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Jack London

War of the Classes

PREFACE When I was a youngster I was looked upon as a weird sort of creature, ecause, forsooth, I was a socialist! Reporters fro" local papers inter#iewed "e, and the inter#iews, when pu lished, were pathological studies of a strange and a nor"al speci"en of "an! At that ti"e $nine or ten years ago%, ecause I "ade a stand in "y nati#e town for "unicipal ownership of pu lic utilities, I was randed a &red'shirt,& a &dyna"iter,& and an &anarchist&( and really decent fellows, who liked "e #ery well, drew the line at "y appearing in pu lic with their sisters! )ut the ti"es changed! *here ca"e a day when I heard, in "y nati#e town, a Repu lican "ayor pu licly proclai" that &"unicipal ownership was a fi+ed A"erican policy!& And in that day I found "yself picking up in the world! ,o longer did the pathologist study "e, while the really decent fellows did not "ind in the least the propin-uity of "yself and their sisters in the pu lic eye! .y political and sociological ideas were ascri ed to the #agaries of youth, and good'natured elderly "en patroni/ed "e and told "e that I would grow up so"e day and eco"e an unusually intelligent "e" er of the co""unity! Also they told "e that "y #iews were iassed y "y e"pty pockets, and that so"e day, when I had gathered to "e a few dollars, "y #iews would e wholly different,''in short, that "y #iews would e their #iews! And then ca"e the day when "y socialis" grew respecta le,''still a #agary of youth, it was held, ut ro"antically respecta le! Ro"ance, to the ourgeois "ind, was respecta le ecause it was not dangerous! As a &red'shirt,& with o" s in all his pockets, I was dangerous! As a youth with nothing "ore "enacing than a few philosophical ideas, 0er"anic in their origin, I was an interesting and pleasing personality! *hrough all this e+perience I noted one thing! It was not I that changed, ut the co""unity! In fact, "y socialistic #iews grew solider and "ore pronounced! I repeat, it was the co""unity that changed, and to "y chagrin I disco#ered that the co""unity changed to such purpose that it was not a o#e stealing "y thunder! *he co""unity randed "e a &red'shirt& ecause I stood for "unicipal ownership( a little later it applauded its "ayor when he proclai"ed "unicipal ownership to e a fi+ed A"erican policy! 1e stole "y thunder, and the co""unity applauded the theft! And today the co""unity is a le to co"e around and gi#e "e points on "unicipal ownership! What happened to "e has een in no wise different fro" what has happened to the socialist "o#e"ent as a whole in the 2nited 3tates! In the ourgeois "ind socialis" has changed fro" a terri le disease to a youthful #agary, and later on had its thunder stolen y the two old parties,''socialis", like a "eek and thrifty working"an, eing e+ploited eca"e respecta le! 4nly dangerous things are a horrent! *he thing that is not dangerous is always respecta le! And so with socialis" in the 2nited 3tates! For se#eral years it has een #ery respecta le,''a sweet and eautiful 2topian drea", in the ourgeois "ind, yet a drea", only a drea"! 5uring this period, which has 6ust ended, socialis" was tolerated ecause it was i"possi le and non' "enacing! .uch of its thunder had een stolen, and the working"en had een "ade happy

with full dinner'pails! *here was nothing to fear! *he kind old world spun on, coupons were clipped, and larger profits than e#er were e+tracted fro" the toilers! Coupon'clipping and profit'e+tracting would continue to the end of ti"e! *hese were functions di#ine in origin and held y di#ine right! *he newspapers, the preachers, and the college presidents said so, and what they say, of course, is so''to the ourgeois "ind! *hen ca"e the presidential election of 789:! Like a olt out of a clear sky was the socialist #ote of :;<,999,''an increase of nearly :99 per cent in four years, the largest third'party #ote, with one e+ception, since the Ci#il War! 3ocialis" had shown that it was a #ery li#e and growing re#olutionary force, and all its old "enace re#i#ed! I a" afraid that neither it nor I are any longer respecta le! *he capitalist press of the country confir"s "e in "y opinion, and herewith I gi#e a few post'election utterances of the capitalist press=' &*he 5e"ocratic party of the constitution is dead! *he 3ocial' 5e"ocratic party of continental Europe, preaching discontent and class hatred, assailing law, property, and personal rights, and insinuating confiscation and plunder, is here!&''Chicago Chronicle! &*hat o#er forty thousand #otes should ha#e een cast in this city to "ake such a person as Eugene >! 5e s the President of the 2nited 3tates is a out the worst kind of ad#ertising that Chicago could recei#e!&''Chicago Inter'4cean! &We cannot link the fact that socialis" is "aking rapid growth in this country, where, of all others, there would see" to e less inspiration for it!&'')rooklyn 5aily Eagle! &2pon the hands of the Repu lican party an awful responsi ility was placed last *uesday! ! ! It knows that refor"s''great, far'sweeping refor"s''are necessary, and it has the power to "ake the"! 0od help our ci#ili/ation if it does not? ! ! ! It "ust repress the trusts or stand efore the world responsi le for our syste" of go#ern"ent eing changed into a social repu lic! *he ar itrary cutting down of wages "ust cease, or socialis" will sei/e another le#er to lift itself into power!&''*he Chicago ,ew World! &3carcely any phase of the election is "ore sinisterly interesting than the increase in the socialist #ote! )efore election we said that we could not afford to gi#e aid and co"fort to the socialists in any "anner! ! ! It $socialis"% "ust e fought in all its phases, in its e#ery "anifestation!&''3an Francisco Argonaut! And far e it fro" "e to deny that socialis" is a "enace! It is its purpose to wipe out, root and ranch, all capitalistic institutions of present'day society! It is distinctly re#olutionary, and in scope and depth is #astly "ore tre"endous than any re#olution that has e#er occurred in the history of the world! It presents a new spectacle to the astonished world,''that of an 4R0A,I@E5, I,*ER,A*I4,AL, RE>4L2*I4,ARA .4>E.E,*! In the ourgeois "ind a class struggle is a terri le and hateful thing, and yet that is precisely what socialis" is,''a world'wide class struggle etween the propertyless workers and the propertied "asters

of workers! It is the pri"e preach"ent of socialis" that the struggle is a class struggle! *he working class, in the process of social e#olution, $in the #ery nature of things%, is ound to re#olt fro" the sway of the capitalist class and to o#erthrow the capitalist class! *his is the "enace of socialis", and in affir"ing it and in tallying "yself an adherent of it, I accept "y own conse-uent unrespecta ility! As yet, to the a#erage ourgeois "ind, socialis" is "erely a "enace, #ague and for"less! *he a#erage "e" er of the capitalist class, when he discusses socialis", is conde"ned an ignora"us out of his own "outh! 1e does not know the literature of socialis", its philosophy, nor its politics! 1e wags his head sagely and rattles the dry ones of dead and uried ideas! 1is lips "u" le "ouldy phrases, such as, &.en are not orn e-ual and ne#er can e(& &It is 2topian and i"possi le(& &A stinence should e rewarded(& &.an will first ha#e to e orn again(& &Cooperati#e colonies ha#e always failed(& and &What if we do di#ide upB in ten years there would e rich and poor "en such as there are today!& It surely is ti"e that the capitalists knew so"ething a out this socialis" that they feel "enaces the"! And it is the hope of the writer that the socialistic studies in this #olu"e "ay in so"e slight degree enlighten a few capitalistic "inds! *he capitalist "ust learn, first and for always, that socialis" is ased, not upon the e-uality, ut upon the ine-uality, of "en! ,e+t, he "ust learn that no new irth into spiritual purity is necessary efore socialis" eco"es possi le! 1e "ust learn that socialis" deals with what is, not with what ought to e( and that the "aterial with which it deals is the &clay of the co""on road,& the war" hu"an, falli le and frail, sordid and petty, a surd and contradictory, e#en grotes-ue, and yet, withal, shot through with flashes and gli""erings of so"ething finer and 0od'like, with here and there sweetnesses of ser#ice and unselfishness, desires for goodness, for renunciation and sacrifice, and with conscience, stern and awful, at ti"es la/ingly i"perious, de"anding the right,''the right, nothing "ore nor less than the right! JACC L4,54,! 4ACLA,5, CALIF4R,IA! January 7D, 789<!

THE CLASS STRUGGLE


2nfortunately or otherwise, people are prone to elie#e in the reality of the things they think ought to e so! *his co"es of the cheery opti"is" which is innate with life itself( and, while it "ay so"eti"es e deplored, it "ust ne#er e censured, for, as a rule, it is producti#e of "ore good than har", and of a out all the achie#e"ent there is in the world! *here are cases where this opti"is" has een disastrous, as with the people who li#ed in Po"peii during its last -ui#ering days( or with the aristocrats of the ti"e of Louis E>I, who confidently e+pected the 5eluge to o#erwhel" their children, or their childrenFs children, ut ne#er the"sel#es! )ut there is s"all likelihood that the case of per#erse opti"is" here to e considered will end in such disaster, while there is e#ery reason to elie#e that the great

change now "anifesting itself in society will e as peaceful and orderly in its cul"ination as it is in its present de#elop"ent! 4ut of their constitutional opti"is", and ecause a class struggle is an a horred and dangerous thing, the great A"erican people are unani"ous in asserting that there is no class struggle! And y &A"erican people& is "eant the recogni/ed and authoritati#e "outh' pieces of the A"erican people, which are the press, the pulpit, and the uni#ersity! *he 6ournalists, the preachers, and the professors are practically of one #oice in declaring that there is no such thing as a class struggle now going on, "uch less that a class struggle will e#er go on, in the 2nited 3tates! And this declaration they continually "ake in the face of a "ultitude of facts which i"peach, not so "uch their sincerity, as affir", rather, their opti"is"! *here are two ways of approaching the su 6ect of the class struggle! *he e+istence of this struggle can e shown theoretically, and it can e shown actually! For a class struggle to e+ist in society there "ust e, first, a class ine-uality, a superior class and an inferior class $as "easured y power%( and, second, the outlets "ust e closed where y the strength and fer"ent of the inferior class ha#e een per"itted to escape! *hat there are e#en classes in the 2nited 3tates is #igorously denied y "any( ut it is incontro#erti le, when a group of indi#iduals is for"ed, wherein the "e" ers are ound together y co""on interests which are peculiarly their interests and not the interests of indi#iduals outside the group, that such a group is a class! *he owners of capital, with their dependents, for" a class of this nature in the 2nited 3tates( the working people for" a si"ilar class! *he interest of the capitalist class, say, in the "atter of inco"e ta+, is -uite contrary to the interest of the la oring class( and, >ICE >ER3A, in the "atter of poll'ta+! If etween these two classes there e a clear and #ital conflict of interest, all the factors are present which "ake a class struggle( ut this struggle will lie dor"ant if the strong and capa le "e" ers of the inferior class e per"itted to lea#e that class and 6oin the ranks of the superior class! *he capitalist class and the working class ha#e e+isted side y side and for a long ti"e in the 2nited 3tates( ut hitherto all the strong, energetic "e" ers of the working class ha#e een a le to rise out of their class and eco"e owners of capital! *hey were ena led to do this ecause an unde#eloped country with an e+panding frontier ga#e e-uality of opportunity to all! In the al"ost lottery'like scra" le for the ownership of #ast unowned natural resources, and in the e+ploitation of which there was little or no co"petition of capital, $the capital itself rising out of the e+ploitation%, the capa le, intelligent "e" er of the working class found a field in which to use his rains to his own ad#ance"ent! Instead of eing discontented in direct ratio with his intelligence and a" itions, and of radiating a"ongst his fellows a spirit of re#olt as capa le as he was capa le, he left the" to their fate and car#ed his own way to a place in the superior class! )ut the day of an e+panding frontier, of a lottery'like scra" le for the ownership of natural resources, and of the up uilding of new industries, is past! Farthest West has een reached, and an i""ense #olu"e of surplus capital roa"s for in#est"ent and nips in the ud the patient efforts of the e" ryo capitalist to rise through slow incre"ent fro" s"all eginnings!

*he gateway of opportunity after opportunity has een closed, and closed for all ti"e! Rockefeller has shut the door on oil, the A"erican *o acco Co"pany on to acco, and Carnegie on steel! After Carnegie ca"e .organ, who triple' locked the door! *hese doors will not open again, and efore the" pause thousands of a" itious young "en to read the placard= ,4 *14R4201'FARE! And day y day "ore doors are shut, while the a" itious young "en continue to e orn! It is they, denied the opportunity to rise fro" the working class, who preach re#olt to the working class! 1ad he een orn fifty years later, Andrew Carnegie, the poor 3cotch oy, "ight ha#e risen to e president of his union, or of a federation of unions( ut that he would ne#er ha#e eco"e the uilder of 1o"estead and the founder of "ultitudinous li raries, is as certain as it is certain that so"e other "an would ha#e de#eloped the steel industry had Andrew Carnegie ne#er een orn! *heoretically, then, there e+ist in the 2nited 3tates all the factors which go to "ake a class struggle! *here are the capitalists and working classes, the interests of which conflict, while the working class is no longer eing e"asculated to the e+tent it was in the past y ha#ing drawn off fro" it its est lood and rains! Its "ore capa le "e" ers are no longer a le to rise out of it and lea#e the great "ass leaderless and helpless! *hey re"ain to e its leaders! )ut the opti"istic "outhpieces of the great A"erican people, who are the"sel#es deft theoreticians, are not to e con#inced y "ere theoretics! 3o it re"ains to de"onstrate the e+istence of the class struggle y a "arshalling of the facts! When nearly two "illions of "en, finding the"sel#es knit together y certain interests peculiarly their own, and together in a strong organi/ation for the aggressi#e pursuit of those interests, it is e#ident that society has within it a hostile and warring class! )ut when the interests which this class aggressi#ely pursues conflict sharply and #itally with the interests of another class, class antagonis" arises and a class struggle is the ine#ita le result! 4ne great organi/ation of la or alone has a "e" ership of 7,G99,999 in the 2nited 3tates! *his is the A"erican Federation of La or, and outside of it are "any other large organi/ations! All these "en are anded together for the frank purpose of ettering their condition, regardless of the har" worked there y upon all other classes! *hey are in open antagonis" with the capitalist class, while the "anifestos of their leaders state that the struggle is one which can ne#er end until the capitalist class is e+ter"inated! *heir leaders will largely deny this last state"ent, ut an e+a"ination of their utterances, their actions, and the situation will forestall such denial! In the first place, the conflict etween la or and capital is o#er the di#ision of the 6oin product! Capital and la or apply the"sel#es to raw "aterial and "ake it into a finished product! *he difference etween the #alue of the raw "aterial and the #alue of the finished product is the #alue they ha#e added to it y their 6oint effort! *his added #alue is, therefore, their 6oint product, and it is o#er the di#ision of this 6oint product that the struggle etween la or and capital takes place! La or takes its share in wages( capital takes its share in profits! It is patent, if capital took in profits the whole 6oint product, that la or would perish! And it is e-ually patent, if la or took in wages the whole 6oint

product, that capital would perish! Aet this last is the #ery thing la or aspires to do, and that it will ne#er e content with anything less than the whole 6oint product is e#idenced y the words of its leaders! .r! 3a"uel 0o"pers, president of the A"erican Federation of La or, has said= &*he workers want "ore wages( "ore of the co"forts of life( "ore leisure( "ore chance for self' i"pro#e"ent as "en, as trade'unionists, as citi/ens! *1E3E WERE *1E WA,*3 4F AE3*ER5AA( *1EA ARE *1E WA,*3 4F *45AA( *1EA WILL )E *1E WA,*3 4F *4.4RR4W, A,5 4F *4.4RR4WF3 .4RR4W! *he struggle "ay assu"e new for"s, ut the issue is the i""e"orial one,''an effort of the producers to o tain an increasing "easure of the wealth that flows fro" their production!& .r! 1enry White, secretary of the 2nited 0ar"ent Workers of A"erica and a "e" er of the Industrial Co""ittee of the ,ational Ci#ic Federation, speaking of the ,ational Ci#ic Federation soon after its inception, said= &*o fall into one anotherFs ar"s, to a#ow friendship, to e+press regret at the in6ury which has een done, would not alter the facts of the situation! Working"en will continue to de"and "ore pay, and the e"ployer will naturally oppose the"! *he readiness and a ility of the work"en to fight will, as usual, largely deter"ine the a"ount of their wages or their share in the product! ! ! )ut when it co"es to di#iding the proceeds, there is the ru ! We can also agree that the larger the product through the e"ploy"ent of la or'sa#ing "ethods the etter, as there will e "ore to e di#ided, ut again the -uestion of the di#ision! ! ! ! A Conciliation Co""ittee, ha#ing the confidence of the co""unity, and co"posed of "en possessing practical knowledge of industrial affairs, can therefore aid in "itigating this antagonis", in pre#enting a#oida le conflicts, in ringing a out a *R2CE( I use the word FtruceF ecause understandings can only e te"porary!& 1ere is a "an who "ight ha#e owned cattle on a thousand hills, een a lu" er aron or a railroad king, had he een orn a few years sooner! As it is, he re"ains in his class, is secretary of the 2nited 0ar"ent Workers of A"erica, and is so thoroughly saturated with the class struggle that he speaks of the dispute etween capital and la or in ter"s of war,'' work"en FI01* with e"ployers( it is possi le to a#oid so"e C4,FLIC*3( in certain cases *R2CE3 "ay e, for the ti"e eing, effected! .an eing "an and a great deal short of the angels, the -uarrel o#er the di#ision of the 6oint product is irreconcila le! For the last twenty years in the 2nited 3tates, there has een an a#erage of o#er a thousand strikes per year( and year y year these strikes increase in "agnitude, and the front of the la or ar"y grows "ore i"posing! And it is a class struggle, pure and si"ple! La or as a class is fighting with capital as a class! Working"en will continue to de"and "ore pay, and e"ployers will continue to oppose the"! *his is the key'note to LAI33E@ FAIRE,'' e#ery ody for hi"self and de#il take the hind"ost! It is upon this that the ra"pant indi#idualist ases his indi#idualis"! It is the let' alone policy, the struggle for e+istence, which strengthens the strong, destroys the weak, and "akes a finer and "ore capa le reed of "en! )ut the indi#idual has passed away and the group has co"e, for etter or worse, and the struggle has eco"e, not a struggle etween

indi#iduals, ut a struggle etween groups! 3o the -uery rises= 1as the indi#idualist ne#er speculated upon the la or group eco"ing strong enough to destroy the capitalist group, and take to itself and run for itself the "achinery of industryB And, further, has the indi#idualist ne#er speculated upon this eing still a triu"phant e+pression of indi#idualis",''of group indi#idualis",''if the confusion of ter"s "ay e per"ittedB )ut the facts of the class struggle are deeper and "ore significant than ha#e so far een presented! A "illion or so of work"en "ay organi/e for the pursuit of interests which engender class antagonis" and strife, and at the sa"e ti"e e unconscious of what is engendered! )ut when a "illion or so of work"en show un"istaka le signs of eing conscious of their class,''of eing, in short, class conscious,''then the situation grows serious! *he unco"pro"ising and terri le hatred of the trade'unionist for a sca is the hatred of a class for a traitor to that class,''while the hatred of a trade'unionist for the "ilitia is the hatred of a class for a weapon wielded y the class with which it is fighting! ,o work"an can e true to his class and at the sa"e ti"e e a "e" er of the "ilitia= this is the dictu" of the la or leaders! In the town of the writer, the good citi/ens, when they get up a Fourth of July parade and in#ite the la or unions to participate, are infor"ed y the unions that they will not "arch in the parade if the "ilitia "arches! Article H of the constitution of the PaintersF and 5ecoratorsF 2nion of 3chenectady pro#ides that a "e" er "ust not e a &"ilitia"an, special police officer, or deputy "arshal in the e"ploy of corporations or indi#iduals during strikes, lockouts, or other la or difficulties, and any "e" er occupying any of the a o#e positions will e de arred fro" "e" ership!& .r! Willia" Potter was a "e" er of this union and a "e" er of the ,ational 0uard! As a result, ecause he o eyed the order of the 0o#ernor when his co"pany was ordered out to suppress rioting, he was e+pelled fro" his union! Also his union de"anded his e"ployers, 3hafer I )arry, to discharge hi" fro" their ser#ice! *his they co"plied with, rather than face the threatened strike! .r! Ro ert L! Walker, first lieutenant of the Light 0uards, a ,ew 1a#en "ilitia co"pany, recently resigned! 1is reason was, that he was a "e" er of the Car )uildersF 2nion, and that the two organi/ations were antagonistic to each other! 5uring a ,ew 4rleans street'car strike not long ago, a whole co"pany of "ilitia, called out to protect non'union "en, resigned in a ody! .r! John .ulholland, president of the International Association of Allied .etal .echanics, has stated that he does not want the "e" ers to 6oin the "ilitia! *he Local *radesF Asse" ly of 3yracuse, ,ew Aork, has passed a resolution, y unani"ous #ote, re-uiring union "en who are "e" ers of the ,ational 0uard to resign, under pain of e+pulsion, fro" the unions! *he A"alga"ated 3heet .etal WorkersF Association has incorporated in its constitution an a"end"ent e+cluding fro" "e" ership in its organi/ation &any person a "e" er of the regular ar"y, or of the 3tate "ilitia or na#al reser#e!& *he Illinois 3tate Federation of La or, at a recent con#ention, passed without a dissenting #ote a resolution declaring that "e" ership in "ilitary organi/ations is a #iolation of la or union o ligations, and re-uesting all union "en to withdraw fro" the "ilitia! *he president of the Federation, .r! Al ert Aoung, declared that the "ilitia was a "enace not only to unions, ut to all workers throughout the country!

