Urea synthesis and high pressure
Urea is produced by synthesis from liquid ammonia and gaseous carbon dioxide. In the reactor R-1 the ammonia and carbon dioxide react to form ammonium carbamate, a portion of which dehydrates to form urea and water. The reactions are as follows !"#$ % &'! → "#! - &''"#( "#! - &''"#( )**********+ "#! - &' - "#! % #!' ,t synthesis conditions -T * 1.. /&, 0 * 111 2g3cm! abs4 the first reaction occurs rapidly and goes to completion. The second reaction occurs slowly and determines the reactor 5olume. The fraction of ammonium carbamate that dehydrates to form urea is determined by the ratios of the 5arious reactants, the operating temperature and the residence time in the reactor. The mole ratio of ammonia to carbon dioxide is around $.( to $.6. The mole ratio of water to carbon dioxide is around /.1 to 1. The liquid ammonia from battery limits is boosted by 0-6 ,37 and collected in the ammonia recei5er 8-(. The ammonia before entering 8-( passes to the column &-1 where it encounters the gas coming from the "#$ recei5er. #ere it acts as cooling agent in order to reduce the amount of "#$ gas entering the 9.0 ammonia absorber :-11. In this way we obtain a reduction in the :-; cooling water duty, ta2ing ad5antage of the low temperature of the ammonia feed. <rom 8-( liquid ammonia is drawn and pumped to about !$ ,ta pressure by means of centrifugal pump 0-1,37. 0art of this ammonia is routed to the medium pressure absorber &-1, while the remaining part enters the high pressure synthesis loop. The ammonia of the synthesis loop is pumped by hea5y duty reciprocating pumps 0-1,37 to a pressure of about !!/ ,ta. 7efore entering the reactor it is used as the moti5e fluid in the carbamate e=ector >-1 where the carbamate from 8-1 is compressed to the synthesis pressure. The liquid mixture of "#$ and carbamate enters the reactor where it reacts with compressed carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide from the urea plant battery limits, normally at about 1./6 ,ta pressure and about !1311 /& temperature, enters the reciprocating, electric motor dri5en compressor ?-1 and lea5es it at a pressure of about 16/ ,ta. , small quantity of air is added to the carbon dioxide at the compressor suction in order to passi5ate the stainless steel surfaces, thus protecting them from corrosion due either to the raw material or the reaction products.
This is di5ided into two parts Top portion 8-! where the released flash gases are remo5ed before the solution enters the tube bundle. The controller is split range. lea5ing the reactor. lea5ing the bottom of the stripper is expanded to the pressure of 1. These are passed under pressure control to the medium pressure decomposer :-!. is condensed and recycled to the reactor by means of e=ector >-1. The carbon dioxide content of the solution is reduced by the stripping action of the excess ammonia as it boils out of the solution.37 are routed to the high pressure carbamate condenser :-1 where the total mixture.ta pressure -9edium 0ressure Aection4 !nd stage at (.1 .0 carbonate pumps 0-!.@ on high pressure. with a small quantity of "#$ and &'!.ta pressure ->ow 0ressure Aection4
The exchangers where urea purification occurs are called decomposers.ta and enters the medium pressure decomposer :-! -falling film type4..1 . because in these apparatus the residual carbamate decomposition ta2es place
Medium Pressure Section
The solution with a low residual &'! content. The mixture is heated as it flows down the tubes of the falling exchanger. The o5erhead gases from the stripper and the reco5ered solution from the medium pressure absorber &-1 after pressure ele5ation in #. except for a few inert. &ondensing the gases at high pressure and temperature permits the production of steam at (. which operates at essentially the same pressure as the reactor.The reaction products.ta steam on the shell side of the stripper decomposes the carbamate. The incondensable gases from the top of the carbonate separator 8-1 consists mainly of inert gas. pass to the steam heated falling film stripper :-1.ta in the high pressure carbamate condenser.
. . #eat supplied by the condensation of !( . with a facility to pass gas to 7.
Urea purification ta2es place in two stages at decreasing pressure as follows 1st stage at 1.
are sent to the medium pressure falling film absorber :-11..ta steam in the lower part of the decomposer.5 Ata (Lo Pressure Section!
The solution lea5ing the bottom of medium pressure decomposer is expanded to (.ta and enters the low pressure decomposer :-$.
2nd Purification and Recovery stage at 4. where the &'! is totally absorbed and the "#$ partially absorbed in an aqueous carbonate solution coming from the low pressure reco5ery section. Reflux "#$ is drawn from the ammonia recei5er and sent to the column by means of the centrifugal pump 0-1 . This is achie5ed by re-circulating a controlled portion of the heated cooling water by the pumps 0-(. The absorption heat is remo5ed by a cooling water circuit.37. designed to maintain the water inlet temperature abo5e (/ /&. saturated with ammonia. lea5ing the recei5er. This column has bubble-cap type trays and performs &'! absorption and "#$ rectification. . The gas lea5ing the separator is sent to the low pressure condenser :-. from the shell side stripper and from a6 .37. The mixture from :-B flows to the medium pressure absorber &-1. where an additional amount of ammonia is condensed. In this way the inerts are sent to blow down practically free of ammonia. The tray is fed by pure reflux ammonia. by the pumps 0-B. @ecomposition portion where the residual carbamate is decomposed and the required heat is supplied by means of !( .
