#o $i st & o,i*e* m"t#em"tic"' $o mu'"s su&&o tin- t#e Co&e nic"n t#eo + "n* e4&'"inin- &'"net" + motion )"s /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") C"'i'eo C"'i'ei Is""c Ne)ton T+c#o 0 "#e RenN Desc" tes #ohannes 7epler

56. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- )"s " m"=o c#" "cte istic o$ t#e En-'is# mon" c#+ in t#e ei-#teent# centu +@ /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 A etu n to its F*i,ine i-#tG &osition o$ t#e se,enteent# centu + A steadily widening discrepancy between its theoretical and its real powers Its - o)t# in &o)e (ec"use o$ its m"n+ ,icto ies o,e t#e : enc# Its e$us"' to su&&o t t#e eme -in- c"(inet s+stem Its - o)in- )e"'t# *ue to e$$ecti,e t"4"tion &o'icies

RUSSIAAS CRO?TH IN EUROPE. 1;5171;98

55. Acco *in- to t#e m"& "(o,e< *u in- t#e ei-#teent# centu +< Russi" e4&"n*e* in Eu o&e & im" i'+ (+ -"inin- te ito + $ om /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 Aust i" t#e Ottom"n Em&i e %oland P ussi" S)e*en

58. T#e " mies o$ e,o'ution" + : "nce en=o+e* )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- "*,"nt"-es o,e t#e " mies o$ t#e m"=o Eu o&e"n mon" c#s@ /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") A (ette su&&'+ s+stem Su&e io t "inin- "n* mo e & "ctice in * i''s Tec#no'o-ic"''+ "*,"nce* )e"&on + O'*e "n* mo e e4&e ience* so'*ie s )reater patriotism and morale

5;. O$ t#e $o''o)in-< )#ic# )"s t#e cent "' issue $o nineteent#7centu + Eu o&e"n "*,oc"tes o$ )omenAs i-#ts@ (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 The right of women to control their own property E%u"' &"+ $o e%u"' )o 3 T#e i-#t to se ,e in t#e mi'it" + A'imon+ "n* c#i'* su&&o t in c"ses o$ *i,o ce T#e i-#t to ci,i' m" i"-e ce emonies

58. A$te 1850< )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- - ou&s o$ count ies "ccounte* $o t#e most in,estment in t#e Ame ic"s< Asi"< A$ ic"< "n* Russi"@ /A1 C e"t 0 it"in< : "nce< "n* S)it2e '"n* (B) )reat Britain, France, and )ermany /C1 : "nce< t#e Net#e '"n*s< "n* Ce m"n+ /D1 Ce m"n+< It"'+< "n* C e"t 0 it"in /E1 Aust i"< Ce m"n+< "n* : "nce

59. In t#e secon* #"'$ o$ t#e nineteent# centu +< t#e ("'"nce o$ &o)e in Eu o&e )"s - e"t'+ c#"n-e* (+ /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 t#e "&i* inc e"se o$ t#e : enc# &o&u'"tion 0 it"inAs *ecision to concent "te on em&i e (ui'*in- in A$ ic" "n* Asi" Aust i"As inte est in t#e 0"'3"ns the unifications of )ermany and of 0taly t#e eme -ence o$ "n Ottom"n t# e"t to e"ste n Eu o&e

A 0RITISH IDEA O: A RENDEBIOUS O: THE DICTATORS C" toon (+ &e mission o$ T#e D",i* >o) T ustees "n* T#e >on*on E,enin- St"n*" *s.

On t#e 'e$t #eAs s"+in- FT#e scum o$ t#e E" t#< I (e'ie,e@G On t#e i-#t #eAs s"+in- FT#e ('oo*+ "ss"ssin o$ t#e )o 3e s< I & esume@G 80. /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 T#e c" toon "(o,e (+ t#e 0 itis# c" ic"tu ist D",i* >o) )"s &u('is#e* =ust "$te t#e sei2u e o$ &o)e (+ t#e N"2is in Ce m"n+ in 1999 "t t#e outset o$ t#e S&"nis# Ci,i' ?" in 1998 in the wa&e of the 89:9 nonaggression pact between )ermany and *ussia "$te t#e *e$e"t o$ : "nce in 1960 (+ t#e Ce m"n in,"*e s in es&onse to t#e Ce m"n in,"sion o$ Russi" in 1961

81. T#e No t# At'"ntic T e"t+ O -"ni2"tion /NATO1 mo,e* its #e"*%u" te s in t#e 1980As (ec"use (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 de )aulle wanted to build a French military policy independent of +AT; t#e So,iet Union (ec"me inc e"sin-'+ "-- essi,e C e"t 0 it"in o$$e e* " ("se $o NATO mi'it" + o&e "tions ?est Ce m"n+ )"s "' e"*+ occu&ie* (+ t# ee ?este n &o)e s A*en"ue )"nte* to st en-t#en t#e st"tus o$ 0onn "s t#e c"&it"' cit+ o$ ?est Ce m"n+