*hese instances "ay e "ultiplied a thousand fold! *he union work"en are eco"ing conscious of their class, and of the struggle their class is waging with the capitalist class! *o e a "e" er of the "ilitia is to e a traitor to the union, for the "ilitia is a weapon wielded y the e"ployers to crush the workers in the struggle etween the warring groups! Another interesting, and e#en "ore pregnant, phase of the class struggle is the political aspect of it as displayed y the socialists! Fi#e "en, standing together, "ay perfor" prodigies( <99 "en, "arching as "arched the historic Fi#e 1undred of .arseilles, "ay sack a palace and destroy a king( while <99,999 "en, passionately preaching the propaganda of a class struggle, waging a class struggle along political lines, and acked y the "oral and intellectual support of 79,999,999 "ore "en of like con#ictions throughout the world, "ay co"e pretty close to reali/ing a class struggle in these 2nited 3tates of ours! In 7899 these "en cast 7<9,999 #otes( two years later, in 789D, they cast ;99,999 #otes( and in 789: they cast :<9,999! *hey ha#e ehind the" a "ost i"posing philosophic and scientific literature( they own illustrated "aga/ines and re#iews, high in -uality, dignity, and restraint( they possess countless daily and weekly papers which circulate throughout the land, and single papers which ha#e su scri ers y the hundreds of thousands( and they literally swa"p the working classes in a #ast sea of tracts and pa"phlets! ,o political party in the 2nited 3tates, no church organi/ation nor "ission effort, has as indefatiga le workers as has the socialist party! *hey "ultiply the"sel#es, know of no effort nor sacrifice too great to "ake for the Cause( and &Cause,& with the", is spelled out in capitals! *hey work for it with a religious /eal, and would die for it with a willingness si"ilar to that of the Christian "artyrs! *hese "en are preaching an unco"pro"ising and deadly class struggle! In fact, they are organi/ed upon the asis of a class struggle! &*he history of society,& they say, &is a history of class struggles! Patrician struggled with ple eian in early Ro"e( the king and the urghers, with the no les in the .iddle Ages( later on, the king and the no les with the ourgeoisie( and today the struggle is on etween the triu"phant ourgeoisie and the rising proletariat! )y FproletariatF is "eant the class of people without capital which sells its la or for a li#ing! &*hat the proletariat shall con-uer,& $"ark the note of fatalis"%, &is as certain as the rising sun! Just as the ourgeoisie of the eighteenth century wanted de"ocracy applied to politics, so the proletariat of the twentieth century wants de"ocracy applied to industry! As the ourgeoisie co"plained against the go#ern"ent eing run y and for the no les, so the proletariat co"plains against the go#ern"ent and industry eing run y and for the ourgeoisie( and so, following in the footsteps of its predecessor, the proletariat will possess itself of the go#ern"ent, apply de"ocracy to industry, a olish wages, which are "erely legali/ed ro ery, and run the usiness of the country in its own interest!& &*heir ai",& they say, &is to organi/e the working class, and those in sy"pathy with it, into a political party, with the o 6ect of con-uering the powers of go#ern"ent and of using the" for the purpose of transfor"ing the present syste" of pri#ate ownership of the "eans of production and distri ution into collecti#e ownership y the entire people!&

)riefly stated, this is the attle plan of these :<9,999 "en who call the"sel#es &socialists!& And, in the face of the e+istence of such an aggressi#e group of "en, a class struggle cannot #ery well e denied y the opti"istic A"ericans who say= &A class struggle is "onstrous! 3ir, there is no class struggle!& *he class struggle is here, and the opti"istic A"erican had etter gird hi"self for the fray and put a stop to it, rather than sit idly declai"ing that what ought not to e is not, and ne#er will e! )ut the socialists, fanatics and drea"ers though they "ay well e, etray a foresight and insight, and a genius for organi/ation, which put to sha"e the class with which they are openly at war! Failing of rapid success in waging a sheer political propaganda, and finding that they were alienating the "ost intelligent and "ost easily organi/ed portion of the #oters, the socialists lessoned fro" the e+perience and turned their energies upon the trade'union "o#e"ent! *o win the trade unions was well'nigh to win the war, and recent e#ents show that they ha#e done far "ore winning in this direction than ha#e the capitalists! Instead of antagoni/ing the unions, which had een their pre#ious policy, the socialists proceeded to conciliate the unions! &Let e#ery good socialist 6oin the union of his trade,& the edict went forth! &)ore fro" within and capture the trade'union "o#e"ent!& And this policy, only se#eral years old, has reaped fruits far eyond their fondest e+pectations! *oday the great la or unions are honeyco" ed with socialists, & oring fro" within,& as they pictures-uely ter" their under"ining la or! At work and at play, at usiness "eeting and council, their insidious propaganda goes on! At the shoulder of the trade'unionist is the socialist, sy"pathi/ing with hi", aiding hi" with head and hand, suggesting'' perpetually suggesting'' the necessity for political action! As the J42R,AL, of Lansing, .ichigan, a repu lican paper, has re"arked= &*he socialists in the la or unions are tireless workers! *hey are sincere, energetic, and self' sacrificing! ! ! ! *hey stick to the union and work all the while, thus "aking a showing which, reckoned y ordinary standards, is out of all proportion to their nu" ers! *heir cause is growing a"ong union la orers, and their long fight, intended to turn the Federation into a political organi/ation, is likely to win!& *hey "iss no opportunity of dri#ing ho"e the necessity for political action, the necessity for capturing the political "achinery of society where y they "ay "aster society! As an instance of this is the a#idity with which the A"erican socialists sei/ed upon the fa"ous *aft'>ale 5ecision in England, which was to the effect that an unincorporated union could e sued and its treasury rifled y process of law! *hroughout the 2nited 3tates, the socialists pointed the "oral in si"ilar fashion to the way it was pointed y the 3ocial'5e"ocratic 1erald, which ad#ised the trade'unionists, in #iew of the decision, to stop trying to fight capital with "oney, which they lacked, and to egin fighting with the allot, which was their strongest weapon! ,ight and day, tireless and unrelenting, they la or at their self' i"posed task of under"ining society! .r! .! 0! Cunniff, who lately "ade an inti"ate study of trade'unionis", says= &All through the unions socialis" filters! Al"ost e#ery other "an is a socialist, preaching that unionis" is ut a "akeshift!& &.althus e da"ned,& they told hi", &for the good ti"e was co"ing when e#ery "an should e a le to rear his fa"ily in co"fort!& In one union, with two thousand "e" ers, .r! Cunniff found e#ery "an a socialist, and fro" his e+periences .r! Cunniff was forced to confess, &I li#ed in a world that showed our industrial life a' tre" le

fro" eneath with a ne#er'ceasing fer"ent!& *he socialists ha#e already captured the Western Federation of .iners, the Western 1otel and Restaurant E"ployeesF 2nion, and the Pattern"akersF ,ational Association! *he Western Federation of .iners, at a recent con#ention, declared= &*he strike has failed to secure to the working classes their li erty( we therefore call upon the workers to strike as one "an for their li erties at the allot o+! ! ! ! We put oursel#es on record as co""itted to the progra""e of independent political action! ! ! ! We indorse the platfor" of the socialist party, and accept it as the declaration of principles of our organi/ation! We call upon our "e" ers as indi#iduals to co""ence i""ediately the organi/ation of the socialist "o#e"ent in their respecti#e towns and states, and to cooperate in e#ery way for the furtherance of the principles of socialis" and of the socialist party! In states where the socialist party has not perfected its organi/ation, we ad#ise that e#ery assistance e gi#en y our "e" ers to that end! ! ! ! We therefore call for organi/ers, capa le and well'#ersed in the whole progra""e of the la or "o#e"ent, to e sent into each state to preach the necessity of organi/ation on the political as well as on the econo"ic field!& *he capitalist class has a gli""ering consciousness of the class struggle which is shaping itself in the "idst of society( ut the capitalists, as a class, see" to lack the a ility for organi/ing, for co"ing together, such as is possessed y the working class! ,o A"erican capitalist e#er aids an English capitalist in the co""on fight, while work"en ha#e for"ed international unions, the socialists a world'wide international organi/ation, and on all sides space and race are ridged in the effort to achie#e solidarity! Resolutions of sy"pathy, and, fully as i"portant, donations of "oney, pass ack and forth across the sea to where#er la or is fighting its pitched attles! For di#ers reasons, the capitalist class lacks this cohesion or solidarity, chief a"ong which is the opti"is" red of past success! And, again, the capitalist class is di#ided( it has within itself a class struggle of no "ean proportions, which tends to irritate and harass it and to confuse the situation! *he s"all capitalist and the large capitalist are grappled with each other, struggling o#er what Achille Loria calls the & i'partition of the re#enues!& 3uch a struggle, though not precisely analogous, was waged etween the landlords and "anufacturers of England when the one rought a out the passage of the Factory Acts and the other the a olition of the Corn Laws! 1ere and there, howe#er, certain "e" ers of the capitalist class see clearly the clea#age in society along which the struggle is eginning to show itself, while the press and "aga/ines are eginning to raise an occasional and trou led #oice! *wo leagues of class'conscious capitalists ha#e een for"ed for the purpose of carrying on their side of the struggle! Like the socialists, they do not "ince "atters, ut state oldly and plainly that they are fighting to su 6ugate the opposing class! It is the arons against the co""ons! 4ne of these leagues, the ,ational Association of .anufacturers, is stopping short of nothing in what it concei#es to e a life'and'death struggle! .r! 5! .! Parry, who is the president of the league, as well as president of the ,ational .etal *radesF Association, is lea#ing no stone unturned in what he feels to e a desperate effort to organi/e his class! 1e has issued the call to ar"s in ter"s e#erything ut a" iguous= &*1ERE I3 3*ILL *I.E I, *1E 2,I*E5 3*ALE3 *4 1EA5

4FF *1E 34CIALI3*IC PR40RA..E, W1IC1, 2,RE3*RAI,E5, I3 32RE *4 WRECC 42R C42,*RA!& As he says, the work is for &federating e"ployers in order that we "ay "eet with a united front all issues that affect us! We "ust co"e to this sooner or later! ! ! ! *he work i""ediately efore the ,ational Association of .anufacturers is, first, CEEP *1E >ICI423 EI01*' 142R )ILL 4FF *1E )44C3( second, to 5E3*R4A *1E A,*I' I,J2,C*I4, )ILL, which wrests your usiness fro" you and places it in the hands of your e"ployees( third, to secure the PA33A0E 4F *1E 5EPAR*.E,* 4F C4..ERCE A,5 I,523*RA )ILL( the latter would go through with a rush were it not for the hectoring opposition of 4rgani/ed La or!& )y this depart"ent, he further says, & usiness interests would ha#e direct and sy"pathetic representation at Washington!& In a later letter, issued roadcast to the capitalists outside the League, President Parry points out the success which is already eginning to attend the efforts of the League at Washington! &We ha#e contri uted "ore than any other influence to the -uick passage of the new 5epart"ent of Co""erce )ill! It is said that the acti#ities of this office are nu"erous and satisfactory( ut of that I "ust not say too "uch''or anything! ! ! ! At Washington the Association is not represented too "uch, either directly or indirectly! 3o"eti"es it is known in a "ost powerful way that it is represented #igorously and unitedly! 3o"eti"es it is not known that it is represented at all!& *he second class'conscious capitalist organi/ation is called the ,ational Econo"ic League! It likewise "anifests the frankness of "en who do not dilly' dally with ter"s, ut who say what they "ean, and who "ean to settle down to a long, hard fight! *heir letter of in#itation to prospecti#e "e" ers opens oldly! &We eg to infor" you that the ,ational Econo"ic League will render its ser#ices in an i"partial educational "o#e"ent *4 4PP43E 34CIALI3. A,5 CLA33 1A*RE5!& A"ong its class'conscious "e" ers, "en who recogni/e that the opening guns of the class struggle ha#e een fired, "ay e instanced the following na"es= 1on! Ly"an J! 0age, E+'3ecretary 2! 3! *reasury( 1on! *ho"as Jefferson Coolidge, E+'.inister to France( Re#! 1enry C! Potter, )ishop ,ew Aork 5iocese( 1on! John 5! Long, E+'3ecretary 2! 3! ,a#y( 1on! Le#i P! .orton, E+'>ice President 2nited 3tates( 1enry Clews( John F! 5ryden, President Prudential Life Insurance Co!( John A! .cCall, President ,ew Aork Life Insurance Co!( J! L! 0reatsinger, President )rooklyn Rapid *ransit Co!( the ship uilding fir" of Willia" Cra"p I 3ons, the 3outhern Railway syste", and the Atchison, *opeka, I 3anta Fe Railway Co"pany! Instances of the trou led editorial #oice ha#e not een rare during the last se#eral years! *here were "any cries fro" the press during the last days of the anthracite coal strike that the "ine owners, y their stu ornness, were sowing the regretta le seeds of socialis"! *he WorldFs Work for 5ece" er, 789D, said= &*he ne+t significant fact is the reco""endation y the Illinois 3tate Federation of La or that all "e" ers of la or unions who are also "e" ers of the state "ilitia shall resign fro" the "ilitia! *his proposition has een fa#ora ly regarded y so"e other la or organi/ations! It has done "ore than any other single recent declaration or action to cause a pu lic distrust of such unions as fa#or it! I* 1I,*3 4F A CLA33

3EPARA*I4, *1A* I, *2R, 1I,*3 4F A,ARC1A!& *he 42*L44C, Fe ruary 7:, 789;, in reference to the rioting at Water ury, re"arks, &*hat all this disorder should ha#e occurred in a city of the character and intelligence of Water ury indicates that the industrial war spirit is y no "eans confined to the i""igrant or ignorant working classes!& *hat President Roose#elt has s"elt the s"oke fro" the firing line of the class struggle is e#idenced y his words, &A o#e all we need to re"e" er that any kind of CLA33 A,I.43I*A I, *1E P4LI*ICAL W4RL5 is, if possi le, e#en "ore destructi#e to national welfare than sectional, race, or religious ani"osity!& *he chief thing to e noted here is President Roose#eltFs tacit recognition of class ani"osity in the industrial world, and his fear, which language cannot portray stronger, that this class ani"osity "ay spread to the political world! Aet this is the #ery policy which the socialists ha#e announced in their declaration of war against present'day society''to capture the political "achinery of society and y that "achinery destroy present'day society! *he ,ew Aork Independent for Fe ruary 7D, 789;, recogni/ed without -ualification the class struggle! &It is i"possi le fairly to pass upon the "ethods of la or unions, or to de#ise plans for re"edying their a uses, until it is recogni/ed, to egin with, that unions are ased upon class antagonis" and that their policies are dictated y the necessities of social warfare! A strike is a re ellion against the owners of property! *he rights of property are protected y go#ern"ent! And a strike, under certain pro#ocation, "ay e+tend as far as did the general strike in )elgiu" a few years since, when practically the entire wage'earning population stopped work in order to force political concessions fro" the property'owning classes! *his is an e+tre"e case, ut it rings out #i#idly the real nature of la or organi/ation as a species of warfare whose o 6ect is the coercion of one class y another class!& It has een shown, theoretically and actually, that there is a class struggle in the 2nited 3tates! *he -uarrel o#er the di#ision of the 6oint product is irreconcila le! *he working class is no longer losing its strongest and "ost capa le "e" ers! *hese "en, denied roo" for their a" ition in the capitalist ranks, re"ain to e the leaders of the workers, to spur the" to discontent, to "ake the" conscious of their class, to lead the" to re#olt! *his re#olt, appearing spontaneously all o#er the industrial field in the for" of de"ands for an increased share of the 6oint product, is eing carefully and shrewdly shaped for a political assault upon society! *he leaders, with the carelessness of fatalists, do not hesitate for an instant to pu lish their intentions to the world! *hey intend to direct the la or re#olt to the capture of the political "achinery of society! With the political "achinery once in their hands, which will also gi#e the" the control of the police, the ar"y, the na#y, and the courts, they will confiscate, with or without re"uneration, all the possessions of the capitalist class which are used in the production and distri ution of the necessaries and lu+uries of life! )y this, they "ean to apply the law of e"inent do"ain to the land, and to e+tend the law of e"inent do"ain till it e" races the "ines, the factories, the railroads, and the ocean carriers! In short, they intend to destroy present'day society, which they contend is run in the interest of another

class, and fro" the "aterials to construct a new society, which will e run in their interest! 4n the other hand, the capitalist class is eginning to grow conscious of itself and of the struggle which is eing waged! It is already for"ing offensi#e and defensi#e leagues, while so"e of the "ost pro"inent figures in the nation are preparing to lead it in the attack upon socialis"! *he -uestion to e sol#ed is not one of .althusianis", &pro6ected efficiency,& nor ethics! It is a -uestion of "ight! Whiche#er class is to win, will win y #irtue of superior strength( for the workers are eginning to say, as they said to .r! Cunniff, &.althus e da"ned!& In their own "inds they find no sanction for continuing the indi#idual struggle for the sur#i#al of the fittest! As .r! 0o"pers has said, they want "ore, and "ore, and "ore! *he ethical i"port of .r! CiddFs plan of the present generation putting up with less in order that race efficiency "ay e pro6ected into a re"ote future, has no earing upon their actions! *hey refuse to e the &glad perishers& so glowingly descri ed y ,iet/sche! It re"ains to e seen how pro"ptly the capitalist class will respond to the call to ar"s! 2pon its pro"ptness rests its e+istence, for if it sits idly y, soothfully proclai"ing that what ought not to e cannot e, it will find the roof ea"s crashing a out its head! *he capitalist class is in the nu"erical "inority, and ids fair to e out#oted if it does not put a stop to the #ast propaganda eing waged y its ene"y! It is no longer a -uestion of whether or not there is a class struggle! *he -uestion now is, what will e the outco"e of the class struggleB

*1E *RA.P .r! Francis 4F,eil, 0eneral 3uperintendent of Police, Chicago, speaking of the tra"p, says= &5espite the "ost stringent police regulations, a great city will ha#e a certain nu" er of ho"eless #agrants to shelter through the winter!& &5espite,&''"ark the word, a confession of organi/ed helplessness as against unorgani/ed necessity! If police regulations are stringent and yet fail, then that which "akes the" fail, na"ely, the tra"p, "ust ha#e still "ore stringent reasons for succeeding! *his eing so, it should e of interest to in-uire into these reasons, to atte"pt to disco#er why the na"eless and ho"eless #agrant sets at naught the right ar" of the corporate power of our great cities, why all that is weak and worthless is stronger than all that is strong and of #alue! .r! 4F,eil is a "an of wide e+perience on the su 6ect of tra"ps! 1e "ay e called a specialist! As he says of hi"self= &As an old'ti"e desk sergeant and police captain, I ha#e had al"ost unli"ited opportunity to study and analy/e this class of floating population, which seeks the city in winter and scatters a road through the country in the spring!& 1e then continues= &*his e+perience reiterated the lesson that the #ast "a6ority of these wanderers are of the class with who" a life of #agrancy is a chosen "eans of li#ing without work!& ,ot only

is it to e inferred fro" this that there is a large class in society which li#es without work, for .r! 4F,eilFs testi"ony further shows that this class is forced to li#e without work! 1e says= &I ha#e een astonished at the "ultitude of those who ha#e unfortunately engaged in occupations which practically force the" to eco"e loafers for at least a third of the year! And it is fro" this class that the tra"ps are largely recruited! I recall a certain winter when it see"ed to "e that a large portion of the inha itants of Chicago elonged to this ar"y of unfortunates! I was stationed at a police station not far fro" where an ice har#est was ready for the cutters! *he ice co"pany ad#ertised for helpers, and the #ery night this call appeared in the newspapers our station was packed with ho"eless "en, who asked shelter in order to e at hand for the "orningFs work! E#ery foot of floor space was gi#en o#er to these lodgers and scores were still unacco""odated!& And again= &And it "ust e confessed that the "an who is willing to do honest la or for food and shelter is a rare speci"en in this #ast ar"y of sha y and tattered wanderers who seek the war"th of the city with the co"ing of the first snow!& *aking into consideration the crowd of honest la orers that swa"ped .r! 4F,eilFs station'house on the way to the ice'cutting, it is patent, if all tra"ps were looking for honest la or instead of a s"all "inority, that the honest la orers would ha#e a far harder task finding so"ething honest to do for food and shelter! If the opinion of the honest la orers who swa"ped .r! 4F,eilFs station'house were asked, one could rest confident that each and e#ery "an would e+press a preference for fewer honest la orers on the "orrow when he asked the ice fore"an for a 6o ! And, finally, .r! 4F,eil says= &*he hu"ane and generous treat"ent which this city has accorded the great ar"y of ho"eless unfortunates has "ade it the #icti" of wholesale i"position, and this well' intended policy of kindness has resulted in "aking Chicago the winter .ecca of a #ast and undesira le floating population!& *hat is to say, ecause of her kindness, Chicago had "ore than her fair share of tra"ps( ecause she was hu"ane and generous she suffered whole' sale i"position! Fro" this we "ust conclude that it does not do to e 12.A,E and 0E,ER423 to our fellow'"en''when they are tra"ps! .r! 4F,eil is right, and that this is no sophis" it is the intention of this article, a"ong other things, to show!

In a general way we "ay draw the following inferences fro" the re"arks of .r! 4F,eil= $7% *he tra"p is stronger than organi/ed society and cannot e put down( $D% *he tra"p is &sha y,& &tattered,& &ho"eless,& &unfortunate&( $;% *here is a &#ast& nu" er of tra"ps( $:% >ery few tra"ps are willing to do honest work( $<% *hose tra"ps who are willing to do honest work ha#e to hunt #ery hard to find it( $J% *he tra"p is undesira le! *o this last let the contention e appended that the tra"p is only PER34,ALLA undesira le( that he is ,E0A*I>ELA desira le( that the function he perfor"s in society is a negati#e function( and that he is the y'product of econo"ic necessity!

