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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Histology of the Digestive Tract Digestive tract a tube extending from the mouth to the anus,

, plus associated organs which secrete fluids Gastrointestinal tract stomach and intestines Consists of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and anus Salivary glands -> oral cavity Liver and pancreas -> small intestine Tunics 1. Mucosa innermost tunic o Mucous epithelium o Lamina propria loose connective tissue o Muscularis mucosa smooth muscle layer o Epithelium in the mouth, esophagus, anus resist abrasion o Epithelium in the stomach and intestine absorbs and secretes 2. Submucosa lies outside the mucosa o Thick layer of loose connective tissue containing nerves, blood vessels and small glands o Submucosal plexus regulates secretion from the glands 3. Muscularis o Circular smooth muscle inner layer o Longitudinal smooth muscle outer layer o Myenteric plexus lies between the two muscle layers; controls the motility or movements of the intestinal tract o Enteric plexus submucosal plexus and myenteric plexus 4. Serosa or adventitia o Serosa - Visceral peritoneum and underlying connective tissue o Adventitia not covered by visceral peritoneum o Esophagus and retroperitoneal organs Enteric Nervous System Consists of nerve plexuses within the wall of the digestive tract Plexuses are composed of sensory neurons connecting the digestive tract to the CNS, ANS motor neurons -

connecting the CNS to the digestive tract and enteric neurons More neurons than in the spinal cord Parasympathetic division of the ANS Enteric neurons o Enteric sensory neurons detect changes in the chemical composition of the digestive tract contents or detect mechanical changes (stretch of the digestive tract wall) o Enteric motor neurons stimulate or inhibit smooth muscle contraction and glandular secretion o Enteric interneurons connect enteric sensory and motor neurons Enteric plexus controls activities within specific, short regions of the digestive tract through local reflexes ENS is capable of controlling the complex movements, secretions and blood flow of the GI tract

Peritoneum Serous membrane very smooth and secrete a serous fluid which provides a lubricating film between the layers of membranes o Reduce friction as organs move Visceral peritoneum covers the organs Pareital peritoneum cover the interior surface of the body wall Peritoneal cavity between the visceral and parietal peritoneum Mesenteries connective tissue sheets holding many of the organs in place; serous membranes attached to the abdominal organs Retroperitoneal have no mesenteries o Duodenum, pancreas, ascending and descending colon, rectum, kidneys, adrenal glands, urinary bladder Lesser omentum connects the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver and diaphragm Greater omentum extends as a fold from the greater curvature and then to the transverse colon o long, double fold of mesentery that extends inferiorly from the stomach before looping back to

the transverse colon to create a cavity or pocket (omental bursa) o fatty apron Coronary ligament attaches the liver to the diaphragm; has a wide space in the center, the bare area of the liver, where no peritoneum exists Falcicorm ligament attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall Mesentery proper mesentery associated with the small intestine Transverse mesocolon extends from the transverse colon to the posterior body wall

Oral Cavity Mouth Fauces a space connecting the oral cavity to the pharynx Divided into two regions o Vestibule space between the lips or cheeks and the alveolar process, which contains the teeth o Oral cavity proper lies medial to the alveolar process Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium, which protects abrasion Lips and Cheeks Lips or labia muscular structures formed mostly by the orbicularis oris and connective tissue o Keratinized stratified epithelium thinner than the epithelium covering the skin; more transparent and the color from the underlying blood vessels give the lips a reddish pink to dark red appearance Labial frenula mucosal folds, extends from the alveolar process of the maxilla to the upper lip and from the alveolar process of the mandible to the lower lip Cheeks form the lateral walls of the oral cavity o Moist stratified squamous epithelium and an exterior covering of the skin o Buccinator muscle flattens the cheek against the teeth o Buccal fat pad rounds out the profile on the side of the face Important in mastication and speech. Palate and Palatine Tonsils Consists of two parts o Hard palate anterior bony part