. where it is mainly condensed. The bottom solution is re-cycled by the pump 0-!. where they meet a countercurrent water flow which absorbs gaseous ammoniaC the absorption heat is remo5ed by cooling water. where the gaseous phase coming from the solution enters the rectification section.1 . The "#$ and &'! rich gases lea5ing the separator 8-! are sent to the medium pressure condenser :-B.37 to the synthesis reco5ery section. The inert gases. The upper part of the medium pressure absorber consists of three 5al5e trays -&-$4 where the inert gases are submitted to a final washing by means of the absorption water.n inert gas stream saturated with "#$ plus a &'! residue -!/-1// ppm4 passes from the top of the rectification section to the ammonia condenser :-.ta steam condensate. <rom the bottom of :-11 the water ammonia solution is recycled bac2 to the medium pressure absorber &-1. where they are absorbed in an aqueous carbonate solution coming from the waste water treatment section.37. enter the ammonia reco5ery tower &-1. The inert gases. which eliminates residual &'! and #!' contained in the inert gases. with residue ammonia content.
The melted urea lea5ing the second 5acuum separator is sent to the 0rilling buc2et >-. with the remaining inert gases.ta.1. The -B/D wt. The urea droplets solidify during their fall down the tower.
The absorption and condensation heat is remo5ed by cooling water. by means of centrifugal pump 0-..fter condensation in /1-:-$$ the resulting carbamated ammonia liquor -containing also a little carried o5er urea4 drains into the process condensate tan2 /1-T-!C the non condensable with traces of ammonia and &'! and some #!' 5apors are e=ected to atmosphere.
Urea "oncentration./$ .
To prill urea it is necessary to concentrate the urea solution up to .BD by wt..ta. The absorption heat is remo5ed by cooling water. The inert gases.ta.1 . The inert gases.6D wt. where the 5apors are separated and remo5ed by the second 5acuum system.
. urea flows to the second 5acuum concentrator :-11 operating at a pressure of /.$ .37. The mixed phase from :-11 enters the gas liquid separator 8-B. The rotating buc2et produces droplets of urea which encounters a cold air flow passing up through the existing induced draft 0rilling tower. The first and second concentrators are fed by saturated steam at (. <rom here the carbonate solution is recycled bac2 to the medium pressure condenser :-B by means of the centrifugal pump 0-$.. The concentrated . This is carried out in a 5acuum concentration section of two stages. urea4 solution lea5ing the low pressure decomposer is sent to the first 5acuum concentration :-1( operating at a pressure of /. . which contain ammonia 5apor flows directly to the low pressure falling film absorber :-1! where the ammonia is absorbed by a countercurrent water flow. The mixed phase from :-1( enters the gas3liquid separator 8-6. <rom the condenser bottom. '5erheads are again in condensers and resulting liquor drains to /1-T-! E incondensable go to atmosphere. the liquid phase. where the 5apors are separated and remo5ed by the first 5acuum system >-1. is sent to the carbonate solution 5essel 8-1.37. washed in the low pressure inert washing tower &-( are sent to blow down practically free from ammonia.
after passing through :-1. The distilled water containing $/ ppm of ammonia....
. The solid prills are collected in the bottom of the 0rilling tower by means of a cone >-1.. 7efore entering R-! the solution is preheated in the heat exchanger :-1. 7efore entering the top of the column the solution is pre-heated in the heat exchanger :-1.
$aste $ater %reatment
The water. is sent to &-! immediately under the chimney tray. and :-!/ before passing to the urea plant battery limits.37 and to the final storage or loading. The solution from the chimney tray containing urea and the remaining "#$ and &' is sent to the hydrolyser R-! where the urea is decomposed into &'! and "#$. containing "#$ and &'! and also some urea from the first and second 5acuum system as well as the drain liquors accumulated in the tan2 T-( are collected in the process condensate tan2 T-!. The carbamate solution is collected in the reflux accumulator 8-. by means of the treated water flowing from the bottom of the re-boiler. and discharged onto an existing belt con5eyor. 7y means of the centrifugal pump 0-11 part of this solution is recycled bac2 to the top of the tower as reflux. 1/ ppm of carbon dioxide and 1// ppm of urea is cooled in :-1.ta. by means of the solution coming from the bottom of R-!. The re-boiler :-16 is fed by (. :-16.1 . The column &-! is di5ided in two parts by a chimney column tray. 9ost of the ammonia and carbon dioxide contained in the waste water is absorbed in the upper part of the column and lea5es as o5erheads. <rom T-! it is pumped. here ammonia and &'! are stripped by means of 5apors coming from the column bottom and produced in the re-boiler :-16. The 5apor lea5ing the hydrolyser and the 5apor lea5ing the top of the tower &-! are condensed in the o5erhead condenser :-1B. to the waste distillation tower &-! operating at pressure of about !.ta steam.. The solution lea5ing the bottom of the hydrolyser R-!. . by 0-1(.. The hydrolyser is fed with li5e steam at 16 .ta. <rom here they are sent to the bagging machine #-. the remaining part is sent to the low pressure condenser :-.