It is #ery easy to de"onstrate that there are "ore "en than there is work for "en to do! For instance, what would happen to"orrow if one hundred thousand tra"ps should eco"e suddenly inspired with an o#er"astering desire for workB It is a fair -uestion! &0o to work& is preached to the tra"p e#ery day of his life! *he 6udge on the ench, the pedestrian in the street, the housewife at the kitchen door, all unite in ad#ising hi" to go to work! 3o what would happen to"orrow if one hundred thousand tra"ps acted upon this ad#ice and strenuously and indo"ita ly sought workB Why, y the end of the week one hundred thousand workers, their places taken y the tra"ps, would recei#e their ti"e and e &hitting the road& for a 6o ! Ella Wheeler Wilco+ unwittingly and unco"forta ly de"onstrated the disparity etween "en and work! K7L 3he "ade a casual reference, in a newspaper colu"n she conducts, to the difficulty two usiness "en found in o taining good e"ployees! *he first "orning "ail rought her se#enty'fi#e applications for the position, and at the end of two weeks o#er two hundred people had applied! 3till "ore strikingly was the sa"e proposition recently de"onstrated in 3an Francisco! A sy"pathetic strike called out a whole federation of tradesF unions! *housands of "en, in "any ranches of trade, -uit work,''dray"en, sand tea"sters, porters and packers, longshore"en, ste#edores, warehouse"en, stationary engineers, sailors, "arine fire"en, stewards, sea'cooks, and so forth,''an inter"ina le list! It was a strike of large proportions! E#ery Pacific coast shipping city was in#ol#ed, and the entire coasting ser#ice, fro" 3an 5iego to Puget 3ound, was #irtually tied up! *he ti"e was considered auspicious! *he Philippines and Alaska had drained the Pacific coast of surplus la or! It was su""er'ti"e, when the agricultural de"and for la orers was at its height, and when the cities were are of their floating populations! And yet there re"ained a ody of surplus la or sufficient to take the places of the strikers! ,o "atter what occupation, sea'cook or stationary engineer, sand tea"ster or warehouse"an, in e#ery case there was an idle worker ready to do the work! And not only ready ut an+ious! *hey fought for a chance to work! .en were killed, hundreds of heads were roken, the hospitals were filled with in6ured "en, and thousands of assaults were co""itted! And still surplus la orers, &sca s,& ca"e forward to replace the strikers! *he -uestion arises= W1E,CE CA.E *1I3 3EC4,5 AR.A 4F W4RCER3 *4 REPLACE *1E FIR3* AR.AB 4ne thing is certain= the tradesF unions did not sca on one another! Another thing is certain= no industry on the Pacific slope was crippled in the slightest degree y its workers eing drawn away to fill the places of the strikers! A third thing is certain= the agricultural workers did not flock to the cities to replace the strikers! In this last instance it is worth while to note that the agricultural la orers wailed to 1igh 1ea#en when a few of the strikers went into the country to co"pete with the" in unskilled e"ploy"ents! 3o there is no accounting for this second ar"y of workers! It si"ply was! It was there all this ti"e, a surplus la or ar"y in the year of our Lord 7897, a year ad6udged "ost prosperous in the annals of the 2nited 3tates! KDL *he e+istence of the surplus la or ar"y eing esta lished, there re"ains to e esta lished the econo"ic necessity for the surplus la or ar"y! *he si"plest and "ost o #ious need is that rought a out y the fluctuation of production! If, when production is at low e , all "en are

at work, it necessarily follows that when production increases there will e no "en to do the increased work! *his "ay see" al"ost childish, and, if not childish, at least easily re"edied! At low e let the "en work shorter ti"e( at high flood let the" work o#erti"e! *he "ain o 6ection to this is, that it is not done, and that we are considering what is, not what "ight e or should e! *hen there are great irregular and periodical de"ands for la or which "ust e "et! 2nder the first head co"e all the ig uilding and engineering enterprises! When a canal is to e dug or a railroad put through, re-uiring thousands of la orers, it would e hurtful to withdraw these la orers fro" the constant industries! And whether it is a canal to e dug or a cellar, whether fi#e thousand "en are re-uired or fi#e, it is well, in society as at present organi/ed, that they e taken fro" the surplus la or ar"y! *he surplus la or ar"y is the reser#e fund of social energy, and this is one of the reasons for its e+istence! 2nder the second head, periodical de"ands, co"e the har#ests! *hroughout the year, huge la or tides sweep ack and forth across the 2nited 3tates! *hat which is sown and tended y few "en, co"es to sudden ripeness and "ust e gathered y "any "en( and it is ine#ita le that these "any "en for" floating populations! In the late spring the erries "ust e picked, in the su""er the grain garnered, in the fall, the hops gathered, in the winter the ice har#ested! In California a "an "ay pick erries in 3iskiyou, peaches in 3anta Clara, grapes in the 3an Joa-uin, and oranges in Los Angeles, going fro" 6o to 6o as the season ad#ances, and tra#elling a thousand "iles ere the season is done! )ut the great de"and for agricultural la or is in the su""er! In the winter, work is slack, and these floating populations eddy into the cities to eke out a precarious e+istence and harrow the souls of the police officers until the return of war" weather and work! If there were constant work at good wages for e#ery "an, who would har#est the cropsB )ut the last and "ost significant need for the surplus la or ar"y re"ains to e stated! *his surplus la or acts as a check upon all e"ployed la or! It is the lash y which the "asters hold the workers to their tasks, or dri#e the" ack to their tasks when they ha#e re#olted! It is the goad which forces the workers into the co"pulsory &free contracts& against which they now and again re el! *here is only one reason under the sun that strikes fail, and that is ecause there are always plenty of "en to take the strikersF places! *he strength of the union today, other things re"aining e-ual, is proportionate to the skill of the trade, or, in other words, proportionate to the pressure the surplus la or ar"y can put upon it! If a thousand ditch'diggers strike, it is easy to replace the", wherefore the ditch'diggers ha#e little or no organi/ed strength! )ut a thousand highly skilled "achinists are so"ewhat harder to replace, and in conse-uence the "achinist unions are strong! *he ditch'diggers are wholly at the "ercy of the surplus la or ar"y, the "achinists only partly! *o e in#inci le, a union "ust e a "onopoly! It "ust control e#ery "an in its particular trade, and regulate apprentices so that the supply of skilled work"en "ay re"ain constant( this is the drea" of the &La or *rust& on the part of the captains of la or!

4nce, in England, after the 0reat Plague, la or awoke to find there was "ore work for "en than there were "en to work! Instead of workers co"peting for fa#ors fro" e"ployers, e"ployers were co"peting for fa#ors fro" the workers! Wages went up and up, and continued to go up, until the workers de"anded the full product of their toil! ,ow it is clear that, when la or recei#es its full product capital "ust perish! And so the pyg"y capitalists of that post'Plague day found their e+istence threatened y this untoward condition of affairs! *o sa#e the"sel#es, they set a "a+i"u" wage, restrained the workers fro" "o#ing a out fro" place to place, s"ashed incipient organi/ation, refused to tolerate idlers, and y "ost ar arous legal penalties punished those who diso eyed! After that, things went on as efore! *he point of this, of course, is to de"onstrate the need of the surplus la or ar"y! Without such an ar"y, our present capitalist society would e powerless! La or would organi/e as it ne#er organi/ed efore, and the last least worker would e gathered into the unions! *he full product of toil would e de"anded, and capitalist society would cru" le away! ,or could capitalist society sa#e itself as did the post'Plague capitalist society! *he ti"e is past when a handful of "asters, y i"prison"ent and ar arous punish"ent, can dri#e the legions of the workers to their tasks! Without a surplus la or ar"y, the courts, police, and "ilitary are i"potent! In such "atters the function of the courts, police, and "ilitary is to preser#e order, and to fill the places of strikers with surplus la or! If there e no surplus la or to instate, there is no function to perfor"( for disorder arises only during the process of instate"ent, when the striking la or ar"y and the surplus la or ar"y clash together! *hat is to say, that which "aintains the integrity of the present industrial society "ore potently than the courts, police, and "ilitary is the surplus la or ar"y! It has een shown that there are "ore "en than there is work for "en, and that the surplus la or ar"y is an econo"ic necessity! *o show how the tra"p is a y' product of this econo"ic necessity, it is necessary to in-uire into the co"position of the surplus la or ar"y! What "en for" itB Why are they thereB What do they doB In the first place, since the workers "ust co"pete for e"ploy"ent, it ine#ita ly follows that it is the fit and efficient who find e"ploy"ent! *he skilled worker holds his place y #irtue of his skill and efficiency! Were he less skilled, or were he unrelia le or erratic, he would e swiftly replaced y a stronger co"petitor! *he skilled and steady e"ploy"ents are not cu" ered with clowns and idiots! A "an finds his place according to his a ility and the needs of the syste", and those without a ility, or incapa le of satisfying the needs of the syste", ha#e no place! *hus, the poor telegrapher "ay de#elop into an e+cellent wood'chopper! )ut if the poor telegrapher cherishes the delusion that he is a good telegrapher, and at the sa"e ti"e disdains all other e"ploy"ents, he will ha#e no e"ploy"ent at all, or he will e so poor at all other e"ploy"ents that he will work only now and again in lieu of etter "en! 1e will e a"ong the first let off when ti"es are dull, and a"ong the last taken on when ti"es are good! 4r, to the point, he will e a "e" er of the surplus la or ar"y! 3o the conclusion is reached that the less fit and less efficient, or the unfit and inefficient, co"pose the surplus la or ar"y! 1ere are to e found the "en who ha#e tried and failed, the "en who cannot hold 6o s,''the plu" er apprentice who could not eco"e a 6ourney"an, and the plu" er 6ourney"an too clu"sy and dull to retain e"ploy"ent( switch"en who wreck

trains( clerks who cannot alance ooks( lacks"iths who la"e horses( lawyers who cannot plead( in short, the failures of e#ery trade and profession, and failures, "any of the", in di#ers trades and professions! Failure is writ large, and in their wretchedness they ear the sta"p of social disappro ation! Co""on work, any kind of work, where#er or howe#er they can o tain it, is their portion! )ut these hereditary inefficients do not alone co"pose the surplus la or ar"y! *here are the skilled ut unsteady and unrelia le "en( and the old "en, once skilled, ut, with dwindling powers, no longer skilled! K;L And there are good "en, too, splendidly skilled and efficient, ut thrust out of the e"ploy"ent of dying or disaster' s"itten industries! In this connection it is not out of place to note the "isfortune of the workers in the )ritish iron trades, who are suffering ecause of A"erican inroads! And, last of all, are the unskilled la orers, the hewers of wood and drawers of water, the ditch'diggers, the "en of pick and sho#el, the helpers, lu"pers, rousta outs! If trade is slack on a seacoast of two thousand "iles, or the har#ests are light in a great interior #alley, "yriads of these la orers lie idle, or "ake life "isera le for their fellows in kindred unskilled e"ploy"ents! A constant filtration goes on in the working world, and good "aterial is continually drawn fro" the surplus la or ar"y! 3trikes and industrial dislocations shake up the workers, ring good "en to the surface and sink "en as good or not so good! *he hope of the skilled striker is in that the sca s are less skilled, or less capa le of eco"ing skilled( yet each strike attests to the efficiency that lurks eneath! After the Pull"an strike, a few thousand railroad "en were chagrined to find the work they had flung down taken up y "en as good as the"sel#es! )ut one thing "ust e considered here! 2nder the present syste", if the weakest and least fit were as strong and fit as the est, and the est were correspondingly stronger and fitter, the sa"e condition would o tain! *here would e the sa"e ar"y of e"ployed la or, the sa"e ar"y of surplus la or! *he whole thing is relati#e! *here is no a solute standard of efficiency!

Co"es now the tra"p! And all conclusions "ay e anticipated y saying at once that he is a tra"p ecause so"e one has to e a tra"p! If he left the &road& and eca"e a >ERA efficient co""on la orer, so"e 4R5I,ARILA EFFICIE,* co""on la orer would ha#e to take to the &road!& *he nooks and crannies are crowded y the surplus la orers( and when the first snow flies, and the tra"ps are dri#en into the cities, things eco"e o#ercrowded and stringent police regulations are necessary! *he tra"p is one of two kinds of "en= he is either a discouraged worker or a discouraged cri"inal! ,ow a discouraged cri"inal, on in#estigation, pro#es to e a discouraged worker, or the descendant of discouraged workers( so that, in the last analysis, the tra"p is a discouraged worker! 3ince there is not work for all, discourage"ent for so"e is una#oida le! 1ow, then, does this process of discourage"ent operateB

*he lower the e"ploy"ent in the industrial scale, the harder the conditions! *he finer, the "ore delicate, the "ore skilled the trade, the higher is it lifted a o#e the struggle! *here is less pressure, less sordidness, less sa#agery! *here are fewer glass' lowers proportionate to the needs of the glass' lowing industry than there are ditch'diggers proportionate to the needs of the ditch' digging industry! And not only this, for it re-uires a glass' lower to take the place of a striking glass' lower, while any kind of a striker or out'of'work can take the place of a ditch'digger! 3o the skilled trades are "ore independent, ha#e "ore indi#iduality and latitude! *hey "ay confer with their "asters, "ake de"ands, assert the"sel#es! *he unskilled la orers, on the other hand, ha#e no #oice in their affairs! *he settle"ent of ter"s is none of their usiness! &Free contract& is all that re"ains to the"! *hey "ay take what is offered, or lea#e it! *here are plenty "ore of their kind! *hey do not count! *hey are "e" ers of the surplus la or ar"y, and "ust e content with a hand'to'"outh e+istence! *he reward is likewise proportioned! *he strong, fit worker in a skilled trade, where there is little la or pressure, is well co"pensated! 1e is a king co"pared with his less fortunate rothers in the unskilled occupations where the la or pressure is great! *he "ediocre worker not only is forced to e idle a large portion of the ti"e, ut when e"ployed is forced to accept a pittance! A dollar a day on so"e days and nothing on other days will hardly support a "an and wife and send children to school! And not only do the "asters ear hea#ily upon hi", and his own kind struggle for the "orsel at his "outh, ut all skilled and organi/ed la or adds to his woe! 2nion "en do not sca on one another, ut in strikes, or when work is slack, it is considered &fair& for the" to descend and take away the work of the co""on la orers! And take it away they do( for, as a "atter of fact, a well'fed, a" itious "achinist or a core'"aker will transiently sho#el coal etter than an ill'fed, spiritless la orer! *hus there is no encourage"ent for the unfit, inefficient, and "ediocre! *heir #ery inefficiency and "ediocrity "ake the" helpless as cattle and add to their "isery! And the whole tendency for such is downward, until, at the otto" of the social pit, they are wretched, inarticulate easts, li#ing like easts, reeding like easts, dying like easts! And how do they fare, these creatures orn "ediocre, whose heritage is neither rains nor rawn nor enduranceB *hey are sweated in the slu"s in an at"osphere of discourage"ent and despair! *here is no strength in weakness, no encourage"ent in foul air, #ile food, and dank dens! *hey are there ecause they are so "ade that they are not fit to e higher up( ut filth and o scenity do not strengthen the neck, nor does chronic e"ptiness of elly stiffen the ack! For the "ediocre there is no hope! .ediocrity is a sin! Po#erty is the penalty of failure,'' po#erty, fro" whose loins spring the cri"inal and the tra"p, oth failures, oth discouraged workers! Po#erty is the inferno where ignorance festers and #ice corrodes, and where the physical, "ental, and "oral parts of nature are a orted and denied! *hat the charge of rashness in splashing the picture e not incurred, let the following authoritati#e e#idence e considered= first, the work and wages of "ediocrity and inefficiency, and, second, the ha itat=

*he ,ew Aork 3un of Fe ruary DH, 7897, descri es the opening of a factory in ,ew Aork City y the A"erican *o acco Co"pany! Cheroots were to e "ade in this factory in co"petition with other factories which refused to e a sor ed y the trust! *he trust ad#ertised for girls! *he crowd of "en and oys who wanted work was so great in front of the uilding that the police were forced with their clu s to clear the" away! *he wage paid the girls was MD!<9 per week, si+ty cents of which went for car fare! K:L .iss ,ellie .ason Auten, a graduate student of the depart"ent of sociology at the 2ni#ersity of Chicago, recently "ade a thorough in#estigation of the gar"ent trades of Chicago! 1er figures were pu lished in the A"erican Journal of 3ociology, and co""ented upon y the Literary 5igest! 3he found wo"en working ten hours a day, si+ days a week, for forty cents per week $a rate of two'thirds of a cent an hour%! .any wo"en earned less than a dollar a week, and none of the" worked e#ery week! *he following ta le will est su""ari/e .iss AutenFs in#estigations a"ong a portion of the gar"ent'workers= Industry A#erage A#erage A#erage Indi#idual ,u" er of Aearly Weekly Weeks Earnings Wages E"ployed 5ress"akers M!89 :D! M;G!99 Pants'Finishers 7!;7 DG!<H :D!:7 1ousewi#es and 7!<H ;9!D7 :G!:8 Pants'Finishers 3ea"stresses D!9; ;D!GH J:!79 Pants'"akers D!7; ;9!GG G<!J7 .iscellaneous D!GG D8! H7!H9 *ailors J!DD ;7!8J D77!8D 0eneral A#erages D!:H ;7!7H GJ!G: Walter A! Wyckoff, who is as great an authority upon the worker as Josiah Flynt is on the tra"p, furnishes the following Chicago e+perience= &.any of the "en were so weakened y the want and hardship of the winter that they were no longer in condition for effecti#e la or! 3o"e of the osses who were in need of added hands were o liged to turn "en away ecause of physical incapacity! 4ne instance of this I shall not soon forget! It was when I o#erheard, early one "orning at a factory gate, an inter#iew etween a would' e la orer and the oss! I knew the applicant for a Russian Jew, who had at ho"e an old "other and a wife and two young children to support! 1e had had inter"ittent e"ploy"ent throughout the winter in a sweaterFs den, K<L arely enough to keep the" all ali#e, and, after the hardships of the cold season, he was again in desperate straits for work! &*he oss had all ut agreed to take hi" on for so"e sort of unskilled la or, when, struck y the cada#erous look of the "an, he told hi" to are his ar"! 2p went the slee#e of his coat and his ragged flannel shirt, e+posing a naked ar" with the "uscles nearly gone, and the lue' white transparent skin stretched o#er sinews and the outlines of the ones! Pitiful eyond words was his effort to gi#e a se" lance of strength to the iceps which rose faintly to the upward "o#e"ent of the forear"! )ut the oss sent hi" off with an oath and a conte"ptuous laugh( and I watched the fellow as he turned down the street, facing the fact of his star#ing fa"ily with a despair at his heart which only "ortal "an can feel and no "ortal tongue can speak!&

Concerning ha itat, .r! Jaco Riis has stated that in ,ew Aork City, in the lock ounded y 3tanton, 1ouston, Attorney, and Ridge streets, the si/e of which is D99 y ;99, there is a warren of DD:: hu"an eings! In the lock ounded y 3i+ty'first and 3i+ty'second streets, and A"sterda" and West End a#enues, are o#er four thousand hu"an creatures,''-uite a co"forta le ,ew England #illage to crowd into one city lock! *he Re#! 5r! )ehrends, speaking of the lock ounded y Canal, 1ester, Eldridge, and Forsyth streets, says= &In a roo" 7D y H and <!< feet high, it was found that nine persons slept and prepared their food! ! ! ! In another roo", located in a dark cellar, without screens or partitions, were together two "en with their wi#es and a girl of fourteen, two single "en and a oy of se#enteen, two wo"en and four oys,''nine, ten, ele#en, and fifteen years old,'' fourteen persons in all!& 1ere hu"anity rots! Its #icti"s, with gri" hu"or, call it &tenant' house rot!& 4r, as a legislati#e report puts it= &1ere infantile life unfolds its ud, ut perishes efore its first anni#ersary! 1ere youth is ugly with loathso"e disease, and the defor"ities which follow physical degeneration!& *hese are the "en and wo"en who are what they are ecause they were not etter orn, or ecause they happened to e unluckily orn in ti"e and space! 0auged y the needs of the syste", they are weak and worthless! *he hospital and the pauperFs gra#e await the", and they offer no encourage"ent to the "ediocre worker who has failed higher up in the industrial structure! 3uch a worker, conscious that he has failed, conscious fro" the hard fact that he cannot o tain work in the higher e"ploy"ents, finds se#eral courses open to hi"! 1e "ay co"e down and e a east in the social pit, for instance( ut if he e of a certain cali er, the effect of the social pit will e to discourage hi" fro" work! In his lood a re ellion will -uicken, and he will elect to eco"e either a felon or a tra"p! If he ha#e fought the hard fight he is not unac-uainted with the lure of the &road!& When out of work and still undiscouraged, he has een forced to &hit the road& etween large cities in his -uest for a 6o ! 1e has loafed, seen the country and green things, laughed in 6oy, lain on his ack and listened to the irds singing o#erhead, unannoyed y factory whistles and ossesF harsh co""ands( and, "ost significant of all, 1E 1A3 LI>E5? *hat is the point? 1e has not star#ed to death! ,ot only has he een care'free and happy, ut he has li#ed? And fro" the knowledge that he has idled and is still ali#e, he achie#es a new outlook on life( and the "ore he e+periences the unen#ia le lot of the poor worker, the "ore the landish"ents of the &road& take hold of hi"! And finally he flings his challenge in the face of society, i"poses a #alorous oycott on all work, and 6oins the far'wanderers of 1o oland, the gypsy folk of this latter day! )ut the tra"p does not usually co"e fro" the slu"s! 1is place of irth is ordinarily a it a o#e, and so"eti"es a #ery great it a o#e! A confessed failure, he yet refuses to accept the

punish"ent, and swer#es aside fro" the slu" to #aga ondage! *he a#erage east in the social pit is either too "uch of a east, or too "uch of a sla#e to the ourgeois ethics and ideals of his "asters, to "anifest this flicker of re ellion! )ut the social pit, out of its discourage"ent and #iciousness, reeds cri"inals, "en who prefer eing easts of prey to eing easts of work! And the "ediocre cri"inal, in turn, the unfit and inefficient cri"inal, is discouraged y the strong ar" of the law and goes o#er to tra"pdo"! *hese "en, the discouraged worker and the discouraged cri"inal, #oluntarily withdraw the"sel#es fro" the struggle for work! Industry does not need the"! *here are no factories shut down through lack of la or, no pro6ected railroads un uilt for want of pick'and'sho#el "en! Wo"en are still glad to toil for a dollar a week, and "en and oys to cla"or and fight for work at the factory gates! ,o one "isses these discouraged "en, and in going away they ha#e "ade it so"ewhat easier for those that re"ain! 3o the case stands thus= *here eing "ore "en than there is work for "en to do, a surplus la or ar"y ine#ita ly results! *he surplus la or ar"y is an econo"ic necessity( without it, present society would fall to pieces! Into the surplus la or ar"y are herded the "ediocre, the inefficient, the unfit, and those incapa le of satisfying the industrial needs of the syste"! *he struggle for work etween the "e" ers of the surplus la or ar"y is sordid and sa#age, and at the otto" of the social pit the struggle is #icious and eastly! *his struggle tends to discourage"ent, and the #icti"s of this discourage"ent are the cri"inal and the tra"p! *he tra"p is not an econo"ic necessity such as the surplus la or ar"y, ut he is the y'product of an econo"ic necessity! *he &road& is one of the safety'#al#es through which the waste of the social organis" is gi#en off! And )EI,0 0I>E, 4FF constitutes the negati#e function of the tra"p! 3ociety, as at present organi/ed, "akes "uch waste of hu"an life! *his waste "ust e eli"inated! Chlorofor" or electrocution would e a si"ple, "erciful solution of this pro le" of eli"ination( ut the ruling ethics, while per"itting the hu"an waste, will not per"it a hu"ane eli"ination of that waste! *his parado+ de"onstrates the irreconcila ility of theoretical ethics and industrial need! And so the tra"p eco"es self'eli"inating! And not only self? 3ince he is "anifestly unfit for things as they are, and since kind is prone to eget kind, it is necessary that his kind cease with hi", that his progeny shall not e, that he play the eunuchFs part in this twentieth century after Christ! And he plays it! 1e does not reed! 3terility is his portion, as it is the portion of the wo"an on the street! *hey "ight ha#e een "ates, ut society has decreed otherwise! And, while it is not nice that these "en should die, it is ordained that they "ust die, and we should not -uarrel with the" if they cu" er our highways and kitchen stoops with their pera" ulating carcasses! *his is a for" of eli"ination we not only countenance ut co"pel! *herefore let us e cheerful and honest a out it! Let us e as stringent as we please with our police regulations, ut for goodnessF sake let us refrain fro" telling the tra"p to go to work! ,ot only is it unkind, ut it is untrue and hypocritical! We know there is no work for hi"! As the scapegoat to our econo"ic and industrial sinning, or to the plan of things, if you will, we

should gi#e hi" credit! Let us e 6ust! 1e is so "ade! 3ociety "ade hi"! 1e did not "ake hi"self!

