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Chapter 26: The Cold War Sections 1&2 Notes Section 1: Origins of the Cold War Former Allies

s Clash The difference between the _____________ and the ___________________over the future creates tension between theses 2 countries. _____________ system vs. ______________ system Soviet/US suspicions _________________ during the war. Relations worsened when Stalin learned that the US had tried to keep its development of the ___________ _____________ secret. The United Nations Formed on April 25, 1945 _________ nations met in San Francisco took 2 months and the charter forming the UN signed on June 26, 1945 Initially conceived to promote ________________ it soon became a forum for the two ______________ to spread their influence over others. Truman becomes President Roosevelt dies and his VP Truman takes over, inexperienced but honest and willing to make tough decisions The Potsdam Conference July 1945, the Big three meet ___________, _____________, ______________ Stalin did not allow free elections as he had promised Roosevelt leading to distrust on the part of Truman. Tension Mounts ______________ and _________ were at odds over the direction of the post-war world Bargaining at Potsdam The ____________,___________,__________,and_________ would take reparations from the zone of former Germany that they would occupy. US businesses wanted access to the _____________ and ________ of Eastern Europe Soviets tighten their grip on Eastern Europe Soviet Union also a strong economy and military but unlike the US they had suffered heavy losses on their _______ _____________. Felt entitled to Eastern Europe to ward off any ______________ _______________. Stalin installs (puts in place) communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland. These countries became known as ________________ nations because they revolve around the Soviet Union. !947 Stalin gave a speech saying that _________________ and ______________ were incompatible and that another war was inevitable. Containment-(define)____________________________________________________ Iron curtain-(define)_____________________________________________________ Cold War in Europe The Truman Doctrine it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. US provided over $400 million in aid to ____________and _____________ to prevent communist takeovers of these countries. The Marshall Plan June 1947, goal: to provide ____________to European countries that needed it

4 years, 16 countries, $________________ in aid By 1952, Western Europe was doing much better and communism was losing its appeal.

Superpowers Struggle over Germany US/Soviets clash over German _____________________ Stalin ___________________ West Berlin, cutting it off from supplies The Berlin Airlift US and British airplanes airdrop food and supplies for ______________ straight days into West Berlin By May 1949 __________________ lifted the blockade ______________________ prestige grew around the world because of this effort. The NATO Alliance formed to combat ___________________aggression in Western Europe North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO- _____________members that pledged military support to each other Section 2: The Cold War Heats Up China Becomes a Communist Country Long conflict between Chinese communists and nationalist government of ___________ ________________ (whom the US supported) Communists worked on gaining support of peasants in rural areas led by ________ ___________________ Renewed Civil War War between _________________ and ___________________ went on from 1944 to 1947, US backed Nationalists with military aid over $2 billion but no troops. May 1949, Chiang fled China to the island nation of ________________ and remained in exile. America Reacts to Communist Takeover ________________________ failed in China America not happy with communist takeover and began accusing politicians of being ________________________ agents. The Korean War Japan annexed Korea in 1910 and ruled it until ______________ At the end of WWII Japanese troops surrendered to Soviets troops north of the _________ ________________________ 38th parallel became the border between _______________ and _______________: North-Communist and backed by the Soviets; South backed by USA North Korea Attacks South Korea NK attacks SK on June 25, 1945 SK asks for United Nations to stop the invasion US sends troops 2 days later to support SK The US Fights in Korea Macarthurs Counterattack U.S leads attack on NK troops and drives them back across ______________parallel The Chinese Fight Back Pushed US troops all the way back and captured the SK capital in ________________ Settling for a Stalemate War ends where it beganon the __________ parallel with a demilitarized zone separating the two countries. 1952 Republican ________________ _________________ elected in the US Suspicion of Americans who might be ____________________grows