85. In 1;19 Em&e o C#" 'es II sou-#t "&& o,"' o$ t#e P "-m"tic S"nction in o *e to -u" "ntee t#e (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 indi(isibility of the 4apsburgs' lands (o *e s (et)een Ho''"n* "n* t#e Aust i"n Net#e '"n*s *+n"stic union o$ t#e H"&s(u -s "n* t#e Rom"no,s succession o$ t#e 0ou (ons to t#e S&"nis# t# one succession o$ t#e En-'is# t# one H"no,e $"mi'+ to t#e

89. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- &"i s o$ Eu o&e"n u'e s is -ene "''+ i*enti$ie* "s Fen'i-#tene*G mon" c#s@ /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 Anne o$ En-'"n* "n* >ouis LI #oseph 00 and Catherine the )reat : e*e ic3 ?i''i"m I "n* Ceo -e III E'i2"(et# I "n* D" + Stu" t Pete t#e C e"t "n* C"t#e ine *e DN*icis

86. T#e incenti,e $o t#e *e,e'o&ment o$ '" -e $"cto ies "ssoci"te* )it# En-'"n*As e" '+ In*ust i"' Re,o'ution )"s & im" i'+ connecte* )it# )#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in-@ /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 T#e est"('is#ment o$ "i' o"*s T#e *isco,e + o$ ne) met#o*s o$ i on & o*uction T#e inc e"sin- *em"n* $o )e"&on + *ue to im&e i"' )" $" e The mechani-ation of the spinning process in the textile industry T#e e4&"nsion o$ t#e c"n"' s+stem

85. (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1

A(so'ute mon" c#+ *ec'ine* in & e71;89 : "nce & im" i'+ (ec"use o$ t#e growth of !udicial and aristocratic opposition st en-t# o$ &e"s"nt u& isin-s inc e"se* &o)e o$ t#e Est"tes7Cene "' 3in-As e$us"' to in,o',e : "nce in $o ei-n )" s *ec'ine in t#e : enc# &o&u'"tion

88. T#e Conce t o$ Eu o&e< )#ic# e4iste* (et)een t#e Con- ess o$ Iienn" "n* t#e out( e"3 o$ t#e C ime"n ?" < o&e "te* "s " /A1 common)e"'t# s+stem t#"t sou-#t to & omote "n economic union o$ Eu o&e"n n"tions /01 su& "n"tion"' institution t#"t -o,e ne* t#e continent o$ Eu o&e /C1 mu'ti'"te "' "-enc+ to cont o' te ito ies in t#e Di**'e E"st "n* A$ ic" (D) loose forum to achie(e consensus among the ma!or powers on foreign policy 3uestions /E1 cu'tu "' e4c#"n-e & o- "m "mon- Russi"< P ussi"< Aust i"< "n* 0 it"in 8;. /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") T#e $i st Eu o&e"n count + to *e,e'o& " st"te soci"' )e'$" e s+stem )"s C e"t 0 it"in S)e*en : "nce 0e'-ium )ermany

88. ?#ic# o$ t#e $o''o)in- $i st "&&e" e* "s m"=o in*ust ies in Eu o&e (et)een 1880 "n* 1916@ /A1 Te4ti'es< minin-< "n* "i' o"*s /01 S#oem"3in-< $oo* & ocessin-< "n* &et o'eum (C) .teelma&ing, chemicals, and petroleum /D1 I on sme'tin-< minin-< "n* s#i&(ui'*in/E1 Te4ti'es< i on sme'tin-< "n* m"c#ine7too' m"nu$"ctu in89. A'' o$ t#e $o''o)in- conce&ts " e "ssoci"te* )it# Si-mun* : eu*As t#eo ies o$ &s+c#o"n"'+sis ELCEPT /A1 su&e e-o /01 su('im"tion (C) collecti(e unconscious /D1 Oe*i&us com&'e4 /E1 e& ession ;0. A$te t#e *e"t# o$ St"'in< M# us#c#e, mo*i$ie* So,iet &o'ic+ (+ (A) /01 /C1 /D1 /E1 emphasi-ing the production of consumer goods en*in- censo s#i& o$ ne)s&"&e s "n* (oo3s & i,"ti2in- #e",+ in*ust + e'imin"tin- t#e *e"t# &en"'t+ ( in-in- t#e Co'* ?" to "n en*