*1E 3CA) In a co"petiti#e society, where "en struggle with one another for food and shelter, what is "ore natural than that generosity, when it di"inishes the food and shelter of "en other than he who is generous, should e held an accursed thingB Wise old saws to the contrary, he who takes fro" a "anFs purse takes fro" his e+istence! *o strike at a "anFs food and shelter is to strike at his life( and in a society organi/ed on a tooth'and'nail asis, such an act, perfor"ed though it "ay e under the guise of generosity, is none the less "enacing and terri le! It is for this reason that a la orer is so fiercely hostile to another la orer who offers to work for less pay or longer hours! *o hold his place, $which is to li#e%, he "ust offset this offer y another e-ually li eral, which is e-ui#alent to gi#ing away so"ewhat fro" the food and shelter he en6oys! *o sell his dayFs work for MD, instead of MD!<9, "eans that he, his wife, and his children will not ha#e so good a roof o#er their heads, so war" clothes on their acks, so su stantial food in their sto"achs! .eat will e ought less fre-uently and it will e tougher and less nutritious, stout new shoes will go less often on the childrenFs feet, and disease and death will e "ore i""inent in a cheaper house and neigh orhood! *hus the generous la orer, gi#ing "ore of a dayFs work for less return, $"easured in ter"s of food and shelter%, threatens the life of his less generous rother la orer, and at the est, if he does not destroy that life, he di"inishes it! Whereupon the less generous la orer looks upon hi" as an ene"y, and, as "en are inclined to do in a tooth'and'nail society, he tries to kill the "an who is trying to kill hi"! When a striker kills with a rick the "an who has taken his place, he has no sense of wrong' doing! In the deepest holds of his eing, though he does not reason the i"pulse, he has an ethical sanction! 1e feels di"ly that he has 6ustification, 6ust as the ho"e'defending )oer felt, though "ore sharply, with each ullet he fired at the in#ading English! )ehind e#ery rick thrown y a striker is the selfish will &to li#e& of hi"self, and the slightly altruistic will &to li#e& of his fa"ily! *he fa"ily group ca"e into the world efore the 3tate group, and society, eing still on the pri"iti#e asis of tooth and nail, the will &to li#e& of the 3tate is not so co"pelling to the striker as is the will &to li#e& of his fa"ily and hi"self! In addition to the use of ricks, clu s, and ullets, the selfish la orer finds it necessary to e+press his feelings in speech! Just as the peaceful country' dweller calls the sea'ro#er a &pirate,& and the stout urgher calls the "an who reaks into his strong' o+ a &ro er,& so the selfish la orer applies the oppro rious epithet a &sca & to the la orer who takes fro" hi" food and shelter y eing "ore generous in the disposal of his la or power! *he senti"ental

connotation of &sca & is as terrific as that of &traitor& or &Judas,& and a senti"ental definition would e as deep and #aried as the hu"an heart! It is far easier to arri#e at what "ay e called a technical definition, worded in co""ercial ter"s, as, for instance, that A 3CA) I3 4,E W14 0I>E3 .4RE >AL2E F4R *1E 3A.E PRICE *1A, A,4*1ER! *he la orer who gi#es "ore ti"e or strength or skill for the sa"e wage than another, or e-ual ti"e or strength or skill for a less wage, is a sca ! *his generousness on his part is hurtful to his fellow'la orers, for it co"pels the" to an e-ual generousness which is not to their liking, and which gi#es the" less of food and shelter! )ut a word "ay e said for the sca ! Just as his act "akes his ri#als co"pulsorily generous, so do they, y fortune of irth and training, "ake co"pulsory his act of generousness! 1e does not sca ecause he wants to sca ! ,o whi" of the spirit, no urgeoning of the heart, leads hi" to gi#e "ore of his la or power than they for a certain su"! It is ecause he cannot get work on the sa"e ter"s as they that he is a sca ! *here is less work than there are "en to do work! *his is patent, else the sca would not loo" so large on the la or'"arket hori/on! )ecause they are stronger than he, or "ore skilled, or "ore energetic, it is i"possi le for hi" to take their places at the sa"e wage! *o take their places he "ust gi#e "ore #alue, "ust work longer hours or recei#e a s"aller wage! 1e does so, and he cannot help it, for his will &to li#e& is dri#ing hi" on as well as they are eing dri#en on y their will &to li#e&( and to li#e he "ust win food and shelter, which he can do only y recei#ing per"ission to work fro" so"e "an who owns a it of land or a piece of "achinery! And to recei#e per"ission fro" this "an, he "ust "ake the transaction profita le for hi"! >iewed in this light, the sca , who gi#es "ore la or power for a certain price than his fellows, is not so generous after all! 1e is no "ore generous with his energy than the chattel sla#e and the con#ict la orer, who, y the way, are the al"ost perfect sca s! *hey gi#e their la or power for a out the "ini"u" possi le price! )ut, within li"its, they "ay loaf and "alinger, and, as sca s, are e+ceeded y the "achine, which ne#er loafs and "alingers and which is the ideally perfect sca ! It is not nice to e a sca ! ,ot only is it not in good social taste and co"radeship, ut, fro" the standpoint of food and shelter, it is ad usiness policy! ,o ody desires to sca , to gi#e "ost for least! *he a" ition of e#ery indi#idual is -uite the opposite, to gi#e least for "ost( and, as a result, li#ing in a tooth'and'nail society, attle royal is waged y the a" itious indi#iduals! )ut in its "ost salient aspect, that of the struggle o#er the di#ision of the 6oint product, it is no longer a attle etween indi#iduals, ut etween groups of indi#iduals! Capital and la or apply the"sel#es to raw "aterial, "ake so"ething useful out of it, add to its #alue, and then proceed to -uarrel o#er the di#ision of the added #alue! ,either cares to gi#e "ost for least! Each is intent on gi#ing less than the other and on recei#ing "ore! La or co" ines into its unions, capital into partnerships, associations, corporations, and trusts! A group'struggle is the result, in which the indi#iduals, as indi#iduals, play no part! *he )rotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, for instance, ser#es notice on the .aster )uildersF Association that it de"ands an increase of the wage of its "e" ers fro" M;!<9 a day to M:,

and a 3aturday half' holiday without pay! *his "eans that the carpenters are trying to gi#e less for "ore! Where they recei#ed MD7 for si+ full days, they are endea#oring to get MDD for fi#e days and a half,''that is, they will work half a day less each week and recei#e a dollar "ore! Also, they e+pect the 3aturday half'holiday to gi#e work to one additional "an for each ele#en pre#iously e"ployed! *his last affords a splendid e+a"ple of the de#elop"ent of the group idea! In this particular struggle the indi#idual has no chance at all for life! *he indi#idual carpenter would e crushed like a "ote y the .aster )uildersF Association, and like a "ote the indi#idual "aster uilder would e crushed y the )rotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners! In the group'struggle o#er the di#ision of the 6oint product, la or utili/es the union with its two great weapons, the strike and the oycott( while capital utili/es the trust and the association, the weapons of which are the lack'list, the lockout, and the sca ! *he sca is y far the "ost for"ida le weapon of the three! 1e is the "an who reaks strikes and causes all the trou le! Without hi" there would e no trou le, for the strikers are willing to re"ain out peacefully and indefinitely so long as other "en are not in their places, and so long as the particular aggregation of capital with which they are fighting is eating its head off in enforced idleness! )ut oth warring groups ha#e reser#e weapons! Were it not for the sca , these weapons would not e rought into play! )ut the sca takes the place of the striker, who egins at once to wield a "ost powerful weapon, terroris"! *he will &to li#e& of the sca recoils fro" the "enace of roken ones and #iolent death! With all due respect to the la or leaders, who are not to e la"ed for #olu ly asse#erating otherwise, terroris" is a well'defined and e"inently successful policy of the la or unions! It has pro a ly won the" "ore strikes than all the rest of the weapons in their arsenal! *his terroris", howe#er, "ust e clearly understood! It is directed solely against the sca , placing hi" in such fear for life and li" as to dri#e hi" out of the contest! )ut when terroris" gets out of hand and inoffensi#e non'co" atants are in6ured, law and order threatened, and property destroyed, it eco"es an edged tool that cuts oth ways! *his sort of terroris" is sincerely deplored y the la or leaders, for it has pro a ly lost the" as "any strikes as ha#e een lost y any other single cause! *he sca is powerless under terroris"! As a rule, he is not so good nor gritty a "an as the "en he is displacing, and he lacks their fighting organi/ation! 1e stands in dire need of stiffening and acking! 1is e"ployers, the capitalists, draw their two re"aining weapons, the ownership of which is de ata le, ut which they for the ti"e eing happen to control! *hese two weapons "ay e called the political and 6udicial "achinery of society! When the sca cru"ples up and is ready to go down efore the fists, ricks, and ullets of the la or group, the capitalist group puts the police and soldiers into the field, and egins a general o" ard"ent of in6unctions! >ictory usually follows, for the la or group cannot withstand the co" ined assault of gatling guns and in6unctions!

)ut it has een noted that the ownership of the political and 6udicial "achinery of society is de ata le! In the *itanic struggle o#er the di#ision of the 6oint product, each group reaches out for e#ery a#aila le weapon! ,or are they linded y the s"oke of conflict! *hey fight their attles as coolly and collectedly as e#er attles were fought on paper! *he capitalist group has long since reali/ed the i""ense i"portance of controlling the political and 6udicial "achinery of society! *aught y gatlings and in6unctions, which ha#e s"ashed "any an otherwise successful strike, the la or group is eginning to reali/e that it all depends upon who is ehind and who is efore the gatlings and the in6unctions! And he who knows the la or "o#e"ent knows that there is slowly growing up and eing for"ulated a clear and definite policy for the capture of the political and 6udicial "achinery! *his is the terri le spectre which .r! John 0raha" )rooks sees loo"ing portentously o#er the twentieth century world! ,o "an "ay oast a "ore inti"ate knowledge of the la or "o#e"ent than he( and he reiterates again and again the dangerous likelihood of the whole la or group capturing the political "achinery of society! As he says in his recent ook= KJL &It is not pro a le that e"ployers can destroy unionis" in the 2nited 3tates! Adroit and desperate atte"pts will, howe#er, e "ade, if we "ean y unionis" the undisciplined and aggressi#e fact of #igorous and deter"ined organi/ations! If capital should pro#e too strong in this struggle, the result is easy to predict! *he e"ployers ha#e only to con#ince organi/ed la or that it cannot hold its own against the capitalist "anager, and the whole energy that now goes to the union will turn to an aggressi#e political socialis"! It will not e the har"less sy"pathy with increased city and state functions which trade unions already feel( it will eco"e a tur ulent political force ent upon using e#ery weapon of ta+ation against the rich!& *his struggle not to e a sca , to a#oid gi#ing "ore for less and to succeed in gi#ing less for "ore, is "ore #ital than it would appear on the surface! *he capitalist and la or groups are locked together in desperate attle, and neither side is swayed y "oral considerations "ore than skin'deep! *he la or group hires usiness agents, lawyers, and organi/ers, and is eginning to inti"idate legislators y the strength of its solid #ote( and "ore directly, in the near future, it will atte"pt to control legislation y capturing it odily through the allot' o+! 4n the other hand, the capitalist group, nu"erically weaker, hires newspapers, uni#ersities, and legislatures, and stri#es to end to its need all the forces which go to "ould pu lic opinion! *he only honest "orality displayed y either side is white'hot indignation at the ini-uities of the other side! *he striking tea"ster co"placently takes a sca dri#er into an alley, and with an iron ar reaks his ar"s, so that he can dri#e no "ore, ut cries out to high 1ea#en for 6ustice when the capitalist reaks his skull y "eans of a clu in the hands of a police"an! ,ay, the "e" ers of a union will declai" in i"passioned rhetoric for the 0od'gi#en right of an eight'hour day, and at the ti"e e working their own usiness agent se#enteen hours out of the twenty'four!

A capitalist such as Collis P! 1untington, and his na"e is Legion, after a long life spent in uying the aid of countless legislatures, will wa+ #irtuously wrathful, and conde"n in un"easured ter"s &the dangerous tendency of crying out to the 0o#ern"ent for aid& in the way of la or legislation! Without a -ui#er, a "e" er of the capitalist group will run tens of thousands of pitiful child' la orers through his life'destroying cotton factories, and weep "audlin and constitutional tears o#er one sca hit in the ack with a rick! 1e will dri#e a &co"pulsory& free contract with an unorgani/ed la orer on the asis of a star#ation wage, saying, &*ake it or lea#e it,& knowing that to lea#e it "eans to die of hunger, and in the ne+t reath, when the organi/er entices that la orer into a union, will stor" patriotically a out the inaliena le right of all "en to work! In short, the chief "oral concern of either side is with the "orals of the other side! *hey are not in the usiness for their "oral welfare, ut to achie#e the en#ia le position of the non'sca who gets "ore than he gi#es! )ut there is "ore to the -uestion than has yet een discussed! *he la or sca is no "ore detesta le to his rother la orers than is the capitalist sca to his rother capitalists! A capitalist "ay get "ost for least in dealing with his la orers, and in so far e a non' sca ( ut at the sa"e ti"e, in his dealings with his fellow' capitalists, he "ay gi#e "ost for least and e the #ery worst kind of sca ! *he "ost heinous cri"e an e"ployer of la or can co""it is to sca on his fellow'e"ployers of la or! Just as the indi#idual la orers ha#e organi/ed into groups to protect the"sel#es fro" the peril of the sca la orer, so ha#e the e"ployers organi/ed into groups to protect the"sel#es fro" the peril of the sca e"ployer! *he e"ployersF federations, associations, and trusts are nothing "ore nor less than unions! *hey are organi/ed to destroy sca ing a"ongst the"sel#es and to encourage sca ing a"ongst others! For this reason they pool interests, deter"ine prices, and present an un roken and aggressi#e front to the la or group! As has een said efore, no ody likes to play the co"pulsorily generous role of sca ! It is a ad usiness proposition on the face of it! And it is patent that there would e no capitalist sca s if there were not "ore capital than there is work for capital to do! When there are enough factories in e+istence to supply, with occasional stoppages, a certain co""odity, the uilding of new factories y a ri#al concern, for the production of that co""odity, is plain ad#ertise"ent that that capital is out of a 6o ! *he first act of this new aggregation of capital will e to cut prices, to gi#e "ore for less,''in short to sca , to strike at the #ery e+istence of the less generous aggregation of capital the work of which it is trying to do! ,o sca capitalist stri#es to gi#e "ore for less for any other reason than that he hopes, y undercutting a co"petitor and dri#ing that co"petitor out of the "arket, to get that "arket and its profits for hi"self! 1is a" ition is to achie#e the day when he shall stand alone in the field oth as uyer and seller,''when he will e the royal non'sca , uying "ost for least, selling least for "ost, and reducing all a out hi", the s"all uyers and sellers, $the consu"ers and the la orers%, to a general condition of sca do"! *his, for e+a"ple, has een the history of .r! Rockefeller and the 3tandard 4il Co"pany! *hrough all the sordid #illanies of sca do" he has passed, until today he is a "ost regal non'sca ! 1owe#er, to continue in this en#ia le position, he "ust e prepared at a "o"entFs notice to go sca ing again! And he is prepared! Whene#er a co"petitor arises, .r! Rockefeller changes a out fro" gi#ing least for "ost and gi#es "ost for least with such a #engeance as to dri#e the co"petitor out of

e+istence! *he anded capitalists discri"inate against a sca capitalist y refusing hi" trade ad#antages, and y co" ining against hi" in "ost relentless fashion! *he anded la orers, discri"inating against a sca la orer in "ore pri"iti#e fashion, with a clu , are no "ore "erciless than the anded capitalists! .r! Casson tells of a ,ew Aork capitalist who withdrew fro" the 3ugar 2nion se#eral years ago and eca"e a sca ! 1e was worth so"ething like twenty "illions of dollars! )ut the 3ugar 2nion, standing shoulder to shoulder with the Railroad 2nion and se#eral other unions, eat hi" to his knees till he cried, &Enough!& 3o frightfully did they eat hi" that he was o liged to turn o#er to his creditors his ho"e, his chickens, and his gold watch! In point of fact, he was as thoroughly ludgeoned y the Federation of Capitalist 2nions as e#er sca work"an was ludgeoned y a la or union! *he intent in either case is the sa"e,' 'to destroy the sca Fs producing power! *he la or sca with concussion of the rain is put out of usiness, and so is the capitalist sca who has lost all his dollars down to his chickens and his watch! )ut the role of sca passes eyond the indi#idual! Just as indi#iduals sca on other indi#iduals, so do groups sca on other groups! And the principle in#ol#ed is precisely the sa"e as in the case of the si"ple la or sca ! A group, in the nature of its organi/ation, is often co"pelled to gi#e "ost for least, and, so doing, to strike at the life of another group! At the present "o"ent all Europe is appalled y that colossal sca , the 2nited 3tates! And Europe is cla"orous with agitation for a Federation of ,ational 2nions to protect her fro" the 2nited 3tates! It "ay e re"arked, in passing, that in its pri"e essentials this agitation in no wise differs fro" the trade'union agitation a"ong work"en in any industry! *he trou le is caused y the sca who is gi#ing "ost for least! *he result of the A"erican sca Fs nefarious actions will e to strike at the food and shelter of Europe! *he way for Europe to protect herself is to -uit ickering a"ong her parts and to for" a union against the sca ! And if the union is for"ed, ar"ies and na#ies "ay e e+pected to e rought into play in fashion si"ilar to the ricks and clu s in ordinary la or struggles! In this connection, and as one of "any walking delegates for the nations, .! Leroy')eaulieu, the noted French econo"ist, "ay well e -uoted! In a letter to the >ienna *age latt, he ad#ocates an econo"ic alliance a"ong the Continental nations for the purpose of arring out A"erican goods, an econo"ic alliance, in his own language, &W1IC1 .AA P433I)LA A,5 5E3IRA)LA 5E>EL4P I,*4 A P4LI*ICAL ALLIA,CE!& It will e noted, in the utterances of the Continental walking delegates, that, one and all, they lea#e England out of the proposed union! And in England herself the feeling is growing that her days are nu" ered if she cannot unite for offence and defence with the great A"erican sca ! As Andrew Carnegie said so"e ti"e ago, &*he only course for 0reat )ritain see"s to e reunion with her grandchild or sure decline to a secondary place, and then to co"parati#e insignificance in the future annals of the English' speaking race!&

Cecil Rhodes, speaking of what would ha#e o tained ut for the pig' headedness of 0eorge III, and of what will o tain when England and the 2nited 3tates are united, said, &,4 CA,,4, W42L5! ! ! )E FIRE5 4, EI*1ER 1E.I3P1ERE )2* )A PER.I33I4, 4F *1E E,0LI31 RACE!& It would see" that England, fronted y the hostile Continental 2nion and flanked y the great A"erican sca , has nothing left ut to 6oin with the sca and play the historic la or role of ar"ed Pinkerton! 0ranting the words of Cecil Rhodes, the 2nited 3tates would e ena led to sca without let or hindrance on Europe, while England, as professional strike' reaker and police"an, destroyed the unions and kept order! All this "ay appear fantastic and erroneous, ut there is in it a soul of truth #astly "ore significant than it "ay see"! Ci#ili/ation "ay e e+pressed today in ter"s of trade'unionis"! Indi#idual struggles ha#e largely passed away, ut group'struggles increase prodigiously! And the things for which the groups struggle are the sa"e as of old! 3horn of all su tleties and co"ple+ities, the chief struggle of "en, and of groups of "en, is for food and shelter! And, as of old they struggled with tooth and nail, so today they struggle with teeth and nails elongated into ar"ies and na#ies, "achines, and econo"ic ad#antages! 2nder the definition that a sca is 4,E W14 0I>E3 .4RE >AL2E F4R *1E 3A.E PRICE *1A, A,4*1ER, it would see" that society can e generally di#ided into the two classes of the sca s and the non'sca s! )ut on closer in#estigation, howe#er, it will e seen that the non'sca is a #anishing -uantity! In the social 6ungle, e#ery ody is preying upon e#ery ody else! As in the case of .r! Rockefeller, he who was a sca yesterday is a non'sca today, and to"orrow "ay e a sca again! *he wo"an stenographer or ook'keeper who recei#es forty dollars per "onth where a "an was recei#ing se#enty'fi#e is a sca ! 3o is the wo"an who does a "anFs work at a wea#ing' "achine, and the child who goes into the "ill or factory! And the father, who is sca ed out of work y the wi#es and children of other "en, sends his own wife and children to sca in order to sa#e hi"self! When a pu lisher offers an author etter royalties than other pu lishers ha#e een paying hi", he is sca ing on those other pu lishers! *he reporter on a newspaper, who feels he should e recei#ing a larger salary for his work, says so, and is shown the door, is replaced y a reporter who is a sca ( whereupon, when the elly'need presses, the displaced reporter goes to another paper and sca s hi"self! *he "inister who hardens his heart to a call, and waits for a certain congregation to offer hi" say M<99 a year "ore, often finds hi"self sca ed upon y another and "ore i"pecunious "inister( and the ne+t ti"e it is 1I3 turn to sca while a rother "inister is hardening his heart to a call! *he sca is e#erywhere! *he professional strike' reakers, who as a class recei#e large wages, will sca on one another, while sca unions are e#en for"ed to pre#ent sca ing upon sca s! *here are non'sca s, ut they are usually orn so, and are protected y the whole "ight of society in the possession of their food and shelter! Cing Edward is such a type, as are all indi#iduals who recei#e hereditary food'and'shelter pri#ileges,''such as the present 5uke of )edford, for instance, who yearly recei#es MG<,999 fro" the good people of London ecause

so"e for"er king ga#e so"e for"er ancestor of his the "arket pri#ileges of Co#ent 0arden! *he irresponsi le rich are likewise non'sca s,''and y the" is "eant that coupon' clipping class which hires its "anagers and rains to in#est the "oney usually left it y its ancestors! 4utside these lucky creatures, all the rest, at one ti"e or another in their li#es, are sca s, at one ti"e or another are engaged in gi#ing "ore for a certain price than any one else! *he "eek professor in so"e endowed institution, y his "eek suppression of his con#ictions, is gi#ing "ore for his salary than ga#e the other and "ore outspoken professor whose chair he occupies! And when a political party dangles a full dinner'pail in the eyes of the toiling "asses, it is offering "ore for a #ote than the du ious dollar of the opposing party! E#en a "oney'lender is not a o#e taking a slightly lower rate of interest and saying nothing a out it! 3uch is the tangle of conflicting interests in a tooth'and'nail society that people cannot a#oid eing sca s, are often "ade so against their desires, and are often unconsciously "ade so! When se#eral trades in a certain locality de"and and recei#e an ad#ance in wages, they are unwittingly "aking sca s of their fellow'la orers in that district who ha#e recei#ed no ad#ance in wages! In 3an Francisco the ar ers, laundry'workers, and "ilk'wagon dri#ers recei#ed such an ad#ance in wages! *heir e"ployers pro"ptly added the a"ount of this ad#ance to the selling price of their wares! *he price of sha#es, of washing, and of "ilk went up! *his reduced the purchasing power of the unorgani/ed la orers, and, in point of fact, reduced their wages and "ade the" greater sca s! )ecause the )ritish la orer is disinclined to sca ,''that is, ecause he restricts his output in order to gi#e less for the wage he recei#es,''it is to a certain e+tent "ade possi le for the A"erican capitalist, who recei#es a less restricted output fro" his la orers, to play the sca on the English capitalist! As a result of this, $of course co" ined with other causes%, the A"erican capitalist and the A"erican la orer are striking at the food and shelter of the English capitalist and la orer! *he English la orer is star#ing today ecause, a"ong other things, he is not a sca ! 1e practises the policy of &caF canny,& which "ay e defined as &go easy!& In order to get "ost for least, in "any trades he perfor"s ut fro" one'fourth to one'si+th of the la or he is well a le to perfor"! An instance of this is found in the uilding of the Westinghouse Electric Works at .anchester! *he )ritish li"it per "an was :99 ricks per day! *he Westinghouse Co"pany i"ported a &dri#ing& A"erican contractor, aided y half a do/en &dri#ing& A"erican fore"en, and the )ritish ricklayer swiftly attained an a#erage of 7H99 ricks per day, with a "a+i"u" of D<99 ricks for the plainest work! )ut, the )ritish la orerFs policy of &caF canny,& which is the #ery honora le one of gi#ing least for "ost, and which is likewise the policy of the English capitalist, is ne#ertheless frowned upon y the English capitalist, whose usiness e+istence is threatened y the great A"erican sca ! Fro" the rise of the factory syste", the English capitalist gladly e" raced the opportunity, where#er he found it, of gi#ing least for "ost! 1e did it all o#er the world whene#er he en6oyed a "arket "onopoly, and he did it at ho"e with the la orers e"ployed in his "ills, destroying the" like flies till pre#ented, within li"its, y the passage of the Factory