Tongue Large, muscular organ that occupies most of the oral cavity Frenulum a thin fold of tissue Moves food in mouth; hold the food in place during mastication; swallowing; major sensory organ foe taste; major organs in speech Teeth Adults: 32 teeth Two dental arches o Maxillary arch o Mandibular arch Each quadrant include: o One central and one lateral incisor o One canine o First and second premolars o First, second, third molar wisdom teeth Adults: Permanent or secondary teeth Childhood: Deciduous or primary teeth Each tooth consists of: o Crown with one or more cusps o Neck o Root Pulp cavity center of the tooth; filled with blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue (pulp) Root canal pulp cavity within the root Dentin living, cellular, calcified tissue Enamel hard, nonliving, acellular substance; protects the tooth against abrasion and acids produced by bacteria in the mouth Cementum bonelike substance; helps anchor the tooth in the jaw The teeth are set in alveoli Gingiva dense fibrous connective tissue and stratified squamous epithelium covering the alveolar processes Periodontal ligaments secure the teeth on alveoli Mastication and speech Mastication Incisors and canines cut and tear food

Soft palate posterior part; consists of skeletal muscle and connective tissue Uvula projection from the posterior edge of the soft palate Palate important in swallowing process; prevents food from passing into the nasal cavity Palatine tonsils lateral wall of the fauces o

Premolar and molar crush and grind food Salivary Glands Produce saliva which is a mixture of serous and mucous fluids Parotid glands largest of the salivary glands; located just anterior to each ear Submandibular glands produce more serous than mucous secretions Sublingual glands smallest of the three paired salivary glands Saliva 1 liter/day Serous amylase breaks the covalent bonds between glucose molecules in starch and other polysaccharides to produce the disaccharides maltose and isomaltose Maltose and isomaltose sweet taste; enhances the sweet taste of food Mucin a proteoglycan that gives a lubricating quality to the secretions of the salivary glands ANS parasympathetic Pharynx Consists of three parts o Nasopharynx ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium o Oropharynx moist stratified squamous epithelium; transmit food; communicates with nasopharynx superiorly o Laryngopharynx moist stratified squamous epithelium; transmit food; larynx and laryngopharynx inferiorly The posterior walls of oropharynx and laryngopharynx consist of three muscles: o Superior, middle, inferior pharyngeal constrictors three stacked flowerpots; one inside the other Esophagus Muscular tube, lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium Transports food from the pharynx to the stomach Four tunics o Mucosa o Submucosa o Muscularis o Adventitia

Upper esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter regulate the movement of materials into and out of the esophagus

Swallowing Deglutition 3 phases o Voluntary phase bolus or mass of food is formed in the mouth o Pharyngeal phase initiated when a bolus of food stimulates tactile receptors in the oropharynx o Esophageal phase responsible for moving food from the pharynx to the stomach Peristaltic waves muscular contractions in the wall of esophagus Stomach Enlarged segment of the digestive tract in the left superior part of the abdomen Anatomy and Histology of the Stomach Gastroesophageal or cardiac opening opening from the esophagus into the stomach Cardiac part region of the stomach around the cardiac opening Cardiac sphincter surrounds the cardiac opening Fundus most superior part of the stomach Body largest part of the stomach o Turning to the right forms greater curvature on the left o right lesser curvature Pyloric part funnel shaped; joins the small intestine Pyloric orifice opening from the stomach to the small intestine Pyloric sphincter thick ring of smooth muscle; helps regulate the movement of gastric contents into the small intestine Three layers- produce a churning action in the stomach, important in the digestive process o Outer longitudinal layer o Middle circular layer o Inner oblique layer Rugae submucosa and mucosa; stomach is empty Simple columnar epithelium o Gastric pits opening for the gastric glands