;1. ?omenAs su$$ "-e )"s $i st "c#ie,e* "t t#e n"tion"' 'e,e' in Ce m"n+ "n* C e"t 0 it"in in t#e &e io* /A1 18687 18;0 /01 18;171885 /C1 188871900 /D1 190171919 (") 898<,89:= ;5. /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 ;9. /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") T#e &o'itic"' st en-t# o$ t#e De*ici $"mi'+ in :'o ence )"s initi"''+ ("se* on " c'ose "''i"nce )it# t#e &"&"c+ the influence and wealth of their ban& t#e su&&o t o$ t#e 'o)e c'"sses t#e su&&o t o$ " &o)e $u' citi2en mi'iti" t#ei tenu e in ," ious munici&"' o$$ices D" tin >ut#e As es&onse to t#e Ce m"n Pe"s"ntsA ?" o$ 155671555 *emonst "te* #is i-no "nce o$ t#e economic &'i-#t o$ t#e &e"s"nt + em&#"sis on t#e soci"' "s&ects o$ C# istAs te"c#ine$us"' to comment on soci"' o &o'itic"' issues (e'ie$ in t#e necessit+ o$ " uni$ie* Ce m"n support of the pre(ailing social and political order

INSERT PHOTO

;6. T#e &oint o$ ,ie) o$ t#e " tist in t#e c" ic"tu e o$ ei-#teent#7centu + : enc# societ+ s#o)n "(o,e is t#"t /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 ;5. /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") t#e &e"s"ntsA mise + esu'ts $ om un$"i t e"tment (+ $o ei-ne s the peasantry is exploited both by the church and by the nobility t#e economic )e'$" e o$ t#e n"tion *e&en*s u&on coo&e "tion "mon- t#e c'"sses t#e c'e -+< no(i'it+< "n* &e"s"nt + cont i(ute e%u"''+ to : enc# societ+ : enc# )omen o$ "'' soci"' c'"sses " e e4&'oite* (+ t#e -o,e nment T#e ei-#teent#7centu + En'i-#tenment &#i'oso&#es )e e & im" i'+ conce ne* )it# t#e "*,"ncement o$ t#eo'o-ic"' "n* met"&#+sic"' 3no)'e*-e t#e settin- o$ 'imits on t#e #um"n "(i'it+ to c#"n-e &u e s3e&ticism "n* t#e ne-"tion o$ e"son m+stic"' sciences suc# "s nume o'o-+ "n* "st o'o-+ critical and in3uiring approaches to &nowledge

;8. Im& o,ements "ssoci"te* )it# t#e A- icu'tu "' Re,o'ution o$ t#e se,enteent# "n* ei-#teent# centu ies (e-"n in /A1 (B) /C1 /D1 /E1 : "nce "n* S&"in the $ow Countries and Britain P ussi" "n* S"4on+ Po'"n* Russi"

;;. A'' o$ t#e $o''o)in- )e e m"=o -o"'s o$ t#e Eu o&e"n $eminist mo,ement o$ t#e '"te 1980As "n* 19;0As ELCEPT /A1 /01 (C) /D1 /E1 ;8. /A1 /01 /C1 /D1 (") ;9. e4&"n*e* em&'o+ment o&&o tunities $o )omen (ette "n* mo e "$$o *"('e c#i'*7c" e $"ci'ities suffrage for women o(er the age of >8 e$o m o$ ci,i' 'e-is'"tion on m" i"-e "n* *i,o ce im& o,e* "ccess to (i t# cont o' in$o m"tion "n* tec#no'o-+ T#e i*eo'o-+ o$ It"'i"n $"scism )"s ("se* on " soci"'ist -o,e nment $oun*e* on mi'it" + con%uest " "*ic"' *emoc "c+ )it# " soci"'ist econom+ 'imite* *emoc "c+ "n* " c"&it"'ist econom+ n"tion"'ism "n* " communist econom+ an authoritarian state and a corporate economy Un'i3e D" 4< >enin em&#"si2e* t#"t

/A1 e,o'ution is not necess" + $o t#e t ium&# o$ communism /01 t#e &e"s"nt + "t#e t#"n t#e & o'et" i"t )ou'* 'e"* t#e communist e,o'ution /C1 t#e e'imin"tion o$ & i,"te cont o' o$ t#e me"ns o$ & o*uction is necess" + to ( in- "(out " soci"'ist societ+ (D) the wor&ing class, on its own, would not de(elop re(olutionary consciousness /E1 communist coo&e "tion )it# 'i(e "' &o'itic"' &" ties is necess" + to ( in- "(out soci"'ism

80. A m"=o -o"' o$ t#e 1991 D""st ic#t T e"t+ )"s to /A1 /01 /C1 (D) /E1 "*o&t " sin-'e '"n-u"-e "n* cu icu'um $o "'' Eu o&e"n Union sc#oo's ne-oti"te t "*e "cco *s (et)een t#e Eu o&e"n Union "n* t#e No t# Ame ic"n : ee T "*e A- eement /NA::A1 uni$+ "'' o$ t#e Eu o&e"n Union n"tion"' " mies into " sin-'e $o cc create a single currency and central ban& for the "uropean /nion em&o)e t#e Inte n"tion"' Cou t o$ Hustice "s t#e Su& eme Cou t o$ Eu o&e