Acts! 3o"e of the proudest fortunes of England today "ay trace their origin to the gi#ing of least for "ost to the "isera le sla#es of the factory towns! )ut at the present ti"e the English capitalist is outraged ecause his la orers are e"ploying against hi" precisely the sa"e policy he e"ployed against the", and which he would e"ploy again did the chance present itself! Aet &caF canny& is a disastrous thing to the )ritish la orer! It has dri#en ship' uilding fro" England to 3cotland, ottle'"aking fro" 3cotland to )elgiu", flint'glass'"aking fro" England to 0er"any, and today is steadily dri#ing industry after industry to other countries! A correspondent fro" ,ortha"pton wrote not long ago= &Factories are working half and third ti"e! ! ! ! *here is no strike, there is no real la or trou le, ut the "asters and "en are alike suffering fro" sheer lack of e"ploy"ent! .arkets which were once theirs are now A"erican!& It would see" that the unfortunate )ritish la orer is Ftwi+t the de#il and the deep sea! If he gi#es "ost for least, he faces a frightful sla#ery such as "arked the eginning of the factory syste"! If he gi#es least for "ost, he dri#es industry away to other countries and has no work at all! )ut the union la orers of the 2nited 3tates ha#e nothing of which to oast, while, according to their trade'union ethics, they ha#e a great deal of which to e asha"ed! *hey passionately preach short hours and ig wages, the shorter the hours and the igger the wages the etter! *heir hatred for a sca is as terri le as the hatred of a patriot for a traitor, of a Christian for a Judas! And in the face of all this, they are as colossal sca s as the 2nited 3tates is a colossal sca ! For all of their oasted unions and high la or ideals, they are a out the "ost thoroughgoing sca s on the planet! Recei#ing M:!<9 per day, ecause of his proficiency and i""ense working power, the A"erican la orer has een known to sca upon sca s $so called% who took his place and recei#ed only M9!89 per day for a longer day! In this particular instance, fi#e Chinese coolies, working longer hours, ga#e less #alue for the price recei#ed fro" their e"ployer than did one A"erican la orer! It is upon his rother la orers o#erseas that the A"erican la orer "ost outrageously sca s! As .r! Casson has shown, an English nail' "aker gets M; per week, while an A"erican nail' "aker gets M;9! )ut the English worker turns out D99 pounds of nails per week, while the A"erican turns out <<99 pounds! If he were as &fair& as his English rother, other things eing e-ual, he would e recei#ing, at the English workerFs rate of pay, MHD!<9! As it is, he is sca ing upon his English rother to the tune of MG8!<9 per week! 5r! 3chult/e' 0ae#ernit/ has shown that a 0er"an wea#er produces :JJ yards of cotton a week at a cost of !;9; per yard, while an A"erican wea#er produces 7D99 yards at a cost of !9D per yard! )ut, it "ay e o 6ected, a great part of this is due to the "ore i"pro#ed A"erican "achinery! >ery true, ut none the less a great part is still due to the superior energy, skill, and willingness of the A"erican la orer! *he English la orer is faithful to the policy of &caF canny!& 1e refuses point' lank to get the work out of a "achine that the ,ew World sca gets out of a "achine! .r! .a+i", o ser#ing a wasteful hand'la or process in his English factory,

in#ented a "achine which he pro#ed capa le of displacing se#eral "en! )ut work"an after work"an was put at the "achine, and without e+ception they turned out neither "ore nor less than a work"an turned out y hand! *hey o eyed the "andate of the union and went easy, while .r! .a+i" ga#e up in despair! ,or will the )ritish work"an run "achines at as high speed as the A"erican, nor will he run so "any! An A"erican work"an will &gi#e e-ual attention si"ultaneously to three, four, or si+ "achines or tools, while the )ritish work"an is co"pelled y his trade union to li"it his attention to one, so that e"ploy"ent "ay e gi#en to half a do/en "en!& )ut for sca ing, no la"e attaches itself anywhere! With rare e+ceptions, all the people in the world are sca s! *he strong, capa le work"an gets a 6o and holds it ecause of his strength and capacity! And he holds it ecause out of his strength and capacity he gi#es a etter #alue for his wage than does the weaker and less capa le work"an! *herefore he is sca ing upon his weaker and less capa le rother work"an! 1e is gi#ing "ore #alue for the price paid y the e"ployer! *he superior work"an sca s upon the inferior work"an ecause he is so constituted and cannot help it! *he one, y fortune of irth and up ringing, is strong and capa le( the other, y fortune of irth and up ringing, is not so strong nor capa le! It is for the sa"e reason that one country sca s upon another! *hat country which has the good fortune to possess great natural resources, a finer sun and soil, unha"pering institutions, and a deft and intelligent la or class and capitalist class is ound to sca upon a country less fortunately situated! It is the good fortune of the 2nited 3tates that is "aking her the colossal sca , 6ust as it is the good fortune of one "an to e orn with a straight ack while his rother is orn with a hu"p! It is not good to gi#e "ost for least, not good to e a sca ! *he word has gained uni#ersal oppro riu"! 4n the other hand, to e a non'sca , to gi#e least for "ost, is uni#ersally randed as stingy, selfish, and unchristian'like! 3o all the world, like the )ritish work"an, is Ftwi+t the de#il and the deep sea! It is treason to oneFs fellows to sca , it is unchristian'like not to sca ! 3ince to gi#e least for "ost, and to gi#e "ost for least, are uni#ersally ad, what re"ainsB E-uity re"ains, which is to gi#e like for like, the sa"e for the sa"e, neither "ore nor less! )ut this e-uity, society, as at present constituted, cannot gi#e! It is not in the nature of present' day society for "en to gi#e like for like, the sa"e for the sa"e! And so long as "en continue to li#e in this co"petiti#e society, struggling tooth and nail with one another for food and shelter, $which is to struggle tooth and nail with one another for life%, that long will the sca continue to e+ist! 1is will &to li#e& will force hi" to e+ist! 1e "ay e flouted and 6eered y his rothers, he "ay e eaten with ricks and clu s y the "en who y superior strength and capacity sca upon hi" as he sca s upon the" y longer hours and s"aller wages, ut through it all he will persist, gi#ing a it "ore of "ost for least than they are gi#ing!

*1E N2E3*I4, 4F *1E .AEI.2. For any social "o#e"ent or de#elop"ent there "ust e a "a+i"u" li"it eyond which it cannot proceed! *hat ci#ili/ation which does not ad#ance "ust decline, and so, when the "a+i"u" of de#elop"ent has een reached in any gi#en direction, society "ust either retrograde or change the direction of its ad#ance! *here are "any fa"ilies of "en that ha#e failed, in the critical period of their econo"ic e#olution, to effect a change in direction, and were forced to fall ack! >an-uished at the "o"ent of their "a+i"u", they ha#e dropped out of the whirl of the world! *here was no roo" for the"! 3tronger co"petitors ha#e taken their places, and they ha#e either rotted into o li#ion or re"ain to e crushed under the iron heel of the do"inant races in as re"orseless a struggle as the world has yet witnessed! )ut in this struggle fair wo"en and chi#alrous "en will play no part! *ypes and ideals ha#e changed! 1elens and Launcelots are anachronis"s! )lows will e gi#en and taken, and "en fight and die, ut not for faiths and altars! 3hrines will e desecrated, ut they will e the shrines, not of te"ples, ut "arket'places! Prophets will arise, ut they will e the prophets of prices and products! )attles will e waged, not for honor and glory, nor for thrones and sceptres, ut for dollars and cents and for "arts and e+changes! )rain and not rawn will endure, and the captains of war will e co""anded y the captains of industry! In short, it will e a contest for the "astery of the worldFs co""erce and for industrial supre"acy! It is "ore significant, this struggle into which we ha#e plunged, for the fact that it is the first struggle to in#ol#e the glo e! ,o general "o#e"ent of "an has een so wide'spreading, so far'reaching! Nuite local was the supre"acy of any ancient people( likewise the rise to e"pire of .acedonia and Ro"e, the wa#es of Ara ian #alor and fanaticis", and the "ediae#al crusades to the 1oly 3epulchre! )ut since those ti"es the planet has undergone a uni-ue shrinkage! *he world of 1o"er, li"ited y the coast'lines of the .editerranean and )lack seas, was a far #aster world than ours of today, which we weigh, "easure, and co"pute as accurately and as easily as if it were a childFs play' all! 3tea" has "ade its parts accessi le and drawn the" closer together! *he telegraph annihilates space and ti"e! Each "orning, e#ery part knows what e#ery other part is thinking, conte"plating, or doing! A disco#ery in a 0er"an la oratory is eing de"onstrated in 3an Francisco within twenty'four hours! A ook written in 3outh Africa is pu lished y si"ultaneous copyright in e#ery English'speaking country, and on the day following is in the hands of the translators! *he death of an o scure "issionary in China, or of a whiskey's"uggler in the 3outh 3eas, is ser#ed, the world o#er, with the "orning toast! *he wheat output of Argentine or the gold of Clondike are known where#er "en "eet and trade! 3hrinkage, or centrali/ation, has eco"e such that the hu" lest clerk in any "etropolis "ay place his hand on the pulse of the world! *he planet has indeed grown #ery s"all( and ecause of this, no #ital "o#e"ent can re"ain in the cli"e or country where it takes its rise! And so today the econo"ic and industrial i"pulse is world'wide! It is a "atter of i"port to e#ery people! ,one "ay e careless of it! *o do so is to perish! It is eco"e a attle, the fruits of which are to the strong, and to none ut the strongest of the strong! As the "o#e"ent approaches its "a+i"u", centrali/ation accelerates and co"petition grows keener and closer!

*he co"petitor nations cannot all succeed! 3o long as the "o#e"ent continues its present direction, not only will there not e roo" for all, ut the roo" that is will eco"e less and less( and when the "o"ent of the "a+i"u" is at hand, there will e no roo" at all! Capitalistic production will ha#e o#erreached itself, and a change of direction will then e ine#ita le! 5i#ers -ueries arise= What is the "a+i"u" of co""ercial de#elop"ent the world can sustainB 1ow far can it e e+ploitedB 1ow "uch capital is necessaryB Can sufficient capital e accu"ulatedB A rief resu"e of the industrial history of the last one hundred years or so will e rele#ant at this stage of the discussion! Capitalistic production, in its "odern significance, was orn of the industrial re#olution in England in the latter half of the eighteenth century! *he great in#entions of that period were oth its father and its "other, while, as .r! )rooks Ada"s has shown, the looted treasure of India was the potent "idwife! 1ad there not een an unwonted increase of capital, the i"petus would not ha#e een gi#en to in#ention, while e#en stea" "ight ha#e languished for generations instead of at once eco"ing, as it did, the "ost pro"inent factor in the new "ethod of production! *he i"pro#ed application of these in#entions in the first decades of the nineteenth century "ark the transition fro" the do"estic to the factory syste" of "anufacture and inaugurated the era of capitalis"! *he "agnitude of this re#olution is "anifested y the fact that England alone had in#ented the "eans and e-uipped herself with the "achinery where y she could o#erstock the worldFs "arkets! *he ho"e "arket could not consu"e a tithe of the ho"e product! *o "anufacture this ho"e product she had sacrificed her agriculture! 3he "ust uy her food fro" a road, and to do so she "ust sell her goods a road! )ut the struggle for co""ercial supre"acy had not yet really egun! England was without a ri#al! 1er na#ies controlled the sea! 1er ar"ies and her insular position ga#e her peace at ho"e! *he world was hers to e+ploit! For nearly fifty years she do"inated the European, A"erican, and Indian trade, while the great wars then con#ulsing society were destroying possi le co"petiti#e capital and straining consu"ption to its ut"ost! *he pioneer of the industrial nations, she thus recei#ed such a start in the new race for wealth that it is only today the other nations ha#e succeeded in o#ertaking her! In 7HD9 the #olu"e of her trade $i"ports and e+ports% was JH,999,999 pounds! In 7H88 it had increased to H7<,999,999 pounds,' 'an increase of 7D99 per cent in the #olu"e of trade! For nearly one hundred years England has een producing surplus #alue! 3he has een producing far "ore than she consu"es, and this e+cess has swelled the #olu"e of her capital! *his capital has een in#ested in her enterprises at ho"e and a road, and in her shipping! In 7H8H the 3tock E+change esti"ated )ritish capital in#ested a road at 7,899,999,999 pounds! )ut hand in hand with her foreign in#est"ents ha#e grown her ad#erse alances of trade! For the ten years ending with 7HJH, her a#erage yearly ad#erse alance was <D,999,999 pounds( ending with 7HGH, H7,999,999 pounds( ending with 7HHH, 797,999,999 pounds( and ending with 7H8H, 7;;,999,999 pounds! In the single year of 7H8G it reached the portentous su" of 7<G,999,999 pounds! )ut EnglandFs ad#erse alances of trade in the"sel#es are nothing at which to e frightened! 1itherto they ha#e een paid fro" out the earnings of her shipping and the interest on her

foreign in#est"ents! )ut what does cause an+iety, howe#er, is that, relati#e to the trade de#elop"ent of other countries, her e+port trade is falling off, without a corresponding di"inution of her i"ports, and that her securities and foreign holdings do not see" a le to stand the added strain! *hese she is eing forced to sell in order to pull e#en! As the London *i"es gloo"ily re"arks, &We are entering the twentieth century on the down grade, after a prolonged period of usiness acti#ity, high wages, high profits, and o#erflowing re#enue!& In other words, the "ighty grasp England held o#er the resources and capital of the world is eing rela+ed! *he control of its co""erce and anking is slipping through her fingers! *he sale of her foreign holdings ad#ertises the fact that other nations are capa le of uying the", and, further, that these other nations are usily producing surplus #alue! *he "o#e"ent has eco"e general! *oday, passing fro" country to country, an e#er' increasing tide of capital is welling up! Production is dou ling and -uadrupling upon itself! It used to e that the i"po#erished or unde#eloped nations turned to England when it ca"e to orrowing, ut now 0er"any is co"peting keenly with her in this "atter! France is not a#erse to lending great su"s to Russia, and Austria'1ungary has capital and to spare for foreign holdings! ,or has the 2nited 3tates failed to pass fro" the side of the de tor to that of the creditor nations! 3he, too, has eco"e wise in the way of producing surplus #alue! 3he has een successful in her efforts to secure econo"ic e"ancipation! Possessing ut < per cent of the worldFs population and producing ;D per cent of the worldFs food supply, she has een looked upon as the worldFs far"er( ut now, a"idst general consternation, she co"es forward as the worldFs "anufacturer! In 7HHH her "anufactured e+ports a"ounted to M7;9,;99,9HG( in 7H8J, to MD<;,JH7,<:7( in 7H8G, to MDG8,J<D,GD7( in 7H8H, to M;9G,8D:,88:( in 7H88, to M;;H,JJG,G8:( and in 7899, to M:;D,999,999! Regarding her growing fa#ora le alances of trade, it "ay e noted that not only are her i"ports not increasing, ut they are actually falling off, while her e+ports in the last decade ha#e increased GD!: per cent! In ten years her i"ports fro" Europe ha#e een reduced fro" M:G:,999,999 to M:;8,999,999( while in the sa"e ti"e her e+ports ha#e increased fro" MJHD,999,999 to M7,777,999,999! 1er alance of trade in her fa#or in 7H8< was MG<,999,999( in 7H8J, o#er M799,999,999( in 7H8G, nearly M;99,999,999( in 7H8H, MJ7<,999,999( in 7H88, M<;9,999,999( and in 7899, MJ:H,999,999! In the "atter of iron, the 2nited 3tates, which in 7H:9 had not drea"ed of entering the field of international co"petition, in 7H8G, as "uch to her own surprise as any one elseFs, undersold the English in their own London "arket! In 7H88 there was ut one A"erican loco"oti#e in 0reat )ritain( ut, of the fi#e hundred loco"oti#es sold a road y the 2nited 3tates in 789D, England ought "ore than any other country! Russia is operating a thousand of the" on her own roads today! In one instance the A"erican "anufacturers contracted to deli#er a loco"oti#e in four and one'half "onths for M8D<9, the English "anufacturers re-uiring twenty'four "onths for deli#ery at M7:,999! *he Clyde ship uilders recently placed orders for 7<9,999 tons of plates at a sa#ing of MD<9,999, and the A"erican steel going into the "aking of the new London su way is taken as a "atter of course! A"erican tools stand a o#e co"petition the world o#er! Ready' "ade oots and shoes are eginning to flood Europe,'' the sa"e with "achinery, icycles, agricultural i"ple"ents, and all kinds of "anufactured goods! A correspondent fro" 1a" urg, speaking of the in#asion of A"erican trade, says= &Incidentally, it "ay e re"arked that the typewriting "achine with which this article is

written, as well as the thousands''nay, hundreds of thousands''of others that are in use throughout the world, were "ade in A"erica( that it stands on an A"erican ta le, in an office furnished with A"erican desks, ookcases, and chairs, which cannot e "ade in Europe of e-ual -uality, so practical and con#enient, for a si"ilar price!& In 7H8; and 7H8:, ecause of the distrust of foreign capital, the 2nited 3tates was forced to uy ack A"erican securities held a road( ut in 7H8G and 7H8H she ought ack A"erican securities held a road, not ecause she had to, ut ecause she chose to! And not only has she ought ack her own securities, ut in the last eight years she has eco"e a uyer of the securities of other countries! In the "oney "arkets of London, Paris, and )erlin she is a lender of "oney! Carrying the largest stock of gold in the world, the world, in "o"ents of danger, when crises of international finance loo" large, looks to her #ast lending a ility for safety! *hus, in a few swift years, has the 2nited 3tates drawn up to the #an where the great industrial nations are fighting for co""ercial and financial e"pire! *he figures of the race, in which she passed England, are interesting=

Aear O 2nited 3tates E+ports O 2nited Cingdo" E+ports 7HG< O M:8G,DJ;,G;G O M7,9HG,:8G,999 7HH< O JG;,<8;,<9J O 7,9;G,7D:,999 7H8< O H9G,G:D,:7< O 7,799,:<D,999 7H8J O 8HJ,H;9,9H9 O 7,7JH,JG7,999 7H8G O 7,9G8,H;:,D8J O 7,7;8,HHD,999 7H8H O 7,D;;,<J:,HDH O 7,7;<,J:D,999 7H88 O 7,D<;,:JJ,999 O 7,DHG,8G7,999 7899 O 7,:<;,97;,J<8 O 7,:7H,;:H,999 As .r! 1enry 5e"arest Lloyd has noted, &When the news reached 0er"any of the new steel trust in A"erica, the stocks of the iron and steel "ills listed on the )erlin )ourse fell!& While Europe has een talking and drea"ing of the greatness which was, the 2nited 3tates has een thinking and planning and doing for the greatness to e! 1er captains of industry and kings of finance ha#e toiled and sweated at organi/ing and consolidating production and transportation! )ut this has een "erely the de#elop"ental stage, the tuning'up of the orchestra! With the twentieth century rises the curtain on the play,''a play which shall ha#e "uch in it of co"edy and a #ast deal of tragedy, and which has een well na"ed *he Capitalistic Con-uest of Europe y A"erica! ,ations do not die easily, and one of the first "o#es of Europe will e the erection of tariff walls! A"erica, howe#er, will fittingly reply, for already her "anufacturers are esta lishing works in France and 0er"any! And when the 0er"an trade 6ournals refused to accept A"erican ad#ertise"ents, they found their country fla"ingly ill' oarded in uccaneer A"erican fashion! .! Leroy')eaulieu, the French econo"ist, is passionately preaching a co""ercial co" ination of the whole Continent against the 2nited 3tates,''a co""ercial alliance which, he oldly declares, should eco"e a political alliance! And in this he is not alone, finding ready sy"pathy and ardent support in Austria, Italy, and 0er"any! Lord Rose ery said, in a

recent speech efore the Wol#erha"pton Cha" er of Co""erce= &*he A"ericans, with their #ast and al"ost incalcula le resources, their acuteness and enterprise, and their huge population, which will pro a ly e 799,999,999 in twenty years, together with the plan they ha#e adopted for putting accu"ulated wealth into great cooperati#e syndicates or trusts for the purpose of carrying on this great co""ercial warfare, are the "ost for"ida le ! ! ! ri#als to e feared!& *he London *i"es says= &It is useless to disguise the fact that 0reat )ritain is eing outdistanced! *he co"petition does not co"e fro" the glut caused y "iscalculation as to the ho"e de"and! 4ur own steel'"akers know etter and are alar"ed! *he threatened co"petition in "arkets hitherto our own co"es fro" efficiency in production such as ne#er efore has een seen!& E#en the )ritish na#al supre"acy is in danger, continues the sa"e paper, &for, if we lose our engineering supre"acy, our na#al supre"acy will follow, unless held on sufferance y our successful ri#als!& And the Edin urgh E#ening ,ews says, with editorial gloo"= &*he iron and steel trades ha#e gone fro" us! When the fictitious prosperity caused y the e+penditure of our own 0o#ern"ent and that of European nations on ar"a"ents ceases, half of the "en e"ployed in these industries will e turned into the streets! *he outlook is appalling! What suffering will ha#e to e endured efore the workers reali/e that there is nothing left for the" ut e"igration?& *hat there "ust e a li"it to the accu"ulation of capital is o #ious! *he downward course of the rate of interest, notwithstanding that "any new e"ploy"ents ha#e een "ade possi le for capital, indicates how large is the increase of surplus #alue! *his decline of the interest rate is in accord with )oh"')awerkFs law of &di"inishing returns!& *hat is, when capital, like anything else, has eco"e o#er'plentiful, less lucrati#e use can only e found for the e+cess! *his e+cess, not eing a le to earn so "uch as when capital was less plentiful, co"petes for safe in#est"ents and forces down the interest rate on all capital! .r! Charles A! Conant has well descri ed the keenness of the scra" le for safe in#est"ents, e#en at the pre#ailing low rates of interest! At the close of the war with *urkey, the 0reek loan, guaranteed y 0reat )ritain, France, and Russia, was floated with striking ease! Regardless of the s"all return, the a"ount offered at Paris, $:7,999,999 francs%, was su scri ed for twenty'three ti"es o#er! 0reat )ritain, France, 0er"any, 1olland, and the 3candina#ian 3tates, of recent years, ha#e all engaged in con#erting their securities fro" < per cents to : per cents, fro" :!< per cents to ;!< per cents, and the ;!< per cents into ; per cents! 0reat )ritain, France, 0er"any, and Austria'1ungary, according to the calculation taken in 7H8< y the International 3tatistical Institute, hold forty'si+ illions of capital in#ested in negotia le securities alone! Aet Paris su scri ed for her portion of the 0reek loan twenty' three ti"es o#er? In short, "oney is cheap! Andrew Carnegie and his rother ourgeois kings gi#e away "illions annually, ut still the tide wells up! *hese #ast accu"ulations ha#e "ade possi le &wild'catting,& fraudulent co" inations, fake enterprises, 1ooleyis"( ut such stealings, great though they e, ha#e little or no effect in reducing the #olu"e! *he ti"e is past when startling in#entions, or re#olutions in the "ethod of production, can reak up the