Five types of epithelial cells in the stomach Surface mucous cells inner surface of the stomach and lines the gastric pits Mucous neck cells produce mucus Parietal cells produce HCl and intrinsic factors Chief cells produce pepsinogen Endocrine cells -produce regulatory hormones G cells secrete gastrin Enterochromaffin histamine Secretions of the Stomach Gastric juice Chyme when food mixes with gastric juice Mucus, HCl, pepsinogen, intrinsic factor and gastrin Mucus lubricates and protects epithelial cells of the stomach from the damaging effect of the acidic chime and pepsin HCl produces a pH of about 2.0 in the stomach Pepsinogen precursor of the enzyme pepsin HCl converts pepsinogen to the active enzyme pepsin which digest proteins by breaking them down into smaller peptides Peptides two or more amino acids united by a peptide bond Intrinsic factors binds with vit. B12 and makes it more readily absorbed in the small intestine Gastrin and histamine help regulate stomach secretions ------tinamad na ko----o Small Intestine Greatest amount of digestion and absorption occurs Anatomy and Histology of the small intestine Duodenum Circular folds mucosa and submucosa Villi tiny, fingerlike projections of the mucosa o Simple columnar epithelium o Blood capillary network and a lymphatic capillary (lacteal)

Important in transporting absorbed nutrients o Microvilli increase the surface area Mucosa of the duodenum o Absorptive cells- have microvilli, produce digestive enzymes and absorb digested food o Goblet cells protective mucus o Granular cells help protect the intestinal epithelium from bacteria o Endocrine cells produce regulatory hormones o Intestinal glands epithelial cells within tubular invaginations of the mucosa o Duodenal glands coiled, tubular mucous glands Jejunum and Ileum Duodenum and jejunum major sites of nutrient absorption Peyers patches diffuse lymphatic tissue and lymphatic nodules Lymphatic tissue initiates immune responses Ileocecal junction junction between the ileum and the large intestine Ileocecal sphincter ring of smooth muscle Ileocecal valve Secretions of the small intestine Mucosa - mucus, electrolytes, and water Intestinal secretions lubricate and protect the intestinal wall from the acidic chyme and the action of digestive enzyme Keep the chyme in liquid form to facilitate digestive process Duodenal and goblet cells mucus Mucus protects the wall of the intestine from the irritating effects of acidic chyme and from the digestive enzymes that enter the duodenum from the pancreas Vagus nerve, secretin, chemical or tactile irritation stimulate secretion from the duodenal glands Goblet cells mucus -> tactile and chemical stimulation of the mucosa Disaccharides -> monosaccharides Peptidase break the peptide bonds in proteins to form amino acids Movement of the small intestine Mixing and propulsion of chyme

Segmental contractions propagated for only short distances and mix intestinal contents Peristaltic contractions proceed along the length of the intestine for variable distances and cause the chyme to move along the small intestine Local reflexes most important regulator of contractions in the small intestine Distention of the intestinal wall, amino acids, and low pH stimulate contractions CNS and local reflexes ileocecal sphincter Liver and Gallbladder Anatomy and Histology of the Liver Liver largest organ of the body; in the right-upper quadrant of the abdomen, tucked against the inferior surface of the diaphragm; covered by a connective tissue capsule and visceral peritoneum Falciform ligament marks the boundary between the left and right lobes Lesser omentum left lobe is separated from the quadrate and caudate lobes Porta hapatis various vessels, ducts and nerves enter and exit the liver Gallbladder small sac on the inferior surface of the liver that stores bile; marks the division between right and quadrate lobes Inferior vena cava marks the division between the right and caudate lobes Bare area small area on the diaphragmatic surface that lacks visceral peritoneum and is surrounded by coronary ligament Porta hepatis the connective tissue capsule sends a branching network of septa into the substance of the liver to provide its main support o contains hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein which carry blood to the liver, and the left and right hepatic ducts which conduct bile toward the duodenum Connective tissue septa divide the liver segments into many hexagon-shaped lobules with a portal triad o Derived from porta hepatis: branches of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, hepatic ducts o Hepatic sinusoids - hepatic artery branches and the hepatic portal branches join enlarged capillaries -