growing congestion( yet this sa#ed capital de"ands an outlet, so"ewhere, so"ehow! When a great nation has e-uipped itself to produce far "ore than it can, under the present di#ision of the product, consu"e, it seeks other "arkets for its surplus products! When a second nation finds itself si"ilarly circu"stanced, co"petition for these other "arkets naturally follows! With the ad#ent of a third, a fourth, a fifth, and of di#ers other nations, the -uestion of the disposal of surplus products grows serious! And with each of these nations possessing, o#er and eyond its acti#e capital, great and growing "asses of idle capital, and when the #ery foreign "arkets for which they are co"peting are eginning to produce si"ilar wares for the"sel#es, the -uestion passes the serious stage and eco"es critical! ,e#er has the struggle for foreign "arkets een sharper than at the present! *hey are the one great outlet for congested accu"ulations! Predatory capital wanders the world o#er, seeking where it "ay esta lish itself! *his urgent need for foreign "arkets is forcing upon the world' stage an era of great colonial e"pire! )ut this does not stand, as in the past, for the su 6ugation of peoples and countries for the sake of gaining their products, ut for the pri#ilege of selling the" products! *he theory once was, that the colony owed its e+istence and prosperity to the "other country( ut today it is the "other country that owes its e+istence and prosperity to the colony! And in the future, when that supporting colony eco"es wise in the way of producing surplus #alue and sends its goods ack to sell to the "other country, what thenB *hen the world will ha#e een e+ploited, and capitalistic production will ha#e attained its "a+i"u" de#elop"ent! Foreign "arkets and unde#eloped countries largely retard that "o"ent! *he fa#ored portions of the earthFs surface are already occupied, though the resources of "any are yet #irgin! *hat they ha#e not long since een wrested fro" the hands of the ar arous and decadent peoples who possess the" is due, not to the "ilitary prowess of such peoples, ut to the 6ealous #igilance of the industrial nations! *he powers hold one another ack! *he *urk li#es ecause the way is not yet clear to an a"ica le di#ision of hi" a"ong the powers! And the 2nited 3tates, supre"e though she is, opposes the partition of China, and inter#enes her huge ulk etween the hungry nations and the "ongrel 3panish repu lics! Capital stands in its own way, welling up and welling up against the ine#ita le "o"ent when it shall urst all onds and sweep resistlessly across such #ast stretches as China and 3outh A"erica! And then there will e no "ore worlds to e+ploit, and capitalis" will either fall ack, crushed under its own weight, or a change of direction will take place which will "ark a new era in history! *he Far East affords an illu"inating spectacle! While the Western nations are crowding hungrily in, while the Partition of China is co""ingled with the cla"or for the 3pheres of Influence and the 4pen 5oor, other forces are none the less potently at work! ,ot only are the young Western peoples pressing the older ones to the wall, ut the East itself is eginning to awake! A"erican trade is ad#ancing, and )ritish trade is losing ground, while Japan, China, and India are taking a hand in the ga"e the"sel#es! In 7H8;, 799,999 pieces of A"erican drills were i"ported into China( in 7H8G, ;:8,999! In 7H8;, D<D,999 pieces of A"erican sheetings were i"ported against G7,999 )ritish( ut in

7H8G, <JJ,999 pieces of A"erican sheetings were i"ported against only 79,999 )ritish! *he cotton goods and yarn trade $which for"s :9 per cent of the whole trade with China% shows a re"arka le ad#ance on the part of the 2nited 3tates! 5uring the last ten years A"erica has increased her i"portation of plain goods y 7D7 per cent in -uantity and <8!< per cent in #alue, while that of England and India co" ined has decreased 7;!G< per cent in -uantity and H per cent in #alue! Lord Charles )eresford, fro" whose &)reak'up of China& these figures are taken, states that English yarn has receded and Indian yarn ad#anced to the front! In 7H8G, 7:9,999 piculs of Indian yarn were i"ported, 7H,999 of Japanese, :<99 of 3hanghai' "anufactured, and G99 of English! Japan, who ut yesterday e"erged fro" the "ediae#al rule of the 3hogunate and sei/ed in one fell swoop the scientific knowledge and culture of the 4ccident, is already today showing what wisdo" she has ac-uired in the production of surplus #alue, and is preparing herself that she "ay to"orrow play the part to Asia that England did to Europe one hundred years ago! *hat the difference in the worldFs affairs wrought y those one hundred years will pre#ent her succeeding is "anifest( ut it is e-ually "anifest that they cannot pre#ent her playing a leading part in the industrial dra"a which has co""enced on the Eastern stage! 1er i"ports into the port of ,ewchang in 7H87 a"ounted to ut DD,999 taels( ut in 7H8G they had increased to DH9,999 taels! In "anufactured goods, fro" "atches, watches, and clocks to the rolling stock of railways, she has already gi#en stiff shocks to her co"petitors in the Asiatic "arkets( and this while she is #irtually yet in the e-uip"ent stage of production! Erelong she, too, will e furnishing her share to the growing "ass of the worldFs capital! As regards 0reat )ritain, the giant trader who has so long o#ershadowed Asiatic co""erce, Lord Charles )eresford says= &)ut co"petition is telling ad#ersely( the energy of the )ritish "erchant is eing e-ualled y other nationals! ! ! *he co"petition of the Chinese and the introduction of stea" into the country are also co" ining to produce changed conditions in China!& )ut far "ore o"inous is the plainti#e note he sounds when he says= &,ew industries "ust e opened up, and I would especially direct the attention of the Cha" ers of Co""erce $)ritish% to ! ! ! the fact that the "ore the nati#e co"petes with the )ritish "anufacturer in certain classes of trade, the "ore "achinery he will need, and the orders for such "achinery will co"e to this country if our "achinery "anufacturers are enterprising enough!& *he 4rient is eginning to show what an i"portant factor it will eco"e, under Western super#ision, in the creation of surplus #alue! E#en efore the arriers which restrain Western capital are re"o#ed, the East will e in a fair way toward eing e+ploited! An analysis of Lord )eresfordFs "essage to the Cha" ers of Co""erce discloses, first, that the East is eginning to "anufacture for itself( and, second, that there is a pro"ise of keen co"petition in the West for the pri#ilege of selling the re-uired "achinery! *he ine+ora le -uery arises= W1A* I3 *1E WE3* *4 54 W1E, I* 1A3 F2R,I31E5 *1I3 .AC1I,ERAB And when not only the East, ut all the now unde#eloped countries, confront, with surplus products in their hands, the old industrial nations, capitalistic production will ha#e attained its "a+i"u" de#elop"ent! )ut efore that ti"e "ust inter#ene a period which ids one pause for reath! A new ro"ance, like unto none in all the past, the econo"ic ro"ance, will e orn! For the da//ling pri/e of

world' e"pire will the nations of the earth go up in harness! Powers will rise and fall, and "ighty coalitions shape and dissol#e in the swift whirl of e#ents! >assal nations and su 6ect territories will e andied ack and forth like so "any articles of trade! And with the ine#ita le displace"ent of econo"ic centres, it is fair to presu"e that populations will shift to and fro, as they once did fro" the 3outh to the ,orth of England on the rise of the factory towns, or fro" the 4ld World to the ,ew! Colossal enterprises will e pro6ected and carried through, and co" inations of capital and federations of la or e effected on a cyclopean scale! Concentration and organi/ation will e perfected in ways hitherto undrea"ed! *he nation which would keep its head a o#e the tide "ust accurately ad6ust supply to de"and, and eli"inate waste to the last least particle! 3tandards of li#ing will "ost likely descend for "illions of people! With the increase of capital, the co"petition for safe in#est"ents, and the conse-uent fall of the interest rate, the principal which today earns a co"forta le inco"e would not then support a are e+istence! 3a#ing toward old age would cease a"ong the working classes! And as the "erchant cities of Italy crashed when trade slipped fro" their hands on the disco#ery of the new route to the Indies y way of the Cape of 0ood 1ope, so will there co"e ti"es of tre" ling for such nations as ha#e failed to grasp the pri/e of world' e"pire! In that gi#en direction they will ha#e attained their "a+i"u" de#elop"ent, efore the whole world, in the sa"e direction, has attained its! *here will no longer e roo" for the"! )ut if they can sur#i#e the shock of eing flung out of the worldFs industrial or it, a change in direction "ay then e easily effected! *hat the decadent and ar arous peoples will e crushed is a fair presu"ption( likewise that the stronger reeds will sur#i#e, entering upon the transition stage to which all the world "ust ulti"ately co"e! *his change of direction "ust e either toward industrial oligarchies or socialis"! Either the functions of pri#ate corporations will increase till they a sor the central go#ern"ent, or the functions of go#ern"ent will increase till it a sor s the corporations! .uch "ay e said on the chance of the oligarchy! 3hould an old "anufacturing nation lose its foreign trade, it is safe to predict that a strong effort would e "ade to uild a socialistic go#ern"ent, ut it does not follow that this effort would e successful! With the "oneyed class controlling the 3tate and its re#enues and all the "eans of su sistence, and guarding its own interests with 6ealous care, it is not at all i"possi le that a strong cur could e put upon the "asses till the crisis were past! It has een done efore! *here is no reason why it should not e done again! At the close of the last century, such a "o#e"ent was crushed y its own folly and i""aturity! In 7HG7 the soldiers of the econo"ic rulers sta"ped out, root and ranch, a whole generation of "ilitant socialists! 4nce the crisis were past, the ruling class, still holding the cur in order to "ake itself "ore secure, would proceed to read6ust things and to alance consu"ption with production! 1a#ing a "onopoly of the safe in#est"ents, the great "asses of unre"unerati#e capital would e directed, not to the production of "ore surplus #alue, ut to the "aking of per"anent i"pro#e"ents, which would gi#e e"ploy"ent to the people, and "ake the" content with the new order of things! 1ighways, parks, pu lic uildings, "onu"ents, could e uilded( nor would it e out of place to gi#e etter factories and ho"es to the workers! 3uch in itself would e socialistic, sa#e that it would e done y the oligarchs, a class apart! With the interest rate down to /ero, and no field for the in#est"ent of sporadic capital, sa#ings a"ong the people would utterly cease, and old'age pensions e granted as a "atter of course! It is also a logical necessity of such a syste" that, when the population egan to press against the "eans of su sistence, $e+pansion eing i"possi le%, the irth rate of the lower classes would e

lessened! Whether y their own initiati#e, or y the interference of the rulers, it would ha#e to e done, and it would e done! In other words, the oligarchy would "ean the capitali/ation of la or and the ensla#e"ent of the whole population! )ut it would e a fairer, 6uster for" of sla#ery than any the world has yet seen! *he per capita wage and consu"ption would e increased, and, with a stringent control of the irth rate, there is no reason why such a country should not e so ruled through "any generations! 4n the other hand, as the capitalistic e+ploitation of the planet approaches its "a+i"u", and countries are crowded out of the field of foreign e+changes, there is a large likelihood that their change in direction will e toward socialis"! Were the theory of collecti#e ownership and operation then to arise for the first ti"e, such a "o#e"ent would stand s"all chance of success! )ut such is not the case! *he doctrine of socialis" has flourished and grown throughout the nineteenth century( its tenets ha#e een preached where#er the interests of la or and capital ha#e clashed( and it has recei#ed e+e"plification ti"e and again y the 3tateFs assu"ption of functions which had always elonged solely to the indi#idual! When capitalistic production has attained its "a+i"u" de#elop"ent, it "ust confront a di#iding of the ways( and the strength of capital on the one hand, and the education and wisdo" of the workers on the other, will deter"ine which path society is to tra#el! It is possi le, considering the inertia of the "asses, that the whole world "ight in ti"e co"e to e do"inated y a group of industrial oligarchies, or y one great oligarchy, ut it is not pro a le! *hat sporadic oligarchies "ay flourish for definite periods of ti"e is highly possi le( that they "ay continue to do so is as highly i"pro a le! *he procession of the ages has "arked not only the rise of "an, ut the rise of the co""on "an! Fro" the chattel sla#e, or the serf chained to the soil, to the highest seats in "odern society, he has risen, rung y rung, a"id the cru" ling of the di#ine right of kings and the crash of falling sceptres! *hat he has done this, only in the end to pass into the perpetual sla#ery of the industrial oligarch, is so"ething at which his whole past cries in protest! *he co""on "an is worthy of a etter future, or else he is not worthy of his past! ,4*E!''*he a o#e article was written as long ago as 7H8H! *he only alteration has een the ringing up to 7899 of a few of its statistics! As a co""ercial #enture of an author, it has an interesting history! It was pro"ptly accepted y one of the leading "aga/ines and paid for! *he editor confessed that it was &one of those articles one could not possi ly let go of after it was once in his possession!& Pu lication was #oluntarily pro"ised to e i""ediate! *hen the editor eca"e afraid of its too radical nature, forfeited the su" paid for it, and did not pu lish it! ,or, offered far and wide, could any other editor of ourgeois periodicals e found who was rash enough to pu lish it! *hus, for the first ti"e, after se#en years, it appears in print!

A RE>IEW

*wo re"arka le ooks are 0hentFs &4ur )ene#olent Feudalis"& KGL and )rooksFs &*he 3ocial 2nrest!& KHL In these two ooks the opposite sides of the la or pro le" are e+pounded, each writer de#oting hi"self with apprehension to the side he fears and #iews with disfa#or! It would appear that they ha#e set the"sel#es the task of collating, as a warning, the pheno"ena of two counter social forces! .r! 0hent, who is sy"pathetic with the socialist "o#e"ent, follows with cynic fear e#ery aggressi#e act of the capitalist class! .r! )rooks, who yearns for the perpetuation of the capitalist syste" as long as possi le, follows with gra#e dis"ay each aggressi#e act of the la or and socialist organi/ations! .r! 0hent traces the e"asculation of la or y capital, and .r! )rooks traces the e"asculation of independent co"peting capital y la or! In short, each "arshals the facts of a side in the two sides which go to "ake a struggle so great that e#en the French Re#olution is insignificant eside it( for this later struggle, for the first ti"e in the history of struggles, is not confined to any particular portion of the glo e, ut in#ol#es the whole of it! 3tarting on the assu"ption that society is at present in a state of flu+, .r! 0hent sees it rapidly crystalli/ing into a status which can est e descri ed as so"ething in the nature of a ene#olent feudalis"! 1e laughs to scorn any i""ediate reali/ation of the .ar+ian drea", while *olstoyan utopias and Cropotkinian co""unistic unions of shop and far" are too wild to "erit consideration! *he co"ing status which .r! 0hent depicts is a class do"ination y the capitalists! La or will take its definite place as a dependent class, li#ing in a condition of "achine ser#itude fairly analogous to the land ser#itude of the .iddle Ages! *hat is to say, la or will e ound to the "achine, though less harshly, in fashion so"ewhat si"ilar to that in which the earlier serf was ound to the soil! As he says, &)ondage to the land was the asis of #illeinage in the old regi"e( ondage to the 6o will e the asis of #illeinage in the new!& At the top of the new society will tower the "agnate, the new feudal aron( at the otto" will e found the wastrels and the inefficients! *he new society he grades as follows= &I! *he arons, graded on the asis of possessions! &II! *he court agents and retainers! $*his class will include the editors of Frespecta leF and FsafeF newspapers, the pastors of Fconser#ati#eF and FwealthyF churches, the professors and teachers in endowed colleges and schools, lawyers generally, and "ost 6udges and politicians%! &III! *he workers in pure and applied science, artists, and physicians! &I>! *he entrepreneurs, the "anagers of the great industries, transfor"ed into a salaried class!

&>! *he fore"en and superintendents! *his class has heretofore een recruited largely fro" the skilled workers, ut with the growth of technical education in schools and colleges, and

the de#elop"ent of fi+ed caste, it is likely to eco"e entirely differentiated! &>I! *he #illeins of the cities and towns, "ore or less regularly e"ployed, who do skilled work and are partially protected y organi/ation! &>II! *he #illeins of the cities and towns who do unskilled work and are unprotected y organi/ation! *hey will co"prise the la orers, do"estics, and clerks! &>III! *he #illeins of the "anorial estates, of the great far"s, the "ines, and the forests! &IE! *he s"all'unit far"ers $land'owning%, the petty trades"en, and "anufacturers! &E! *he su tenants of the "anorial estates and great far"s $corresponding to the class of Ffree tenantsF in the old Feudalis"%! &EI! *he cotters! &EII! *he tra"ps, the occasionally e"ployed, the une"ployed''the wastrels of the city and country!& &*he new Feudalis", like "ost autocracies, will foster not only the arts, ut also certain kinds of learning''particularly the kinds which are unlikely to distur the "inds of the "ultitude! A future .arsh, or Cope, or Le Co"te will e li erally patroni/ed and left free to disco#er what he will( and so, too, an Edison or a .arconi! 4nly they "ust not "eddle with anything relating to social science!& It "ust e confessed that .r! 0hentFs argu"ents are cunningly contri#ed and arrayed! *hey "ust e read to e appreciated! As an e+a"ple of his style, which at the sa"e ti"e generali/es a portion of his argu"ent, the following "ay well e gi#en= &*he new Feudalis" will e ut an orderly outgrowth of present tendencies and conditions! All societies e#ol#e naturally out of their predecessors! In sociology, as in iology, there is no cell without a parent cell! *he society of each generation de#elops a "ultitude of spontaneous and ac-uired #ariations, and out of these, y a lending process of natural and conscious selection, the succeeding society is e#ol#ed! *he new order will differ in no i"portant respects fro" the present, e+cept in the co"pleter de#elop"ent of its "ore salient features! *he #isitor fro" another planet who had known the old and should see the new would note ut few changes! Alter et Ide"''another yet the sa"e''he would say! Fro" "agnate to aron, fro" work"an to #illein, fro" pu licist to court agent and retainer, will e changes of state

and function so slight as to elude all ut the keenest eyes!& And in conclusion, to show how ene#olent and eautiful this new feudalis" of ours will e, .r! 0hent says= &Peace and sta ility it will "aintain at all ha/ards( and the "ass, re"e" ering the chaos, the tur"oil, the insecurity of the past, will less its reign! ! ! ! Efficiency''the faculty of getting things''is at last rewarded as it should e, for the efficient ha#e inherited the earth and its fulness! *he lowly, whose happiness is greater and whose welfare is "ore thoroughly conser#ed when go#erned than when go#erning, as a twentieth' century philosopher said of the", are settled and happy in the state which reason and e+perience teach is their 0od'appointed lot! *hey are co"forta le too( and if the patriarchal ideal of a #ine and fig tree for each is not yet attained, at least each has his rented patch in the country or his rented cell in a city uilding! )read and the circus are freely gi#en to the deser#ing, and as for the undeser#ing, they are "erely reaping the rewards of their contu"acy and pride! 4rder reigns, each has his 6ustly appointed share, and the state rests, in security, Flapt in uni#ersal law!F& .r! )rooks, on the other hand, sees rising and dissol#ing and rising again in the social flu+ the o"inous for"s of a new society which is the direct antithesis of a ene#olent feudalis"! 1e tre" les at the rash intrepidity of the capitalists who fight the la or unions, for y such rashness he greatly fears that la or will e dri#en to e+press its ai"s and strength in political ter"s, which ter"s will ine#ita ly e socialistic ter"s! *o keep down the rising tide of socialis", he preaches greater "eekness and ene#olence to the capitalists! ,o longer "ay they clai" the right to run their own usiness, to eat down the la orerFs standard of li#ing for the sake of increased profits, to dictate ter"s of e"ploy"ent to indi#idual workers, to wa+ righteously indignant when organi/ed la or takes a hand in their usiness! ,o longer "ay the capitalist say &"y& usiness, or e#en think &"y& usiness( he "ust say &our& usiness, and think &our& usiness as well, accepting la or as a partner whose #oice "ust e heard! And if the capitalists do not eco"e "ore "eek and ene#olent in their dealings with la or, la or will e antagoni/ed and will proceed to wreak terri le political #engeance, and the present social flu+ will harden into a status of socialis"! .r! )rooks drea"s of a society at which .r! 0hent sneers as &a slightly "odified indi#idualis", wherein each unit secures the 6ust reward of his capacity and ser#ice!& *o attain this happy state, .r! )rooks i"poses circu"spection upon the capitalists in their relations with la or! &If the socialistic spirit is to e held in a eyance in this country, usinesses of this character $anthracite coal "ining% "ust e handled with e+traordinary caution!& Which is to say, that to withstand the ad#ance of socialis", a great and greater "easure of .r! 0hentFs )E,E>4LE,CE will e re-uired! Again and again, .r! )rooks reiterates the danger he sees in harshly treating la or! &It is not pro a le that e"ployers can destroy unionis" in the 2nited 3tates! Adroit and desperate atte"pts will, howe#er, e "ade, if we "ean y unionis" the undisciplined and aggressi#e fact of #igorous and deter"ined organi/ations! If capital should pro#e too strong in this struggle, the result is easy to predict! *he e"ployers ha#e only to con#ince organi/ed la or

that it cannot hold its own against the capitalist "anager, and the whole energy that now goes to the union will turn to an aggressi#e political socialis"! It will not e the har"less sy"pathy with increased city and state functions which trade unions already feel( it will eco"e a tur ulent political force ent upon using e#ery weapon of ta+ation against the rich!& &*he "ost concrete i"pulse that now fa#ors socialis" in this country is the insane purpose to depri#e la or organi/ations of the full and co"plete rights that go with federated unionis"!& &*hat which teaches a union that it cannot succeed as a union turns it toward socialis"! In long strikes in towns like .arl oro and )rookfield strong unions are defeated! 1undreds of "en lea#e these towns for shoe'centres like )rockton, where they are now #oting the socialist ticket! *he socialist "ayor of this city tells "e, F*he "en who co"e to us now fro" towns where they ha#e een thoroughly whipped in a strike are a"ong our "ost acti#e working socialists!F *he itterness engendered y this sense of defeat is turned to politics, as it will throughout the whole country, if organi/ation of la or is depri#ed of its rights!& &*his en"ity of capital to the trade union is watched with glee y e#ery intelligent socialist in our "idst! E#ery union that is eaten or discouraged in its struggle is ripening fruit for socialis"!& &*he real peril which we now face is the threat of a class conflict! If capitalis" insists upon the policy of outraging the sa#ing aspiration of the A"erican work"an to raise his standard of co"fort and leisure, e#ery ele"ent of class conflict will strengthen a"ong us!& &We ha#e only to hu"iliate what is est in the trade union, and then e#ery worst feature of socialis" is fastened upon us!& *his strong tendency in the ranks of the workers toward socialis" is what .r! )rooks characteri/es the &social unrest&( and he hopes to see the Repu lican, the Cle#eland 5e"ocrat, and the conser#ati#e and large property interests & and together against this co""on foe,& which is socialis"! And he is not a o#e feeling gra#e and well' contained satisfaction where#er the socialist doctrinaire has een contradicted y "en atte"pting to practise cooperation in the "idst of the co"petiti#e syste", as in )elgiu"! ,e#ertheless, he catches fleeting gli"pses of an e+tre"e and tyrannically ene#olent feudalis" #ery like to .r! 0hentFs, as witness the following= &I asked one of the largest e"ployers of la or in the 3outh if he feared the co"ing of the trade union! F,o,F he said, Fit is one good result of race pre6udice, that the negro will ena le us in the long run to weaken the trade union so that it cannot har" us! We can keep wages down with the negro and we can pre#ent too "uch organi/ation!F

&It is in this spirit that the lower standards are to e used! If this purpose should succeed, it has ut one issue,''the i""ense strengthening of a plutocratic ad"inistration at the top, ser#ed y an ar"y of high'salaried helpers, with an elite of skilled and well' paid work"en, ut all resting on what would essentially e a serf class of low'paid la or and this "ass kept in order y an increased use of "ilitary force!& In rief su""ary of these two nota le ooks, it "ay e said that .r! 0hent is alar"ed, $though he does not flatly say so%, at the too great social restfulness in the co""unity, which is per"itting the capitalists to for" the new society to their liking( and that .r! )rooks is alar"ed, $and he flatly says so%, at the social unrest which threatens the "odified indi#idualis" into which he would like to see society e#ol#e! .r! 0hent eholds the capitalist class rising to do"inate the state and the working class( .r! )rooks eholds the working class rising to do"inate the state and the capitalist class! 4ne fears the paternalis" of a class( the other, the tyranny of the "ass!

WA,*E5= A ,EW LAW 4F 5E>EL4P.E,* E#olution is no longer a "ere tentati#e hypothesis! 4ne y one, step y step, each di#ision and su di#ision of science has contri uted its e#idence, until now the case is co"plete and the #erdict rendered! While there is still discussion as to the "ethod of e#olution, none the less, as a process sufficient to e+plain all iological pheno"ena, all differentiations of life into widely di#erse species, fa"ilies, and e#en kingdo"s, e#olution is flatly accepted! Likewise has een accepted its law of de#elop"ent= *1A*, I, *1E 3*R200LE F4R EEI3*E,CE, *1E 3*R4,0 A,5 FI* A,5 *1E PR40E,A 4F *1E 3*R4,0 A,5 FI* 1A>E A )E**ER 4PP4R*2,I*A F4R 32R>I>AL *1A, *1E WEAC A,5 LE33 FI* A,5 *1E PR40E,A 4F *1E WEAC A,5 LE33 FI*! It is in the struggle of the species with other species and against all other hostile forces in the en#iron"ent, that this law operates( also in the struggle etween the indi#iduals of the sa"e species! In this struggle, which is for food and shelter, the weak indi#iduals "ust o #iously win less food and shelter than the strong! )ecause of this, their hold on life rela+es and they are eli"inated! And for the sa"e reason that they "ay not win for the"sel#es ade-uate food and shelter, the weak cannot gi#e to their progeny the chance for sur#i#al that the strong gi#e! And thus, since the weak are prone to eget weakness, the species is constantly purged of its inefficient "e" ers! )ecause of this, a pre"iu" is placed upon strength, and so long as the struggle for food and shelter o tains, 6ust so long will the a#erage strength of each generation increase! 4n the other hand, should conditions so change that all, and the progeny of all, the weak as well as the strong, ha#e an e-ual chance for sur#i#al, then, at once, the a#erage strength of each generation will egin to di"inish! ,e#er yet, howe#er, in ani"al life, has there een such a state of affairs! ,atural selection has always o tained! *he strong and their progeny, at the

e+pense of the weak, ha#e always sur#i#ed! *his law of de#elop"ent has operated down all the past upon all life( it so operates today, and it is not rash to say that it will continue to operate in the future''at least upon all life e+isting in a state of nature! .an, pree"inent though he is in the ani"al kingdo", capa le of reacting upon and "aking suita le an unsuita le en#iron"ent, ne#ertheless re"ains the creature of this sa"e law of de#elop"ent! *he social selection to which he is su 6ect is "erely another for" of natural selection! *rue, within certain narrow li"its he "odifies the struggle for e+istence and renders less precarious the tenure of life for the weak! *he e+tre"ely weak, diseased, and inefficient are housed in hospitals and asylu"s! *he strength of the #iciously strong, when ini"ical to society, is te"pered y penal institutions and y the gallows! *he short'sighted are pro#ided with spectacles, and the sickly $when they can pay for it% with sanitariu"s! Pestilential "arshes are drained, plagues are checked, and disasters a#erted! Aet, for all that, the strong and the progeny of the strong sur#i#e, and the weak are crushed out! *he "en strong of rain are "asters as of yore! *hey do"inate society and gather to the"sel#es the wealth of society! With this wealth they "aintain the"sel#es and e-uip their progeny for the struggle! *hey uild their ho"es in healthful places, purchase the est fruits, "eats, and #egeta les the "arket affords, and uy the"sel#es the "inistrations of the "ost rilliant and learned of the professional classes! *he weak "an, as of yore, is the ser#ant, the doer of things at the "asterFs call! *he weaker and less efficient he is, the poorer is his reward! *he weakest work for a li#ing wage, $when they can get work%, li#e in unsanitary slu"s, on #ile and insufficient food, at the lowest depths of hu"an degradation! *heir grasp on life is indeed precarious, their "ortality e+cessi#e, their infant death'rate appalling! *hat so"e should e orn to prefer"ent and others to igno"iny in order that the race "ay progress, is cruel and sad( ut none the less they are so orn! *he weeding out of hu"an souls, so"e for fatness and s"iles, so"e for leanness and tears, is surely a heartless selecti#e process''as heartless as it is natural! And the hu"an fa"ily, for all its wonderful record of ad#enture and achie#e"ent, has not yet succeeded in a#oiding this process! *hat it is incapa le of doing this is not to e ha/arded! ,ot only is it capa le, ut the whole trend of society is in that direction! All the social forces are dri#ing "an on to a ti"e when the old selecti#e law will e annulled! *here is no escaping it, sa#e y the inter#ention of catastrophes and cataclys"s -uite unthinka le! It is ine+ora le! It is ine+ora le ecause the co""on "an de"ands it! *he twentieth century, the co""on "an says, is his day( the co""on "anFs day, or, rather, the dawning of the co""on "anFs day! ,or can it e denied! *he e#idence is with hi"! *he pre#ious centuries, and "ore nota ly the nineteenth, ha#e "arked the rise of the co""on "an! Fro" chattel sla#ery to serfdo", and fro" serfdo" to what he itterly ter"s &wage sla#ery,& he has risen! ,e#er was he so strong as he is today, and ne#er so "enacing! 1e does the work of the world, and he is eginning to know it! *he world cannot get along without hi", and this also he is eginning to know! All the hu"an knowledge of the past, all the scientific disco#ery, go#ern"ental e+peri"ent, and in#ention of "achinery, ha#e tended to his ad#ance"ent! 1is standard of li#ing is higher! 1is co""on school education would sha"e princes ten centuries past! 1is ci#il and religious li erty "akes hi" a free "an, and his allot the peer of his etters! And all this has tended to "ake hi" conscious, conscious of hi"self, conscious of his class! 1e looks a out hi" and -uestions that ancient law of de#elop"ent! It is cruel and wrong, he is eginning to declare! It

is an anachronis"! Let it e a olished! Why should there e one e"pty elly in all the world, when the work of ten "en can feed a hundredB What if "y rother e not so strong as IB 1e has not sinned! Wherefore should he hunger' 'he and his sinless little onesB Away with the old law! *here is food and shelter for all, therefore let all recei#e food and shelter! As fast as la or has eco"e conscious it has organi/ed! *he a" ition of these class'conscious "en is that the "o#e"ent shall eco"e general, that all la or shall eco"e conscious of itself and its class interests! And the day that witnesses the solidarity of la or, they triu"phantly affir", will e a day when la or do"inates the world! *his growing consciousness has led to the organi/ation of two "o#e"ents, oth separate and distinct, ut oth con#erging toward a co""on goal''one, the la or "o#e"ent, known as *rade 2nionis"( the other, the political "o#e"ent, known as 3ocialis"! )oth are gri" and silent forces, unheralded and #irtually unknown to the general pu lic sa#e in "o"ents of stress! *he sleeping la or giant recei#es little notice fro" the capitalistic press, and when he stirs uneasily, a colu"n of surprise, indignation, and horror suffices! It is only now and then, after long periods of silence, that the la or "o#e"ent puts in its clai" for notice! All is -uiet! *he kind old world spins on, and the ourgeois "asters clip their coupons in s"ug co"placency! )ut the gri" and silent forces are at work! 3uddenly, like a clap of thunder fro" a clear sky, co"es a disruption of industry! Fro" ocean to ocean the wheels of a great chain of railroads cease to run! A -uarter of a "illion "iners throw down pick and sho#el and outrage the sun with their pale, leached faces! *he street railways of a swar"ing "etropolis stand idle, or the ru" le of "achinery in #ast "anufactories dies away to silence! *here is alar" and panic! Arson and ho"icide stalk forth! *here is a cry in the night, and -uick anger and sudden death! Peaceful cities are affrighted y the crack of rifles and the snarl of "achine'guns, and the hearts of the shuddering are shaken y the roar of dyna"ite! *here is hurrying and skurrying! *he wires are kept hot etween the centre of go#ern"ent and the seat of trou le! *he chiefs of state ponder gra#ely and ad#ise, and go#ernors of states i"plore! *here is asse" ling of "ilitia and "assing of troops, and the streets resound to the tra"p of ar"ed "en! *here are separate and 6oint conferences etween the captains of industry and the captains of la or! And then, finally, all is -uiet again, and the "e"ory of it is like the "e"ory of a ad drea"! )ut these strikes eco"e oly"piads, things to date fro"( and co""on on the lips of "en eco"e such phrases as &*he 0reat 5ock 3trike,& &*he 0reat Coal 3trike,& &*he 0reat Railroad 3trike!& ,e#er efore did la or do these things! After the 0reat Plague in England, la or, finding itself in de"and and innocently o eying the econo"ic law, asked higher wages! )ut the "asters set a "a+i"u" wage, restrained working"en fro" "o#ing a out fro" place to place, refused to tolerate idlers, and y "ost ar arous legal "ethods punished those who diso eyed! )ut la or is accorded greater respect today! 3uch a policy, put into effect in this the first decade of the twentieth century, would sweep the "asters fro" their seats in one "ighty crash! And the "asters know it and are respectful!

A fair instance of the growing solidarity of la or is afforded y an uni"portant recent strike in 3an Francisco! *he restaurant cooks and waiters were co"pletely unorgani/ed, working at any and all hours for whate#er wages they could get! A representati#e of the A"erican Federation of La or went a"ong the" and organi/ed the"! Within a few weeks nearly two thousand "en were enrolled, and they had fi#e thousand dollars on deposit! *hen they put in their de"and for increased wages and shorter hours! Forthwith their e"ployers organi/ed! *he de"and was denied, and the CooksF and WaitersF 2nion walked out! All organi/ed e"ployers stood ack of the restaurant owners, in sy"pathy with the" and willing to aid the" if they dared! And at the ack of the CooksF and WaitersF 2nion stood the organi/ed la or of the city, :9,999 strong! If a usiness "an was caught patroni/ing an &unfair& restaurant, he was oycotted( if a union "an was caught, he was fined hea#ily y his union or e+pelled! *he oyster co"panies and the slaughter houses "ade an atte"pt to refuse to sell oysters and "eat to union restaurants! *he )utchers and .eat Cutters, and the *ea"sters, in retaliation, refused to work for or to deli#er to non'union restaurants! 2pon this the oyster co"panies and slaughter houses acknowledged the"sel#es eaten and peace reigned! )ut the Restaurant )akers in non'union places were ordered out, and the )akery Wagon 5ri#ers declined to deli#er to unfair houses! E#ery A"erican Federation of La or union in the city was prepared to strike, and waited only the word! And ehind all, a handful of "en, known as the La or Council, directed the fight! 4ne y one, low upon low, they were a le if they dee"ed it necessary to call out the unions''the Laundry Workers, who do the washing( the 1ack"en, who haul "en to and fro" restaurants( the )utchers, .eat Cutters, and *ea"sters( and the .ilkers, .ilk 5ri#ers, and Chicken Pickers( and after that, in pure sy"pathy, the Retail Clerks, the 1orse 3hoers, the 0as and Electrical Fi+ture 1angers, the .etal Roofers, the )lacks"iths, the )lacks"ithsF 1elpers, the 3ta le"en, the .achinists, the )rewers, the Coast 3ea"en, the >arnishers and Polishers, the Confectioners, the 2pholsterers, the Paper 1angers and Fresco Painters, the 5rug Clerks, the Fitters and 1elpers, the .etal Workers, the )oiler .akers and Iron 3hip )uilders, the Assistant 2ndertakers, the Carriage and Wagon Workers, and so on down the lengthy list of organi/ations! For, o#er all these trades, o#er all these thousands of "en, is the La or Council! When it speaks its #oice is heard, and when it orders it is o eyed! )ut it, in turn, is do"inated y the ,ational La or Council, with which it is constantly in touch! In this wholly uni"portant little local strike it is of interest to note the stands taken y the different sides! *he legal representati#e and official "outhpiece of the E"ployersF Association said= &*his organi/ation is for"ed for defensi#e purposes, and it "ay e dri#en to take offensi#e steps, and if so, will e strong enough to follow the" up! La or cannot e allowed to dictate to capital and say how usiness shall e conducted! *here is no o 6ection to the for"ation of unions and trades councils, ut "e" ership "ust not e co"pulsory! It is repugnant to the A"erican idea of li erty and cannot e tolerated!& 4n the other hand, the president of the *ea" 5ri#ersF 2nion said= &*he e"ployers of la or in this city are generally against the trade'union "o#e"ent and there see"s to e a concerted effort on their part to check the progress of organi/ed la or! 3uch action as has een taken y

the" in sy"pathy with the present la or trou les "ay, if continued, lead to a serious conflict, the outco"e of which "ight e "ost cala"itous for the usiness and industrial interests of 3an Francisco!& And the secretary of the 2nited )rewery Work"en= &I regard a sy"pathetic strike as the last weapon which organi/ed la or should use in its defence! When, howe#er, associations of e"ployers and together to defeat organi/ed la or, or one of its ranches, then we should not and will not hesitate oursel#es to e"ploy the sa"e instru"ent in retaliation!& *hus, in a little corner of the world, is e+e"plified the growing solidarity of la or! *he organi/ation of la or has not only kept pace with the organi/ation of industry, ut it has gained upon it! In one winter, in the anthracite coal region, M7J9,999,999 in "ines and MJ99,999,999 in transportation and distri ution consolidated its ownership and control! And at once, arrayed as solidly on the other side, were the 7<9,999 anthracite "iners! *he itu"inous "ines, howe#er, were not consolidated( yet the D<9,999 "en e"ployed therein were already co" ined! And not only that, ut they were also co" ined with the anthracite "iners, these :99,999 "en eing under the control and direction of one supre"e la or council! And in this and the other great councils are to e found captains of la or of splendid a ilities, who, in understanding of econo"ic and industrial conditions, are undenia ly the e-uals of their opponents, the captains of industry! *he 2nited 3tates is honeyco" ed with la or organi/ations! And the ig federations which these go to co"pose aggregate "illions of "e" ers, and in their #arious ranches handle "illions of dollars yearly! And not only this( for the international rotherhoods and unions are for"ing, and "oneys for the aid of strikers pass ack and forth across the seas! *he .achinists, in their de"and for a nine' hour day, affected <99,999 "en in the 2nited 3tates, .e+ico, and Canada! In England the "e" ership of working'class organi/ations is appro+i"ated y Ceir 1ardie at D,<99,999, with reser#e funds of M7H,999,999! *here the cooperati#e "o#e"ent has a "e" ership of 7,<99,999, and e#ery year turns o#er in distri ution "ore than M799,999,999! In France, one'eighth of the whole working class is unioni/ed! In )elgiu" the unions are #ery rich and powerful, and so a le to defy the "asters that "any of the s"aller "anufacturers, una le to resist, &are re"o#ing their works to other countries where the work"enFs organi/ations are not so potential!& And in all other countries, according to the stage of their econo"ic and political de#elop"ent, like figures o tain! And Europe, today, confesses that her greatest social pro le" is the la or pro le", and that it is the one "ost closely engrossing the attention of her states"en! *he organi/ation of la or is one of the chief acknowledged factors in the retrogression of )ritish trade! *he workers ha#e eco"e class conscious as ne#er efore! *he wrong of one is the wrong of all! *hey ha#e co"e to reali/e, in a short'sighted way, that their "astersF interests are not their interests! *he harder they work, they elie#e, the "ore wealth they create for their "asters! Further, the "ore work they do in one day, the fewer "en will e needed to do the work! 3o the unions place a dayFs stint upon their "e" ers, eyond which they are not per"itted to go! In &A 3tudy of *rade 2nionis",& y )en6a"in *aylor in the &,ineteenth Century& of April, 7H8H, are furnished so"e interesting corro orations! *he facts here set forth were collected y the E+ecuti#e )oard of the E"ployersF Federation, the

docu"entary proofs of which are in the hands of the secretaries! In a certain fir" the union work"en "ade eight a""unition o+es a day! ,or could they e persuaded into "aking "ore! A young 3wiss, who could not speak English, was set to work, and in the first day he "ade fifty o+es! In the sa"e fir" the skilled union hands filed up the outside handles of one "achine' gun a day! *hat was their stint! ,o one was known e#er to do "ore! A non'union filer ca"e into the shop and did twel#e a day! A .anchester fir" found that to plane a large ed'casting took union work"en one hundred and ninety hours, and non'union work"en one hundred and thirty'fi#e hours! In another instance a "an, resigning fro" his union, day y day did dou le the a"ount of work he had done for"erly! And to cap it all, an English gentle"an, going out to look at a wall eing put up for hi" y union ricklayers, found one of their nu" er with his right ar" strapped to his ody, doing all the work with his left ar" 'forsooth, ecause he was such an energetic fellow that otherwise he would in#oluntarily lay "ore ricks than his union per"itted! All England resounds to the cry, &Wake up, England?& )ut the sulky giant is not stirred! &Let EnglandFs trade go to pot,& he says( &what ha#e I to loseB& And England is powerless! *he capacity of her work"en is represented y 7, in co"parison with the D!D< capacity of the A"erican work"an! And ecause of the solidarity of la or and the destructi#eness of strikes, )ritish capitalists dare not e#en stri#e to e"ulate the enterprise of A"erican capitalists! 3o England watches trade slipping through her fingers and wails una#ailingly! As a correspondent writes= &*he enor"ous power of the trade unions hangs, a sullen cloud, o#er the whole industrial world here, affecting "en and "asters alike!& *he political "o#e"ent known as 3ocialis" is, perhaps, e#en less reali/ed y the general pu lic! *he great strides it has taken and the portentous front it today e+hi its are not co"prehended( and, fastened though it is in e#ery land, it is gi#en little space y the capitalistic press! For all its plea and passion and war"th, it wells upward like a great, cold tidal wa#e, irresisti le, ine+ora le, ingulfing present'day society le#el y le#el! )y its own preach"ent it is ine+ora le! Just as societies ha#e sprung into e+istence, fulfilled their function, and passed away, it clai"s, 6ust as surely is present society hastening on to its dissolution! *his is a transition period''and destined to e a #ery short one! )arely a century old, capitalis" is ripening so rapidly that it can ne#er li#e to see a second irthday! *here is no hope for it, the 3ocialists say! It is doo"ed! *he cardinal tenet of 3ocialis" is that for idding doctrine, the "aterialistic conception of history! .en are not the "asters of their souls! *hey are the puppets of great, lind forces! *he li#es they li#e and the deaths they die are co"pulsory! All social codes are ut the refle+es of e+isting econo"ic conditions, plus certain sur#i#als of past econo"ic conditions! *he institutions "en uild they are co"pelled to uild! Econo"ic laws deter"ine at any gi#en ti"e what these institutions shall e, how long they shall operate, and y what they shall e replaced! And so, through the econo"ic process, the 3ocialist preaches the ripening of the capitalistic society and the co"ing of the new cooperati#e society! *he second great tenet of 3ocialis", itself a phase of the "aterialistic conception of history, is the class struggle! In the social struggle for e+istence, "en are forced into classes! &*he history of all society thus far is the history of class strife!& In e+isting society the capitalist

class e+ploits the working class, the proletariat! *he interests of the e+ploiter are not the interests of the e+ploited! &Profits are legiti"ate,& says the one! &Profits are unpaid wages,& replies the other, when he has eco"e conscious of his class, &therefore profits are ro ery!& *he capitalist enforces his profits ecause he is the legal owner of all the "eans of production! 1e is the legal owner ecause he controls the political "achinery of society! *he 3ocialist sets to work to capture the political "achinery, so that he "ay "ake illegal the capitalistFs ownership of the "eans of production, and "ake legal his own ownership of the "eans of production! And it is this struggle, etween these two classes, upon which the world has at last entered! 3cientific 3ocialis" is #ery young! 4nly yesterday it was in swaddling clothes! )ut today it is a #igorous young giant, well raced to attle for what it wants, and knowing precisely what it wants! It holds its international con#entions, where world'policies are for"ulated y the representati#es of "illions of 3ocialists! In little )elgiu" there are three'-uarters of a "illion of "en who work for the cause( in 0er"any, ;,999,999( Austria, etween 7H8< and 7H8G, raised her socialist #ote fro" 89,999 to G<9,999! France in 7HG7 had a whole generation of 3ocialists wiped out( yet in 7HH< there were ;9,999, and in 7H8H, 7,999,999! Ere the last 3paniard had e#acuated Cu a, 3ocialist groups were for"ing! And fro" far Japan, in these first days of the twentieth century, writes one *o"oyoshi .urai= &*he interest of our people on 3ocialis" has een greatly awakened these days, especially a"ong our la oring people on one hand and young studentsF circle on the other, as "uch as we can draw an earnest and enthusiastic audience and fill our hall, which holds two thousand! ! ! ! It is gratifying to say that we ha#e a nu" er of fine and well'trained pu lic orators a"ong our leaders of 3ocialis" in Japan! *he first speaker tonight is .r! Ciyoshi Cawaka"i, editor of one of our city $*okyo% dailies, a strong, independent, and decidedly socialistic paper, circulated far and wide! .r! Cawaka"i is a scholar as well as a popular writer! 1e is going to speak tonight on the su 6ect, F*he Essence of 3ocialis"''the Funda"ental Principles!F *he ne+t speaker is Professor Iso A e, president of our association, whose su 6ect of address is, F3ocialis" and the E+isting 3ocial 3yste"!F *he third speaker is .r! ,aoe Cinosita, the editor of another strong 6ournal of the city! 1e speaks on the su 6ect, F1ow to Reali/e the 3ocialist Ideals and Plans!F ,e+t is .r! 3higeyoshi 3ugiya"a, a graduate of 1artford *heological 3e"inary and an ad#ocate of 3ocial Christianity, who is to speak on F3ocialis" and .unicipal Pro le"s!F And the last speaker is the editor of the FLa or World,F the fore"ost leader of the la or'union "o#e"ent in our country, .r! 3en Cataya"a, who speaks on the su 6ect, F*he 4utlook of 3ocialis" in Europe and A"erica!F *hese addresses are going to e pu lished in ook for" and to e distri uted a"ong our people to enlighten their "inds on the su 6ect!& And in the struggle for the political "achinery of society, 3ocialis" is no longer confined to "ere propaganda! Italy, Austria, )elgiu", England, ha#e 3ocialist "e" ers in their national odies! 4ut of the one hundred and thirty' two "e" ers of the London County Council, ninety'one are denounced y the conser#ati#e ele"ent as 3ocialists! *he E"peror of 0er"any grows an+ious and angry at the increasing nu" ers which are returned to the Reichstag! In France, "any of the large cities, such as .arseilles, are in the hands of the 3ocialists! A large ody of the" is in the Cha" er of 5eputies, and .illerand, 3ocialist, sits in the ca inet! 4f hi" .! Leroy' )eaulieu says with horror= &.! .illerand is the open ene"y of pri#ate property, pri#ate capital, the resolute ad#ocate of the sociali/ation of production ! ! ! a