Simple squamous epithelium and hepatic phagocytic cells (Kupffer cell) Join a central vein located in the center of the lobule Hepatic cords radiate out from the central vein of each lobule like the spokes of a wheel, surrounding the hepatic sinusoids Hepatocytes functional cells of the liver Bile canaliculus cleftlike lumen; lies between the hepatocytes with each cord; join the hepatic duct branches in the portal triad

Functions of the Liver Important in digestive and excretory functions, stores and processes nutrients, synthesizes new molecules and detoxifies harmful chemicals Bile Production Neutralizes and dilutes gastric acid and emulsifies fats Bicarbonate ions help neutralize the acidic chyme and bring the pH up to a level at which pancreatic enzymes can function Bile salts emulsify fats Contains o Pigment bilirubin o Cholesterol o Fats o Fat-soluble hormones o Lecithin Storage Hepatocytes remove sugar from blood and store it in the form of glycogen o Can also store fat, vitamins (A, B12, D, E and K), copper, iron o Help control blood sugar levels Nutrient Interconversion Hepatocytes break down the amino acids and cycle many of them through metabolic pathways so they can be used to produce ATP, lipids, glucose

Transform substances that cannot be used by most cells into more readily usable substances Liver converts lactic acid to glucose Detoxification Alters the structure to make them less toxic or to make their elimination easier Phagocytosis Hepatic phagocytic cells phagocytize worn-out and dying RBC and WBC, some bacteria, and other debris that enter the liver through the circulation Synthesis Produces many blood proteins such as proteins, albumins, fibrinogen, globulins, heparin and clotting factors Blood and bile flow through the liver 1. The hepatic artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the aorta through the porta of the liver. Hepatic artery branches become part of the portal triads. Blood from the hepatic artery branches enters the hepatic sinusoids and supplies hepatocytes in the hepatic cords with oxygen. 2. The hepatic portal vein carries nutrientrich, oxygen-poor from the intestines through the porta of the liver. Hepatic portal vein branches become part of the portal triads. Blood from the hepatic portal vein branches enters the hepatic sinusoids and supplies hepatocytes in the hepatic cords with nutrients. 3. Blood in the hepatic sinusoids that comes from the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein picks up plasma proteins, processed molecules, and waste products produced by the hepatocytes of the hepatic cords. The hepatic sinusoids empty into the central veins. The central veins connect to hepatic veins, which connect to the inferior vena cava. 4. Bile produced by the hepatocytes in the hepatic cords enters bile canaliculi, which connect to hepatic duct branches that are part of the portal triads. 5. The hepatic duct branches converge to form the left and right hepatic ducts, which carry bile out the porta of the liver. Gallbladder and Bile storage Gallbladder saclike structure on the inferior surface of the liver o Inner mucosa - allow gallbladder to expand o

Muscularis allows gallbladder to contract o Serosa Regulation of bile secretion and release Secretin stimulates bile secretion Cholecystokinin stimulates the gallbladder to contract and sphincters of the bile duct and hepatopancreatic ampulla to to relax Parasympathetic stimulation through the vagus nerves cause the gallbladder to contract Bile salts increase bile secretion through a positive feedback system o Pancreas Anatomy and Histology of the Pancreas Pancreas located retroperitoneal, posterior to the stomach in the inferior part of the left-upper quadrant Consists of a head, body and a tail Composed of exocrine and endocrine tissues Endocrine part pancreatic islets (produce insulin and glucagon) Exocrine part compound acinar gland o Acini produce digestive enzyme o Pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct at the hepatopancreatic ampulla and empties into the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla Accessory pancreatic duct opens at the minor duodenal papilla Pancreatic secretions Pancreatic juice o Aqueous component produced by columnar epithelial cells Bicarbonate ions neutralize the acidic chyme that enters the small intestine from the stomach o Enzymatic component produced by acinar cells Important for the digestion of all major classes of food Major proteolytic enzymes Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase

Pancreatic amylase continues the polysaccharide digestion initiated in the oral cavity o Pancreatic lipases break down lipids o Nucleases reduce DNA and RNA to their component nucleotides Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion 1. Secretin released from the duodenum stimulates the pancreas to release a watery secretion rich in HCO-3 2. Cholecystokinin released from the duodenum causes the pancreas to release a secretion rich in digestive enzymes 3. Parasympathetic stimulation from the vagus nerve causes the pancreas to release a secretion rich in digestive enzymes o Large Intestine Extending from the ileocecal junction to the anus Consists of the cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal Colon chime -> feces Formation of feces - absorption of water and salts, secretion of mucus and extensive action of microorganisms Anatomy and Histology of the Large Intestine Cecum Proximal end of the large intestine Vermiform appendix small, blind tube Colon Consists of four parts o Ascending colon Hepatic flexure (right colic flexure) o Transverse colon Splenic flexure (left colic flexure) o Descending colon Sigmoid colon o Sigmoid colon Teniae coli three bands Haustra pouches formed in the colon wall along its length, giving the colon a puckered appearance Crypts numerous, straight, tubular glands o Absorptive o Goblet o Granular cells Rectum Straight, muscular tube

Anal Canal Begins at the inferior end of the rectum and ends at the anus Internal anal sphincter smooth muscle External anal sphincter skeletal muscle Secretions of the large intestine Mucus major secretory product Mucus lubricates the wall of the colon and helps the fecal matter stick together Tactile stimulation and irritation of the wall of the colon trigger local enteric reflexes that increase mucous secretion Parasympathetic stimulation increases the secretory rate of goblet cells Water, solid substances, microorganisms, sloughed-off epithelial cells Flatus gases produced by bacterial actions in the colon Movement in the Large Intestine Contractions of the circular muscles and teniae coli cause contriction and shortening of the colon -> haustra formation The contents are mixed The formation of haustra proceeds toward the anus, resulting in slow, analward movement of colon contents Local reflexes regulate haustra formation Mass movements peristaltic contractions Gastrocolic reflex stomach Duodenocolic reflex duodenum Defecation reflex local and parasympathetic reflex Contraction of the internal and external anal sphincters prevents defecation Digestion, Absorption, Transport Digestion break down of food to molecules Mechanical digestion breaks large food particles down into smaller ones Chemical digestion breaking of covalent chemical bonds in organic molecules by digestive enzymes Absorption uptake of digestive tract contents by the lining of the digestive tract Transport distribution of nutrients throughout the body Carbohydrates Consists of polysaccharides such as starches; disaccharides such as sucrose

Lipids Triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, steroids, and fat-soluble, vitamins Emulsification transformation of large lipid droplets into much smaller droplets; accomplished by bile salts Lipase digest lipid molecules; fatty acids and monosaccharides Micelles small droplets formed bile salts Chylomicrons packaged lipids Lacteals lymphatic capillaries; lack a basement membrane and are more permeable to large particles Chyle lymph containing large amounts of absorbed lipid Lipoprotein any compound or complex containing lipid and protein Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) Low density lipoproteins High density lipoproteins Most of the lipid taken into or manufactured in the liver leaves the liver in the form of VLDL Proteins Long chains of amino acids Pepsin breaks down proteins producing polypeptides Peptidases break down the small peptide chains into tripeptides, dipeptides and single amino acids Dipeptides and tripeptides symport powered by Na+ concentration gradient Basic amino acids facilitated diffusion Amino acids actively transported; stimulated by growth hormone and insulin Water and Ions Osmosis Chyme is diluted -> blood Chyme is concentrated -> lumen of the small intestine Epithelial cells Na, K, Ca, Mg from the intestine

and lactose; monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose Salivary amylase splits off the disaccharides maltose and isomaltose from starch Pancreatic amylase resumes carbohydrate digestion in the intestine Disaccharides -> monosaccharides Glucose and galactose symport powered by a Na gradient Fructose facilitated diffusion Glucose greatly influenced by insulin

Vit. D Ca Cl- - duodenum and jejunum Cl+ - ileum