constant incite"ent to #iolence ! ! ! a collecti#ist, a#owed and "ilitant, taking part in the go#ern"ent, do"inating the depart"ents of co""erce and industry, preparing all the laws and presiding at the passage of all "easures which should e su "itted to "erchants and trades"en!& In the 2nited 3tates there are already 3ocialist "ayors of towns and "e" ers of 3tate legislatures, a #ast literature, and single 3ocialist papers with su scription lists running up into the hundreds of thousands! In 7H8J, ;J,999 #otes were cast for the 3ocialist candidate for President( in 7899, nearly D99,999( in 789:, :<9,999! And the 2nited 3tates, young as it is, is ripening rapidly, and the 3ocialists clai", according to the "aterialistic conception of history, that the 2nited 3tates will e the first country in the world wherein the toilers will capture the political "achinery and e+propriate the ourgeoisie! )ut the 3ocialist and la or "o#e"ents ha#e recently entered upon a new phase! *here has een a re"arka le change in attitude on oth sides! For a long ti"e the la or unions refrained fro" going in for political action! 4n the other hand, the 3ocialists clai"ed that without political action la or was powerless! And ecause of this there was "uch ill feeling etween the", e#en open hostilities, and no concerted action! )ut now the 3ocialists grant that the la or "o#e"ent has held up wages and decreased the hours of la or, and the la or unions find that political action is necessary! *oday oth parties ha#e drawn closely together in the co""on fight! In the 2nited 3tates this friendly feeling grows! *he 3ocialist papers espouse the cause of la or, and the unions ha#e opened their ears once "ore to the wiles of the 3ocialists! *hey are all lea#ened with 3ocialist work"en, & oring fro" within,& and "any of their leaders ha#e already succu" ed! In England, where class consciousness is "ore de#eloped, the na"e &2nionis"& has een replaced y &*he ,ew 2nionis",& the "ain o 6ect of which is &to capture e+isting social structures in the interests of the wage' earners!& *here the 3ocialist, the trade'union, and other working' class organi/ations are eginning to cooperate in securing the return of representati#es to the 1ouse of Co""ons! And in France, where the city councils and "ayors of .arseilles and .onteaules' .ines are 3ocialistic, thousands of francs of "unicipal "oney were #oted for the aid of the unions in the recent great strikes! For centuries the world has een preparing for the co"ing of the co""on "an! And the period of preparation #irtually past, la or, conscious of itself and its desires, has egun a definite "o#e"ent toward solidarity! It elie#es the ti"e is not far distant when the historian will speak not only of the dark ages of feudalis", ut of the dark ages of capitalis"! And la or sincerely elie#es itself 6ustified in this y the terri le indict"ent it rings against capitalistic society! In the face of its enor"ous wealth, capitalistic society forfeits its right to e+istence when it per"its widespread, estial po#erty! *he philosophy of the sur#i#al of the fittest does not soothe the class'conscious worker when he learns through his class literature that a"ong the Italian pants' finishers of Chicago K8L the a#erage weekly wage is M7!;7, and the a#erage nu" er of weeks e"ployed in the year is DG!H<! Likewise when he reads= K79L &E#ery roo" in these reeking tene"ents houses a fa"ily or two! In one roo" a "issionary found a "an ill with s"all'po+, his wife 6ust reco#ering fro" her confine"ent, and the children running a out half naked and co#ered with dirt! 1ere are se#en people li#ing in one underground kitchen, and a little dead child lying in the sa"e roo"! 1ere li#e a widow and her si+ children, two of who" are ill with scarlet fe#er! In another, nine rothers and sisters,

fro" twenty'nine years of age downward, li#e, eat, and sleep together!& And likewise, when he reads= K77L &When one "an, fifty years old, who has worked all his life, is co"pelled to eg a little "oney to ury his dead a y, and another "an, fifty years old, can gi#e ten "illion dollars to ena le his daughter to li#e in lu+ury and olster up a decaying foreign aristocracy, do you see nothing a"issB& And on the other hand, the class'conscious worker reads the statistics of the wealthy classes, knows what their inco"es are, and how they get the"! *rue, down all the past he has known his own "aterial "isery and the "aterial co"fort of the do"inant classes, and often has this knowledge led hi" to inte"perate acts and unwise re ellion! )ut today, and for the first ti"e, ecause oth society and he ha#e e#ol#ed, he is eginning to see a possi le way out! 1is ears are opening to the propaganda of 3ocialis", the passionate gospel of the dispossessed! )ut it does not inculcate a turning ack! *he way through is the way out, he understands, and with this in "ind he draws up the progra""e! It is -uite si"ple, this progra""e! E#erything is "o#ing in his direction, toward the day when he will take charge! *he trustB Ah, no! 2nlike the tre" ling "iddle'class "an and the s"all capitalist, he sees nothing at which to e frightened! 1e likes the trust! 1e e+ults in the trust, for it is largely doing the task for hi"! It sociali/es production( this done, there re"ains nothing for hi" to do ut sociali/e distri ution, and all is acco"plished! *he trustB &It organi/es industry on an enor"ous, la or'sa#ing scale, and a olishes childish, wasteful co"petition!& It is a gigantic o 6ect lesson, and it preaches his political econo"y far "ore potently than he can preach it! 1e points to the trust, laughing scornfully in the face of the orthodo+ econo"ists! &Aou told "e this thing could not e,& K7DL he thunders! &)ehold, the thing is?& 1e sees co"petition in the real" of production passing away! When the captains of industry ha#e thoroughly organi/ed production, and got e#erything running s"oothly, it will e #ery easy for hi" to eli"inate the profits y stepping in and ha#ing the thing run for hi"self! And the captain of industry, if he e good, "ay e gi#en the pri#ilege of continuing the "anage"ent on a fair salary! *he si+ty "illions of di#idends which the 3tandard 4il Co"pany annually declares will e distri uted a"ong the workers! *he sa"e with the great 2nited 3tates 3teel Corporation! *he president of that corporation knows his usiness! >ery good! Let hi" eco"e 3ecretary of the 5epart"ent of Iron and 3teel of the 2nited 3tates! )ut, since the chief e+ecuti#e of a nation of se#enty'odd "illions works for M<9,999 a year, the 3ecretary of the 5epart"ent of Iron and 3teel "ust e+pect to ha#e his salary cut accordingly! And not only will the workers take to the"sel#es the profits of national and "unicipal "onopolies, ut also the i""ense re#enues which the do"inant classes today draw fro" rents, and "ines, and factories, and all "anner of enterprises! All this would see" #ery like a drea", e#en to the worker, if it were not for the fact that like things ha#e een done efore! 1e points triu"phantly to the aristocrat of the eighteenth century, who fought, legislated, go#erned, and do"inated society, ut who was shorn of power and displaced y the rising ourgeoisie! Ay, the thing was done, he holds! And it shall e done again, ut this ti"e it is the proletariat who does the shearing! 3ociology has taught hi" that "'i'g'h't spells &right!& E#ery society has een ruled y classes, and the classes ha#e

ruled y sheer strength, and ha#e een o#erthrown y sheer strength! *he ourgeoisie, ecause it was the stronger, dragged down the no ility of the sword( and the proletariat, ecause it is the strongest of all, can and will drag down the ourgeoisie! And in that day, for etter or worse, the co""on "an eco"es the "aster''for etter, he elie#es! It is his intention to "ake the su" of hu"an happiness far greater! ,o "an shall work for a are li#ing wage, which is degradation! E#ery "an shall ha#e work to do, and shall e paid e+ceedingly well for doing it! *here shall e no slu" classes, no eggars! ,or shall there e hundreds of thousands of "en and wo"en conde"ned, for econo"ic reasons, to li#es of celi acy or se+ual infertility! E#ery "an shall e a le to "arry, to li#e in healthy, co"forta le -uarters, and to ha#e all he wants to eat as "any ti"es a day as he wishes! *here shall no longer e a life'and'death struggle for food and shelter! *he old heartless law of de#elop"ent shall e annulled! All of which is #ery good and #ery fine! And when these things ha#e co"e to pass, what thenB 4f old, y #irtue of their weakness and inefficiency in the struggle for food and shelter, the race was purged of its weak and inefficient "e" ers! )ut this will no longer o tain! 2nder the new order the weak and the progeny of the weak will ha#e a chance for sur#i#al e-ual to that of the strong and the progeny of the strong! *his eing so, the pre"iu" upon strength will ha#e een withdrawn, and on the face of it the a#erage strength of each generation, instead of continuing to rise, will egin to decline! When the co""on "anFs day shall ha#e arri#ed, the new social institutions of that day will pre#ent the weeding out of weakness and inefficiency! All, the weak and the strong, will ha#e an e-ual chance for procreation! And the progeny of all, of the weak as well as the strong, will ha#e an e-ual chance for sur#i#al! *his eing so, and if no new effecti#e law of de#elop"ent e put into operation, then progress "ust cease! And not only progress, for deterioration would at once set in! It is a pregnant pro le"! What will e the nature of this new and "ost necessary law of de#elop"entB Can the co""on "an pause long enough fro" his under"ining la ors to answerB 3ince he is ent upon dragging down the ourgeoisie and reconstructing society, can he so reconstruct that a pre"iu", in so"e unguessed way or other, will still e laid upon the strong and efficient so that the hu"an type will continue to de#elopB Can the co""on "an, or the unco""on "en who are allied with hi", de#ise such a lawB 4r ha#e they already de#ised oneB And if so, what is itB

14W I )ECA.E A 34CIALI3* It is -uite fair to say that I eca"e a 3ocialist in a fashion so"ewhat si"ilar to the way in which the *eutonic pagans eca"e Christians''it was ha""ered into "e! ,ot only was I not looking for 3ocialis" at the ti"e of "y con#ersion, ut I was fighting it! I was #ery young and callow, did not know "uch of anything, and though I had ne#er e#en heard of a school

called &Indi#idualis",& I sang the paean of the strong with all "y heart! *his was ecause I was strong "yself! )y strong I "ean that I had good health and hard "uscles, oth of which possessions are easily accounted for! I had li#ed "y childhood on California ranches, "y oyhood hustling newspapers on the streets of a healthy Western city, and "y youth on the o/one'laden waters of 3an Francisco )ay and the Pacific 4cean! I lo#ed life in the open, and I toiled in the open, at the hardest kinds of work! Learning no trade, ut drifting along fro" 6o to 6o , I looked on the world and called it good, e#ery it of it! Let "e repeat, this opti"is" was ecause I was healthy and strong, othered with neither aches nor weaknesses, ne#er turned down y the oss ecause I did not look fit, a le always to get a 6o at sho#elling coal, sailori/ing, or "anual la or of so"e sort! And ecause of all this, e+ulting in "y young life, a le to hold "y own at work or fight, I was a ra"pant indi#idualist! It was #ery natural! I was a winner! Wherefore I called the ga"e, as I saw it played, or thought I saw it played, a #ery proper ga"e for .E,! *o e a .A, was to write "an in large capitals on "y heart! *o ad#enture like a "an, and fight like a "an, and do a "anFs work $e#en for a oyFs pay%''these were things that reached right in and gripped hold of "e as no other thing could! And I looked ahead into long #istas of a ha/y and inter"ina le future, into which, playing what I concei#ed to e .A,F3 ga"e, I should continue to tra#el with unfailing health, without accidents, and with "uscles e#er #igorous! As I say, this future was inter"ina le! I could see "yself only raging through life without end like one of ,iet/scheFs )L4,5' )EA3*3, lustfully ro#ing and con-uering y sheer superiority and strength! As for the unfortunates, the sick, and ailing, and old, and "ai"ed, I "ust confess I hardly thought of the" at all, sa#e that I #aguely felt that they, arring accidents, could e as good as I if they wanted to real hard, and could work 6ust as well! AccidentsB Well, they represented FA*E, also spelled out in capitals, and there was no getting around FA*E! ,apoleon had had an accident at Waterloo, ut that did not da"pen "y desire to e another and later ,apoleon! Further, the opti"is" red of a sto"ach which could digest scrap iron and a ody which flourished on hardships did not per"it "e to consider accidents as e#en re"otely related to "y glorious personality! I hope I ha#e "ade it clear that I was proud to e one of ,atureFs strong'ar"ed no le"en! *he dignity of la or was to "e the "ost i"pressi#e thing in the world! Without ha#ing read Carlyle, or Cipling, I for"ulated a gospel of work which put theirs in the shade! Work was e#erything! It was sanctification and sal#ation! *he pride I took in a hard dayFs work well done would e inconcei#a le to you! It is al"ost inconcei#a le to "e as I look ack upon it! I was as faithful a wage sla#e as e#er capitalist e+ploited! *o shirk or "alinger on the "an who paid "e "y wages was a sin, first, against "yself, and second, against hi"! I considered it a cri"e second only to treason and 6ust a out as ad! In short, "y 6oyous indi#idualis" was do"inated y the orthodo+ ourgeois ethics! I read the ourgeois papers, listened to the ourgeois preachers, and shouted at the sonorous platitudes of the ourgeois politicians! And I dou t not, if other e#ents had not changed "y career, that I

should ha#e e#ol#ed into a professional strike' reaker, $one of President EliotFs A"erican heroes%, and had "y head and "y earning power irre#oca ly s"ashed y a clu in the hands of so"e "ilitant trades'unionist! Just a out this ti"e, returning fro" a se#en "onthsF #oyage efore the "ast, and 6ust turned eighteen, I took it into "y head to go tra"ping! 4n rods and lind aggages I fought "y way fro" the open West where "en ucked ig and the 6o hunted the "an, to the congested la or centres of the East, where "en were s"all potatoes and hunted the 6o for all they were worth! And on this new )L4,5' )EA3* ad#enture I found "yself looking upon life fro" a new and totally different angle! I had dropped down fro" the proletariat into what sociologists lo#e to call the &su "erged tenth,& and I was startled to disco#er the way in which that su "erged tenth was recruited! I found there all sorts of "en, "any of who" had once een as good as "yself and 6ust as )L4,5')EA3*( sailor'"en, soldier'"en, la or' "en, all wrenched and distorted and twisted out of shape y toil and hardship and accident, and cast adrift y their "asters like so "any old horses! I attered on the drag and sla""ed ack gates with the", or shi#ered with the" in o+ cars and city parks, listening the while to life'histories which egan under auspices as fair as "ine, with digestions and odies e-ual to and etter than "ine, and which ended there efore "y eyes in the sha" les at the otto" of the 3ocial Pit! And as I listened "y rain egan to work! *he wo"an of the streets and the "an of the gutter drew #ery close to "e! I saw the picture of the 3ocial Pit as #i#idly as though it were a concrete thing, and at the otto" of the Pit I saw the", "yself a o#e the", not far, and hanging on to the slippery wall y "ain strength and sweat! And I confess a terror sei/ed "e! What when "y strength failedB when I should e una le to work shoulder to shoulder with the strong "en who were as yet a es un ornB And there and then I swore a great oath! It ran so"ething like this= ALL .A 5AA3 I 1A>E W4RCE5 1AR5 WI*1 .A )45A, A,5 ACC4R5I,0 *4 *1E ,2.)ER 4F 5AA3 I 1A>E W4RCE5, )A J23* *1A* .2C1 A. I ,EARER *1E )4**4. 4F *1E PI*! I 31ALL CLI.) 42* 4F *1E PI*, )2* ,4* )A *1E .23CLE3 4F .A )45A 31ALL I CLI.) 42*! I 31ALL 54 ,4 .4RE 1AR5 W4RC, A,5 .AA 045 3*RICE .E 5EA5 IF I 54 A,4*1ER 5AAF3 1AR5 W4RC WI*1 .A )45A .4RE *1A, I A)34L2*ELA 1A>E *4 54! And I ha#e een usy e#er since running away fro" hard work! Incidentally, while tra"ping so"e ten thousand "iles through the 2nited 3tates and Canada, I strayed into ,iagara Falls, was na ed y a fee'hunting consta le, denied the right to plead guilty or not guilty, sentenced out of hand to thirty daysF i"prison"ent for ha#ing no fi+ed a ode and no #isi le "eans of support, handcuffed and chained to a unch of "en si"ilarly circu"stanced, carted down country to )uffalo, registered at the Erie County Penitentiary, had "y head clipped and "y udding "ustache sha#ed, was dressed in con#ict stripes, co"pulsorily #accinated y a "edical student who practised on such as we, "ade to "arch the lock'step, and put to work under the eyes of guards ar"ed with Winchester rifles''all for ad#enturing in )L4,5')EA3*LA fashion! Concerning further details deponent sayeth not, though he "ay hint that so"e of his plethoric national patriotis" si""ered down and leaked out of the otto" of his soul so"ewhere''at least, since that e+perience he finds that he cares

"ore for "en and wo"en and little children than for i"aginary geographical lines! *o return to "y con#ersion! I think it is apparent that "y ra"pant indi#idualis" was pretty effecti#ely ha""ered out of "e, and so"ething else as effecti#ely ha""ered in! )ut, 6ust as I had een an indi#idualist without knowing it, I was now a 3ocialist without knowing it, withal, an unscientific one! I had een re orn, ut not rena"ed, and I was running around to find out what "anner of thing I was! I ran ack to California and opened the ooks! I do not re"e" er which ones I opened first! It is an uni"portant detail anyway! I was already It, whate#er It was, and y aid of the ooks I disco#ered that It was a 3ocialist! 3ince that day I ha#e opened "any ooks, ut no econo"ic argu"ent, no lucid de"onstration of the logic and ine#ita leness of 3ocialis" affects "e as profoundly and con#incingly as I was affected on the day when I first saw the walls of the 3ocial Pit rise around "e and felt "yself slipping down, down, into the sha" les at the otto"!

F44*,4*E3 K7L &Fro" :; to <D per cent of all applicants need work rather than relief!&'' Report of the Charity 4rgani/ation 3ociety of ,ew Aork City! KDL .r! Leiter, who owns a coal "ine at the town of @eigler, Illinois, in an inter#iew printed in the Chicago Record'1erald of 5ece" er J, 789:, said= &When I go into the "arket to purchase la or, I propose to retain 6ust as "uch freedo" as does a purchaser in any other kind of a "arket! ! ! ! *here is no difficulty whate#er in o taining la or, F4R *1E C42,*RA I3 F2LL 4F 2,E.PL4AE5 .E,!& K;L &5espondent and weary with #ain atte"pts to struggle against an unsy"pathetic world, two old "en were rought efore Police Judge .c1ugh this afternoon to see whether so"e "eans could not e pro#ided for their support, at least until springti"e! &0eorge Westlake was the first one to recei#e the consideration of the court! Westlake is se#enty'two years old! A charge of ha itual drunkenness was placed against hi", and he was sentenced to a ter" in the county 6ail, though it is "ore than pro a le that he was ne#er under the influence of into+icating li-uor in his life! *he act on the part of the authorities was one of kindness for hi", as in the county 6ail he will e pro#ided with a good place to sleep and plenty to eat! &Joe Coat, aged si+ty'nine years, will ser#e ninety days in the county 6ail for "uch the sa"e reason as Westlake! 1e states that, if gi#en a chance to do so, he will go out to a wood'ca"p and cut ti" er during the winter, ut the police authorities reali/e that he could not long

sur#i#e such a task!&''Fro" the )utte $.ontana% .iner, 5ece" er Gth, 789:! &FI end "y life ecause I ha#e reached the age li"it, and there is no place for "e in this world! Please notify "y wife, ,o! DDD West 7D8th 3treet, ,ew Aork!F 1a#ing su""ed up the cause of his despondency in this final "essage, Ja"es 1ollander, fifty'si+ years old, shot hi"self through the left te"ple, in his roo" at the 3tafford 1otel today!&'',ew Aork 1erald! K:L In the 3an Francisco E+a"iner of ,o#e" er 7J, 789:, there is an account of the use of fire'hose to dri#e away three hundred "en who wanted work at unloading a #essel in the har or! 3o an+ious were the "en to get the two or three hoursF 6o that they "ade a #erita le "o and had to e dri#en off! K<L &It was no unco""on thing in these sweatshops for "en to sit ent o#er a sewing'"achine continuously fro" ele#en to fifteen hours a day in July weather, operating a sewing'"achine y foot'power, and often so dri#en that they could not stop for lunch! *he seasonal character of the work "eant de"orali/ing toil for a few "onths in the year, and a not less de"orali/ing idleness for the re"ainder of the ti"e! Consu"ption, the plague of the tene"ents and the especial plague of the gar"ent industry, carried off "any of these workers( poor nutrition and e+haustion, "any "ore!&''Fro" .cClureFs .aga/ine! KJL *he 3ocial 2nrest! .ac"illan Co"pany! KGL &4ur )ene#olent Feudalis"!& )y W! J! 0hent! *he .ac"illan Co"pany! KHL &*he 3ocial 2nrest!& )y John 0raha" )rooks! *he .ac"illan Co"pany! K8L Fro" figures presented y .iss ,ellie .ason Auten in the A"erican Journal of 3ociology, and copied e+tensi#ely y the trade' union and 3ocialist press! K79L &*he )itter Cry of 4utcast London!& K77L An ite" fro" the 3ocial 5e"ocratic 1erald! 1undreds of these ite"s, culled fro" current happenings, are pu lished weekly in the papers of the workers! K7DL Carl .ar+, the great 3ocialist, worked out the trust de#elop"ent forty years ago, for which he was laughed at y the orthodo+ econo"ists!